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  • 51.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Liu, Chengke
    Ningbo Electric Power Bureau, Zhejiang, China.
    Street-based topological representations and analyses for predicting traffic flow in GIS2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 1119-1137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well received in the space syntax community that traffic flow is significantly correlated to a morphological property of streets, which are represented by axial lines, forming a so called axial map. The correlation co-efficient (R 2) approaches 0.8 and even a higher value according to the space syntax literature. In this paper, we study the same issue using the Hong Kong street network and the Hong Kong Annual Average Daily Traffic datasets, and find surprisingly that street-based topological representations (or street-street topologies) tend to be better representations than the axial map. In other words, vehicle flow is correlated to a morphological property of streets better than that of axial lines. Based on the finding, we suggest the street-based topological representations as an alternative GIS representation, and the topological analyses as a new analytical means for geographic knowledge discovery.

  • 52.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Liu, Xintao
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    AxialGen: a research prototype for automatically generating the axial map2009In: Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management (CUPUM) / [ed] Yeh A, Hong Kong: the University of Hong Kong , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AxialGen is a research prototype for automatically generating the axial map, which consists of the least number of the longest visibility lines (or axial lines) for representing individual linearly stretched parts of open space of an urban environment. Open space is the space between closed spaces such as buildings and street blocks. This paper aims to provide an accessible guide to software AxialGen, and the underlying concepts and ideas. We concentrate on the explanation and illustration of the key concept of bucket: its definition, formation and how it is used in generating the axial map.

  • 53.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Omer, Itzhak
    Spatial topology and its structural analysis based on the concept of simplicial complex2007In: Transactions in GIS, ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 943-960Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Sui, Daniel Z.
    Proceedings the First ICA Workshop on Geospatial Analysis and Modeling2006Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Yao, Xiaobai
    Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens, United States.
    Location-based services and GIS in perspective2006In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 712-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines location-based services (LBS) from a broad perspective involving deWnitions, characteristics, and application prospects. We present an overview of LBS modeling regarding users, locations, contexts and data. The LBS modeling endeavors are cross-examined with a research agenda of geographic information science. Some core research themes are brieXy speculated.

  • 56.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Yin, Junjun
    Digital Media Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology, Ireland.
    Zhao, Sijian
    Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Beijing Normal University, China.
    Characterizing the human mobility pattern in a large street network2009In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics: Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics, ISSN 1063-651X, E-ISSN 1095-3787, Vol. 80, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies demonstrated empirically that human mobility exhibits Lévy flight behavior. However, our knowledge of the mechanisms governing this Lévy flight behavior remains limited. Here we analyze over 72 000 people’s moving trajectories, obtained from 50 taxicabs during a six-month period in a large street network, and illustrate that the human mobility pattern, or the Lévy flight behavior, is mainly attributed to the underlying street network. In other words, the goal-directed nature of human movement has little effect on the overall traffic distribution. We further simulate the mobility of a large number of random walkers and find that (1) the simulated random walkers can reproduce the same human mobility pattern, and (2) the simulated mobility rate of the random walkers correlates pretty well (an R square up to 0.87) with the observed human mobility rate

  • 57.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Zipf, Alexander
    2University of Applied Sciences FH Mainz, Department of Geoinformatics and Surveying, Germany.
    An introduction to the special issue on LBS and GIS2004In: Journal of Geographic Information Sciences, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 89-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Zipf, Alexander
    How do location-based services hit Google?2006In: Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, ISSN 0198-9715, E-ISSN 1873-7587, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 709-711Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 59.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Zipf, Alexander
    Location based services: special issue2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Zipf, Alexander
    Theme issue on location-based services and GIS2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Johansson, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Inmätning och beräkning av restfelsmodell i plan för delar av Sala kommun2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett referenssystemsbyte i en kommun är ett omfattande projekt som kräver både tid och pengar. Denna rapport kan förhoppningsvis vara en hjälp för kommuner som står inför denna uppgift. Rapporten visar på problem som kan uppstå och vad som är bra att tänka på innan inmätningar påbörjas. Valet av passpunkter är den mest centrala uppgiften i samband med ett referenssystemsbyte. Att välja punkter kräver bra kännedom om kommunens punktnät och en strategi om utformningen av restfelsmodellen. En restfelsmodell är en modell över ett områdes deformationer i till exempel x- och y-led för skillnaden mellan till- och frånsystemet. En bra restfelsmodell kräver en jämn fördelning av passpunkter över det område som skall studeras. Punkterna bör vara stadigt förankrade, i till exempel berg eller sten, för att ge en hög tillförlitlighet. Passpunkterna mäts in med Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Rekommendationerna är att varje punkt mäts vid två olika tillfällen och att 10 observationer med initialisering mellan varje observation lagras vid varje mätning. GNSS-antennen ska vara stabil och centrerad över punkten. Denna rapport är en fallstudie och beskriver inmätningen av passpunkter för en del av Sala kommun och beräkningen av dess restfelsmodell. Restfelsmodellen visar på de karakteristiska skillnaderna i restfel som skapas mellan de olika samhällena när polygontåg är den enda länken mellan dem. Den visar också några andra typiska problem såsom närliggande passpunkter med restfel i motsatta riktningar och passpunkter i samma polygontåg med förhållandevis stora restfel. För att få en så bra transformation som möjligt krävs fler och tätare mätningar i de områden som uppvisar dessa problem.

