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  • 51.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    swedish mapping cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Comparative Studies on Land Use Rights M: Methodological and Standardization Aspects2015In: Journal of Comparative Law, ISSN 1477-0814, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Liedholm Johnson, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Sustainable Land Use: Detection and Classification of Conflicting Rights2015In: Book of Abstracts: Planning Law and Property Rights 25-27 February 2015 Volos - Greece, 2015, p. 77-77Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Drug discourses in Russian parliamentary debate2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Former prisoners’ narratives about employment and unemployment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Formerly imprisoned polydrug users’ narratives about unemployment2019In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 336-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding how formerly imprisoned drug users perceive the possibilities and problems associated with entering the job market is important as it could help the reintegration of these individuals into society. The aim of this study was to explore formerly imprisoned polydrug users’narratives about unemployment.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 former prison inmates with extensive prior drug use. The interviews were coded and analysed using a categorical-content, narrative analysis approach.Results: The interviews revealed that although the respondents did not regard themselves as having been unemployed, some mentioned stress during periods in which they lacked a legal occupation. The participants also talked about the importance of being committed to one’s work and described that it was not only employment in itself that was important, but also being able to value or appreciate their employment. Most respondents argued that they had never been dismissed from work because of their drug use, but descriptions of workplace deviance were common in the interviews, e.g. stealing, selling drugs, burglary, using drugs at work.

    Conclusions: The respondents seemed to lack an identity as either unemployed or employed, which may constitute a problem when they enter the job market in the future.

  • 56.
    Lind, Yvette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law.
    Fiscal state aid and tax legitimacy linked to environmental - and energy taxation2018In: Annual Meeting on Law and Society Toronto 2018: Law at the Crossroads: Le droit à la croisée des chemins, 2018, p. 154-154Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Lind, Yvette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Law.
    The Swedish aviation tax: An example to follow?2018In: 19th Global Conference on Environmental Taxation: Environmental Tax Challenges in the 21st Century: Urban Concentration and Increasing Transport : Conference programme, Madrid: Fundación Universitaria San Pablo CEU , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The taxation of aviation fuel has been restricted since the introduction of the Chicago Convention in 1944. Other international agreements have later fortified this prohibition. EU Member States are also obliged to refrain from taxing aviation fuel, as the Energy Taxation Directive comprises a prohibition against the taxation of aviation fuel referable to commercial flights. However, reducing air travelling is desirable as it is considered as one of the main contributors to climate change. In light of this, the restraint has been bypassed by some EU Member States through taxes on domestic air travel while leaving international flights (including those flights between Member States) untaxed. Some Member States have also chosen to apply taxes/fees to passengers in order to circumvent the prohibition. A range of taxes can therefore be found within the Member States, e.g. charter taxes, tourism taxes, taxation of commercial flights etc. Sweden recently introduced a new aviation tax with the purpose of disincentivising air travel and/or longer trips (Thailand being particularly popular with Swedes) for the benefit of other transportations, e.g. train. The tax is designed in accordance to the polluter pays principle as it applies a tax calculated in accordance to the final destination of the trip. Three categories of final destinations are applied in order to determine the fee, i.e. (1) 60 SEK (ca 6 Euro) per passenger travelling to a state within Europe. (2) 250 SEK (ca 25 Euro) per passenger travelling to a state outside of Europe. (3) 400 SEK (ca 40 Euro) per passenger travelling to a state not mentioned in the two appendixes listing states for previous two categories. The airlines are obliged to declare and pay the tax in order for the passengers to be directly burdened. The tax has, similar to many other environmental taxes, been widely debated both before and after its implementation. The public debate has primarily been focused on how it will impact the aviation industry and if the tax will have an actual positive impact on the environment. My contribution aims to describe the Swedish aviation tax and while doing so link it to EU state aid law as Member States. Distortions to the internal market are, as a general rule, not allowed and can be seen enforced through competition- and state aid law. State aid rules include taxes, as either a punitive tax or an incentive tax may distort competition between companies or industries. An aviation tax must therefore consider these rules in order for it to comply with EU law. A brief comparison to other aviation taxes within EU Member States will be done as the tax could be utilized as an example to other Member States. An aviation tax could also be discussed as a harmonized EU tax. Such a harmonized tax could contribute to fiscal revenues to the EU in addition to implementing a common environmental policy.

  • 58.
    Lindberg, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Google Earth och Street View: En säkerhetsrisk för svenska företag och myndigheter?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the establishment of 3D-applications on the internet, in order to show geographic areas and places, has become more common. Examples of such applications are the web services Google Earth and Street View, supplied by the company Google. The rapid development of the 3D-sevices has resulted in better image resolution and more detailed satellite photos. This in turn has led to that privacy and security related to the 3D-services has been actualized. From several parts of the world, Google has faced contestations and protests. Reasons alleged in these cases are among others integrity aspects as well as defense and security reasons.The aim of this work is to examine the security related matters that can occur during Google´s continuous establishment of its 3D-sevices in Sweden. The examine is done to get an overall picture over how Swedish companies and government agencies consider Google´s services and the law associated with these. The examine has been done through a written questionaries’ that has been sent to Swedish companies and government agencies and embassies located in Sweden, that have been considered to be a potential target of terrorist crime or severe robberies.The examine show that Swedish companies and government agencies have good knowledge of Google and their 3D-services. A great majority of the respondents have identified security risks associated with the Google 3D-applications. The general view is that the technology development that lead to more and more detailed photo technology will lead to a greater actualization of the security related matters in the future. Also the fact that the difficulties to adjust the national laws in order to prevent the problems considers being a reason that will be actualized more in the future.

