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  • 51.
    Andersson, Therés
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kjellberg, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Licensierade vårdhundar som komplement till omvårdnaden av barn med Autismspektrumtillstånd2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva på vilket sätt licensierade vårdhundar kan fungera som ett komplement i omvårdnaden av barn med autismspektrumtillstånd. Syftet var också att beskriva kvaliteten av artiklarna utifrån den metodologiska aspekten urval. En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv ansats genomfördes utifrån två artiklar med kvalitativ ansats, två artiklar med kvantitativ ansats, fyra artiklar med kvalitativ ansats och kvantitativa mätningar, samt två artiklar med kvantitativ ansats och kvalitativa inslag i form av observationer. De inkluderade artiklarna hade publicerats mellan åren 1989 och 2013. De databaser som användes för artikelsökningen var Academic Search Elite, Cinahl och PubMed med sökorden: Dogs, Child, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Animal-assisted, Service dogs, Autism samt Therapy Dogs. Huvudresultatet visade att de problem som barn med AST har med att passa in i samhället på grund av sina negativa, asociala beteenden till viss del kan avhjälpas i interaktion med licensierade vårdhundar. Vårdhunden hade förmågan att hjälpa barnen med AST att utveckla och förbättra sin fysiska aktivitet samt sina psykosociala beteenden. Det visade sig också att den familjära sammanhållningen ökade i närvaro av en licensierad vårdhund. För få studier har genomförts inom området barn med AST i interaktion med licensierad vårdhund, och därför är vidare forskning inom området nödvändigt för ytterligare evidens. För att en god omvårdnad ska kunna bedrivas krävs det mer utbildning och forskning inom detta område.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med Polycystiskt ovariesyndrom: en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur det är att leva med Polycystiskt ovariesyndrom (PCOS). Metod: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie. Data inhämtades från databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl. Resultatet baserades på 14 evidensbaserade artiklar. Resultat: Kvinnor med Polycystiskt ovariesyndrom hade större risk att utveckla ångest och depression jämfört med normalpopulationen, orsaken till detta är inte klarlagd forskarnas åsikter går isär. Majoriteten av artiklarna i denna litteraturstudie hävdade att att ett högt Body Mass Index (BMI) var den största bidragande faktorn som orsakade psykisk ohälsa och reducerad livskvalité hos denna patientgrupp. Kvinnor med ett högt BMI hade större risk att utveckla psykisk ohälsa. Sjukvården negligerade ofta de psykologiska aspekterna som syndromet medförde. Vilket kunde leda till onödigt lidande för dessa kvinnor. Slutsats: Kvinnor med PCOS upplevde mer psykisk ohälsa och reducerad livskvalité i jämförelse med normalpopulationen. Personal inom hälso- och sjukvård behövde mer kunskap om syndromet för att kunna hjälpa denna patientgrupp på bästa sätt.

  • 53.
    Andrae, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Eleonore
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters kunskap om HIV och inställningen till behovet av HIV-testning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: HIV-infection is a chronic and progressive disease that, left untreated, leads to a deterioration of the immune system and the development of AIDS. 

    Aim: To examine nursing students´, at two universities, knowledge about HIV and their attitude towards assessing the need for a HIV-test.

    Method: An empirical cross-sectional study using descriptive and comparative design with a quantitative approach. Data was collected by a questionnaire among third year nursing students at the University of Gavle and Uppsala University (N=95).

    Result: A majority (88,4 %) answered correctly that intercourse with more than one partner increases the risk for contracting HIV. Three students (3,2 %) answered incorrectly that there is a vaccine for HIV. Nearly half of the students did not know that lubricant, combined with a condom, does not reduce the risk for contracting HIV. A majority (78,9 %) recommended a HIV-test to a woman who have had unprotected sex with a man. In analyzing the students´ explanatory statements for the need for a HIV-test, four categories emerged; “risk”, “sexual behavior”, “patients´ concern” and “not knowing”.  

    Conclusion: The nursing students had relatively good knowledge about HIV. However, there was a significant lack of knowledge in some questions. The nursing students´ attitudes towards HIV-testing conforms relatively well with current guidelines. However, there is a need to change an outdated way of assessing the risk for HIV-infection to be able to provide counseling to patients based on current knowledge.

  • 54.
    Andreassen Devik, S.
    et al.
    Centre of Care Research, Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Centre of Care Research, Department of Health Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Bereaved family members' perspectives on suffering among older rural cancer patients in palliative home nursing care: a qualitative study2017In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 26, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about experiences with receiving home nursing care when old, living in a rural area, and suffering from end-stage cancer. The aim of this study was thus to investigate bereaved family members' perceptions of suffering by their older relatives when receiving palliative home nursing care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 family members, in Norway during autumn 2015, and directed content analysis guided by Katie Eriksson's theoretical framework on human suffering was performed upon the data. The two main categories identified reflected expressions of both suffering and well-being. Expressions of suffering were related to illness, to care and to life and supported the theory. Expressions of well-being were related to other people (e.g. familiar people and nurses), to home and to activity. The results indicate a need to review and possibly expand the perspective of what should motivate care. Nursing and palliative care that become purely disease and symptom-focused may end up with giving up and divert the attention to social and cultural factors that may contribute to well-being when cure is not the goal.

  • 55.
    Andreassen Devik, Siri
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodö, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodö, Norge.
    Quality collaboratives used to improve drug safety for older patients in primary care in Norway2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Andreou, Anette
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    JANOLS RENGEBORG, JOHANNA
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stressfaktorer som påverkar de nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskornas under sitt första år som verksamma2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att identifiera och lyfta fram stressfaktorer som nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor möter under sitt första år som yrkesverksam sjuksköterska.

    Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie, 11 artiklar som sökts i Pubmed ingick i litteraturstudien. En analys av innehållet har gjordes av den utvalda litteraturen utifrån syfte och frågeställning. Artiklarna har lästs igenom vid flertalet tillfällen av bägge författarna. Artiklarna har systematiskt granskats och klassificerats för att innehållet skulle kunna identifieras, analyseras och sammanställdes. Resultat: Den största oron hos den nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskan var bl.a. att bli sedd som inkompetent, att skada patienter eller att inte kunna ge en god vård, och att inte kunna leva upp till det ansvarskrav som lades på dem. Detta medförde att den första perioden i den nya yrkesrollen gav både fysisk och psykisk utmattning. De nya sjuksköterskorna skall inte enbart socialiseras in i kliniskt arbete utan även finna sin plats i arbetsgruppen. Formella såväl som informella regler och föreskrifter råder, vilket formar deras beteende och genom detta utsätts de för många olika stressfaktorer som påverkar deras upplevelser under deras två första år som verksam sjuksköterska.