  • 62.
    Jäderkvist, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    RURIX - ny mätmetod och nytt mått för befolkningstäthet och tillgänglighet: utvecklad och utvärderad med GIS och nätverksanalys2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A difficult and constant concern is how to define and delimit rural and sparsely populated areas. To be able to achieve such delimitations, a wide range of definitions and measures have been produced. The problem with many of them is that they give too crude and static definitions and are sometimes based on criteria that are subjective and hard to specify. The structure of the society has changed, for example the access to cars is high, which increases the accessibility and possibility to commute and allows people to settle further away from work and services. This contributes to making the limits of rural and urban areas more diffuse. Taking into consideration the technology that is available today, new sophisticated measures should be developed to make the concept of e.g. rural more distinct.

    In this thesis a new method of measurement for population sparsity and accessibility is introduced. The goal has been a method well suited for adaptation to different scales and one that takes into consideration the geographic distribution and size of the population. The accessibility factor of the method is based on the extent and spread of the road network which results in realistic population sparsity values. Directly linking to the method, a special measure, the Rurality index was developed in order to show how the method can be used at several different levels in a clear-cut way, e.g. local or regional. The method was tested and evaluated using ArcGIS and network analysis based on the 2008 census materials. The study areas were the municipalities of Hudiksvall and Nordanstig in Sweden.

    The method involves a few steps. Initially, the area to be measured is divided into a grid. Then, for every cell in the grid the number of habitants within a certain distance along the road network is summarized. The distance is the method’s main variable and it can easily be adjusted according to the actual level of the measurement, in this study, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kilometers were used. Lastly, the measured population within reach of the chosen distance is divided by the distance in kilometers giving the values using the measuring unit of habitants per kilometer.

    Measurements were performed using several distances and resulted in a series of maps produced with the new method, as well as a series of maps produced using a different resulting method, based on the population density within circles, for comparison and evaluation. The rurality index was given the abbreviated name RURIX (Rurality Index), and a series of maps were produced to illustrate how the measurement values could be classified using RURIX.

    The results of the study showed that the new method gives good and realistic results throughout the study area. At all measurement distances the highest values could be found where people actually are settled and in areas where the road network is well extended, while lower values are focused on sparsely populated areas with a poor road network. The results of the method of comparison showed that a population density measuring alone cannot considerate the distribution of the population and accessibility. This was clearly shown in this regional level study, where the highest values were found within remote and poorly populated areas in the southern parts of the study area. A positive and important feature is that it worked well on a wide range of scales and can therefore be used with great benefit for measurements at different levels and for different purposes. The method also has potential for further development and, compared with methods that only measure population density, its advantages is clear.

  • 63. Jönsson Adrial, Christina
    et al.
    Hesselgren Mårtensson, Eva
    Ingelf, Elisabeth
    Malmström, Bo
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Saalman, Elisabeth
    Virtuella möten och fysiska träffar: biblioteksstöd till flexibel utbildning i högskolan2005Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Larsson, Anders
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Praktik - en praktisk lösning: (GIT 2006) representanter för akademin, lantmäteriet, kommunerna och konsultbranschen var rörande överens2006In: ULI aktuellt, ISSN 1654-6016, no 2, p. 3-4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På GIT 2006 arrangerade Kartografiska sällskapets nybildade utbildningssektion en paneldebatt kring arbetsmarknadens behov av GIT-kompetens. Representanter för akademin, lantmäteriet, kommunerna och konsultbranschen presenterade sin syn på förhållandet mellan utbud och efterfrågan på GIT-arbetsmarknaden. Därpå följde en paneldebatt, allt under sessionsledaren Anders Wellvings vakande öga.

  • 65.
    Liljergren, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Sensor web enablement in agricultural production2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd GISAU conference in Kherson, May 21-22, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Liljergren, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Puigvert, Francois
    Complying with the INSPIRE implementation rules – a case study2009In: Urban and Regional Data Management: UDMS Annual 2009. / [ed] Sisi Zlatanova, Elfriede Fendel, Alenka Krek, Massimo Rumor, London: Taylor and Francis , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Topographic data and roughness parameterisation effects on 1D flood inundation models2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A big responsibility lies in the hand of local authorities to exercise measures in preventing fatalities and damages during flood occurrences. However, the problem is how flooding can be prevented if nobody knows when and where it will be occurring, and how much water is expected. Therefore, the utilisation of flood models in such studies can be helpful in simulating what is anticipated to occur.

     

    In this study, the HEC-RAS steady flow model was used in calibrating different flood events in Testeboån river, which is situated in the municipality of Gävle in Sweden. The purpose is to provide inundation maps that show the water surface profiles for the various flood events that can help authorities in planning within the area. Moreover, the study would try to address certain issues, which concern one-dimensional models like HEC-RAS in terms of the effects of topographic data and the parameters used for friction coefficient.