  • 59.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Petterssén, Sigrid
    Jonsäll, Anette
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bergstrôm, Bjôrn
    Moving to a quintuple helixapproach in SPP: Collaboration and LCC forlighting procurements2019In: Cost and EU Public Procurement Law: Life-cycle costing for sustainability / [ed] Marta Andhov, Roberto Caranta, Anja Wiesbrock, Oxon: Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Nilsson, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordberg, Tuija
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    LEGO: Ensamrätt med rätt att diskriminera2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker konkurrensstrategier med hjälp av immaterialrättsligt skydd: Om, och hur, det är möjligt för ett företag att använda patentskydd som ett starkt konkurrensmedel på en attraktiv marknad?Om våra utvalda respondenter ansåg att patentstrategier leder till diskriminering av konkurrenter och kunder om företag med ensamrätt väljer att nischa sitt produktutbud? Om patenträtten behöver vidareutvecklas för att matcha lagstiftning gällande konkurrens? Är det möjligt att införa en klausul om rätt att utfärda tvångslicenser i Patenträtten som är generaliserbar och lättare att tillämpa än den vedertagna?

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie, i vilken vi hela tiden strävat efter att få en helhetsför-ståelse. Därför har vi varit öppna med vår tanke med arbetet för våra respondenter, och även försökt hålla oss objektiva genom arbetet. Något som emellanåt varit svårt då vi har en för-förståelse och även en ifrågasättande ansats. I början av arbetet läste vi på och samlade in intressant litteratur för att öka våra kunskaper i ämnet. Vi intervjuade sedan våra respondenter i semi-strukturerade intervjuer utifrån en intervjuguide där ordningen var flexibel. Efter varje intervju fick vi en ökad insikt i problematiken, som vi sökte förankra i litteraturen. Och den fördjupade kunskapen tog vi sedan med oss det till nästa intervju. Därmed ökade vi vår förståelse enligt en hermeneutisk spiral. Intervjuerna har gjorts via mail och personligt möte, några intervjuer har inte kunnat genomföras då respondenterna inte haft tid. Lyckligtvis har dessa respondenters tankar i ämnet publicerats och därför har vi istället refererat till dem där vi ansett det behövas. Vi insåg att vi inte skulle kunna få fram "en sanning" i vår studie, därför har vårt förhållningssätt varit ifrågasättande men med ett försök att förstå helheten. Och att det finns flera perspektiv att se patenträttsproblematiken ur.

    Resultat & slutsats: Vi har undersökt Lego:s patentstrategier, och fört ett resonemang om att förändra i patenträtten för att effektivisera marknaden, samt diskuterat om Lego med sin ensamrätt nischat sig mot målgruppen pojkar och därmed diskriminerat flickor. Vi har hittat ett antal rättsfall där Lego varit inblandat rörande immaterialrätt, och även artiklar och litteratur som vi finner intressanta. Vi har sedan intervjuat olika professioner som vi anser kan öka vår förståelse i ämnet. Vi får i vissa delar stöd i vårt resonemang kring effektiva marknader, tvångslicenser och reducering av transaktionskostnader. Dock säger alla tre respondenterna att det är svårt att komma till rätta med marknadsmisslyckandena som patentsystemet skapar då inget bättre alternativ finns som kan ersätta dagens system i belöningen av FoU (Forskning och Utveckling). Slutsatsen av vårt resonemang kring patenträtten är att patenträtten borde ses över, vi tror att en förändring kommer att ske i framtiden när Kinas patentmattor skapar problem för Europas företag. Vårt andra resonemang, om Lego diskriminerat konsumentgruppen flickor, fick vi inget gehör för hos våra respondenter, och Lego ville inte uttala sig om det. Men vår slutsats är att diskriminering har förekommit i en dold form.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: I vår undersökning har vi begränsat oss till en intervju via mail med Lego. Det skulle vara intressant att göra en fallstudie av Lego för att ta del av deras kundanalys, vad som påverkat valet av kundsegment samt målgruppen för Legos marknadsföring, och hur valet sedan påverkat deras konkurrensstrategier. Men vi förstår att det kan vara svårt att beviljas tillträde till de strategiska och säkert hemliga analyserna.

    Ytterligare ett förslag till fortsatt forskning som vi varit inne på lite i uppsatsen, men som skulle kunna fördjupas mer handlar om hur Legos ensamrätt påverkat Lego och dess konkurrenters position på den aktuella marknaden, har det lett till dominans på bekostnad av diskriminering (av konkurrenter)?

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi har funnit uppsatser i ämnet vilka valt att behandla missbruk av dominerande ställning med hjälp av immaterialrättsligt skydd, ur ett juridiskt perspektiv. Vi har i vår uppsats valt att se företeelsen även ur ett marknadsföringsperspektiv med inriktning på affärsstrategier och även ur ett föräldraperspektiv. När affärsjuridiska vapen används som konkurrensstrategi för att diskriminera andra företag, eller diskriminera konsumentgrupper på marknaden, så får det oss att fundera över dagens patenträtts legitimitet på en effektiv marknad. Vi har haft intressanta diskussioner med respondenter som fördjupat vår förståelse för problematiken kring patentstrategier, detta är vårt bidrag till debatten om patenträtten.

  • 61.
    Nilsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hufvudsson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck - som drabbar pojkar och unga män: En kvalitativ analys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore how organizations, who are assigned to meet boys and young men who are victims of honour related violence and oppression, describe their situation. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews and form-content analysis has been used. Our theoretical framework consists of masculinity theory, the ideal victim as well as the culture-related perspective. The results of the study showed that boys and young men who are victims of honour-related violence is also often perpetrators in the same context. The violence and oppression they face is like the one suffered by young girls and women and that a triggering factor for suffering is to violate family norms. The conclusions we have drawn is that our results are in line with previous research. It´s also both central and major that boys and young men live up to the concept of masculinity, to avoid becoming a victim of honour-related violence.