  • 57.
    Aptowitzer, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av missfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missfall innebär att en graviditet avslutas ofrivilligt. Vilket förekommer i mer än hälften av alla kända graviditeter. Missfall har ofta en negativ påverkan på hälsa. Även om missfallet fysiskt drabbar kvinnan är det viktigt att den tillhörande partnern ej glöms bort. Kvinnor som genomgått missfall och inte bearbetat förlusten löper stor risk att drabbas av psykisk ohälsa. Därav är det som sjuksköterska viktigt att bemöta dessa patienter med en professionell och empatisk omvårdnad.

     

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva föräldrars upplevelser av missfall samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som beskrivs i studierna.

     

    Metod: En deskriptiv design av tio artiklar med kvalitativ ansats har använts i litteraturstudien.  

     

    Huvudresultat: Ett missfall kan medföra stor sorg med emotionell och fysisk påverkan hos föräldrarna. I denna utmanade sorgeprocess finns ofta behov av vägledning och stöd som innebär att sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsroll blir ovärderlig genom att erbjuda stöd och bekräftelse till dessa patienter. Den metodologiska aspekten i studierna var undersökningsgrupper där majoriteten av deltagarna var kvinnor. Åldersspannet på deltagarna var 22–47 år och samtliga missfall inträffade före graviditetsvecka 20.

     

    Slutsatser: Missfall upplevdes vanligtvis som en svår händelse, emotionellt påfrestande för föräldrarna där sorg ofta infann sig. Därav sågs ett stort behov av emotionellt stöd hos de drabbade. Föräldrar som i sorgeprocessen blev bekräftade och fick stöd upplevde att de hade en förmåga att kontrollera sin sorg på ett bättre sätt än de som inte blev bekräftade eller där stöd uteblev. Sjuksköterskor bör således besitta god kunskap i att bemöta dessa patienter med empati, bekräftelse och vägledning.

  • 58.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Sexualitet och parrelation vid hjärtsjukdom2012In: Kardiologisk omvårdnad / [ed] Bengt Fridlund, Dan Malm, Jan Mårtensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 403-416Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Cardiology.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Malm, Dan
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; County Hospital Ryhov, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Örebro University.
    The male partners' experiences of the intimate relationships after a first myocardial infarction2011In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stress in the intimate relationship is found to worsen the prognosis in women suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Little is known about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship.

    Aim: This study aimed to explore and describe the experience of men’s intimate relationships in connection to and after their female partner’s first MI.

    Methods: An explorative and qualitative design was used. Interviews were conducted with 16 men having a partner who the year before had suffered a first MI. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes emerged: masculine image challenged; life takes another direction; and life remains unchanged. The men were forced to deal with an altered image of themselves as men, and as sexual beings. They were hesitant to approach their spouse in the same way as before the MI because they viewed her to be more fragile. The event also caused them to consider their own lifestyle, changing towards healthier dietary and exercise habits.

    Conclusions: After their spouse’s MI, men experienced a challenge to their masculine image. They viewed their spouse as being more fragile, which led the men to be gentler in sexual intimacy and more hesitant to invite sexual activity. This knowledge about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship could be helpful for health personnel in hospitals and primary care when they interact with couples where the woman suffers from cardiac disease or other chronic disorders.

  • 60.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Hälsohögskolan Jönköping.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro universitet.
    The female partners' experiences of intimate relationship after a first myocardial infarction2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 11-12, p. 1677-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    This study aimed to explore and describe women’s experience of intimate relationships in connection to and after their partner’s first myocardial infarction.

     

    Background.

    Support from partners is important for recovery, but little is known about partners’ experience of intimate relationships after myocardial infarction.

     

    Design.

    The study used an explorative, qualitative design.

     

    Methods.

    The first author interviewed 20 women having a partner who had suffered a first myocardial infarction during the preceding year. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

     

    Findings.

    Three themes emerged: ‘limited life space’, ‘sense of life lost’ and ‘another dimension of life’. The women described how their self-assumed responsibility led to a more stifling and limited life. Their sense of life lost was described in terms of deficits and feeling the loss. The women also described experiencing another dimension of life characterised by three subthemes: ‘uncertainty of life’, ‘certain of relationship’ and ‘share life more’.

     

    Conclusions.

    The partners’ myocardial infarction had an impact on the interviewees’ intimate relationships; they suffered a major loss and missed their ‘former’ partner, both emotionally and sexually. They struggled with the new asymmetry in their intimate relationship and felt compelled to adapt to their partners’ lack of sexual desire or function. Also, their partner controlled them, which lead towards a stifling, more limited life space.

     

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    Caregivers in hospital and primary care settings could apply the findings in their efforts to help couples recover or maintain intimate relationships following myocardial infarction.

  • 61.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Participation in physical activities: a multilevel challenge for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no S2, p. 8-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the biggest current public health problems. Few adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve the recommendation of daily physical activity (PA). The reasons for not being physically active depend on several complex factors, yet not comprehensively described from the adolescents’point of view. The absence of their perspective means that intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activity may not encompass the experiences of the adolescents themselves. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the perceptions, experiences and reflections of adolescents with ASDs’participation in PA.

    Participants and methods: Twenty-four adolescents, diagnosed with ASD without a co-occurring intellectual disability, aged 12-16 years, participated in the study.Data was collected using qualitative interviews and inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Adolescents with ASD were a heterogeneous group in regard to their current PA habits and preferences. Their willingness to participate in PA was conditioned regarding; what, where, when and with whom. They described challenges in the activity and the social context during PA, especially during the mandatory physical education. Perceived demands, freedom of choice, physical ability and sense of control affected their PA participation.

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that the adolescents’willingness to participate was associated with interacting and individual-related conditions, which can be misinterpreted as unwillingness to participate in PA. Thus aspects of autonomy and knowledge about individual conditions and needs have to be recognized when intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activities are planned for this population.

  • 62.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Perceptions of Physical Acitivty Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1792-1802, article id 29236210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent’s perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12–16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variety of reasons determining their willingness to participate, which were conceptualized as: Conditional participation in physical activities. The present study presents an alternative perspective on participation in physical activity, with impact on intervention design.

  • 63.
    Arnell, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyman, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Unga vuxnas upplevelse och hantering av att leva med Multipel Skleros: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic disease which about 15.000 to 18.000 persons in Sweden suffer from. Common symptoms early in the disease may be numbness, walking and balance problems, fatigue, and visual disturbances.