     

    Various flood maps were produced to visualise the extents of the floods. In Oppala and Norra Åbyggeby, the big water extents for both the 100-year and the highest probable floods were visible in the forested areas and grasslands, although a few houses were within the predicted flooded areas. In Södra Åbyggeby, Varva, Forsby, and in the northern parts of Strömsbro and Stigslund, the majority of the residential places were not inundated during the 100-year flood calibration, but became flooded during the maximum probable flood. The southern portions of Strömsbro and Stigslund had lesser flood extents and houses were situated within the boundaries of the highest flood. In Näringen, there were also some areas close to the estuary that were flooded for both events.

     

    With the other calibrations performed, two factors that greatly affect the flood extents in the floodplain, particularly in flatter areas were topographic data and the parameters used as friction coefficient.  The use of high resolution topographic data was important in improving the performance of the software. Nevertheless, it must be emphasised that in areas characterised by gentler slopes that bounded the channel and the floodplain, data completeness became significant whereby both ground data and bathymetric points must be present to avoid overestimation of the inundation extent. The water extents also varied with the use of the various Manning’s n for the overbanks, with the bigger value showing greater water extents. Else, in areas with steeper slopes and where the water was confined to the banks, the effect was minimal.

     

    Despite these shortcomings of one-dimensional models, HEC-RAS provided good inundation extents that were comparable to the actual extent of the 1977 flooding.

     

    Modelling real floods has its own difficulties due to the unpredictability of real-life flood behaviours, and more especially, there are time dependent factors that are involved.  Although calibrating a flood event will not exactly determine what is to arise as they might either under- or overestimate such flooding occurrences, still, they give a standpoint of what is more or less to anticipate, and from this,  planning measures can be undertaken.

  • 68.
    Ljungberg, Sven-Åke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Mejer, Jan-Erik
    Rosqvist, Håkan
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SGC Rapport 204 Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills Sven-Åke Ljungberg, Jan-Erik Meijer, Håkan Rosqvist, Stig-Göran Mårtensson 2009 Landfills make a significant contribution to anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases through emission of methane. Greater knowledge is needed about how methane leakage occurs and how to calculate its magnitude.The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones.The laser instrument used in the project (Siemens AG, CT PS 8 laser system) can detect methane concentrations of ≥10 ppm, and has a maximum range of 30 m that can be extended to 150-200 m using reflective material as a backscatter surface. The concentration of methane is measured in ppm x m and can be stored in logs together with supplementary field data, such as landfill and atmospheric pressure, and weather and radiation conditions, for subsequent analysis after the fieldwork. The IR camera (FLIR ThermaCAM™ GasFindIR LW) has recently been introduced to the market, and was used in the project for detection and visualisation of gas emissions from landfills. The camera produces a thermal image of the gas emission. The thermal image data is stored digitally on a DVD unit connected to the camera.Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage.The laser instrument detects point source emission of methane by measuring the methane concentrations above the emission points. The IR camera detects and visualises the occurrence of methane emissions, and can be used to trace emission points and to illustrate the dispersion pattern of methane. Both laser and the IR instrument can be used to determine the exact position of the leakage source. Diffuse emission can only be detected if the emission is large, such as at the tipping face. Both the laser instrument and the IR camera are easy to use. The laser instrument can scan over an area of approximately 1 ha per hour. The smallest measurable point source emission gives a concentration level of approximately 60 ppm, which corresponds to a point source methane emission of the order of 35 – 290 m3 CH4/year.Scanning of the landfill surfaces showed that leakage could stop, increase or slow down. There are many reasons for these dynamics. Wind conditions, air pressure changes, and changes in the moisture content of the covering layer seem to be the most important. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and with different ground humidity showed that pores in the surface layer close when the moisture content is greater, reducing the landfill gas leakage. The large and sometimes rapid changes make it very difficult to get a picture of the distribution of the methane leakage over the landfill surfaces. Methane emissions were measured in different seasons, and also when the landfill surfaces had snow cover. The results showed that methane is emitted easily through porous snow. The same methane concentrations were recorded for GPS-fixed leakage features with and without snow cover. In the project, the chamber method was used to try to quantify methane leakage detected by the laser instrument. When chamber method results were correlated with the corresponding laser measurements, a relationship was evident. This produced a figure for emission. The relationship between the respective figures from laser and chamber method measurements was used to quantify the detected point source emissions at the French landfills. The total emissions detected with the laser instrument at the two landfills were estimated at 41 and 30 tons of methane respectively per year. These quantified methane emissions from detected points were smaller than the total emissions as reported by the landfill operators. The relationship indicates that it is the diffuse emission of methane that is predominant, and not the point source emission through holes, fissures, etc.If the objective is to produce a reliable measurement of gas emission from a landfill, the combination of laser/chamber method is not probably sufficiently accurate. However, if the objective is, for example, to determine and prioritise where measures should be taken at different landfill surfaces to reduce emission, the combination of laser and the chamber method is very usable. The measurement method tested was application-oriented, and the aim was that the measurements would provide information on which to base the planning and implementation of short- and long-term measures. Manuals were produced for the laser instrument and the IR camera, showing how the two instruments are to be used for detecting methane emissions from landfills.The project demonstrated how the laser instrument could be used by bouncing the beam off a simple reflector. Measurement using a beam path length of up to 200 m is possible. Examples of such applications are measurements over leachate ponds, beside a landfill and on parts of a landfill. Such measurements can give important information about emission conditions that are difficult to measure in any other way.Geoelectrical measurements have several areas of application for landfills, primarily in studies of groundwater pollution. In recent years, interest has also grown in investigating processes inside landfills. Based on results from previous studies, one of the aims of this project was to examine whether three-dimensional evaluation of resistivity measurements could be used to provide better measurements and understanding of the processes below the surface. According to previous studies, landfill gas movements can be visualised through geoelectricity measurements. In the experiment, resistivity was measured along eleven lines in an area 10 m x 10 m on a slope adjacent to a biocell reactor.The resistivity measurements showed results similar to or somewhat lower than the results shown in previous studies. High water content, ion content and high organic content can explain low resistivity, while high gas pressure in the ground partly explains high resistivity. It should also be noted that temperature variations affect resistivity. When the results from the resistivity measurements was compared with results from static chamber measurements and the laser instrument, no clear correlations were observed. The gas movements below the ground surface shown by resistivity measurements at the toe of the slope could not be confirmed with measurements above ground with the laser or static chamber methods. The results from the project show that combinations of laser, IR, chamber method and geo-resistivity measurements are a successful way to describe and map methane emissions from landfills. The mapping of emissions provides precise information useful for planning maintenance or improvement measures on landfill surfaces and gas recovery and leachate systems.