  • 62.
    Nilsson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Holmlund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Oro på arbetsplatsen: En kvantitativ studie om ordningsvakters upplevda oro över att utsättas för hot om våld samt överfall eller misshandel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the feeling of anxiety about becoming a victim of threat of physical violence or assault in the workplace. The study focuses on people working as security guards. The purpose of the study was to examine if there is a connection between the feeling of anxiety and the elements of the routine activity theory. The samples of participants were collected by social media, where web-based surveys were published. The final sample consisted of 378 participants. The analysis consisted of a binary logistic regression and bivariate analysis. The results of the study showed that exposure and the absence of capable guards are strong predictors of the feeling of anxiety. By the results of the analysis there was no strong evidence that the feeling of anxiety and attractiveness have a connection. The study showed that earlier victimization in the workplace can be a possible predictor of anxiety. In conclusion there is a widespread feeling of anxiety amongst security guards, however the routin activity theory can not explain the whole spectra of this problem.

  • 63.
    Norling, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Olaisson, Ebba
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Sexuellt våld: Som det beskrivs i den svenska pressen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Sexual violence – as described in the Swedish press

    The purpose of this study was to examine the press coverage concerning sexual violence. Particular focus was placed upon the descriptions of gender, ethnicity and the justice system. Furthermore we did also examine the press coverage in relation to Nils Christies theory of ideal victims. This was examined by the use of critical discourse-analysis and in the study we analyzed 100 articles concerning sexual violence taken from four swedish nationwide issued magazines during a period dating from 1st of April 2009 until 1st of April 2016. The analysis resulted in the identification of three overall discourses which we chose to name the calculating and manipulative perpetrator, the vulnerable victim and judicial shortcomings. The results showed that both perpetrators and victims were described in a stereotypical way throughout most of the material and that gender often were a central part of these descriptions. We also found that the justice system were questioned and often portrayed in a negative way. The most important conclusions were that stereotypical portraying, power and newsworthiness were present in the press coverage.

  • 64.
    Olofsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Information eller konfrontation: en tematisk analys av förhör med misstänkta gärningspersoner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information or confrontation - a theme-based analysis of police interviewing with criminal suspects

    The purpose of this paper has been to execute a qualitative study to highlight and discuss information-gathering and confrontational approaches in interviewing criminal suspects. A theme-based analysis was implemented to identify statements and expressions that suggests the use of either interrogation strategy. The results have been interpreted and discussed based on previous research and cognitive psychology areas affecting human storytelling, memories and confirmation bias. The results have shown that the information-gathering and confrontational approach may be shown through a variety of expressions and statements. The results have also shown that it to some extent have been highly confrontational elements in some of the analyzed interrogations. Based on previous research, the cognitive psychological perspectives and the results from the theme-based analysis the main conclusion is that quantitatively and extensively more studies of how the interrogation of criminal suspects is implemented in practice, especially in a Swedish context, is needed.

  • 65.
    Olsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Heldebro, Ulrica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    "Vad ska jag säga, alla var emot mig": En kvalitativ studie om upplevelser av sociala insatsgrupper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was an attempt to discover what the youth participants in a suburbs north of Stockholm district, may have experienced during their involvement in “SiG”.  In our study we also tried to explore what the other instances, may have experienced during their involvement in “SiG”, north of Stockholm district. “SiG” is a shortening of “social insatsgrupp” in swedish, and can be explained as the persistent local work around a youth who holds a risky behavior such as criminality and addictions to prevent that the negative characteristics escalates. In this study we use a qualitative approach, including qualitative research, such as phoneinterviews, conversations, and computer-assisted interviews. The main result we believe we have found, indicates experiences as skepticism towards the roll of the police. But also that the other instances must be committed to the cooperation. The various instances and the youth, need to understand their roles, their limitations, their goals, but also respect each others missions. Only if that can be achieved, maybe then the experience of labeling can be avoided.

  • 66.
    Paasch, Jesper
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Public Regulations: A Terminological Approach2011In: EURAS Yearbook of Standardization, Vol. 6 / [ed] Manfred J. Holler and John Hudson, München: Accedo , 2011, p. 575-595Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004 / [ed] Brandt, S. A., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 820-823Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The National Land Survey of Sweden has developed an information model describing real property information. The model is an object-orientated description of real property information stored in the Swedish cadastre.

    The work has been initiated due to a general need for an object-orientated description of real property information to create an application independent model of cadastral information, not limited to technical storage solutions.

    The project is also a part of a greater task describing all information handled by the National Land Survey in an object-orientated way, not focussing on the technical storage of the information, but the information itself. A non-technical modelling approach is the foundation for more cost-efficient construction and development of new software managing and processing cadastral information in the future.

  • 68.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastigheter och byggande.
    A Legal Cadastral Domain Model2004In: Standardization in the cadastral domain: Proceedings of the Workshop held by “COST Action G9” and “FIG Commission 7” on 9 and 10 December 2004 at Bamberg University, Germany / [ed] Oosterom, Schlieder, Zevenbergen, Hess, Lemmen, Fendel, Frederiksberg: FIG , 2004, p. 145-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Bogomtale - Best Practices 3D Cadastres2018In: Fagbladet Landinspektøren, ISSN 1903-5454, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 34-34Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Målet med bogen er att give et overblik samt eksempler på forskellige eksisterende juridiske og tekniske løsninger i forbindelse med tredimensionel ejendomsdannelse, registrering, forvaltning og visualisering, tx ejerlejligheder.

