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  • 51.
    Krantz, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Självmedkänsla och föräldraskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This quantitative study’s purpose was to examine if the was any difference in measured self-compassion between parents and non-parents and between the sexes. A survey was published on Facebook, it consisted of the self-compassion formula made by Neff and other additional questions. It was answered by 144 respondents, 97 of them qualified in my target group. My target group was men and women in the age between 25-35 that were in a relationship. A two-ways ANOVA was made and one tendence was seen, between the sexes. Men had a higher amount of self-compassion than women. There was no differences in measured self-compassion between parents and non-parents. Nor was there any significant interaction effect between the sexes and parenthood.

  • 52.
    Lennartsson, Mathilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lindelöf, Carolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbets- och familjegenererade rollkonflikter i arbetslivet: Work-Life Balance bland anställda vid en statlig myndighet i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om det förelåg någon skillnad i den upplevda graden av Work-Life Balance (WLB) genom delskalorna Work-Family Conflict (WFC) och Family-Work Conflict (FWC). Mätinstrumentet baserades på Netemeyers, McMurrians och Boles (1996) indikatorer och de oberoende variablerna Arbetstidsform (förtroendearbetstid vs flexibel arbetstid), Kön (kvinna vs man), Civilstatus (i ett förhållande vs inte i ett förhållande) och Barn (inga barn, yngre barn 0-10 år, äldre barn 10 år eller äldre, både yngre och äldre barn) undersöktes. I studien deltog 114 anställda vid en statlig myndighet vid olika enheter i Sverige. Resultaten visade en huvudeffekt av arbetstidsform där anställda med förtroendearbetstid jämfört med anställda med flexibel arbetstid upplevde en högre grad av arbetsgenererad rollkonflikt (WFC). Anställda i ett förhållande jämfört med anställda som inte var i ett förhållande hade ha en högre grad av arbetsgenererad rollkonflikt (WFC). Dessutom upplevde anställda med yngre barn en högre grad av familjegenererad rollkonflikt (FWC) än anställda utan barn, med äldre barn samt anställda med både yngre och äldre barn. Resultaten visade inga köns- och interaktionseffekter.

  • 53.
    Lenströmer, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Marklund, Josephine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hur blir man en attraktiv arbetsgivare?: Karriären, vägen till framgång!2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine if and how salary, career advancements and a company´s CSR activities influence potential jobseekers intentions when it comes to applying for a job. The study was conducted among students at the University of Gävle. 78 persons participated, and the study was conducted as a survey. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) was used to analyze the result. The result showed that all three factors may have had an influence over how attractive an employer was perceived by the potential jobseekers. However according to the result, career advancements seems to have had the greatest impact when it came to influence potential jobseekers intentions to apply for a job. Although all three factors may have proven to have influence on the attractiveness of the employer, therefor is our conclusion that all three factors are crucial when it comes to attracting future employees

  • 54.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing at work – a systematic literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept, which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report. The second search, covering 2014- June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included (preliminary data).

    We found 25 individual or “group of related factors” promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently investigated factors arranged in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work;      Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues,      customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most investigated factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend, this can be interpreted as an insight into both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 55.
    Lindström, Theres
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Högberg, Lii
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbetsrelaterade identiteter och ambitioner: En jämförande enkätstudie mellan olika anställningsformer inom vård och omsorg2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether permanent employees (N=26) and temporary employees (N=22) have different views regarding work-related identities and strivings. A survey was handed out to five different departments at a hospital in Sweden. The participants valued working identity based on: level of organization identity, profession identity, peer identity, need for identity and conflict identity. They also valued personal striving that included: commitment, progress and conflict. The result showed interesting differences in specific questions, e.g. that temporary employees are more satisfied with their choice of profession than permanent employees. Meanwhile the permanent employees would lose their feeling of who I am if they lose their work, more than the temporary employees. Furthermore, this study’s result also shows that personal development, higher wages and a change in their contracts are what the participants mostly strive for. The study results in the conclusion that both organizations and individuals have individual needs and together, they can benefit from each other and implement goals.

  • 56.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Long reverberation time decreases recall of spoken information2009In: Building Acoustics, ISSN 1351-010X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 301-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if a long reverberation time has the same effect on recall of spoken words as background noise was shown to have in a previous study. A further aim was to study the influence of working memory capacity on performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure correct identification. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance of the word recall task was impaired by the long reverberation time. The effect was most evident in the primacy part of the word list. No correlation was found between reading span score and recall performance.

  • 57.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Recall of spoken words presented with a prolonged reverberation time2008In: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008 : the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise : Noise as a Public Health Problem : Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, p. 403-409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if a long reverberation has the same effect on recall of spoken words as background noise was shown to have in a previous study. A further aim was to study the role of working memory capacity for performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recog-nition test. They repeated each word to ensure correct identification. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance of the word recall task was impaired by the long reverberation time. The effect was most evident in the pri-macy part of the word list. The reading span score was unrelated to recall perform-ance.