  • 69.
    Malmström, Bo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Bourelius, Lasse
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Ericsson, Bo
    Luleå University of Thecnology.
    Myringer, Brittmarie
    Mid Sweden University.
    Svanteson, Bo
    UR - Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company.
    New Ways to Cooperate in order to Improve Students’ Employability2006In: E-competences for life, Employment and innovation: Conference Proceedings, 2006, p. 111-114Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Malmström, Bo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Bourelius, Lasse
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Myringer, Brittmarie
    MidSweden University.
    Sterner Kumm, Gunilla
    Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company.
    Svanteson, Bo
    Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company.
    Cooperation between Universities and Public Service TV and Radio: It Really Works2007In: EDEN 2007 ANNUAL CONFERENCE. New Learning 2.0?: Emerging digital territories. Developing continuities. New divides., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For several decades Swedish universities and colleges have worked together with public service television and radio on distance education. The UR programmes are broadcast nationwide and play an important role in general non-curriculum adult education. Students have access to the programmes streamed via Internet and through Learning Management Systems (LMS). Sometimes entire programmes are used, sometimes they are designed as so-called learning objects. The network organization SNH – Cooperation for Academic Net Based Learning – is a forum for cooperation between four universities and UR, the Swedish Educational Broadcasting Company. The universities are Luleå University of Technology, Mid Sweden University, University of Gävle and Blekinge Institute of Technology. The SNH cooperation is about Internet based, flexible learning and is focused on the development of courses and learning objects.

    Online distribution: A new system for digital distribution is being tested. UR transmits programmes and learning objects to the universities. Ten universities have established a common media server where the materials are stored. From this server the programmes can be reached as streaming video or audio in closed-circuit networks or made available on DVDs. The university libraries have an important role to play in providing information about the digital distribution and the programmes. All the programmes are available free of charge. This has been possible because of a copyright agreement between UR and Copyswede, the umbrella organization that represents “rights” holders and performers in Sweden, and the universities.

    Web 2.0: The trend in Internet education has been towards an increase in interactive software, that is to say from the one-way flow of information to interactivity and web 2.0, social software. In our new digital distribution system learning objects produced by UR and by instructors and students will be available. Instructors and students can access programmes, comment on them, send suggestions to friends etc.

    A concrete illustration: Two internet based courses in care of the elderly were developed in a partnership that included UR, the universities, the Swedish Municipal Workers' Union and the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions. The target group was employees who had no previous experience of higher education. The courses were five week full time courses paced at a quarter of that of a full-time student. TV- and radio programmes were broadcast when the courses were run for the first time. Learning objects were developed and included in the course participants’ platforms as integral parts. Besides traditional course literature the programmes and a special website played an important part in stimulating the students lust to learn

    Evaluation: The evaluations have shown that multiple tracks of audio and visual information convey powerful learning benefits, such as each source complementing the others. The several modes provide multiple entry points into content, and thus offer greater accommodation to the “multiple intelligences” found in a diverse group of students. The programmes had a powerful ability to convey experience through the emotions evoked by images. This was very useful in the learning process.

    Some conclusions: It must be easy for instructors and students to search for, find and use relevant and quality declared programmes and learning objects. There must be search systems and databases that are natural for students and instructors to use. It is essential that learning objects are described with good metadata resources and it is necessary to increase the media pedagogical work that are aimed at teachers.

  • 71.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Height Determination by GPS2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focus on the problems related with height determination by GPS. Based on experiences in Sweden, the paper and the attached copies of transparancies explain at what accuracy we are today, how the accuracy can be improved and what we can expect in the future from remote positioning systems.

  • 72.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Height Determination by GPS: Accuracy with Respect to Different Geoid Models in Sweden2002In: Proceedings of the XXII FIG International Congress, Washington, D.C., USA, 2002, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper different gravimetric geoid models have been evaluated: on a regional basis utilising the Swedish GPS reference network SWEPOS; and locally, in a specific research area utilising the results from a GPS campaign conducted in the area.