  • 70.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Classification of real property rights: A comparative study of real property rights in Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of my on-going research at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent real property rights registered in national real property information systems - and originating from different legal systems - can be classified according to a theoretical model, the Legal Cadastral Domain Model. A terminological framework for classification of real property rights will further the comparison of real property rights easier and further the cross-border transfer of real property information. The result of the case-studies is that it to a high degree is possible to classify the investigated rights according to the existing model. However, minor modification have to be implemented into the model to make it able to classify all investigated rights. The case-studies also showed that the model could benefit from other minor changes, such as changing parts of the terminology used in the model.

  • 71.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Fokus på 3D2015In: Samhällsbyggaren, no 1, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vem äger lägenheten och var går fastighetsgränserna kring vägtunneln? En förbättrad redovisning av tredimensionell (3D) fastighetsinformation är i fokus i Sverige och internationellt. I november hölls en internationell konferens i Dubai.

  • 72.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Fastighetsvetenskap, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Legal Cadastral Domain Model: An Object-orientated Approach2005In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 117-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The different existing definitions of cadastre make a common understanding of the cadastral domain difficult and are a major barrier to effective information interchange and standardisation. A legal approach focussing on the classification of real property rights and restrictions in a legal cadastre model centred on the right of ownership might be a way to improve the common understanding of the cadastral domain and a step towards an improved standardisation of the domain. This article is intended to serve as an introduction to the construction of a model describing a legal cadastral domain.

  • 73.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Royal Institue of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Real property transactions: An approach towards standardisation of legal issues2008In: Real Property Transactions: Procedures, Transaction Costs and Models / [ed] Zevenbergen, Jaap; Frank, Andrew; Stubkjær, Erik, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 167-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transactions in land and other real property differ between countries throughout Europe. The transaction procedures reflect formal rules, but they are also normalized through conventions and professional codes of conduct. This complex of technical, legal and economic issues was investigated from the point of view of transaction economics through an ESF-COST supported Action G9 Modeling Real Property Transactions. The research was performed between 2001 and 2005 by researchers mainly from university departments related to land surveying, real estate management, geo-information sciences and knowledge engineering. This book represents the final outcome of that study. A modeling approach was elaborated and tested on a number of countries (especially Sweden and Slovenia, for which the models are shown in this book in the Unified Modeling Language (UML)). The modeling approach leads to transparency and allows comparison. Nevertheless, the influence of the national and social contexts, and the different perspectives that can be taken, prevent a simple ranking of the studied procedures. For those planning or comparing transaction procedures or parts thereof, the book supplies a tested approach and methodology. But the book eventually warns of simplification in this field full of complex national institutional arrangements.

  • 74.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Public Regulations: The Legal Cadastral Domain Model2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis is to develop a conceptual model for classification of real property rights and public regulations. The model is called the Legal Cadastral Domain Model.

    The model is intended to be a terminological framework for cross-border exchange of cadastral information. Parties exchanging cadastral information via the model do not require detailed knowledge of the legal system in which the right or regulation is created.

    The model is based on the principle that real property rights and public regulations influence real property ownership by being either beneficial or encumbering for the real property owner.

    The theoretical departure of the research presented in this thesis is in comparative legal theory and terminology. Real property rights and public regulations are important parts of real property legislation as they describe and secure the use and other exploitation of land, water and air.

    The research is conducted through studies in real property legislation and associated literature. The model has been developed through case studies on real property rights in Portugal, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden and public regulations in Portugal and Sweden.

    The generated results show that it seems possible to describe real property rights and public regulations regardless of their legal origin, at least in Western legal systems.

    The thesis also includes a discussion of terminological aspects concerning definitions of three-dimensional (3D) real property.

    The thesis consists of a summary and 6 papers.

  • 75.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    National La nd Survey of Sweden, Gävle, Sweden; KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Standardization of Real Property Rights and Restrictions: A Fools Task?2006In: Proccedings of the XXIII International FIG Congress, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The different existing definitions of real property rights and restrictions make an understanding of this part of the cadastral domain difficult. Such lack of understanding is a major barrier to effective information interchange and standardisation. A terminological and legal approach focusing on the classification of real property rights and restrictions in a legal cadastre model centred on the right of ownership might be a way to gain a better understanding and be a step towards an improved standardisation of the domain. This paper is intended to serve as an introduction to a recently published hypothesis stating that it is possible to create a general model describing formal real property rights and restrictions. The model is a step towards a standardized approach towards the cadastral domain in general and the modeling of real property rights and restrictions and placing them in an ontological framework.

  • 76.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Vergleich und internationale klassifizierung von liegenschaftsrechten und öffentlich-rechtlichen festlegungen2012In: Zeitschrift für Geodäsie, Geoinformation und Landmanagement, ISSN 1618-8950, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real property rights and public regulations are vital for effective land management They are part of a nation's legal system. The applied national terminology and descriptions may therefore not be used as basis for an international information interchange. A neutral and legal system independent model describing real property rights and public regulations would further an international use of information based on standardized descriptions. The Legal Cadastral Domain Model (LCDM) is an attempt to facilitate such descriptions.

  • 77.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet, the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law Division, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Classification of Land Use: Further development of the ISO standard for Land Administration, ISO 191522015In: Homo Oeconomicus, ISSN 0943-0180, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses a proposed development of the ISO standard for land administration, the Land Administration Domain Model, LADM, ISO 19152. The extension focuses on expanding the standards terminology for classifying interests in land use. The proposed extension is based on the concept for classifying private and public rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the newly developed Legal Cadastral Domain Model, LCDM.