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to describe young adults experiences and management of living with multiple sclerosis. The aim is also to describe the method of the study group in the articles forming the result of this study.

    Methods: The present study used two databases, Cinahl and PubMed. The result is based on 11 scientific articles. With careful processing, the result has been shaped by three main headings and 10 subheadings.

    Main results: The result showed young adults reactions to and experiences of being diagnosed with MS. How different symptoms affect their physical and mental health, as well as the different strategies the MS-affected individuals use to manage the disease. The result also showed that the studygroup in the articles consisted 66,5% women and 33,5% men. The average age of participants was 44,8 years. The loss had been reported in eight of the 11 selected articles.

    Conclusion: With greater knowledge about MS and affected peoples experience of living with the diagnosis, nurses can get better in their profession and guide the injured people in their quest to find strategies to aid in everyday life. Adequate information from health care, support from family, friends and others affected with MS is of great importance to the affected individuals, giving them the opportunity to live a normal life. More research on MS in Children and men would be significant as the research available in the current situation in these areas is minimal.

  • 64.
    Arnells, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östergrens, Nancy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsproblem i samband med polyfarmaci hos äldre personer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the nursing problems that may arise in connection withpolypharmacy in the elderly. The literature review was done with descriptive design. Datacollection through PubMed and Cinahl. The result was based on 12 quantitative articles. Theresults showed that there was a correlation between polypharmacy and several specificnursing problems among older people. The nursing problems that occurred most among thestudied articles were falls and fractures. It was revealed that the number of used medicinescould be identified as a risk factor for falls and fractures, but also drug type could influence.The results also showed that dizziness and balance problems could be associated withpolypharmacy. Other nursing problems that could connect with polypharmacy was impairednutritional status, such as weight loss and malnutrition. There were also a connection betweengastrointestinal problems and usage of many drugs. The conclusion was that a correlationbetween polypharmacy and several nursing problems among older people were found. A totalof four categories of nursing problems were identified in the studied articles: falls andfractures, impaired nutritional status and malnutrition, gastrointestinal problems, dizzinessand balance problems.

  • 65.
    Arousell, Alida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Lizanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att beskriva personers upplevelser av hur det är att leva med schizofreni, en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 66.
    Arvidsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Spennare, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk i sjukvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor möter många olika individer. 780 000 individer över 18 år i Sverige uppskattades 2009 - 2011 ha ett drogmissbruk eller drogberoende. Alla har rätt till samma vårdkvalité oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Människor med drogberoende känner sig ofta stigmatiserade av samhället. Vilket område Sjuksköterskan än jobbar inom kommer sjuksköterskan någon gång möta patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk inom sjukvården samt beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: denna studie är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Två stycken databaser användes under sökningen, 12 vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Dessa granskades upprepade gånger och sammanställdes.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev ofta negativa erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk.  Sjuksköterskor beskrev att de ofta upplevde en rädsla och oro inför våldsamma och hotfulla situationer. Att patienter med drogmissbruk hade eget ansvar över sitt liv och hälsa beskrevs av en del av sjuksköterskorna. En del av sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de tyckte att det var viktigt att vara en förespråkare för patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Slutsats: Alla människor har samma rätt till vård och att uppleva hälsa oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Att leva med drogmissbruk är inget som ska inverka på omvårdnadskvalitén som ges till patienterna. För att utveckla vården och minska patienternas upplevelse av stigmatisering behövs mer och regelbunden utbildning för sjuksköterskor och andra professioner.

  • 67.
    Arvidsson, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    BVC-sköterskors reflektioner av att arbeta med mammor med förlossningsdepression och deras barn: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: About 10–15% of new mothers are affected by Post Partum Depression. A new mother with depression means a higher risk of attachmentsproblem with her newborn child. The child health care nurse has a regular contact with newborns and their mothers. Therefor they can have an important role in the process of attachment. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe reflections of the child health care nurses in their work with mothers with Postpartum Depression and their newborn. Method: The present study had a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Eight child health care nurses  were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzied using qualitative content analysis. Result: A underlying theme was; ”To have knowledge and to know your limitations, for a trustworthy interaction.” The theme had four descriptive categories; ” Ways to discover the mother with a postpartum depression”, ”The interaction with the mother” ”Strategies at work” and ”Challenges in work”. Conclusion: During the study it has been revealed that if guidelines and routines are to work optimally discovering the mother with Post Partum Depression, it requires a good communication. Already at the first meeting a journey began, that could mean a working interaction or not. It required in addition to formal knowledge of Postpartum depression also an ability to interact with the mother. It was about getting the mother´s confidence.

  • 68.
    Arvidsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Förstagångsmammors förväntningar på, erfarenheter och reflektioner av kontakten med sjuksköterskan på barnavårdscentralen: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 69.
    Ask, Elinor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löberg, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta preventivt med att förhindra övervikt och fetma hos barn: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem bland barn och år 2016 var över381 miljoner barn överviktiga världen över. Övervikt och fetma kan ge stora konsekvenser och det är viktigt att sätta in preventiva åtgärder i tid. Sjuksköterskan möter överviktiga barn på många platser inom vården och har där en chans att sätta inpreventioner. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta preventivt med att förhindra övervikt och fetma hos barn samtatt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna. Metod: Studien är endeskriptiv litteraturstudie som inkluderar artiklar som sökts fram i databaserna Cinahl och Medline via Pubmed. Tolv stycken, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa, artiklar valdes ut och analyserades. Huvudresultat: Resultatet redovisar ett flertal preventiva åtgärder som sjuksköterskor har erfarenhet av i sitt arbete med att förhindra överviktoch fetma hos barn. Det visar på både svårigheter och möjligheter som förekommer idet preventiva arbetet. Undersökningsgruppen indikerar att en majoritet av deltagarna är kvinnor samt att medelåldern är relativt hög. Slutsats: De bristande preventiva åtgärder och riktlinjer som finns gällande övervikt och fetma hos barn, utgör en svårighet i sjuksköterskors möte med dessa. Ett samarbete med både familj och andra vårdinstanser kan leda till en god kommunikation och därigenom en möjlighet för sjuksköterskor attmotivera familjen. Övervikt och fetma hos barn är ett växande problem världen över och utbildning likväl som ytterligare kunskap krävs för att sjuksköterskors preventiva åtgärder i framtiden ska bli mer effektiva.