    The research area is situated in central Sweden having a size of approximately 100x300 km. In the area GPS measurements (with average baseline length of 13 km) have been conducted at well established benchmarks with known orthometric heights.

    To find out if a geometric geoid model, based on the GPS measurements, would be a better height corrector surface for the research area than the gravimetric geoid models, such a model has been computed with geostatistical methods, i.e. universal kriging. The model has been experimentally evaluated utilising a Swedish GPS campaign called RIX95.

    It was found, when the geometric geoid model is used, that the absolute accuracy of GPS levelling is ±14 mm and the relative accuracy ±10 mm (on a 10 km long baseline). It is concluded that the geometric geoid model is the best height corrector surface for the research area among the studied models.

  • 73.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    University Exchange Programme and Master's Programme for ALAGaC Employees: Report No. MN 3-4 in the project Capacity Building in Human Resource Development in Order to Strengthen the Land Administration Sector of Mongolia, Mongolia 18 – 27 November 20052005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    O'Hara, Sarah
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Gentile, Michael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Household Incomes in Central Asia: The Case of Post-Soviet Kazakhstan2009In: Eurasian geography and economics, ISSN 1538-7216, E-ISSN 1938-2863, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 327-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two European geographers present the findings of a sizeable survey (n = 7,5 15) providing a detailed geographical analysis of household incomes and reliance on personal subsidiary garden plots across Kazakhstan. The authors focus on assessing the extent to which Kazakhstan's rising GDP during the post-Soviet period has coincided with an increase in the general population's personal income and ability to secure adequate food supplies for personal consumption. The fine geographical scale of analysis of the survey data (significantly less coarse than oblast-level data) enabled them to identify regions characterized by "trickle-down" income, largely centered on the country's two main urban centers and areas of resource exploitation. The patterns revealed in the paper have relevance to the debate concerning the uneven distribution of benefits from resource exploitation (notably oil and gas) to Kazakhstan's population. Journal of Economic Literature, Classification Numbers: D100, D310, 1300, Q120, R290, 2 figures, 6 tables, 51 references.

  • 75. Olofsson, Mats
    et al.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Optimizing Dynamic Network Configrations2006In: 9th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science: Shaping the Future of Geographic Information Science in Europe, 2006, p. 247-254Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Pramlid, Björn
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Tillämpning av kinematisk terrester laserskanning i järnvägsmiljö2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Rafiqui, Pernilla
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gentile, Michael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Vientiane2009In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 38-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vientiane, the capital of the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a small city that has experienced various rounds of socio-economic experimentation during the past few decades: currently, it is set in a capitalist economic context under the rule of a communist regime. With increasing connectivity to regional and global networks, the city has embarked on a far-reaching path of urban transformation. This city profile describes the historical influences affecting the spatial structure of Vientiane, the urban spatial structures and the land use patterns that have unfolded as a result of the economic liberalization that has been taking place since the late 1980s, as well as some salient aspects of the urban management process with respect to planning procedures.

  • 78.
    Reshetyuk, Yuriy
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Terrestrial laser scanning: Error sources, self-calibration and direct georeferencing2009Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has appeared as a new surveying technique. Its proper use requires good knowledge of the error sources, comprehensive description of which is currently lacking. Especially important are systematic instrumental errors, which are determined during calibration. Recently, the method of self-calibration used in photogrammetry has been shown to be efficient for laser scanners. Another important task in TLS is georeferencing – transformation of the point clouds into a specific coordinate system. This book provides a systematic description of the error sources in TLS surveys conducted with direct georeferencing. Further, a new, unified approach for laser scanner self-calibration is described, and the results of calibration of three scanners are reported. Finally, a prototype combined TLS survey system is presented, which employs GPS for direct georeferencing of the point clouds, and can be used for accurate surveys of built environments. The book should be useful to students and researchers in Engineering Surveying as well as surveyors in public and private sector.