  • 78.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Standards for land use and planning: Only for specialists?2016In: Der öffentliche Sektor - The Public Sector, ISSN 1563-4604, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    tandards have become vital instruments for describing and structuring e.g. real property rights and planning information,such as the international Land Administration Domain Model and the national Swedish standard for detailed developmentplans. However, the publication of a standard does not automatically ensure that it is used or understood. Standards areprimarily technical documents and not easily accessible by non-specialists. This article discusses the problems of using standards;such as the use of terminology and to access specific target group(s) when implementing standards in the geoformationsector in general and standards on property rights and planning in the public sector in particular. Conclusions are thata standard in itself may be of rather little value if not assisted by additional, non-expert documents for a broader group(s) ofdecision makers and other non-experts within the organization, aiming at different organizational levels.

  • 79.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Terminological Aspects Concerning Three-Dimensional Real Property2011In: Nordic Journal of Surveying and Real Estate Research, ISSN 1459-5877, E-ISSN 2341-6599, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 81-97Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses terminological aspects concerning definitions of three-dimensional (3D) real property.

    The authors have noticed that researchers from different countries, and even within the same country, use different terminology when describing 3D property. Neither have any general international definition of 3D property been encountered which is possible to use internationally to differentiate forms of 3D property. The aim of this article is to discuss terminological aspects of 3D property, resulting in a working definition of 3D property. The definition is tested and validated against other 3D property definitions encountered internationally.

    The basic aspects of terminology in general and legal terminology in particular are studied as a foundation for discussions on forms of 3D property rights and 3D property terminology. Examples of various terms used internationally, in different countries and legal families, are presented, showing the variety and difficulties with standardising the terminology. The problem of existing inconsistent terminology used today is addressed by applying methods from the field of terminology within the 3D real property domain. An overview of 3D property and property rights and what characterizes each of them is also presented. Thereafter the terminological principles are applied on a survey of 3D property rights to create a working definition for 3D property.

    Based on the validation, it can be concluded that the studied definitions all have shortcomings from a legal perspective, such as being too narrow or too wide, focusing on use rather than on object, or describing the physical object instead of the legally defined 3D object. This shows that it is difficult finding an accurate and internationally valid definition of 3D property. The authors believe that using unified terms and definitions will act towards a common understanding and thus further the establishment of a domain specific ontology within the field of 3D property.

  • 80.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Navratil, Gerhard
    Technical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Vučić, Nikola
    State Geodetic Administration, Zagred, Croatia.
    Kitsakis, Dimitrios
    National Technical University of Athens School of Rural and Surveying Engineering, Zographos, Greece.
    Karabin, Marcin
    Warsaw University of Technology Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, Poland.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University, Kista, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Building a Modern Cadastre: Legal Issues in Describing Real Property in 3D2016In: Geodetski vestnik, ISSN 0351-0271, E-ISSN 1581-1328, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 256-268Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) real property has been the subject of increased research activity during the last decade. This article continues the discussions of the legal framework sessions at the 4th international workshop on 3D cadastres in Dubai 2014 in order to further develop and analyse the legal concepts of 3D real property, and presents an overview of experiences from 3D property use and registration. The outcome is intended to initiate discussions on the legal framework of 3D cadastres and aims at identifying the main topics concerning the legal aspects of 3D property and cadastre.

  • 81.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet, the Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Department OTB, GIS Technology Section, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Dutch Cadastre, Land Registry and Mapping Agency, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands; University of Twente, Faculty ITC, Enschede, the Netherlands.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Further modelling of LADM's Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities (RRRs)2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 49, p. 680-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a more detailed classification of the legal part of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM), ISO 19152 (i.e. interests in land), than described in the current standard by further developing the LADM's 'right', 'restriction' and 'responsibility' (RRR) class and associated code lists. Besides the more obvious formal right descriptions, this paper also deals with informal rights' descriptions as introduced in the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) as a foundation for further LADM development. The authors base their research on the Legal Cadastral Domain Model, as developed by and described in the Ph.D. thesis of Paasch, which is used as a conceptual basis for adding an additional level to the LADM. Interests in land can be classified in this model as limiting or beneficial to real property ownership. The extended classification is further based on the paradigm that there are two major types of interest in land, privately agreed interests and regulations imposed by a public agency. The incorporation of a specialized classification of RRRs in the LADM is of value for more inclusion of social tenure in (inter-)national land administration registers. The LADM allows national profiles to be added to the standard, however, such profiles are relevant within a country. These profiles are needed in cases where detailed data of interests in land have to be exchanged internationally. International data exchange requires maintenance of code tables representing the different RRRs in use within countries. OICRF has announced an initiative in support to this.

  • 82.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Walfridsson, Märit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Lantmäteriet.
    Hedlund, Emmy
    Lantmäteriet.
    Juric, Marija
    Lantmäteriet.
    Abandoned Swedish joint facilities and utility easements: a case of “legal pollution”2017In: FIG Working Week 2017, Köpenhamn: International Federation of Surveyors, FIG , 2017, article id 8528Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint facilities and utility easements are important legal instruments regulating land use in the Swedish society. Joint facilities are created when two or more real properties have the need to use a facility, such as a parking space, in common. Utility easements are rights to construct and maintain e.g. a pipeline or cable located on a real property. Sometimes the installations cease to be of use for the right holders. This article investigates the legislation used to liquidate these rights legally as well as physically. The study has identified insufficient procedures regulating the demolition of the physical installations, which may result in a situation where physical installations remain on the property after the legal right has been liquidated. This may cause an inconvenience for the landowner due to own costs for removing the installation(s) or becoming responsible for the right holders´ removal of the installation. Furthermore, increased costs affecting the landowner may arise in future cadastral procedures if the right still encumbers the property. The existence of installations no longer in use may even constitute a risk for human health and security, and the environment. The conclusion is that there is a need for better instructions and processes for removing the legal right and for who is responsible for the removal of the physical installation(s).