  • 70.
    Askefjord, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklind, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Humor i omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans verktyg och patientens upplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor har en multipel inverkan på människan både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt. Över 80 procent av observerade möten i sjukhusmiljö visades innehålla någon form av humor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva humor som ett verktyg i omvårdnaden, ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv. Syftet var också att utforska hur patienter upplever humor. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den metodologisk aspekten, undersökningsgruppen.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor använde humor som ett verktyg att bygga relationer, skapa band och framkalla en känsla av gemenskap. Enkel vardaglig humor användes mest inom omvårdnad. Mottaglighet för humor hos patienter var individuellt och sjuksköterskan bör tillämpa, baserat på intuition och erfarenhet, rätt humor till rätt patient. Oerfarna sjuksköterskor kunde bära på en rädsla att framstå som oprofessionella vid användning av humor i vårdsituationer. Sjuksköterskor ansåg att stress hade en god inverkan på kvantiteten av humoranvändningen, dock blev de mindre mottagliga för humor från andra. Patienters upplevelse av humor var välvillig och de önskade humor i vårdrelationer.

    Slutsatser: Humor är en viktig del av omvårdnad. Humor kan bidra till ett bättre samspel, skapa lugn och ge ljus åt de mörkaste situationer. Missförstånd kan uppstå i användandet av humor mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter. Sjuksköterskor måste därför vara lyhörda i sin roll och kunna identifiera när och hur humor bör tillämpas. Sjuksköterskor, både nyutexaminerade och mer erfarna bör få mer kunskap om humorfenomenets för- och nackdelar. Detta för att sjuksköterskor ska lita på sin intuition och använda mer humor.

  • 71.
    Asplund, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner kring fysisk aktivitet på recept och motiverande samtal för att främja patientens fysiska aktivitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 72.
    Axelsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vängman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patienter och vårdgivares upplevelser av djurterapi inom hälso- och sjukvården: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: In 1961, the doctor Boris Levinson discovered that animals could help people connect with others. The discovery came to inspire therapists to use animals within the therapeutic programs. However, the idea of ​​involving animals extends back to the 19th century and was advocated by Florence Nightingale. However, a great deal of research is lacking in the field of animal therapy, which highlights patients' and caregivers' experiences. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients and caregivers experiences of animal-assisted therapy in the context of healthcare settings. Methods: A descriptive literature study whose results were based on 13 scientific articles. The majority were qualitative articles (11), while two others were of quantitative or mixed approach. Main results: Animal-assisted therapy was found to provide experiences of reduced depression in patients and an improved well-being for both parties. The social interaction between caregivers and patients seemed to be facilitated by animal presence. Caregivers experienced both increased and reduced stress and worried that the animal could interfere with the patients care. Conclusion: Patients and caregivers had positive experiences of animal therapy. The common good was improved well-being and improved social interaction. The result could mean that the method can be used in several different areas of health care. Challenges and negative experiences have highlighted the need for a well-functioning collaboration on healthcare services. The expectation then becomes that the challenges can be remedied, and that the method can be used in a larger issue.

  • 73.
    Axelsson, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser att vårda barn i behov av palliativ omvårdnad: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Palliative care of children becomes relevant in cases where the curative, medical, treatment is no longer sufficient. The nurse's role is to promote the child's best while at the same time it needs to involve and support relatives in the treatment.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present literature study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for a child in need of palliative care.

    Method: The present study is a literature study with descriptive design. The study result uses eleven articles. The search of selected articles has been performed in PubMed and Cinahl. The selection methods in all articles have been reviewed.

    Main result: The emotional impact of nurses working with children and their relatives in palliative care is inevitable. This emotional impact made it difficult to find a balance between being professional and becoming too private with the affected family. Communication with the child and their related was one of the most important parts of the treatment as it creates a good relationship, which in turn leads to good care.

    The articles in the present study have used convenience sampling, purposive sampling and non-random sampling.

    Conclusion: It has been found to be almost impossible to be emotionally affected in the palliative care of children. To handle this requires experience, support and cooperation from colleagues, as well as good communication with the child and its related.

  • 74.
    Axlund, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Forslin, Ina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns erfarenheter av att leva med förälder som har en psykisk sjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 2 % of children aged 0-15 years have at least one parent diagnosed in a psychiatric facility with any mental illness. Three common mental illnesses are schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a common form of psychosis, depression affects human behavior, thoughts and emotional life and bipolar disorder involves symptoms such as depression and mania. 

    Aim The aim of this literature study is to describe children's experiences of living with parent with a mental illness. The study also described the included articles data collection methods. 

    Method This study is a descriptive literature study and the scientific articles were searched in the Cinahl and PsycInfo databases. 

    Main results The result of the articles showed that the children felt different fears by living with the parent who has a mental illness. The fear was that the parent could commit suicide, if the illness was hereditary and that the mood was unstable. The children also felt ashamed of the parent so they found different ways that made them feel more “normal”. An adult responsibility was something the children occupied at an early age by taking care of households chores, their siblings and their sick parent. One wish that the children had was that they wanted more support from the environment, for example, adults from the health care. 

    Conclusion Feelings such as fear, shame and heavy responsibility is common in children of parent with mental illness. Also lack of support and information about the parents illness is experienced by the children and it is therefore important in the nurses work to be able to support these children and accommodate their needs. 

  • 75.
    Backlund, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Höök, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Erfarenheter av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning hos patienter med reumatoid artrit: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic arthritis rheumatism or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease and is the most common arthritis disease, in which headache is joint pain. RA is present in all populations, with varying prevalence. In Scandinavia, the prevalence is approximately 0.7%. The ethnology of RA is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Living with RA affect the patient physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially, meaning that the whole life situation is affected.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to describe the experiences of nurse-led clinics for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to present the study groups described in the articles included.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study

    Main results: Patients' experiences of nurse-led clinics were encounters in a warm, friendly and familiar atmosphere. The care was described as person-centered and competent provided and based on each individual's special needs. The nursing specialist skills were highly valued and described to create a sense of security for the patient. The nurse-led clinic was reported readily available, flexible and to create stability in the care. The accessibility also meant that the patients were aware of when and how to contact the nurse. The patient's experience was that good communication with the healthcare staff provided a mutual respect and instilled an increased patient confidence.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that nurse-led clinics could add value for the patient nursing care. This offered care represented familiarity, hope and confidence for the patients. To achieve added value, good communication and relationship are of the utmost importance, which in turn provide security and create a fundamental possibility in health-promoting care.