  • 58.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Maccutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Top-Down Cognitive Factors Influence Second-Language Word Identification in Noise2017In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2017, Vol. 22, p. 291-291, article id 5109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-four sequential bilingual children aged fifteen underwent assessments of speech-in-noise perception, first and second language vocabulary and auditory working memory (forward digit span). In order to investigate the signal driven processes might affect bilinguals’ “spatial release from masking” (SRM) a listening in spatialized noise paradigm was adapted for the bilingual context. A simple number and colour identification task presented in English and Swedish, and the talker was masked adaptively by speech-shaped noise and eight-talker babble under two spatialized conditions in simulated room acoustics; targets and maskers were either collocated at zero degrees azimuth or spatially separated at ninety degrees azimuth to either side. The resulting language and noise conditions were contrasted with existing research on bilingual adults and native-language speaking children, extending findings to a younger sample of sequential bilingual children. The results indicating a significant relationship between cognitive ability and second-language speech reception threshold.

  • 59.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of Road Traffic Noise and Irrelevant Speech on Children’s Reading and Mathematical Performance2009In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 11, no 45, p. 194-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P < 0.01) and basic mathematics (P < 0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.

  • 60.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The relationship between working memory and second language speech reception thresholds in sequential bilingual children2017In: APCAM 2017: 16th Annual Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Action Meeting, 2017, p. 14-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers whether or not bilingual school children listening and learning in a second language are among those on which higher perceptual processing and cognitive demands are placed when classroom noise is present. Empirical substantiation for this theory would include elevated speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for second language speech in noise, and native or second language-specific correlations between SRTs and cognitive measures such as working memory (WM) or factors such as the age at which the second language was acquired (age of second language acquisition). Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual children with no sensory or learning deficits took part in this study. Working memory and vocabulary assessments were conducted and language background data were collected. SRTs at 50 % intelligibility were obtained using an adaptive procedure under Language, Spatial and Noise conditions. The target sentence was presented in simulated room acoustics in Swedish and English, masked by either 8-talker babble or speech shaped noise (SSN) with identical long-term average speech spectra, and noise maskers were positioned either directly in front of the listener or spatially separated from the target at 90° azimuth to either side. Main effects in the Spatial and Noise conditions indicated that spatial release from masking favoured spatially separated conditions and a noise release from masking advantage for SSN conditions, indicated by significantly lower thresholds for those conditions. There were no significant interactions with Language. The age of second language acquisition did not significantly predict second language SRTs and was excluded from the regression model. However, WM significantly predicted 21% of the variance in the second language SRTs, and 9% of the variance in native language SRTs. WM predicted more of the variance in second language SRTs than first language SRTs, suggesting that cognition plays more of a role in second language perceptual processes than native language ones.

  • 61.
    Malmbring, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Personlighet och preferens för mobiltelefon respektive portabelt ljud2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that extroverts use mobile cell phones more than introverts (Inyang et al. 2010). A survey was carried out to test the relationship between personality type and frequency preference for mobile cell phones and portable sound use. A hundred individuals participated in the survey containing three parts of questions. It was predicted that extroverts will be more active users of mobile phones than introverts, while introverts were predicted to be more active users of portable sound. People with social phobia were predicted to use less of mobile telephony, but more of portable sound, than people lacking social phobia. Neurotics were predicted to use less of mobile telephony, but more of portable sound, than non-neuritics. A gender effect was also predicted. The result did not show any relation between extraversion or social fobia, and mobile phone or portable sound usage, which doesn’t support the hypothesis, on the other hand a relation between neuroticism and mobile phone usage and portable sound usage was supported and women compared to men were also shown to prefer mobile phone to portable sound.

  • 62.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues shield against distraction in problem solving?2018In: Journal of cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the capacity for two different forms of metacognitive cue to shield against auditory distraction in problem solving with Compound Remote Associates Tasks (CRATs). Experiment 1 demonstrated that an intrinsic metacognitive cue in the form of processing disfluency (manipulated using an easy-to-read vs. difficult-to-read font) could increase focal task engagement so as to mitigate the detrimental impact of distraction on solution rates for CRATs. Experiment 2 showed that an extrinsic metacognitive cue that took the form of an incentive for good task performance (i.e., 80% or better CRAT solutions) could likewise eliminate the negative impact of distraction on CRAT solution rates. Overall, these findings support the view that both intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues have remarkably similar effects. This suggests that metacognitive cues operate via a common underlying mechanism whereby a participant applies increased focal attention to the primary task so as to ensure more steadfast task engagement that is not so easily diverted by task-irrelevant stimuli.

