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  • 51.
    Arizcun Zúñiga, Paula María
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ram pump hydraulic air test. Pressure conditions and flow measurements: Experimental research and case study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of the development of a ram pump, which will allow the pumping of water without the need of external energy sources. It is considered an analysis of interest since, once it is finished; it can be applied in reality improving and facilitating different activities related to agriculture and health.

    Previous studies have been made related to the ram pump; however, in this case, it is intended to understand the system that has been built in the laboratory in order to find the best combination of parameters that will lead to obtain the highest possible efficiency. 

    The study will be carried out by studying scientific literature and by experimenting in the laboratory. Encompassing the experimental and literary field, it is expected to understand perfectly the advantages and disadvantages of the ram pump in order to determine if it is worth it to install in certain places.

    After the study, the most favourable parameters for the operation of the Bruzaholms Bruk pump have been obtained. It has been found that the use of a longer drive pipe favours the operation of the system, as it is possible to obtain a higher efficiency, although it must be taken into account that the mentioned length needs to be controlled, as it could reduce the working rhythm of the pump. It has also been seen that the pump gives better results if the impulse valve is completely opened. Finally, it has been proven that, as long as the height difference between the two tanks is enough, increasing the height of the water source will favour the operation of the system.

  • 52.
    Arnaiz Remiro, Lierni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Modelling and assessment of energy performance with IDA ICE for a 1960's Mid-Sweden multi-family apartment block house2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis has been carried out during the spring of 2017 on behalf of Gavlegårdarna AB. This is a public housing company in Gävle (Sweden) which is a large energy consumer, over 200 million SEK per year, and has the ambitious goal of reduce its energy consumption by 20 % between 2009 and 2020. Many multi-family apartment blocks were built during the "million programme" in the 60’s and 70’s when thermal comfort was the priority and not the energy saving. Nevertheless, this perspective has changed and old buildings from that time have been retrofitted lately, but there are many left still. In fact, one of these buildings will be retrofitted in the near future so a valid model is needed to study the energy saving measures to be taken. The aim of this thesis is to get through a calibration process to obtain a reliable and valid model in the building simulation program IDA ICE 4.7.1. Once this has been achieved it will be possible to carry out the building’s energy performance assessment. IDA ICE has shown some limitations in terms of thermal bridges which has accounted for almost 15 % of total transmission heat losses. For this reason, it is important to make a detailed evaluation of certain joints between elements for which heat losses are abundant. COMSOL Multiphysics® finite element software has been used to calculate these transmittances and then use them as input to IDA ICE to carry out the simulation.

    Through an evidence-based methodology, although with some sources of uncertainty, such as, occupants’ behaviour and air infiltration, a valid model has been obtained getting almost the same energy use for space heating than actual consumption with an error of 4% (Once the standard value of 4 kWh/m2 for the estimation of energy use in apartments' airing has been added). The following two values have been introduced to IDA ICE: household electricity and the energy required for heating the measured volume of tap water from 5 °C to 55 °C. Assuming a 16 % of heat losses in the domestic hot water circuit, which means that part of the heat coming from hot water heats up the building. This results in a lower energy supply for heating than the demanded value from IDA ICE. Main heat losses have been through transmission and infiltration or openings. Windows account 11.4 % of the building's envelope, thus the losses through the windows has supposed more than 50 % of the total transmission losses. Regarding thermal comfort, the simulation shows an average Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) of 12 % in the worst apartment. However, the actual value could be considerably lower since the act of airing the apartments has not been taken into account in the simulation as well as the strong sun's irradiation in summer which can be avoided by windows shading. So, it could be considered an acceptable level of discomfort. To meet the National Board of Housing Building and Planning, (Boverket) requirements for new or rehabilitated buildings, several measures should be taken to improve the average thermal transmittance and reduce the specific energy use. Among the energy saving measures it might be interesting replace the windows to 3 pane glazing, improve the ventilation system to heat recovery unit, seal the joints and intersections where thermal bridges might be or add more insulation in the building’s envelope.