  • 76.
    Backlund, Niroshani
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Almqvist, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Transpersoners upplevelser av bemötande i vården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 77.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 78.
    Bahhi, Gusto
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Träningens effekter på testosteronnivån hos äldre överviktiga män: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Minskade testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män är ett fenomen som varit omtalat i många år. Allvarliga sjukdomar som kan leda till för tidig bortgång kan förekomma vid för låga testosteronnivåer hos män. I många år har äldre överviktiga män använt sig av medicinska ingrepp för att öka sina hormonnivåer med syftet att återfå sin ungdomliga hälsa och undvika sjukdomar. Syftet med denna studie är att göra en sammanfattning av sökt och hittad litteratur om träningseffekter på testosteronnivåer hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Metoden som författaren valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. Resultat utgår från hittade studier från databaserna PubMed och Discovery. Med hjälp av sökord och andra begränsningar hittades relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar som analyserades, evidensvärderades och diskuterades av författaren. Resultaten framfördes från sju hittade artiklar där fyra av de visade att testosteronnivåerna kan ökas genom träning för äldre överviktiga män. Träningsformen som visade bäst resultat var aerob träning och denna träningsform användes i fem av samtliga artiklar. Testosteronnivåökning och andra förbättrade hälsotillstånd resulterades av aerob träning i olika former och tidsperioder. Slutsats: Vid utövandet av aerob träning av olika former under olika tidsperioder kan testosteronnivåer öka hos äldre överviktiga män med 29+ i BMI. Kostmodifiering i kombination med aerob träning visar sig öka chansen för att öka testosteronnivåerna hos drabbade.

  • 79.
    Balazsi, Krister
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstedt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat efter gastric bypass: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att sammanställa och beskriva faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat, mer än tre år efter gastric bypass.

    Metod: För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Studien har baserats på fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar som har sökts fram via Medline samt genom manuell sökning.

    Resultat: Studien visade att faktorer som var av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat var kost, fysisk aktivitet, beteende, uppföljning, preoperativ viktnedgång samt medicinska faktorer såsom utvidgning av magsäck och gastrojejunal stomi. God kostkvalitet och utövande av fysisk aktivitet visade sig ha ett signifikant samband med långsiktig viktminskning. Beteenden såsom kontroll över matbegär och ätvanor var av stor betydelse. Hetsätning visade sig påverka viktresultatet negativt. Patienter som gick på uppföljning visade större viktminskning på lång sikt liksom patienter som lyckades minska i vikt före operationen.

    Slutsats: Långsiktigt viktresultat efter gastric bypass kan förbättras genom rätt kost, fysisk aktivitet, långsiktig uppföljning samt genom att tidigt upptäcka ohälsosamma ätbeteenden. Mer forskning krävs angående faktorer som påverkar viktresultatet på lång sikt och vad sjukvården kan göra för att påverka dessa.

  • 80.
    Barlow, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors reflektioner om hur de uppnår ett gott bemötande av patienter: en intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe experienced registrered nurses (RNs) reflections regarding

    creating a good interaction with patients i.e how the RNs are/behave towards patients, how the RNs

    come across. The study had a descriptive design and was conducted as six semi structured

    interviews with experienced RNs, all working on different adult somatic wards. The results were

    analysed using qualitative content analysis. It highlighted the importance of creating an open

    atmosphere by being available and the key aspects of communication such as, actively listening and

    being perceptive to the unspoken word. Consciously mirroring their own spoken word with their

    body language and using body contact also conveyed positive communication to patients.

    Conveying open mindness and respect motivated patients to be involved in their own care. The RNs

    had to be aware of past patient hospital experiences and being self aware, in particular of their own

    limitations, benefitted both patients and RNs. Positive effects were shown when patients responded

    with signs of well-being and faith in the RNs. When RNs came across well generated this too

    personal satisfaction for the RNs.

  • 81.
    Barth, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bäckström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvaliteten hos barn och ungdomar som lever med övervikt eller fetma: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is an increasing societal problem all over the world and a serious risk factor of being affected by many of the welfare diseases that exists in present time. The main causes of being overweight or obese is a mix of living habits, genetic- social-, psychological- and cultural factors. Children who are overweight or suffer from obesity have a great risk of being in that condition for the rest of their lives. It is in the nurses tasks to promote health by a holistic viewpoint of the individual. An insight of each person’s perception of their quality of life is a fundamental starting point. 

    Aim: To describe children and adolescents quality of life when overweight or obese, estimated on personal and parent perspective. 

    Method: A literature study of descriptive design based on twelve articles wherein one article used a mixed-method and the remaining eleven used a quantitative approach. 

    Main result: Children and adolescents who were overweight or suffered from obesity often assessed a low quality of life. Prominently in the categories of physical- psychological- and social functioning where many declared a decrease in physical wellness and difficulties in participating in physical activities, experienced depression and a low self-esteem. Experiences of bullying and alienation were common in these children and adolescents. 

    Conclusion: A correlation between a low quality of life and an increase in weight were observed in the domains of physical-, psychological- and social functioning. Because of the global increase in overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, the nurse needs an understanding of the phenomenon in order to have a holistic approach to the individual and act as support system to strengthen these children and adolescents’ sense of coherence in order to promote health in the profession.

  • 82.
    Beatrice, Bohlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ina, Thulin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med ALS: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Amyotrofisk lateral skleros (ALS) är en nervsjukdom som det idag inte

    finns något botemedel mot. Sjukdomen har ett hastigt förlopp där musklerna förtvinar

    och försvagas samtidigt som sinnet är opåverkat. Livskvalitet innefattar fysiska,

    psykiska och sociala faktorer. Att få stöd av familj, vänner och fritidsintressen är något

    som bidrar mycket till ökad livskvalitet.

  • 83.
    Begum, Tiasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Valeria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av barnmisshandel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Reports of child abuse have increased recently and healthcare staff are obligated by law to report any possible suspicion of child maltreatment to the Social Services. There are a lot of risk factors involved concerning whether a child will be abused or not, factors related to the perpetrators but also factors related to the child itself. Statistically the majority of perpetrators are the child's own parents.

    Aim: To describe the registered nurses experiences of child abuse within healthcare and also to describe one methodological aspect of the articles that this study is based upon.  

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on nine qualitative and three quantitative articles, where the participating registered nurses have experience of children that have been abused. Results: It was found that the nurse’s own personal experiences, based upon their own feelings, the support they received and the actual environment affects how and indeed if child abuse will be reported. Although the registered nurses were aware that they are obliged to report all cases, some nurses failed to report child abuse to the Social Services. The nurses experienced a variety of emotions that arose when they were involved in child abuse cases. All nurses in this study experienced that they lacked knowledge concerning child abuse also a lot of nurses wished that they had had more support during child abuse cases.