  • 79.
    Sahlin, Eva A. U.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Glasser, Neil F.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
    Jansson, Krister N.
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hambrey, Michael J.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, United Kingdom.
    Connectivity analyses of valley patterns indicate preservation of a preglacial fluvial valley system in the Dyfi basin, Wales2009In: Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, ISSN 0016-7878, Vol. 120, p. 245-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal valleys in the west part of Mid-Wales, such as the Mawddach, Dysynni, Tal-y-Ilyn and Dyfi, acted as corridors for ice which drained the Welsh Ice Cap during the Devensian. Analyses of detailed digital elevation models, and interpretation of satellite images and aerial photographs, show the existence of large variations in the amount of glacial modification between these valleys. Although all the valleys are glacially over-deepened along late Caledonian fault lines, only the Dyfi basin exhibits a dendritic pattern, with V-shaped cross-profiles and valley spurs typical of valleys formed by fluvial processes. Connectivity analysis of the Dyfi basin shows that it exhibits an almost completely dendritic pattern with connectivity alpha and beta values of 0.74 and 1.01, respectively, with little glacial modification of the preglacial fluvial valley pattern in the form of glacial valley breaching. Several examples of glacial meltwater incision into a well-developed pre-existing river valley system, causing river capture across watersheds, have been identified in the Dyfi basin. The degree of preservation of the preglacial fluvial valley system within the Dyfi basin indicates limited modification by glacial processes, despite the area being subjected to glacier activity during the Late Devensian at least. It is possible that major parts of the basin were covered by cold-based or slow-moving ice, close to, or under, a migrating ice-divide, with the major ice drainage Occurring along the weaker zone of the Pennal Fault along which teh Dyfi valley is located, causing minor adjustments to the Surrounding interfluves and uplands. it is proposed here that the general river valley morphology of the Dyfi basin is of a pre-Late Devensian age. (C) 2009 The Geologists' Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 80.
    Sahlin, Eva A.U.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Glasser, Neil F.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales.
    Hambrey, Michael, J.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales.
    Jansson, Krister, N.
    Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi, Stockholms universitet.
    Connectivity analyses of valley patterns reveal Devensian glacial drainage activity in Mid-Wales (poster)2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal valleys in the west part of Mid-Wales, such as the Mawddach, Dysynni, Tal-y-llyn and Dyfi, are believed to have acted as corridors for ice which drained the Welsh Ice Cap during the Devensian. Connectivity analyses of valley patterns from detailed digital elevation models, and interpretation of satellite images and aerial photographs show the existence of large variations in the amount of glacial modification between these valleys. Although all the valleys are glacially over-deepened along Silurian fault lines, only the Dyfi basin exhibits a dendritic pattern, with V-shaped cross profiles and valley spurs typical of valleys formed by fluvial processes.

    The connectivity analyses show that the Dyfi basin exhibits a purely dendritic pattern with little glacial modification of the preglacial fluvial valley pattern in form of valley breaching. It is proposed here that the general river valley morphology of the Dyfi basin is of a pre-Late Devensian age. This suggests a complex glacial drainage history, where cold-based ice was not only confined to the interior uplands, but also covered low-altitude areas previously believed to be a major drainage conduit for the Welsh Ice Cap. This indicates that Late Devensian glacial erosion was not as intense as previously believed and larger areas might have been overlain by cold-based ice.

  • 81.
    Sahlin, Eva A.U.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Glasser, Neil F.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales.
    Jansson, Krister N.
    Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi, Stockholms Universitet.
    Hambrey, Michael J.
    Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales.
    Evidence for cold-based ice at low altitudes: Preservation of a preglacial fluvial valley system in the Dyfi basin, Wales (poster)2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal valleys in the west part of mid-Wales, such as the Mawddach, Dysynni, Tal-y-llyn and Dyfi, are believed to have acted as corridors for ice which drained the Welsh Ice Cap during the Devensian. Analysis of detailed digital elevation models and interpretation of satellite images and aerial photographs show the existence of large variations in the amount of glacial modification between these valleys. Although all the valleys are glacially over-deepened along Silurian fault lines, only the Dyfi basin exhibits a dendritic pattern, with V-shaped cross profiles and valley spurs typical of valleys formed by fluvial processes. Connectivity analysis of the Dyfi basin shows that it exhibits a nearly dendritic pattern with connectivity α and β values of 0.74 and 1.01 respectively, with little glacial modification of the preglacial fluvial valley pattern in the form of valley breaching. It is proposed that the general river valley morphology of the Dyfi basin is of a pre-Late Devensian age. Several examples have been identified of glacial meltwater incision into a well-developed pre-existing river valley system, causing river capture across watersheds. The degree of preservation of the pre-glacial fluvial valley system within the Dyfi basin indicates limited modification by glacial processes, despite the area being subjected to Late Devensian glacier activity. It is possible that major parts of the basin were covered by cold-based or slow-moving ice close to or under a migrating ice divide, with the major ice drainage occurring along the weaker zone of the Pennal Fault, causing minor adjustments to the surrounding interfluves and uplands.

  • 82.
    Sognestrand, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Österberg, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    KOLLEKTIVTRAFIKENS GEOGRAFISKA VARIATIONER I TID OCH KOSTNAD – HUR PÅVERKAR DETTA BOSTADSPRISERNA?: Fallstudie Uppsala län med pendlingsomland2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distance between home and work has increased in recent decades. By the development of infrastructure and public transport, jobs farther from home have become more accessible and this development has in turn increased commuting. Commuting travellers often pass over administrative boundaries which often serve as borders for public transport pricing. Also the market control prices. Research shows that travel times and costs significantly affect commuting choice. Many people have an upper limit of 60 minutes commuting distance between home and work. How commuting costs affect the individual's choice of commuting will vary depending on the individual's income and housing costs. The aim of our study was to see how public transport costs and travel times may vary geographically. GIS, Geographic Information System was used to make a network analysis which showed time distances and travel costs on maps. We also examined whether there was a link between towns accessibility by public transport and housing market which we did with help of correlation and regression analysis. In order to answer our questions we started from a study area consisting of Uppsala County with its surrounding commuting area. The maps showed how accessibility to larger towns varies among the smaller towns. The access is often best between bigger towns while there is less accessibility between smaller towns. The distance to bus stops or railway station also has a significant effect on how long the total travel time will be. Urban areas with access to rail services had the best opportunities to reach larger cities and that give also better access to labour market. From our study of the Uppsala County with a monocentric structure, we could indicate a link between accessibility to the bigger cities and housing prices in the surrounding towns. The higher commuting costs and longer travel time to the central place the lower the housing prices. A similar study of Stockholm which has a polycentric structure showed that the relationship between accessibility and house prices not are applicable to all regions. Here we can conclude that housing markets depends on many other factors than access to rapid public transport. House prices can depend on things like closeness to nature and water.