  • 53.
    Arnfelt, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    En byggnads energiprestanda: En utredande och jämförande studie av Boverkets författningssamling BEN12017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an exploratory and comparative study of Boverkets constitution BEN1. In this study the constitution BEN1 is examined, why the constitution was established, when is it applicable and what advantages and disadvantages will come with it. Today the housing and service sector is using a major part of Europe’s final energy use, in addition to this, these sectors also represents a major part of the total carbon dioxide emissions. The EU-commission aims to reduce the housing and service sectors energy use and emissions. In 2002 the European parliament established directives and demands for buildings energy performance. These directives were changed in 2009-2010, which led to an inspection of the already existing Swedish constitution, this was found to be inadequate by the EU-commission. Sweden decided to create a new constitution in order to satisfy EU’s new directives and demands. The focus is on a normal usage of the building in a normal year in the new constitution, BEN1. 

    The reader should receive an idea and understanding about BEN1 and why it was established in this report. Beyond this, the study will show the changes that happen to a buildings energy performance after the constitution is applied and what advantages and disadvantages this could bring. 

    This study was performed by simulating the buildings energy use with the input from BEN1 in a simulation tool, IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. 

    The study shows that the energy performance will change but it also shows that further studies should be made in order to obtain a more carefully drawn and common conclusion.

  • 54.
    Arrese Foruria, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Analysis of a Low Energy Building with District Heating and Higher Energy Use than Expected2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis project, a building in Vegagatan 12, Gävle has been analysed. The main objective has been to find why it consumes more energy than it was expected and to solve theoretically the problems.This building is a low energy building certified by Miljöbyggnad which should use less than 55kWh/m2 year and nowadays it is using 62.23 kWh/m2. In order to find why the building is using more energy than the expected several different things has been measured and analyzed.First of all, the heat exchanger of the ventilation unit has been theoretically examined to see if it works as it should and it does. This has been done using the definition of the heat exchangers.Secondly, the heating system has been analysed by measuring the internal temperature of the building and high temperatures have been found (around 22°C) in the apartments and in the corridors. This leads to 5-10% more use of energy per degree.Thirdly, the position and the necessity of all the heaters have been checked. One of the heaters may not make sense, at least in the way the building has been constructed. This leads to bigger heating needs than the expected.Fourthly, the taps and shower heads have been checked to see if they were efficient. Efficient taps and shower heads, reduce the hot water use up to 40%. The result of this analysis has been that all taps and shower heads are efficient.Fifthly, the hot water system has been studied and some heat losses have been found because the lack of insulation of several pipes. Because of this fact 8.37kWh/m2 are lost per year. This analysis has been carried out with the help of an infra red camera and a TA SCOPE.Sixthly, the theoretical and real U values of the different walls have been obtained and compared (concrete and brick walls). As a conclusion, the concrete wall has been well constructed but, the brick wall has not been well constructed. Because of this fact 1 kWh/m2 of heat are lost every year. Apart from that, windows and thermal bridges have also been checked.

  • 55.
    Artieda Urrutia, Juan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Desiccant Cooling Analysis: Simulation software, energy, cost and environmentalanalysis of desiccant cooling system2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Desiccant cooling is a technology that, based on a open psychrometric cycle, is able to provide cooling using heat as the main energy carrier. This technology uses a considerably smaller amount of electricity than refrigerators based on the vapor-compression cycle, which is an electricity driven cycle. Electricity is often more expensive than other types of energy and has CO2 emissions associated with its generation , so desiccant cooling has the potential of achieving both economic and environmental benefits.

    In addition to this, the heat the desiccant cooling cycle needs to work can be supplied at relative low temperatures, so it can use heat coming from the district heating grid, from a solar collector or even waste heat coming from industries.

    The system which will be studied in this report is a desiccant cooling system based on the model designed by the company Munters AB. The systems relies on several components: a desiccant rotor, a rotary heat exchanger two evaporative humidifiers and two heating coils. It is a flexible system that is able to provide cooling in summer and heat during winter.

    This study performs a deep economic and environmental analysis of the desiccant cooling systems, comparing it with traditional vapor compression based systems:

    In order to achieve this objective a user-friendly software was created, called the DCSS – Desiccant Cooling Simulation Software – that simulates the operation of the system during a year and performs automatically all the necessary calculations.

    This study demonstrates that economic savings up to 54% percent can be achieved in the running costs of desiccant cooling systems when compared to traditional compressor cooling systems, and  reductions up to39% in the CO2 emissions. It also demonstrates that desiccant cooling is more appropriate in dry climate zones with low latent heat generation gains.

    In addition to that, the DSCC software created will help further studies about the physical, economic and environmental feasibility of installing desiccant cooling systems in different locations.