    Conclusion: The experience of child abuse cases severely affected the nurses even to the extent that some ignored the signs and failed to report to the Social Services. The registered nurses experienced a need for more support from an experienced colleague and wanted to attain more knowledge and experience themselves. 

  • 84.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85.
    Bengtson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Iwermo, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes upplevelser av vården av barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva de upplevelser av vården som närstående till barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd har haft.Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Data samlades in från databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och PsycINFO. Resultatet baserades på 14 artiklar.Resultat: Närståendes generella upplevelse av vården var till en stor del negativ.Diagnosprocessen upplevdes ta för lång tid samt vara för svår. Närstående upplevde också att tillgängligheten av information inte var tillräcklig och att vårdpersonalen inte besatt tillräckligt med kunskap. De upplevde även att det var svårt att få tillgång till hjälp och stöd samt att många kände ett utanförskap utan tillräcklig förståelse för deras livssituation och sorg.Närstående fick en mer positiv upplevelse av vården när diagnosen sattes tidigt och när de upplevde en personlig kontakt med vårdförmedlaren. Vårdpersonal som upplevdes som insatt och kompetent bidrog också till en positiv upplevelseSlutsats: Resultatet av denna litteraturstudie påvisar att det finns brister inom hälso- och sjukvården speciellt bland vårdpersonal som saknar specialistutbildning som till exempel allmänsjuksköterskan. Dessa brister visade sig vara okunskap kring AST och hur detta påverkar närstående samt informationsförmedling till närstående.Svårigheten att få en diagnos då vårdpersonal upplevdes att inte ta närståendes farhågor på allvar var även en brist.En grundläggande utbildning kring AST för allmänsjuksköterskor och läkare skulle sannolikt öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden för denna grupp.

  • 86.
    Bengtsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    The Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit (EPI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thelle, Dag
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo, Norway.
    Währborg, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women.2010In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1012-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F1,89 = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F1,80 = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F1,82 = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS.

  • 87.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Akutsjukvård är en varierande arbetsplats där högt patientflöde, tidsbrist och påfrestande situationer är vanligt förekommande, sjuksköterskor vårdar människor som lider av en kritisk skada eller sjukdom där utgången kan bli fatal. Sjuksköterskan måste ha full kontroll och överblick för alla patienter för att snabbt uppmärksamma om en patients tillstånd försämras. Den ofta stressfulla situationen ställer höga krav på sjuksköterskan både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sjuksköterskor försöker vara tidseffektiva genom att fokusera på den medicinska vården vilket kan leda till att patientens behov av att bli bekräftad och att bli lyssnad till brister i de akuta situationerna.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design där tio artiklar användes. En artikel var av kvantitativ ansats och en använde mixed method, de resterande artiklarna var av kvalitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat:

    Sjuksköterskorna beskrev hur brister i organisationen medförde högre arbetsbelastning och ledde till att stress upplevdes som oundvikligt inom akutsjukvård. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev arbetsmiljön som oförutsägbar och påfrestande och medförde fysiska såväl som psykiska konsekvenser. Detta till följd av en brist på strategiska verktyg och resurser för att hantera den upplevda stressen. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att på grund av tidsbrist kände de sig otillräckliga i sitt holistiska arbetssätt och att de under bättre omständigheter hade kunnat ge en bättre omvårdnad till patienterna. Det totala antalet deltagare i studierna var 333 sjuksköterskor och majoriteten var kvinnor i åldrarna 20-62 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Genom förbättrade arbetsförhållanden och kunskap om copingstrategier kan vården och hälsan hos sjuksköterskorna förbättras vilket gynnar omvårdnaden och patienten.

  • 88.
    Bergabo-Lundqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med triage på en akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Triage is a tool used to carry out assessments and priorities of patients in emergency rooms. The assessment of the patients is divided into different levels according to their health needs. The purpose of the assessments is to ensure that those who have the greatest need of assistance are taken care of first. A registered nurse performs this assessment.

    Aim: To describe the nurse´s experience working with triage in a emergency department and to describe the data collection method used in the articles included in the result.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design, were ten scientific articles were included. A search for scientific material was carried out ant retrieved from the University of Gävle databases Cinahl and PubMed and through a manual search of the two databases.

    Results: It emerged that nurses describes causes like lack of education, a lack of experience and factors that affect the work environment has been shown to be important for their experience in working with triage. Selected items data collections methods consisted of interview studies, surveys, observational studies and a web-based survey.

    Conclusion: The results reveled three main factors affecting nurse´s experience of triage: Clinical experience, work environment and education. The factors, each individually is important for nurse’s occupation, not just in emergency care, but also in other areas in healthcare. Despite the great variety influx of patients in emergency rooms the nurse’s professional satisfaction is but if more emphasis was placed on creating a more enjoyable working environment, providing training and reviewing clinical significance of professional experience at the triage then work satisfaction migh be even higher.

  • 89.
    Berger, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Betydande aspekter för sjuksköterska och patient i det preventiva arbetet mot venösa bensår: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; 3 % of the world’s population suffers from venous leg ulcers. Women and elderly are most affected. Compression therapy and physical activity is the most common self-care treatment for patients with venous leg ulcers and the nurse has a great responsibility to motivate patients to self-care. Aim; The aim of this study was to describe difficulties venous leg ulcer patients’ may experience performing self-care, to describe the nurses essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care and to examine the quality of sampling methods in the studies included. Methods; A descriptive design was used and this study included four qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and three studies with both qualitative and quantitative design and was published between 2004-2014. The scientific articles were found in the database PubMed and the content of the articles was examined of their resemblance. Quality, similarities and differences were examined in the methodological aspect selection method. Results; Seven themes were identified and three of them described patients difficulties to adhere to self-care. Knowledge and belief in the treatment and themselves was found to be essential and the next two themes described patients’ difficulties to adhere to compression therapy and physical activity. The residual themes described the nurses’ essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care, knowledge and information, the patients’ attitude towards self-care, organizational problems and the relationship between the nurse and patient. Regarding the review of the articles selection method, a varying quality was found. Conclusions; There are many factors influencing venous leg ulcer patients’ adherence to self-care. The nurses’ and the patients’ knowledge and attitude towards self-care activities is an important part of a functional self-care needed to reduce the prevalence of venous leg ulcers.