  • 83. Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Legal Framework 3D Cadastres: Position Paper 12014In: Proceedings of the 4th International FIG 3D Cadastre Workshop, 9-11 November 2014, Dubai, UAE, 2014, p. 411-416Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper serves as the basis for discussions for the working session Legal framework 3D Cadastres, being one of the four working sessions at the 4th International Workshop on 3D Cadastres. The paper is intended to initiate discussions on the legal framework of 3D cadastres and aims at identifying the main topics concerning the legal aspects of 3D cadastre and further future research.

  • 84.
    Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Specialization of the LADM: Modelling of Non-formal RRR2013In: LADM2013: 5th FIG International Land Administration Domain Model Workshop / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Christiaan Lemmen, Elfriede Fendel, Copenhagen: International Federation of Surveyors (FIG) , 2013, p. 153-172Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a more detailed classification of the legal part of the LADM, ISO 19152, (i.e. interests in land) than possible in the current standard (ISO, 2012) today and is an attempt to raise awareness of the possibilities to further develop the LADMs rightt, restrictionn and responsibilityy classes (RRR). The term landd is here used for land, water and air. The LADM does, in principle, already facilitate the modelling of e.g. informal and customary rights. However, there has, to the authorss knowledge, not yet been any approach that incorporates non-formal social tenure relationships, such as informal occupation, tenancy based on non-formal and informal rights and customary rights into the LADM. This paper uses the non-formal rights descriptions in the Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) as an input to further develop the LADM.

  • 85. Paasch, Jesper
    et al.
    van Oosterom, Peter
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Lemmen, Christiaan
    Specialization of the Land Administration Domain Model (LADM): An Option for Expanding the Legal Profiles2013In: FIG Working Week 2013 – Environment for Sustainability: Proceedings, 2013, article id 6533Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Land Administration Domain Model, LADM, passed on the 1st of November 2012 unanimously the final vote towards becoming an international standard, ISO 19152. Based on the standard this paper is a proposal for a more detailed classification of interests in land as modelled within LADM and an attempt to raise the awareness of the possibilities to further develop the LADM‟s rightt, restrictionn and responsibilityy (RRR) classes. The current standardised classification of RRRs in the LADM is restricted to a top-level classification of RRRs. In this paper the authors use the classification of interests in land described in the newly developed Legal Cadastral Domain Model, LCDM, to further develop the LADM. The LDM is based on comparative international legal investigations, including case studies from Portugal, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland and Sweden.

  • 86.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    Paasch, Jesper
    KTH, Fastighetsvetenskap.
    3D Property Research - a Survey of the Occurrence of Legal Topics in Publications2011In: 2nd International Workshop on 3D Cadastres / [ed] Peter van Oosterom, Elfriede Fendel, Jantien Stoter, André Streilein, International Federation of Surveyors , 2011, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    3D property is an increasingly discussed and researched topic. Several conferences and workshops have contained contributions on this subject and there are often special sessions devoted to it at e.g. FIG conferences. There are also many articles, conference contributions, theses and other publications available that present and discuss 3D property from different aspects. However, many of these conferences and publications seem to focus on technical aspects of 3D property rather than on legal aspects. It even seems that more is written on technical issues and registration than on other equally important issues related to law, organisation, etc. which creates a certain imbalance within the field.The aim of this paper is to investigate the field of 3D property in research, as evidenced by conference papers and other publications, in order to find the distribution of areas of interest and specifically the occurrence of legal aspects. The intention is not to describe any particular 3D property issues or to present a complete survey, but to analyse trends within the field and to contribute to the methodology and structure of 3D research.A case-study was conducted by examining conference papers, journal articles and other publications in English on 3D property within the recent ten year period. The studied publications were placed in four different groups, illustrating different aspects of 3D property, namely legal, technical, registration and organisational issues. The classification was done after analysing the publications by their contents. The total number of studied publications is 105. The results indicate a rather even distribution between three of the four categories, except for organisational aspects, which are in minority. However, when looking from a legal perspective, the legal category is in minority with only 28 publications, in comparison with the total number of the publications in the other three categories, consisting of 77 publications.Thus, although there already exists a foundation of results from research and other works on the legal aspects of 3D property, the authors believe that more work is needed and that more and focused attention should be given to legal aspects of 3D property.

  • 87.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Real Estate Planning and Land Law, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    Lanmäteriet, Swedish Mapping Cadastral and Land Registration Authority, Gävle, Sweden.
    3D property research from a legal perspective2013In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 40, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates and discusses 3D property research, as evidenced by conference papers and other publications written in English, to analyze the distribution of interest areas and the occurrence of legal aspects and trends within 3D property research occurring between 2001 and 2011. A total of 156 publications on 3D property were examined. The publications were classified in four different categories, which represent different aspects of 3D property: legal, technical, registration and organizational. More 3D property research has been conducted on technical aspects and registration than legal aspects. In the legal category, most studies addressed national legislation and the practical use of (national) legislation. The authors believe that further fundamental legal research on 3D property is needed. The quantity of research could be increased, for example, by promoting international discussion and increasing the number of comparative legal studies on 3D property rights. Additional and more focused attention should be given to international matters, such as comparative studies on the use of 3D property concepts, the development of (international) 3D property terminology and cooperation between 3D property unit owners.

  • 88.
    Peterson, Fabian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fastighetsbildningens betydelse för skyddet av fiskevården: Med fokus på förhållandena i Gävleborgs och Dalarnas län2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At a land divide the cadastral surveyor should take into account a number of conditions to be allowed to make a change in property classification, where properties are either created or transformed. 