  • 56.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 57.
    Arístegui, Jesús Jaime
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Heat balance of a historical church: Air infiltration losses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 58.
    Assefa, Edom
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ngabonziza, Bertrand
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagvattenhantering i urban miljö: Komplettering av befintliga avvattningssystem i Hemlingby2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose appropriate solutions that can complete Hemlingbys existing stormwater treatment systems. The solutions presented in this study has been developed with regards to the current situation, which includes water drainage systems and ponds. The study includes a survey of the current stormwater management within the district, as a result, the authors have localized two problem areas that should be investigated, i.e. are Hemlingbybäcken and Kryddstigen. The stormwater recipient i.e. Hemlingbybäcken is affected by human activities. Contaminates that affect the stream consist mainly of copper, lead and zinc. Due to the lack of stormwater storage capacity problems associated with stormwater flooding occurred from nearby buildings and industrial areas. Kryddstigen is an area in the district where business in technology and trade are located, these activities contribute to pollution that degrades groundwater and recipient conditions. The northern part of Hemlingby consist mostly of hard surfaces, which reduces the possibility of a natural infiltration of rain water, this in turn has caused an increased risk of flooding in the area. Gävle municipality have through earlier investigations identified some of the problems and tried to prevent them by implementing ponds that can delay incoming stormwater. Follow-up works proves that the ponds serve a larger catchment area than previously estimated, which adverse the ponds efficiency. Capacity problems have therefore arisen, for instance wetland ponds are sized to handle 10-yearsrain from a catchment area of 19 hectares. However, the existing wetland ponds can only handle a 2-yearsrain from a catchment area of 2400m3. This study presents open stormwater management as alternative solution, this has been proposed based on existing sewerage systems and ponds. Open stormwater solutions are applied mostly in urban environment to delay and locally dispose stormwater. This is done by vegetation which makes it possible to achieve a natural infiltration. The public can also take use of open stormwater solutions by turning an unattractive city to a beautiful one. It can also be beneficial to the community because open stormwater solutions contribute with an aesthetically pleasing environment and increasing biodiversity. The alternatives are described as follows: Green roofs, permeable ground surfaces, ditch with macadam basin and, rain gardens. These solutions are then assessed together with the existing solutions based on internal and external aspects concerning stormwater management. External aspects include legislation and stormwater policy, internal aspects take into account factors such as economy, technology, social and environment conditions. Assessment methodology that are presented in this study aims to evaluate and prepare documentation that is relevant for decision- making and the development of technical solutions based on the current situation. The evaluation method used in this study is inspired by PESTEL- analysis model. This method has been adapted to assess stormwater solutions. An overall description of what a PESTEL- analysis is given in this study as well as the interpretation and application of the assessment method. The result for single alternatives is presented and discussed with respect to existing solutions in the area of this study.

  • 59.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Ecology, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Stockholm.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Quality versus impact: Comparing the environmental efficiency of building properties using the EcoEffect tool2010In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1095-1103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are tools that are developed for the assessment of the environmental impact of buildings (e.g. ATHENA). Other tools dealing with the indoor and outdoor environmental quality of building properties (referred to as real estates in other literature) are also available (e.g. GBTool). A platform where both the aspects of quality and impact are presented in an integrated fashion are few. The aim of this contribution is to present how the performance of different building properties can be assessed and compared using the concept of environmental efficiency in a Swedish assessment tool called EcoEffect. It presents the quality dimension in the form of users' satisfaction covering indoor and outdoor performance features against the weighted environmental impact covering global and local impacts. The indoor and outdoor values are collected using questionnaires combined with inspection and some measurements. Life cycle methodology is behind the calculation of the weighted external environmental impact. A case study is presented to show the application of EcoEffect using a comparative assessment of Lindas and a Reference property. The results show that Lindas block is better in internal environment quality than the Reference property. It performs slightly worse than the Reference property in the external environmental impact due to emissions and waste from energy and material use. The approach of integrated presentation of quality and impact as in EcoEffect provides with the opportunity of uncovering issues problem shifting and sub-optimisation. This avoids undesirable situations where the indoor quality is improved through measures that result in higher external environmental impact. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 60.
    ATEGEKA, WINFRED KAKOOZA
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Royal Institute of Technology / KTH University.
    APPRAISAL OF FOOD RESIDUE (WASTE) BASED FUEL BRIQUETTES IN DOMESTIC COOKING APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF UGANDA2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research focuses on developing and evaluating the performance of low cost, low technology food residue based fuel briquettes as an alternative to the widespread use of wood fuels (charcoal and firewood) for domestic cooking applications.