  • 63.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Crawford, Jessica
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.
    Pilgrim, Lea
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hughes, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK.
    Trouble Articulating the Right Words: Evidence for a Response-Exclusion Account of Distraction During Semantic Fluency2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely held that single-word lexical access is a competitive process, a view based largely on the observation that naming a picture is slowed in the presence of a distractor-word. However, problematic for this view is that a low-frequency distractor-word slows the naming of a picture more than does a high-frequency word. This supports an alternative, response-exclusion, account in which a distractor-word interferes because it must be excluded from an articulatory output buffer before the right word can be articulated (the picture name): A high, compared to low, frequency word accesses the buffer more quickly and, as such, can also be excluded more quickly. Here we studied the respective roles of competition and response-exclusion for the first time in the context of semantic verbal fluency, a setting requiring the accessing of, and production of, multiple words from long-term memory in response to a single semantic cue. We show that disruption to semantic fluency by a sequence of to-be-ignored spoken distractors is also greater when those distractors are low in frequency, thereby extending the explanatory compass of the response-exclusion account to a multiple-word production setting and casting further doubt on the lexical-selection-by-competition view. The results can be understood as reflecting the contribution of speech output processes to semantic fluency.

  • 64.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom .
    Campbell, Tom A.
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Processing complex sounds passing through the rostral brainstem: The new early filter model2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rostral brainstem receives both “bottom-up” input from the ascending auditory system and “top-down” descending corticofugal connections. Speech information passing through the inferior colliculus of elderly listeners reflects the periodicity envelope of a speech syllable. This information arguably also reflects a composite of temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information from the higher frequency vowel harmonics of that repeated syllable. The amplitude of those higher frequency harmonics, bearing high frequency TFS information, correlates positively with the word recognition ability of elderly listeners under reverberatory conditions. Also relevant is that working memory capacity, which is subject to age-related decline, constrains the processing of sounds at the level of the brainstem. Turning to the effects of a visually presented sensory or memory load on auditory processes, there is a load-dependent reduction of that processing, as manifest in the auditory brainstem responses evoked by to-be-ignored clicks. Wave V decreases in amplitude with increases in the visually presented memory load. A visually presented sensory load also produces a load-dependent reduction of a slightly different sort: The sensory load of visually presented information limits the disruptive effects of background sound upon working memory performance. A new early filter model is thus advanced whereby systems within the frontal lobe (affected by sensory or memory load) cholinergically influence top-down corticofugal connections. Those corticofugal connections constrain the processing of complex sounds such as speech at the level of the brainstem. Selective attention thereby limits the distracting effects of background sound entering the higher auditory system via the inferior colliculus. Processing TFS in the brainstem relates to perception of speech under adverse conditions. Attentional selectivity is crucial when the signal heard is degraded or masked: e.g., speech in noise, speech in reverberatory environments. The assumptions of a new early filter model are consistent with these findings: A subcortical early filter, with a predictive selectivity based on acoustical (linguistic) context and foreknowledge, is under cholinergic top-down control. A limited prefrontal capacity limitation constrains this top-down control as is guided by the cholinergic processing of contextual information in working memory.

  • 65.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Institute of Technical Acoustics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK 3.
    Vachon, François
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Why are background telephone conversations distracting?2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control. In Experiment 1, participants performed an office-related task in quiet or in the presence of halfalogue and dialogue background speech. Irrelevant speech was either meaningful or meaningless speech. The halfalogue effect was only present for the meaningful speech condition. Experiment 2 addressed whether higher task-engagement could shield against the halfalogue effect by manipulating the font of the to-be-read material. Although the halfalogue effect was found with an easy-to-read font (fluent text), the use of a difficult-to-read font (disfluent text) eliminated the effect. The halfalogue effect is thus attributable to the semantic (un)predictability, not the acoustic unexpectedness, of background telephone conversation and can be prevented by simple means such as increasing the level of engagement required by the focal task. 

  • 66.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, School of Psychology, Lancashire, England.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hughes, Robert
    University of London, Department of Psychology, London, England.
    Dynamic cognitive control of irrelevant sound: increased task engagement attenuates semantic auditory distraction2015In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1462-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments investigated reactive top-down cognitive control of the detrimental influence of spoken distractors semantically related to visually-presented words presented for free recall.  Experiment 1 demonstrated that an increase in focal task-engagement—promoted experimentally by reducing the perceptual discriminability of the visual target-words—eliminated the disruption by such distracters of veridical recall and also attenuated the erroneous recall of the distracters. A recall instruction that eliminates the requirement for output-monitoring was used in Experiment 2 to investigate whether increased task-engagement shields against distraction through a change in output-monitoring processes (back-end control) or by affecting the processing of the distracters during their presentation (front-end control). Rates of erroneous distracter-recall were much greater than in Experiment 1 but both erroneous distracter-recall and the disruptive effect of distracters on veridical recall were still attenuated under reduced target-word discriminability. Taken together, the results show that task-engagement is under dynamic strategic control and can be modulated to shield against auditory distraction by attenuating distracter-processing at encoding thereby preventing distracters from coming to mind at test.