  • 90.
    Berggren, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eutanasi: vad anser sjuksköterskor?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Eutanasi är idag en förbjuden handling i de flesta länder. Frågan debatteras ofta och är ett omtvistat ämne. En utmaning för många sjuksköterskor är att bemöta patienter som efterfrågar eutanasi. Att besitta kunskap inom detta område kan följaktligen bidra till att sjuksköterskor lättare kan förhålla sig till de moraliska problem som kan uppstå i samband med arbetet både före och efter en patients bortgång. Syfte: Att beskriva vad sjuksköterskor anser om eutanasi, samt beskriva metodologiska aspekter i de artiklar som ligger till grund för resultatet. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie har genomförts där elva artiklar, funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, har granskats. Artiklarna, som var av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats, analyserades och resultatet presenterades i tre subkategorier. Resultat: Eutanasi uppfattades som en sista utväg, och att en god palliativ vård skall vara det primära alternativet. Olika faktorer har har betydelse för sjuksköterskornas åsikter angående eutanasi, bland annat utbildningsnivå, religion och moraliska inställningar. Genomgående ansåg sjuksköterskor att legalisering av eutanasi kan medverka till ett öppnare klimat, där frågor vid livets slut kan få en större plats. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskornas känslor inför eutanasi var ambivalenta, dock ansåg de överlag att patienter som uttrycker en önskan om att få avlida ofta gick att behandla på andra sätt. Exempelvis genom bra smärtlindring.

  • 91.
    Berggren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ledarskap bland huvuddomare i SHL: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskapsstilar, hur ledarskap kommuniceras och förmedlas samt efterfrågat ledarskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine leadership styles among head officials in the SHL and how they communicate leadership to ice hockey players in the SHL. The aim of this study was also to examine what type of leadership head officials in the SHL believe is requested from ice hockey players in the SHL. The selection of the study consisted of ten head officials in the SHL from the ice hockey season of 2016/2017, and the data collection was acquired trough semi-structured interviews with the participants. The collected data was subsequently analysed trough a thematic method.

    The results showed that there is no monolithic leadership style amongst the interviewed head officials in the SHL during the 2016/2017 ice hockey season. To find a leadership style that acts according to yourself is a vital part to be able to lead an individual or individuals. The ten interviewed head officials of the SHL described that body-language is a vital part of their leadership. They also described their way of working with positive feedback in communications with ice hockey players in the SHL as a way to encourage or transform actions of ice hockey players. The results of the study also indicates that the ten interviewed head officials in the SHL believe that a distinct and communicative leadership is the preferred option amongst ice hockey players in the SHL.

  • 92.
    Berggren, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isroth, Jelena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnornas upplevelse av att leva med typ 2-diabetes2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many women with type 2 diabetes fail in their efforts with self care management. The consequence are medical complications. The purpose of this paper is to look at a number of research articles describing women’s experiences relating to their diabetes diagnosis. These experiences affect the woman's ability to self care but also guides the nurse in her profession on how to best support the woman. Orem's self care deficit theory is tied to the diabetic woman and her self care but also to the role of the nurse. There is also an analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles.

    This study was done as a descriptive litterature study based on ten qualitative research articles.

    The result from the analysis of the articles shows that the experiences of the diabetic women can be sorted into five categories.

    1.     Self-care and lifestyle change

    2.     Coping with ones own feelings and emotions

    3.     Motivation and engagement

    4.     The surrounding support 

    5.     The interaction with the caregiver/medical expertise.

    The conclusion that can be made from this study is that women with type 2 diabetes have a lot of emotional experiences relating to the diagnosis that affects their self care management. The analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles show that it is critical for the result how the sampling was done and care should be exercised before drawing any conclusions from the results.

  • 93.
    Bergkvist, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leljewahl, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Attityder till psykisk ohälsa hos vårdpersonal som arbetar inom psykiatrisk verksamhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe attitudes towards mental illness among mental health workers and to investigate differences in attitudes within the background factors of gender, age and educational level. This study is a part of the project ‘Psykisk ohälsa’. A descriptive and comparative design with quantitative approach was used. Data were collected from 216 returned surveys. The questionnaire ‘New CAMI-S’ with 29 items were used. Data were analyzed with SPSS to describe the frequency and chi 2-test was used to measuring the differences. The results showed that the mental health workers in general had a positive attitude towards mental illness. Most negative attitudes were seen in the item about most persons who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters. Three significant differences were seen between ages. The older group had more positive attitudes towards mental illness. One significant item was found between gender, men had more negative attitudes. No significance was found between education levels. The conclusions showed that most of the staff had positive attitudes, however, negative attitudes were found in some areas. Further research and education in this topic could lead into more positive attitudes in the future.

  • 94.
    Berglind, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Persson, Margareta
    Department of Nursing, Umeå Universiy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wells, Michael
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors.

    METHODS: The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability.

    DISCUSSION: There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN), reference number ISRCTN22387524 . Prospectively registered February 4, 2018.

  • 95.
    Berglund, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dufva, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Funktionella magtarmsymtom och nervösa besvär. Förekomst, samband och könsskillnader.: En kvantitativ studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning magtarmsymtom förekommer hos könen med funktionella magtarm sjukdomar (FGID). Syftet var även att undersöka om det fanns någon könsskillnad hos deltagarna som upplevde sig vara oroliga/spända samt ha nervösa besvär, och om samband kunde hittas mellan olika magtarmsymtom och dessa två grupper. Detta var en kvantitativ studie där en korrelativ och komparativ design användes. Datan kom ifrån en uppföljningsstudie från 2008 med 136 deltagare i en kommun i Mellansverige. Respondenterna var diagnostiserade med FGID och fick fylla i ett databaserat frågeformulär. Huvudresultatet visade att ingen signifikant skillnad fanns i förekomsten av nervösa besvär eller orolig/spänd mellan män och kvinnor med FGID. Ett signifikant samband hittades mellan orolig/spänd och diarré vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen som angav sig oroliga/spända fanns ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna med gaser och diarré. I gruppen med nervösa besvär sågs ett signifikant samband med förstoppning och gaser vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen i denna grupp hittades ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna fanns signifikanta samband med gaser, diarré och halsbränna. Förekomsten av symtom hos patienter med och utan nervösa besvär skiljde sig inte signifikant, men det fanns en tendens att patienter utan nervösa besvär generellt låg något lägre i symtomfrekvens.