    In view of the declining accessibility of wood fuels, inadequate electrification coverage and ever-rising prices of cooking gas and kerosene in Uganda, harnessing energy from within reach, alternative sustainable energy sources such as food residues has been regarded as a viable solution to domestic cooking energy.

     

    In this research, both desktop reviews of earlier studies and laboratory investigations of the developed food residue based fuel briquettes have been considered. Carbonized sweet potato, banana (matooke) and cassava peelings were mixed in different proportions with either sweet potato or banana stem pulp (1 or 2kgs) and later densified using a hand operated molder to develop the food residue based briquettes. The drop test method was used to determine the resilience of the produced briquettes to disintegrating forces in particular during transportation and storage. An oxygen bomb calorimeter was used to determined the Higher Heating Value (HHV) of the briquettes and it ranged from 13.6 – 26 MJ/kg with cassava peelings char: sweet potato peelings char: sweet potato stem pulp 1kg giving the lowest HHV and cassava peelings char: sweet potato peelings char: banana stem pulp 2kg giving the highest HHV. Generally the tests results revealed that the type of natural binder used had an effect on both the HHV and mechanical strength of the produced briquettes.

  • 61.
    Axner, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Att utvändigt värmeisolera köldbryggor i utkragade balkonggolv: En fallstudie om energianvändning, kostnader och påverkan av byggnadens yttre gestaltning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order for Sweden to reach its goals for a sustainable future, the government continues to increase demands on improving energy efficiency of buildings. A first step should be to improve the buildings ability to keep its heat. This means that the thermal insulation of the envelope should be improved and effect of thermal bridges in various constructions be minimized. A recurrent problem when renovating already existing buildings is the requirement of preservation and how that affects the possibilities on how to renovate. All buildings constitute a storytelling that illustrates how society has developed over time. Building characteristics and expressions must be preserved even if it leads to higher renovation costs. This thesis aims to study the energy use caused by thermal bridges in balcony slabs and how the energy use is affected by insulating the balcony slabs. It also investigates how the overall building appearance is affect by this figuration. And last, the study aims to explore however the investment in material is defensible when comparing it with the cost for energy in a life cycle perspective. The result shows that the thermal bridges caused by the balcony slabs increase the energy use by almost 4000 kWh per year and building and by adding insulation to the slabs, the energy usage decline by almost 75 %. In view of the buildings appearance, the additional insulation has a minimal affect. When comparing the investment cost in a life cycle perspective with the saving of energy, results shows that the costs in material is too high and at the same time the price for energy is too low for obtaining any profit for the given time period.

  • 62.
    Backlund, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Efficient improvement of energy efficiency in small and medium-sized Swedish firms2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a dissertation about efficient implementation of energy efficiency measures in small and medium-sized Swedish firms. The aim is to investigate the potential for economically efficient implementation of energy efficiency improvement measures in small and medium-sized firms. The thesis contains five papers that analyse different aspects that have been put forth in policy documents and academic debate as  methods to improve energy efficiency in non-energy intensive sectors.

    By reading policy documents, interviewing representatives of small and medium- sized firms and energy auditors as well as analysing data from the Swedish energy audit program, different aspects of energy management practices, energy services and energy audits are considered. The thesis is the product of an interdisciplinary context but economic theory is at the foundation of the analysis and has helped formulate questions and hypotheses that have been tested and explored with the data.

    The results show that while the potential for improving energy efficiency in the small and medium- sized sector in Sweden is large there are challenges to realizing it in each individual firm. There is potential for improving energy efficiency in the sector and not just for investments in new technology but also for adjusting existing machinery and changing behaviour, but costs for investigating the potential and implementing the measures are large relative to the improvement potential in each company. Energy management practices in this sector are lacking and energy services will only be demanded if reduction in production cost is estimated larger than transaction costs of the service. The Swedish energy audit program has led to the implementation of energy efficiency improvements in the participating firms but compared to other policy instruments it has been a less cost-efficient way to improve energy efficiency in Sweden.