  • 67.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, Francois
    Ecole de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Increased distractibility in schizotypy: independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?2017In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span [OSPAN]), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

  • 68.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Yang, Jingqi
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Qualter, Pamela
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Richardson, Cassandra
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Perham, Nick
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, England.
    Post-Categorical Auditory Distraction in Serial Short-Term Memory: Insights from Increased Task-Load and Task-Type2018In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 882-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task-irrelevant speech impairs short-term serial recall appreciably. On the interference-by-process account, the processing of physical (i.e., precategorical) changes in speech yields order cues that conflict with the serial-ordering process deployed to perform the serial recall task. In this view, the postcategorical properties (e.g., phonology, meaning) of speech play no role. The present study reassessed the implications of recent demonstrations of auditory postcategorical distraction in serial recall that have been taken as support for an alternative, attentional-diversion, account of the irrelevant speech effect. Focusing on the disruptive effect of emotionally valent compared with neutral words on serial recall, we show that the distracter-valence effect is eliminated under conditions—high task-encoding load—thought to shield against attentional diversion whereas the general effect of speech (neutral words compared with quiet) remains unaffected (Experiment 1). Furthermore, the distracter-valence effect generalizes to a task that does not require the processing of serial order—the missing-item task—whereas the effect of speech per se is attenuated in this task (Experiment 2). We conclude that postcategorical auditory distraction phenomena in serial short-term memory (STM) are incidental: they are observable in such a setting but, unlike the acoustically driven irrelevant speech effect, are not integral to it. As such, the findings support a duplex-mechanism account over a unitary view of auditory distraction.

  • 69.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effect of Particulate Air Cleaning on Perceived Health and Cognitive Performance in School Children During Pollen Season2005In: Indoor Air 2005: Proceedings of the 10th international conference on indoor air quality and climate, 2005, p. 1111-1115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of room air from particulate contaminants was performed using electrostatic air cleaners (precipitators) in four classrooms of 12-year old pupils. The air cleaners were active/inactive according to a cross-over design for 2 + 3 weeks during pollen season. Health questionnaires and cognitive tests were used to investigate the impact of air cleaning on perceived health and on cognitive skills that relate to schoolwork and learning (semantic and episodic memory, logical reasoning, attention, reading comprehension). Pupils stating themselves as being sensitive to airborne particulate contaminants, such as pollen and pet allergens, experienced somewhat less irritation in airways and eyes when the air cleaners were active (p=0.02). The most sensitive pupils also scored about 25% higher on the cognitive test relating to semantic memory when the air cleaners were active (p=0.015). No significant effects were however found for the four other cognitive skills.

  • 70.
    Modig, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Arbetstagares upplevelser av sin återgång till arbete efter en utmattningsdiagnos2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to understand how workers experience their return to work after a job burn out and how experiences, thoughts and feelings are perceived to promote return to work. The study was qualitative and the data collection consisted of phenomenological interviews with one person at a time with a total of eight participants. The study found mainly a congruence between what has been shown in previous research and what emerged from acquired empirical evidence. Some experiences that have proven to be effective for returning to work in previous research have also been shown by participants in this study to be particularly effective and valuable. The internal resources in terms of confirmation, insight and coping were of great importance for recovery and return in work combined with experienced practical and emotional support, especially by the care, manager and family. A difference from previous studies was that the perceived support from the family was expressed and addressed to a greater extent in this study than in previous studies. The main conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that experienced support, both practical and emotional, both during sick leave and at return to work, is of crucial importance both for recovery and return to work.

  • 71.
    Molberg Hillerström, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Möller, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En jämförelse av inre arbetsmotivation och arbetstillfredsställelse hos anställda vid två kommunala förvaltningar med olika personalomsättning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur inre motivation och arbetstillfredsställelse är relaterat till hög respektive låg personalomsättning och vad som är viktigt i valet att stanna på sin arbetsplats.  Studien genomfördes som en enkätundersökning på två kommunala förvaltningar, varav en hade hög personalomsättning och en hade låg personalomsättning. Enkäten var uppdelad i tre delar med sammanlagt 49 frågor och besvarades av totalt 249 personer. De mätinstrument som användes var BNS (Basic Need Satisfaction at work Scale) som mäter inre arbetsmotivation utifrån SDT (Self-Determination Theory) och MSQ (Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire) som mäter inre och yttre arbetstillfredsställelse. Resultatet visade att förvaltningen med hög personalomsättning hade högre yttre arbetstillfredsställelse än förvaltningen med låg personalomsättning. 