    Properties are not only on land but its boundaries may be wholly or partly in water. The premise is that the fishery should belong to the property's water. This water can be owned together with its own water area, or it may be jointly owned with several other properties. Fishing can also in itself constitute a separate property. At ordinances of this type, there is a requirement that property creation cannot be done if it risks to harm fishery conservation. That may partly involve activities in favor of fish and crayfish. It can also be interpreted as an effective use of fish resources (Bonde, Dahlsjö & Julstad, 2012)

    The aim of this study was to find out, first, the number of cases dealt with concerning the application of the Swedish property divide law Chapter 3, § 8. It would also give a historical perspective on why the provision to come, and how its importance might have changed until today. It was also interesting to find out in which cases the real property may affect the fish and the ecosystem negative, and if there are geographic differences in what was considered as a nuisance for fish care. As boundaries were Gävleborg and Dalarna counties. The method consisted of six interviews with cadastral surveyors, and so have a cadastral document and a court case been reviewed, referenced and discussed. 

    The result showed that within the chosen field, there is an average of none, or as most one case per cadastral offices and year in which the FBL Chapter 3, § 8 was applicable. The surveyors agreed that they avoid divide fishing and that in the few cases where it actually takes place, the aim is to break out a portion of a fish joint property to form an independent fishing property. The literature survey revealed that the exception in the second section of FBL chapter 3, § 8, was created during a time when it was built much hydropower, and it was considered more important than the protection of fishery.

    The interviewees also gave examples of bad property formation without regard to fishery conservation. This may involve the formation of very small properties, and it thus becomes more fishing and damage to the fishery conservation. By examining a court case it emerged that it was not so obvious how FBL Chapter 3, 8 § applies. 

    In this case it was the Land Survey Authority and the County Council who differed on whether fishing rights would be created by a real property or whether it was better to have another form of right, such as a fishing license. It also showed the positive impact a fishery conservation area may have to monitor fish stocks. 

  • 89.
    Röör, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Höök, Jonna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Man får inte slå den man älskar!: Fokusgruppsintervjuer med högstadieungdomar om våld i nära relation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the perception of female and male high school students regarding perpetrators and victims of teen dating violence. The purpose was furthermore to examine how the interviewees biological sex effects their description of the perpetrator and victim. The empirical material has been gathered through three groupintervies with a total of twelve interviewees. The main result shows that both girls and boys had easier to see boys as perpetrators and that high school students condemn teen dating violence. The high school students discussed the victims responsibility to handle the situation and that they diminishes the actions of the female perpetrator. The high school students also expressed that the victim may suffer negative consequences if he or she decides to leave the abusive relationship.

  • 90.
    Ståhlberg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Victim Support och konstruktioner av brottsoffret: En kvalitativ fallstudie av den engelska brottsofferjouren2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how people working in English Victim Support, understand crime victim's needs and their own role in addressing them. The purpose was also to investigate how traditional notions of crime victims and categories such as gender, age, class etcetera, affect this understanding. The study was conducted through qualitative interviews with volunteers and staff of Victim Support. The results showed that the participants took several parameters in consideration when assessing crime victim’s needs. The categories of age, sex and type of crime emerged as particularly significant. Traditional notions of victims also appear to influence the participants understanding of victims and their own role. Clients perceived as deviant may also have difficulties in receiving adequate support. It is therefore important that all working with crime victims become aware of how stereotypical assumptions can manifest and the potential consequences of them.

  • 91.
    Sundbom, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sundqvist, Kristofer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Markanvisning och markanvisningsavtal: definitioner och innebörd i ett antal Stockholmskommuner2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis is to investigate how a number of municipalities in Stockholm County proceed when they allocate land and establish land allocation agreements for exploitation, and to investigate how a number of municipalities define land allocations and land allocation agreements on the occasion of public land sales. The aim of this thesis is to describe the allocation methods a municipally uses when they offer land for sale and to give an insight regarding which correlation different land allocation agreements have in different municipalities.Methods used are: (1) a literature review where the underlying theory for land allocations and land allocation agreements have been studied; (2) a questionnaire have been done to complement the literature review and to provide a picture of how a number of different municipalities in Stockholm County use and apply land allocations; (3) an agreement audit have been done to see the extent to which different agreement terms exists.Responses from the questionnaire, together with the definitions form different municipality’s land allocation policies and the literature review, resulted in a definition of a land allocation and a land allocation agreement. The agreement audit shows that agreement terms regarding: price or price indication, location, cost-sharing and planning costs are the most common agreement terms within the municipalities we have investigated.The study suggests that there is some confusion regarding land allocation agreements and the meaning of these, that became apparent when agreements where gathered, despite a careful explanation that it was land allocation agreements we requested, we still got exploitation agreements and purchase agreements. Therefore, we consider it necessary with an official definition of a land allocation agreement well anchored in the Planning and Building Act together with the rules of development agreements or other legislation.That there is a lack of research within the subject becomes evident when reports, essays, and other literature generally refers so the same sources.Keywords: land allocation, land allocation agreement and public land sales

  • 92.
    Tibblin, Klara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ägarlägenheter: En studie om relationen mellan fasta och löpande kostnader i förhållande till bostadsrätten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe the cost differences, which exist between owner-occupied apartments and condominiums. The study will describe the current costs for housing and the non-recurrent costs for purchasing. Current resale prices on the transfer of owner-occupied apartments have been studied in relation to the current price trend of condominiums. Finally, there is a study about the influence a joint property management association for the owner-occupied apartments have on the current costs for the joint areas.

    By studying mainly fiscal conditions, a calculation that present differences in costs between the owner-occupied apartments is presented. An evaluation of completed secondary transfers for condominiums and owner-occupied apartments is also presented. Two interviews has been conducted with representatives of joint property management association belonging to owner-occupied apartments. The interviews shows different approaches to reduce costs for maintaining the joint areas.