  • 63.
    Backlund, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Avsättningsalternativ för avloppsslam utifrån effektiviserad slambehandlingsmetod i Avesta kommun: med fokus på hygienisering och miljömässig nytta2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge contains nutrients, which should be returned to nature to create a so-called nutrient circulation. By optimizing sanitisation of sewage sludge with effective treatment methods, sewage sludge can be more appropriately disposed from a better economic- and environmental perspective. The aim of this work was to investigate and judge the efficiency of existing sludge treatment is possible to achieve a sufficent sanitation. Based on the streamlined sludge treatment method investigate the disposal options that is best suited for sewage sludge in Avesta town. A literature review was conducted to increase the knowledge and understanding of sewage sludge, its treatment and disposal. The case study is formed with qualitative method and information which has been collected from the scientific articles, authorities, reports, theses and personal contact as a complement to obtain a good understanding. Upgrading of mesophilic digestion of sludge at 37 ° C to thermophilic digestion at 55 ° C - 65 ° C means increased temperature; this requires more energy and hence increases energy costs. Components of the mesophilic digestion process need to be upgraded or replaced and therefore additional costs should also be considered. The advantages of the thermophilic digestion include short residence time, smaller digester and sludge becomes sufficiently disinfected. A future scenario is developed based on more efficient sludge treatment where two disposal options are most appropriate for the sewage sludge in Avesta town. Returning digestate to productive land is one of those suggested alternatives that allows phosphorus to be recovered and recycled. If not thermophilic digestion as streamlining is not effective enough for sufficient sludge sanitation, other complementary processes have to be introduced, for instance, composting drum or pasteurization. A full cost comparison between the existing sludge treatment and more efficient sludge treatment method is, however, almost impossible to be performed when all costs depend on the choice of components, factors and so on. This case study contributes with first-hand information that can provide greater opportunities for Avesta Vatten och Avfall AB to select the most appropriate options for sewage sludge disposal in Avesta town in the future.

  • 64.
    Baena Juan, Cristian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Comparison of the performance of silicon and thin film solar cells at the laboratory of the University of Gävle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The huge environmental awareness emerging last years by reason of global warming and greenhouse effect, on one hand, and the need of finding other sources of energy production and conversion due to the declining of fossil resources and the increasing cost of this kind of energy resource, on the other hand, both have led position renewable energies as a powerful alternative on the energy production and conversion.

    PV-systems have emerged at an exponential rate in recent year as the main candidate and a satisfactory possibility with respect to environmental and economic sustainability.

    Nowadays, the large volume on photovoltaic market is currently dominated by four types of solar cells, divided by the semiconductor material used to absorb light and convert the energy into electricity: (1) crystalline silicon (monocrystalline and polycrystalline), (2) amorphous silicon, (3) CIGS and (4) cadmium telluride; and among them, monocrystalline silicon and CIGS technologies are installed on the building 45 of the University of Gävle, at the south face of the laboratory.

    In this context and with the motivation to contribute knowledge on PV field, a comparison between single crystal solar technology and thin film CIGS technology has carried out through f ratio and performance ratio procedures in order to perform an assessment of the energy conversion of each one under field conditions.

    A logger monitors the power conversion from the PV modules since June 2014 while two pyranometers monitor global and diffuse solar radiation since March 2016. It must take into account that only clear sunny days have been considered during a period from 8:00 to 14:00 in order to avoid shadows effect on the PV systems.

    The results come to conclude that single crystal silicon modules present a better behavior with respect to energy conversion under no shadows effect conditions by two reason: (1) f ratio, relationship of PV conversion per kW (PV yield) between CIGS and single crystal silicon, is about 87.25% with some variations along a day due to ambient temperature, cell temperature and incidence angle; (2) PV module's performance ratio of monocrystalline silicon modules is higher than thin film CIGS ones during a sunny day about 87.56% and 76.38%, respectively; and they are consistent with usual performance ratio values between 80% and 90% since 2010 onwards.

    In light of the outcome and in order to confirm these conclusions, it intends to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the data collected and compare the performance of the module after a year of measurements outdoors by the PV module's performance ratio procedure.

    Along the same lines, the next step of the University of Gävle will be to launch a project with the objective of evaluating the potential to be self-sufficient.

  • 65.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Power Plant Operation Optimisation: Unit commitment of gas turbines using Machine Learning and MILP programming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 66.
    Bahilo Rodríguez, Edgar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Swedish and Spanish electricity market: Comparison, improvements, price forecasting and a global future perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to make a comparison between the Swedish and Spanish electricity market, the design of new improvements that could achieve a better operation for both markets as well as the price forecasting for both spot markets. These enhancements are oriented to decrease electricity prices, energy use and the system CO2 emissions.