  • 72.
    Morelli, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Implications of Nursing Station Design on Nurses's Psychosocial Health and Work Behavior2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate design factors in nursing station work environments, to explore and compare outcomes of centralized and decentralized designs on nurses’ psychosocial health, work behaviors and indirect hospital economic implications. Six nursing units in three US hospitals participated in the study. A triangulation method was used. The approach included a literature review, hospital statistical data, observations, a survey and two focus groups. Results showed small variations in comparable hospital statistics. Observations revealed office type duties as an ongoing activity. Sound levels exceeded those recommended in all nursing stations. Nurses in the decentralized stations experienced lower sense of control. Four design themes emerged from the focus groups; nurse specific support, sense of control, professional privacy and requirements to stay separate but connected. In conclusion there was no evidence suggesting that either type of nursing station design could be regarded as better in terms of nurses’ psychosocial health and work behavior.

  • 73.
    Nilsson, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jansson, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Chefers emotionella kommunikation och dess relation till personalomsättning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is now increasingly common for organisations to work actively with HR issues. Furthermore, it is a constant top priority for organisations to remain profitable. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether so called soft HR values, as manager’s communication skills, has an actual impact on hard values in terms of costs for the organisation. Leadership is largely characterised by emotional communication, which together with personnel costs were the main focus of the research. The study was conducted by letting store managers and department heads in shops carry out an emotion perception test and the test results were related to the store/department employee turnover and the number of sick leave hours. The results showed a strong tendency for statistical significance between emotion recognition and the predictors. This suggests that stores, which have low employee turnover and low sick leave hours, can be explained by the manager's capability in emotion perception. The study complements current research by emphasising the importance of emotionally competent managers to operate successful and profitable organisations. 

  • 74.
    Nordhall, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Timmann, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Framåtanda och arbetsmotivation: Har individer med framåtblick högre självgenererad arbetsmotivation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined how psychological time perspectives (TP) are related to self-determined motivation. The study involved 88 participants that completed the Swedish translation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and a Swedish translation of the Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS). A positive correlation between Future (F) time perspective and self-determined motivation was shown, as well as a negative correlation between Present Hedonistic (PH) time perspective and self-determined motivation. This indicates that the more future-oriented individuals are the more they are driven by self-determined work motivation, and that the more present hedonistic oriented individuals are the less they are driven by self-determined work motivation.

  • 75.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Aldrin, Lina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of negative affectivity and odor valence on chemosensory and symptom perception and perceived ability to focus on a cognitive task2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, p. 431-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valanceon perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were eitherrelatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized forexposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposurechamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which theyrated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity ofsymptoms. The results showed higher ratings of negative impact on ability to focus duringexposure to the unpleasant odor compared with the pleasant odor, and an association betweenNA and symptom intensity, with 18% of the variance in symptom intensity explainedby somatization. The association between NA and symptom intensity was found to be drivenby the factor sex. These results imply (a) that prior findings of odorous exposure that interferenegatively with work performance may be due to impact of an unpleasant odor on ability to focuson cognitive tasks and (b) that there are associations between NA, sex, and symptoms that maypartly be referred to attentiveness to and interpretation of bodily sensations.

  • 76.
    Norgren, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Livssituationen och ålderns påverkan på motivationen i arbetslivet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines how individual’s motivation change over time and the effect of the individual private life. Through a quantitative survey the study investigated the effects of chronological age and life situation has on the internal motivation and external motivation. Studies have previously shown that there may be a correlation between chronological age and work motivation and relationship between life satisfaction and work motivation.

    By satisfying our basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and sense of belonging, the development of our internal motivation can be affected. The results of this study show no statistical significance and the basis of the study does not say anything about neither the chronological age or life situation impact on work motivation.

     

  • 77.
    Nyborg, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Bedömning av ålder via stillbild och rörlig bild2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies within age estimation have often used still pictures of faces. The purpose of this studywas to investigate if there is a difference in the precision of age estimation between still andmoving pictures of full bodies. It was also investigated if the precision is higher whenestimating males rather than females, if the precision is higher when the estimation is done bya individual with same sex as the one getting estimated, if the age of people over the age offorty is underestimated and if the age of people under the age of forty is overestimated. Thecollection of data was done through a web based platform for surveys, from which one groupwas showed still full body pictures and the other group was showed moving full bodypictures. The results showed no difference in estimation precision between still pictures andmoving pictures or when the estimation was done within the same gender (female-female andmale-male). However the results showed that males are estimated with higher precision thanfemales as well as that the age of people over the age of forty is underestimated and the age ofpeople under the age of forty is overestimated.