  • 83.
    Spring, Roger
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Eriksson, Torbjörn
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Användning av statisk GNSS-mätning för höjdbestämning av fixpunkter vid införande av RH 20002010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utfördes under våren 2009 och avhandlar bestämning av fixpunkter i ett höjdnät med hjälp av statiska Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) mätningar. Ämnet är högaktuellt med tanke på att många kommuner står inför en övergång till Rikets Höjdsystem 2000 (RH 2000). Det kan vara ett problem vid en sådan övergång om det finns isolerade delar av det lokala höjdnätet som inte är anslutet till huvudnätet. Tidigare har den enda lösningen på ett sådant problem varit att genomföra ett höjdavvägningståg, ett både kostsamt och tidskrävande företag. Syftet med denna studie är att ge svar på hur noggrant det går att göra en höjdbestämning av fixpunkter med statisk GNSS-mätning.

     Fältarbetet har utförts i Sandvikens kommun där ett antal höjdfixpunkter i RH 2000 nätet använts som referens vid GNSS-mätningar. Ett nät bestående av sju mätpunker etablerades i anslutning till RH 2000 höjdfixar. Fem av dessa användes sedan som passpunkter för att höjdbestämma två centralt belägna mätpunkter i nätet. För kontroll av mätningarna användes den kända avvägda höjden på de sökta punkterna. Mätningarna utfördes med fyra stycken Leica GX1230+ GNSS-mottagare som etablerades på punkterna i tre fyratimmarssessioner. Mätningarna utfördes i två kampanjer med tre veckors mellanrum.

    Efterberäkning av GNSS- mätdata gjordes med Leica Geo Office 7 (LGO 7) och Surfer 8. Kontroll av resultaten gjordes genom matrisberäkningar i Microsoft Excel. Resultaten baseras på en sammanslagning av de båda mätkampanjerna. Avvikelserna visade sig ligga i ett spann på ca 3–5 mm ± punktmedelfelet (σH) lägre än de precisionsavvägda RH 2000 höjderna. Det faktum att samtliga GNSS-mätta höjder ligger 3–5 mm lägre än officiella RH 2000-höjder tyder på att ett systematiskt fel upptäckts. Slutligen, visar detta arbete att genom att kombinera frekvenser kan medelfelet bli så bra som 3 mm vid höjdbestämning med hjälp av statisk GNSS-mätning.

  • 84.
    Thorvaldsson, Erik
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Inför införandet av den nya strandskyddslagen 2009: En jämförande studie av åtta kommuner i Värmlands och Gävleborgs län2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har under senare år blivit mer och mer populärt att bosätta sig i närheten av vatten. Från mitten av 1990-talet och fram till 2005 ökade Sveriges befolkning med 170 000 invånare och av dessa var det motsvarande 97 % som bosatte sig i kustområden, det vill säga det område som ligger vid strandkanten och 5 km inåt land. Detta ökar belastningen på strandnära områden, men strandskyddet ger Sverige goda förutsättningar för att vara förberedda för detta. Lagar om strandskydd har funnits sedan 1940-talet och dess syfte är att säkerställa människors möjlighet att utnyttja allemansrätten, att skydda miljöerna i strandnära områden samt att skydda växter och djur i områdena. Naturvårdsverket konstaterade i början på 2000-talet brister i lagstiftningen. Bland annat tolkades lagen olika i olika kommuner samtidigt som gav lagen kommunerna otydliga riktlinjer att följa. Sedan den 1 juli 2009 finns en ny strandskyddslag som ger klarare riktlinjer än den gamla lagen. Det är därmed intressant att se hur kommunerna tror att deras samhällsplanering kommer att påverkas av den nya lagstiftningen. I detta arbete görs en jämförelse av hur nya strandskyddslagen påverkar arbetet i åtta kommuner i Värmlands län och Gävleborgs län. En enkät, bestående av en del med frågor kring den gamla lagstiftningen och en del med frågor kring den nya lagstiftningen, skickades till kommunerna. Resultatet från enkäten visar att kommunerna generellt sett är positiva till den nya lagen vilket mycket beror på att beslut kring strandskyddet framöver kommer att bli mer lokalt förankrade än tidigare. Kommunerna tror att antalet dispenser från gällande strandskydd inte kommer att ändras på grund av den nya lagstiftningen, men att de beslut som tas blir bättre förankrade än tidigare. En slutsats som kan dras från enkätundersökningens resultat är att kommunerna är olika väl insatta i den nya lagstiftningen, och att det finns en viss oro att den nya lagstiftningen kommer att innebära ett ökat arbete för kommunerna. En stor skillnad som enkätens resultat visar på är att Värmlandskommunerna är mer villiga att bebygga tidigare strandskyddade områden än vad de är i Gävleborgskommuner. Kommunerna i Värmland har många små samhällen dit de gärna vill locka nya innevånare, och det finns många attraktiva områden med närhet till vatten.