    Also, the main organizations of the market and their roles has been characterized, clarifying the functions of the Market Operator and the System Operator. In addition, the different markets, the trading products and the price formation have been explained and the picture of the market structure has been achieved with enough depth.

    Moreover, some of the most used methods in Time Series Analysis has been enumerated to understand which techniques are needed for forecast the electricity prices and the methodology used (Box-Jenkins Method) has been explained in detail. Later, all these methods have been implemented in an own code developed in Python 3.6 (TSAFTools .py) with the help of different statistics libraries mentioned during the method chapter.

    On the other hand, the description of the market situation has been carried out for both countries. Power installed capacity, electricity generation, average prices, main renewable technologies and policies to increase the renewable energy share has been analysed and corresponding described.

    Then, to estimate the market’s future spot electricity prices, ARIMA models have been selected to analyse the evolution of the day-ahead price using the TSAFTools.py. The final models show a proper performance in the two markets, especially in the Nordpool, achieving an RMSE: 37.68 and MAPE: 7.75 for the year in 2017 in Nordpool and a RMSE: 270.08 and MAPE: 20.24 in OMIE for 2017. Nordpool spot prices from 2015 to 2016 has been analysed too but obtaining a result not as good as the year 2017 with an RMSE: 49.01 and MAPE: 21.42.

    After this analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of both markets are presented and the main problems of the Spanish electricity system (power overcapacity, fuel dependency, non-cost-efficient renewable energies policies, lack of interconnexion capacity etc.) and the Swedish electricity system (dependency for nuclear power, uncertainty for solar electricity Generation) are presented.

    Finally, due to the quick development of the energy sector in the last years and the concern of the European Committee to reach a new design for the electricity market, different kinds of recommendations for the future have been considered.

  • 67.
    Ball, Linden J.
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Christensen, Bo T.
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The effects of stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency on aesthetic judgments of abstract art: Evidence for a default–interventionist account2018In: Metaphor and Symbol, ISSN 1092-6488, E-ISSN 1532-7868, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 235-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an experiment investigating how stimulus complexity and conceptual fluency (i.e., the ease of deriving meaning) influence aesthetic liking judgments for abstract artworks. We presented participants with paintings at two levels of complexity (high vs. low) and five levels of conceptual fluency (determined from a prior norming study) and requested separate ratings of beauty and creativity. Our predictions were derived from the PIA Model (Pleasure-Interest Model of Aesthetic Liking), which views aesthetic preferences as being formed by two, distinct fluency-based processes: an initial, automatic, stimulus-driven, default process and a subsequent, perceiver-driven deliberative process. A key trigger for deliberative processing is assumed to be disfluency at the default stage, as caused by factors such as visual complexity. We predicted that complexity and conceptual fluency would interact in determining aesthetic liking, with people preferring complex stimuli, but only when these are relatively easy to process conceptually. Our results supported this prediction for beauty judgments, although creativity judgments showed a curiously uniform profile. Nevertheless, the predictive capacity of the PIA Model in relation to beauty judgments attests to the explanatory strength of this default?interventionist theory of aesthetic liking. We conclude by noting important parallels between the PIA Model and the Revised Optimal Innovation Hypothesis, which likewise has broad reach in explaining how defaultness and non-defaultness affect pleasure across a range of linguistic and pictorial stimuli.