  • 78.
    Nyström, Tilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Dahlund, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Företagets storlek – avgörande för upplevd stressnivå?: En jämförande studie med grund i JDC-S mellan teknikkonsulter i små respektive stora företag.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences in demands, control and social support (JDC-S) from QPS Nordic between technology consultants at large and small companies within the same business. Differences in the perceived level of stress from Statshälsans basundersökning was also taken into consideration. Another purpose of the study was to investigate to what extent the JDC-S predicts stress, as well as the factor that predicts stress in the highest degree. The results indicated significant differences in all scales presented by the JDC-S, where the difference was located in the learning demands and in the control of the work pace. Moreover, the results indicated no differences in company size and stress where technology consultants experience stress relatively infrequently. This contradicts earlier studies considering consultants and stress, which established that consultants experience a high degree of stress. Finally, the results indicated that JDC-S can explain the perceived level of stress at 36,8 percent, where demands and control predict stress, but control in the highest degree. This result agrees with JDC-S-model.

  • 79.
    Oliver, Langenberg
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Albin, Andersson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mäns attityd till könsbaserad ojämlikhet i arbetslivet och förekomsten av mäns kollektiva skuld gentemot kvinnor.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of collective guilt among men against women in working life and its possible correlation with men's attitude towards gender-based inequality at the workplace. Differences in collective guilt and attitude towards gender-based inequality between young (18-41 years) and elder (42-65 years) men was studied. A survey was distributed to an international telecom company. The survey was based on the Branscombe Colletive Guilt Scale (BCGS) which measured the level of collective guilt and the Men´s Polarized Gender Thinking Questionnaire (MPGQ) which measured men's attitude towards gender-based inequality in the workplace. The result demonstrated that collective guilt in men occurred. A significant correlation was measured between MPGQ and BCGS. Young men reported significantly higher levels of collective guilt compared to older men. This study illustrates the existence of collective guilt, its link to attitude, as well as the age's impact on collective guilt.

  • 80.
    Quiroga, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    The influence of Social Media: A Qualitative Study Researching if Social Media has an influence on Women between the ages of 18 - 252017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the research was to study if social media usage had any influence on women between the ages of 18 – 25. The research questions answered were: How does Social Media influence young women? How do young women perceive their usage of SM related to their interaction with people? The study was qualitative and made five deep one-on-one interviews, held with semi-structured questions and used convenience sampling. The literature consisted of five articles related to the topic and the theoretical framework used was the social constructionist theory and the top-down, bottom-up factors theory. The results found in the study were that these women were influenced by SM on how they look upon their bodies. Further, news and companies influence the participants through SM in negative manners, but at the same time they experience SM as a great tool of communication. Thematic analysis was used when analysing. 

  • 81.
    Rehnqvist, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Mellanchefers upplevelse av krav, kontroll och stöd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur mellanchefer i kommunal sektor upplevde krav uppifrån, krav nerifrån samt kontroll och stöd i sitt arbete, utifrån krav, – kontroll och stöd modellen. Metoden som användes var kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex mellanchefer

    . Resultatet visade att mellancheferna upplevde att det ställdes höga krav både från den egna chefen gällande ekonomi/budget och från de anställda gällande tydlighet. Cheferna var eniga i att kraven var rimliga utifrån den roll de hade och de upplevde att de hade gott stöd och god kontroll i arbetet. Passionen och intresset för det de arbetade med var påtaglig. Funktionen stöd visade sig vara viktig och många värdesatte de ledningsgrupper de ingick i. Slutsatserna som dragits är i enlighet med tidigare forskning; mellancheferna upplevde höga krav som tillsammans med gott stöd resulterade i hög kontroll i arbetet. Det som upplevdes vara mest kravfyllt var budget.

  • 82.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Better visuospatial working memory in adults who report profound deafness compared to those with normal or poor hearing: data from the UK Biobank resource2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 620-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental work has shown better visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in profoundly deaf individuals compared to those with normal hearing. Other data, including the UK Biobank resource shows poorer VSWM in individuals with poorer hearing. Using the same database, the authors investigated VSWM in individuals who reported profound deafness. Included in this study were 112 participants who were profoundly deaf, 1310 with poor hearing and 74,635 with normal hearing. All participants performed a card-pair matching task as a test of VSWM. Although variance in VSWM performance was large among profoundly deaf participants, at group level it was superior to that of participants with both normal and poor hearing. VSWM in adults is related to hearing status but the association is not linear. Future study should investigate the mechanism behind enhanced VSWM in profoundly deaf adults.