  • 96.
    Berglund, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklund, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personer med Multipel Skleros upplevelser av att leva med sjukdomen, samt deras upplevelser av stöd och bemötande från vårdgivare: En intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe what it's like to live with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and experiences of social support and being received and met by health personnel. The method was a qualitative interview study of descriptive design and was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three women and two men (26-75 years) with MS from two municipalitiesin central Sweden participated in the study. The main results showed that the participants felt the disease limited everyday life. The majority described feelings of injustice being affectedby the illness, but they now have a new perspective on life. Participants described lack of information and communication from health personnel. All felt there is a long wait to get appointments in specialist care and says it depends on too few staff. Participants felt that being received and met by health personnel have been good, some describes that lack of time and staff may influence the response from health personnel negatively. The conclusion was that the participants daily life was limited by the disease in various extent and could lead to strong feelings. Several felt they learned to live with the disease because of a positive attitude and persistence. Participants felt it was important to get information, rehabilitation, and that health personnel listened. However, the participants experienced long wait to get access to specialist care, and that the main support they got from there was through telephone contact.

  • 97.
    Berglund, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC-sjuksköterskans och skolsköterskans erfarenheter och reflektioner i sitt arbete med övervikt hos barn2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight is a health problem throughout the western world. Child health care (CHC) nurses and school nurses meet many children and their families and have the opportunity to work with prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CHC - and school nurse´s experiences and reflections in the work on obesity in children. The aim was also to investigate the structural conditions CHC- and school nurse feel the need for this work. Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. The data has been collected through semi structured interviews with eight child health care nurses and eight school nurses. The main result: In their daily work with overweight the CHC- and school nurses work with prevention against obesity by providing information about good habits. Obesity is identified though regular health checks. If overweight is identified the nurse tries along with the parents to find possible causes and actives against overweight. CHC- tries in her work with overweight children to strengthen and guide parents in their parenting role. The school nurse believes that obesity is about the lifestyle in the whole family and it’s the parents´ responsibility. Obesity is a sensitive topic as it has with self-esteem to do. The work with overweight children is about working together towards the same goal. Conclusion: Obesity is a sensitive topic. It is important with an active parental role in the work with obesity children. CHC- and school nurses have the opportunity to work preventively against children obesity. The school nurses would like to have more time to work with overweight in children and to reduce the complications that overweight and obesity can result.

  • 98.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekten av fysisk aktivitet hos barn med autismspektrumtillstånd: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:  Barn med autismspektrumtillstånd (AST) avstår ofta fysisk aktivitet av anledningen att de har svårt med det sociala samspel som skapas i en grupp med människor. De kan även ha begränsad rörelseförmåga, vilket gör att den motoriska utvecklingen blir försenad eller aldrig utvecklas. Den fysiska aktiviteten bidrar till ökad motorisk utveckling i specifika idrotter som involverar fin och grovmotoriska färdigheter. Studiens syfte är att undersöka i vilken grad fysisk aktivitet påverkar fingrovmotoriska färdigheter och därmed ökar möjligheten för det sociala samspelet hos ett barn med autismspektrumtillstånd. Frågeställningarna lyder: Hur kan det sociala samspelet påverkas hos ett barn med autism genom fysisk aktivitet? Hur kan fysisk aktivitet påverka fin och grovmotorik hos ett barn med AST?

    Metoden som författarna valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. De valda artiklarna är i från databaserna Discovery och Taylor & Francis. Hjälpmedel med sökord och övriga begränsningar användes för att hitta relevanta och aktuella vetenskapliga artiklar till denna studie. Artiklarna analyserades, värderades utifrån GRADE-modellen och därefter diskuterades evidensen av författarna. Resultatet påvisar att fysisk aktivitet ökar det sociala samspelet samt de finmotoriska och grovmotoriska färdigheterna förbättras hos barn med AST.  Slutsatsen är att fin och grovmotoriska färdigheter ökar kontinuerligt i samband med fysisk aktivitet. Graden av fysisk aktivitet ökar i specifika motoriska färdigheter beroende på form av aktivitet samt hur frekvent aktiviteten utförs.

    Deltagandet i fysisk aktivitet ledde till att den sociala förmågan förbättrades samt att det yttrade sig positivt på barnens välmående både fysiskt och psykiskt.

  • 99.
    Berglöv, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmberg, Tilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kostrelaterade egenvårdsmetoder och dess effekter för patienter med Irritable Bowel Syndrome & Funktionell Dyspepsi: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Functional Dyspepsia (FD) are two syndromes that many people suffers from and that has no curing treatment. Since the syndromes only has a symptomatic treatment many people that suffers from it uses self-care methodes that often includes diet. Support and guidance in patiens self-care are a main task for nurses in general and especially for these patients since no curing treatment is available. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe dietary self-care practices for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and/or Functional Dyspepsia where the perceived and/or observed effects was described. The aim was also to describe the selected studies data collection methods. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. Data has been collected from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. Main Results: Thirteen studies were included. From these, it has been found that patients suffering from IBS and/or FD may use a variety of dietary self-care methods. Effects of these have been shown to prevent and/or alleviate physical symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore provide better quality of life. The data collection methods described have been found to vary between questionnaires and rating scales, diaries, physical markers and group interviews. Conclusion: Patients with IBS and/or FD can make use of many diet related self-care methods to prevent and/or relieve their symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract. Many different data collection methods can be used to identify diet related self-care practices and its effect on the symptoms of IBS and/or FD.

  • 100.
    Berglöv, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Homosexuella personers upplevelser av bemötanden i hälso- och sjukvården2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexual individuals are, according to National Institute of Public Health, in a greater need of care than heterosexuals. The historical overview of homosexuals show several difficulties they’re subjected to within healthcare, however a positive development is shown. Healthcare professionals have different encounters that are influenced by individual factors.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how homosexual individuals experience encounters given by health care professionals, and to describe the included articles study sample.

    Method: The present study was a descriptive literature riview based on 12 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. The material was gathered through searches of the MEDLINE database.

    Main Results: The result showed a repetitive pattern that homosexual individuals experienced a poor encounter from healthcare professionals, which was considered to be affected by lack of compassion, heteronormative assumptions, and not to be seen for who they are. In contrast, good treatment was experienced when good communication, acceptance and kind words and deeds were present. All of the studies reported the number of participants and the majority of the articles presented inclusion criterias and age. Half of the studies were conducted in the Nordic countries and 95.4% of the participants were women.

    Conclusions: With the descriptions made by homosexual individuals, the experiences was revealed regarding the encounters from healthcare professionals. These experiences showed unsatisfactory and unprofessional encounters, further influenced by heteronormative assumptions. These experiences also showed openness and generosity which had been received. Through knowledge of the encounters that homosexual individuals experiences, nurses can in their professional work towards the improvement of homosexual peoples’s health and wellbeing.

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