    Calculations of the cost differences show that the purchase price of an owner-occupied apartment is higher and that the monthly cost is higher for condominiums. The main reason for the cost differences is the mortage of the condominium associations resulting in approximately 33 percent higher current costs for condominiums. For owner-occupied apartments, the loans is with the owner of the apartment, making the purchase price about 33 percent higher. The joint property management association for the owner-occupied apartments has no mortgage. Prices for secondary transfers show a positive trend for owner-occupied apartments. Whether this is connected to the form of housing or something else is difficult to clarify since the prices of residential in Sweden has increased in recent years.

    Interviews regarding the management and maintenance of the common areas associated to the owner-occupied apartments shows that costs can be reduced by better procurement, in example better negotiations evaluations and choice of supplier.

  • 93.
    Torgalsböen, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Rääf, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Jag blir kränkt till följd av den jag är: En kvalitativ studie av individers upplevelser av att utsättas för hatbrott2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examineindividuals talk about their experience of being exposed to hate crimes, how their exposure has influenced their everyday lives, how the individuals experience the policeinteraction, what affects the choice to report or not, but also to see if there is any difference between theexposure for females and males. Themain results that individuals feel because of the exposure, are a great concern and a limitation on everyday life. Individuals experience a positive first impression of the police, which turns to negativity when the investigation is not completed. This is often given as reason not to file a report. A view also develops that shows that females are both more concerned and exposed. One of the most important conclusionsare that social constructs in society have an impact on how the surrounding society, and the victim in person view their exposure.

  • 94.
    Walfridsson, Märit
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Eriksson, Anna
    Lantmäteriet.
    Hedlund, Emmy
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle.
    Juric, Marija
    Lantmäteriet, Gävle.
    Övergivna gemensamhetsanläggningar och ledningsrätter2017In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. -, no 1, p. 39-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag är det inte tillräckligt reglerat hur en avveckling av outnyttjade gemensamhetsanläggningar ska gå till. Det innebär att både rättigheten och den fysiska anläggningen ofta blir kvar trots att anläggningen inte används, vilket kan ställa till problem och bli dyrt för ägaren.

  • 95.
    Wikblom, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Björklund, Elsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Tvister och oklarheter om fastighetsgränser i Sverige med en utblick mot Norge och Danmark.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how many property determinations that are treated because of disputes over property boundaries in Sweden. First a review of the property determination process in Sweden has been completed and then an overview over Norway and Denmark carried out. Sweden has a reputation that there are few disputes over property boundaries. In Norway, there are more disputes over property boundaries than in both Sweden and Denmark. When property owners disagree on the property boundary, it is called a dispute. Disputes are arising out of confusion, these uncertainties may be caused by unclear maps or that the boundary markers are missing. The methods used in this paper are: (1) a literature review, where relevant literature has been reviewed; (2) a case study, where documented property determinations in Sweden were investigated; (3) a survey study, where one person from Norway and one person from Denmark responded to some questions about the determination of property boundaries. Based on the results from the literature reviews with regards to property determination process works in Sweden was summarized, and the corresponding processes in Norway and Denmark were also summarized. The result from the case study showed that there were 11 percent of property determinations in Sweden that were treated because of disputes over property boundaries. The interview study supplemented the literature review of the processes of property determinations in Norway and Denmark.Based on the outcome of the case study, 11 percent, the conclusion is that Sweden has few disputes over property boundaries. There are both similarities and differences between the processes in dealing with a property determination in the countries. To do a boundary determination in Sweden and Denmark, you sent in an application to a land survey who is dealing with the case from the beginning until the end. In Norway it is common for property owners to make an agreement on the boundaries, it is on the property owners' initiative that a land surveyor by the municipality prosecuting the case.

  • 96.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, kriminologiska institutionen.
    Hårdare tag i arbetslivet?: Beskrivningar av föreslagna åtgärder mot våld i arbetslivet i facklig press 1978-2004.2009In: NSfk:s 51th Research Seminar Gilleleje, Denmark 2009: “Efter løsladelse” ”Nyere forskning i ungdomskriminalitet””Kriminalitetskontrol og nordisk kriminalpolitik/-Nordisk komparativ forskning” ”Ungdomskriminalitet – nye kriminalpolitiske tendenser” / [ed] Kristin Hobson, Oslo: Nordisk Samarbeidsråd for Kriminologi , 2009, p. 91-101Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen; Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Våld på jobbet: Beskrivningar av våld i arbetslivet 1978-2004 i facklig press2008In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 6-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Violence at work as a social problem. A study of the media coverage on workplace violence in Swedish trade union journals 1978-2004.

    The main purpose of this study was to find out the extent of the unions media coverage on workplace violence and the ways in which the topic was framed. The study shows that the reporting of violence in the workplace described in journals is on a stable level during the period 1978-98. However from the year 2000 and onwards, there is a clear increase in the attention. Four categories of workplace violence were used to identify and recognize different types of violence: intrusive-, consumer-, relationship- and organizational violence. This shows that much of the attention over time has shifted from intrusive violence to organizational violence and consumer violence. What seems to have happened is that workplace violence has become more than just robberies and assaults in the retail business. The stereotypical image of the criminal is challenged by non-traditional criminals like nurses, elderly people and companies. Certain groups, e g care workers, come to account for an increasing proportion of attention, both as perpetrators and victims of violence. This study is an important step in understanding the increased reports of workplace violence in Sweden.

  • 98.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Estrada, Felipe
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    Våld i arbetslivet: en kriminologisk kunskapsöversikt2010Report (Other academic)
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