  • 83.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Dept. of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Rudner, Mary
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Dept. of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource2014In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 6, article id 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  • 84.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Speech in noise and ease of language understanding: when and how working memory capacity plays a role2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Sandkvist, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Sverin, Monika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Vems feedback är viktigast- chefens eller arbetskamratens?: En kvantitativ studie som belyser feedback på arbetsplatsen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att studera om det fanns skillnader i hur fyra dimensioner av feedback uppfattades beroende på om den kom från arbetskamrat eller chef. De fyra dimensionerna var; Kvalité, Framförande, Positiv och Negativ feedback. Ytterligare ett syfte var att undersöka om kön, ålder och anställningstid hade en påverkan i uppfattningen av de fyra feedbackdimensionerna. Studien utfördes på en anstalt och en kriminalvårds-utbildningsenhet i mellan Sverige. Mätinstrumentet som användes var Feedback environment scale (FES) ursprungligen framtagen av Steelman, Levy och Snell (2004) och översatt till svenska av Jansson och Nilsson (2010). Resultatet visade att tre av fyra dimensioner, Kvalité, Framförande och Positiv feedback, hade signifikanta skillnader, feedback från arbetskamrat värderas högre än feedback från chef. Endast anställningstid hade en påverkan i uppfattning av feedback och då i dimensionerna Framförandet- och Positiv feedback. Inga övriga signifikanta effekter av anställningstid, ålder eller kön visades.

     

  • 86.
    Sellman, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lika villkor på arbetsmarknaden?: Diskriminering i rekryteringsprocessen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomst av etnisk diskriminering och könsdiskriminering i en rekryteringsprocess. 46 studenter vid en högskola och ett universitet i en större stad i Sverige deltog i studien. Testdeltagarna fick utifrån en fiktiv platsannons bedöma tolv fiktiva arbetsansökningar (CV) och skatta hur troligt det var att de skulle anställa personen i fråga. De oberoende variablerna var etnicitet (svensk eller muslim) och kön (man eller kvinna) och visades av namnet på den sökande. Resultatet visade inget stöd för att etnisk diskriminering eller könsdiskriminering ägde rum.

  • 87.
    Skjöld, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nyström, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En ledare skapar förutsättningar för team att arbeta: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskapet inom ett kommunalt bostadsbolag i Mellansverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine managers and employees perception of leadership by asking them to discuss key components of transformational leadership, transactional leadership and Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Two focus group interviews were conducted at a municipal housing department in the middle of Sweden. One focus group contained employees and the other focus group contained the management team. The main results showed that the Organization's leadership includes major components of transformational leadership and SDT. The results also showed that transactional leadership rarely occurs. Transformative leader supports its employees to make their own decisions and take their own initiatives, something that can lead to increased motivation among employees. Transformative leaders were also found to actively work to meet the basic needs of SDT, autonomy, competence and relatedness, among their employees. 

  • 88.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

  • 89.
    Stansfeld, Stephen
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Clark, Charlotte
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Alfred, Tamuno
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these questions. In conclusion, results from both studies suggest that night aircraft noise exposure does not appear to add any cognitive performance decrement to the cognitive decrement induced by daytime aircraft noise alone. We suggest that the school should be the main focus of attention for protection of children against the effects of aircraft noise on school performance

  • 90.
    Sundman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Att motivera och inspirera till utvecklingsarbete med hjälp av goda exempel2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur lyckas man skapa förutsättningar för kommunala verksamheter i stadsdelen Brynäs att nyttja varandras goda exempel när det gäller inflytande, delaktighet, jämställdhet och mångfald i arbetet med att vidareutveckla ”Den goda arbetsplatsen”? Denna studie har kartlagt goda exempel i verksamheterna genom intervjuer och sedan har dessa spridits i organisationen. Goda exempel finns inom verksamheterna, framförallt på hur man arbetar för att främja inflytande och delaktighet. Få insatser görs inom jämställdhets- och mångfaldsområdet, vilket till stor del beror på att man inte reflekterat över dessa frågor och heller inte upplever någon brist inom områdena. För att ta reda på effekten av spridningen användes en kvantitativ metod (enkät). Enkäten visade att knappt hälften av dem som svarade hade tagit del av de goda exemplen. Inga tecken visade dock på att verksamheterna börjat nyttja varandras kompetenser.

    En slutsats är att det är viktigt att ha probleminsikt för att motiveras till utveckling. Att påvisa de brister som finns, genom att höja kompetensen, föra en öppen dialog om förbättringsmöjligheter och förtydliga varför man bör utvecklas skulle öka motivationen till förändring. Att samtidigt lyfta fram och stötta goda exempel, och belöna dem som också lär av dem, skulle bidra till att skapa en kultur där det är naturligt att hålla fram det positiva och lära av varandra.