  • 85.
    Tims, Willem
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    GIS model for the Land Use and Development Master Plan in Rwanda2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was aimed at the development of a Geographical Information System (GIS) based model to support the Rwanda Land Use and Development Master Plan. Developing sustainable land management is the main task of this master plan. Stakeholder’s involvement was of key importance. Their demands should be analysed and visualised to support discussions and the decision-making process. Spatial Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a proven method for land-use planning purposes. However, most land-use planning applications focus on a specific theme, such as urban development. In addition, land-use planning is often limited to a relatively small area. This thesis focused at the development of a countrywide GIS model, containing all land-uses accommodated in three main land-use categories: urban, agriculture and conservation. The GIS model was largely based on the Land-Use Conflict Identification Strategy (LUCIS) model. Many of the goals, objectives, and subobjectives that described the earlier mentioned land-use categories were adopted from the original model. However, a significant number of them were dropped, and new were created to suit the Rwandan situation. Stakeholder’s involvement was realized by assigning weights to the goals and preference maps. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as weighting method. ESRI’s ArcGIS ModelBuilder was used to give the model shape in the GIS. Firstly, suitability maps were created of all elements in the model. The suitability maps were then transformed into preference maps by weighting them. In the next step the preference maps were collapsed in three classes: low, medium and high preference. Finally, the preference maps of the three land-use categories were combined, in order to visualize conflict areas. Ortho photos proved to be useful when acting as reference for the suitability and preference maps. Despite a large number of missing datasets, the GIS model was executed to simplify the understanding. However, many of the obtained results were unreliable because of the incompleteness of datasets, and can therefore not be used for decision-making.  Unfortunately, due to the stage of the project it was not possible to obtain weights from the stakeholders, and should therefore be done when the time is right. Right Choice DSS, a very user-friendly decision support application, was proposed to use for calculating weights. To conclude, the developed GIS model integrated countrywide land-use suitability mapping and stakeholders’ wishes that can be used for discussions and decision making.

  • 86.
    Yao, Xiaobai
    et al.
    University of Georgia, Athens, United States .
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geospatial modeling of urban environments2009In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 769-771Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 87. Zdravkovic, Jelena
    et al.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    An agile method of automated provisioning of the geographical information in public services2008In: Urban and Regional Data Management: UDMS 2007 Annual, London: Taylor & Francis , 2008, p. 319-331Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Assessment of End-User Needs: Project report2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 89.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    BEGIN midterm project report2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 90.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    GI-INDEED – Professional Training in GIS based on Distance Learning2006In: The first GISAU conference, 2006, p. 10-13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 91.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    GI-INDEED project midterm report2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Process Analysis: Project report A2.1-D12007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 93.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Skyddade områden: ett viktigt tema i INSPIRE2005In: Nordisk Geomatik, ISSN 1653-2376, no 4, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 94.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    Tanzilli, Solgerd
    He, Xin
    University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    GeoTest: a Testing Environment for Swedish Geodata2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GeoTest is a project initiated by Future Position X (a GIS cluster organization in Gävle, Sweden), the National Land Survey of Sweden (NLS) and the University of Gävle. The project aims to test Swedish geodata and make sure they comply with the INSPIRE specifications in Annex I–III. The purpose of this paper is to present the development of and experiences from GeoTest in developing the required infrastructure for testing Swedish geodata.

    Due to the high demand for geodata in modern society, and anticipated requirements by INSPIRE, the issue of testing a national SDI is very important. An adequate testing environment is required. In this context, two aspects are discussed:

    1. Technical requirements for GeoTest.

    2. Organizational and coordination aspects.

    The technical requirements for GeoTest are to provide an environment to test current specifications in the context of INSPIRE Annex I. The methodology is crucial to govern the testing process. The developed methodology mainly relates to the transformation testing of the themes specified in Annex I–III. The objective of the tests is to ensure that the specifications are balanced in terms of costs and that they contribute to address user needs. At this stage, GeoTest focuses on transformation testing. The aim is to test that the transformations from local schemas to INSPIRE schemas are technically feasible.

    The methodology is based on four stages; the main strategy used in this testing was the ETL (extract-transform-load) approach. The testing process started with a preliminary desk study, with the objective to collect basic information about the themes and identify the availability and sources of schemas. The extraction process helped to identify the costly procedures when generating GML data that conform to the source schemas; in this stage we encountered some problems in the extraction process, as the data are loosely coupled to the source schema. The transformation procedures of the GML data from the extraction process to the INSPIRE GML schema performed in three sub-stages, mainly related to schema mapping, matching and transformation.

    The testing process was coordinated with NLS, via one contact person per theme. The extraction for the sample data was based on random selection of 5% of the sheet index. The paper presents the results of testing five themes addresses, cadastral parcels, geographical names, hydrography, and transport networks. The result shows that in total, 13 INSPIRE schemas has been investigated. Of these, data may be delivered for 10 schemas.

  • 95.
    Östman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Palmér, Owe
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