  • 91.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Conceptual and methodological issues in the restorative environment literature2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Effects of aircraft noise and speech on prose memory: What role for working memory capacity?2010In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that aircraft noise and meaningful background speech are particularly detrimental to school adolescents’ ability to remember what they read, but until now the effects from aircraft noise and speech have never been compared directly in an experiment. Furthermore, individual differences in susceptibility to these effects are not well understood. The present investigation addressed these two issues. Adolescents attending upper secondary school were recruited as participants and the data collection was made in their ordinary classrooms. The results from two experiments revealed that speech is more detrimental to prose memory than is aircraft noise, and individual differences in working memory capacity contributes more to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of aircraft noise on prose memory than to the effects of speech. Some applied implications of those findings to noise abatement interventions are suggested.

  • 93.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Grand challenges in environmental psychology2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the grand challenges in environmental psychology. Environmental psychology is the subdiscipline of psychological science that deals with psychological processes engaged in encounters between people and the built and natural environment. Global climate change is currently one of society's grand challenges. The current anthropogenic global warming is coupled with an exponential human population growth that is placing tremendous demands on agricultural and natural resources. Environmental psychology will have to confront a range of theoretical, methodological and conceptual challenges. These include applying knowledge from cognitive psychology-on memory, attention, perception and performance, -to classic questions in environmental psychology,such as how natural environments can facilitate restoration from attentional fatigue; how brain imaging method scan be employed to address how the human brain interacts with the built and natural environment; and how evolutionary perspectives can inform environmental design.

  • 94.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Role of Working Memory Capacity in Auditory Distraction2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Concentration: the neural underpinnings of how cognitive load shields against distraction2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether cognitive load and other aspects of task difficulty increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information which decreases distractibility as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

  • 96.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden; Technical Audiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing2015In: Abstract book: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication 14–17 June 2015 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Maria Hugo-Lindén, 2015, p. 62-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long lasting debate in selective attention research revolves around the issue of whether irrelevant information is filtered at an early/perceptual processing stage or at a late/cognitive processing stage. Another long lasting debate concerns whether selective attention depends on a single, multi-purpose processing resource or whether it depends on several, independent processing resources. As a reaction to both debates, we have proposed a unified view of attention (Sörqvist, Stenfelt, & Rönnberg, 2012) whereby central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing. Moreover, the unified view of attention embodies a domain-general processing resource – called working memory capacity – that determines people’s capability for attentional/cognitive engagement. Here, we will present data from a recent experiment designed to critically examine this model. Participants undertook a visual-verbal version of the n-back task in various taskdifficulty conditions. Cortical processing of a background sound was measured with an fMRI protocol and individual differences in working memory capacity were measured with a package of three complex-span tasks. Our hypothesis is that higher task difficulty (in the n-back task) will be associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity and decreased auditory-temporal activity. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect should be related to individual differences in working memory capacity.

  • 97.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 98.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Bullerintervention: vem tjänar mest på åtgärder?2010In: Audionytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 99.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Glorification of eco-labeled objects: An effect of intrinsic or social desirability?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally friendly consumables and products are often perceived as superior to their conventional counterparts. The reason for this, at least in part, is that people tend to glorify eco-labeled objects. For example, people prefer the taste of coffee called “eco-friendly” in comparison with another cup of coffee called “conventional”, even when the two cups of coffee are actually identical and merely named differently. What is the underlying mechanism of this eco-label effect? Do people report superior evaluations of eco-labeled products for intrinsic reasons or because they think this attitude is approved by others (a social desirability mechanism)? In two experiments, the participants’ concerns with social desirability were manipulated by telling them that their taste judgments of consumables were monitored by others. The eco-label effect was just as strong in the high social desirability concerns condition as in a control condition (Experiments 1 and 2). However, the eco-label effect was stronger in magnitude for participants who were told that consumers are morally responsible for the environmental consequences of their consumer behavior (Experiment 2). Taken together, the eco-label effect appears to be caused by intrinsic desirability processes, not by social desirability processes.

  • 100.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, U.K.
    Social desirability does not underpin the eco-label effect on product judgments2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What reason underpins why people say they prefer eco-labeled over conventional products during direct perceptual comparison? One possibility is that there is no difference in the perceptual experience of the products; the participants just say there is because they wish to gain other’s approval. In this paper, we tested this social desirability account of the eco-label effect by requesting participants to judge grapes that were in truth identical but labeled “eco-friendly” and “conventional” respectively. The eco-label effects were similar in magnitude for an impression management condition (participants were told that their responses were monitored) and a no-instructions control condition, but greater in a moral-instructions condition (the participants were told, amongst other things, that conventional agriculture is harmful). The experiment suggests that people do not say that they prefer eco-labeled products because they seek other’s approval. Social motives may underpin reasons to purchase “green” products at the grocery store, but social motives are not the direct cause of the eco-label effect on the perceptual experience of the products.

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