  • 68.
    Balogun, Kazeem Ayinde
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy audit in Fridhemsskolan: A preschool in Gävle municipality2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the energy audit in Fridhemsskolan which is an educational facility. Fridhemsskolan is a preschool for children in Gävle municipality for children up to the age of six years and comprise of nine buildings in total. The project begins with an energy survey on the school facilities which ranges from checking the ventilation system, lightning system, number of occupants, equipment’s types and so on. The next step was to use a simulation program software called indoor climate and energy (IDA ICE) to create the base model for the building and input the data collected during the energy survey directly into the software and simulate it for a period of one year. After creating the base model, the total electricity use of the building was around 89 MWh/year while the district heating was 157 MWh/year.The energy conservation opportunities in Fridhemsskolan for the building was divide into two categories and these are referred to as non-retrofitting (no or minimal cost) and retrofitting (with cost) recommendations. The non-retrofitting involves reducing the indoor temperature and with this approach; the district heating consumption was reduced to 147.6 MWh/year which amount to 9.34 MWh/year in savings for the district heating while the electricity consumption was reduced to 86.4 MWh/year which amount to 2.6 MWh/year in savings for the electricity.Retrofitting (with cost) recommendations involves looking at the base model and see where some improvements can be carried out. In this research, the roof of the building has more energy losses and retrofitting with cost analysis was performed on that part of the building envelope.After retrofit, the district heating consumption was reduced to 142 MWh/year which is about 15 MWh/year in saving for the district heating while the electricity consumption was reduced to 26 MWh/year which also amount to 63 MWh/year saving in electricity consumption. The reason for this sharp decrease in the electrical consumption was because, the electrical radiators in the base model of the building was replaced with ideal heaters that uses district heating as the energy carrier and 170 mm of mineral wool was also added to the roof.Finally the research further looks at the thermal comfort and the indoor air quality of the occupants in the building by analysing the data on both thermal comfort and the indoor air quality to see if the value obtained are within the acceptable range. In most cases the value is within the acceptable range like in the case of carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration in theiiioccupied zone, the value obtained after reducing the indoor temperature was less than 1000 parts-per-million (ppm) and that shows that the carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration is within an acceptable level in the room. The thermal comfort of the occupants in the occupied zone was within the acceptable limit. However, lowering indoor temperature increases the PPD for both buildings. The percentage of the total occupant hours with thermal dissatisfaction increases to 13% from 14 % for Hus 9 and from 13% to 15% for Hus (4-8).

  • 69.
    Barguilla Jiménez, Núria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The effect of a thin foil on the heat losses behind a radiator2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    This thesis work is the study of the effect of an aluminium foil on the losses that produced by a radiator, situated under a window, through the wall behind it. The reason behind this topic is due to the energy problem and the different goals that governments have set up to try to reduce the use of energy. For example, more specifically a Swedish national goal is to decrease the energy use of the built stock with 50% by 2050.

     

    For this purpose, an experimental set-up was built in the University of Gävle, Sweden. The arrangement was composed by a radiator and a window facing a climate chamber. A total of twenty-one temperatures and two heat fluxes in the exterior wall were measured in the set-up. Ten different measurement scenarios with different radiator temperature, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C; two different distance between the radiator and the wall, 5 and 9 centimetres and with and without the aluminium foil, were performed.

     

    With the experimental results, a CFD model was validated. Two different models were done, first a 2D model and afterwards a 3D model. For the turbulence, the chosen model was standard k-ε model. There were 54 cases simulated with the 2D model and the 3D model was used just for validation. The cases had different variables such as radiator temperature, outdoor temperature and wall insulation. With these cases, analysis of the effectiveness of the presence of an aluminium foil behind the radiator is performed to evaluate if there is a significant reduction of the losses.

     

    The results showed with both methods that the aluminium foil reduces the losses of the wall behind the radiator. The savings varied depending on the boundary conditions of the case and it were obtained a maximum of 4% and a minimum of 1,3%.

  • 70.
    Barroeta, Ander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Design of a ventilation system for carbon dioxide reduction in two gym rooms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is mainly focused on the improving and design of the ventilation system of two rooms at different levels of a gym (Friskis and Svettis in Gävle, Sweden) to reduce the  concentration to never be higher than 1000 ppm.

    For this purpose, several field measurements were performed in different locations and situations. Two main measurements were necessary. On one hand, the  level in different parts of the rooms during different activities. On the other hand, the air flow through the inlet and outlet ducts of the ventilation system. It was also important to take into account the indoor temperature and humidity. These measurements were enough to analyze the failures of the system and to recognize the worst points of each room.

    Comparing both rooms, the necessity of changing the ventilation system in one of these rooms was much higher, due to there were measured  values up to 3000 ppm during a typical day in the gym.

    With this information the consequences of high CO2 levels in human people were analyzed. Among various ventilation systems, displacement ventilation system was proposed as the new design. Theoretical calculations were made to reach to the value of 31.8  in the air change rate (ACH), which was the necessary value for the new design to keep the carbon dioxide level under 1000 ppm.

  • 71.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm resilience center; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Social-Ecological Research Lens on Urban Resilience2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Social-Ecological Research has approached the city as a living ecosystem, an approach that really begun with the urban scholars of the early 1900s. But new developments in this line of research started during the 1990s to study various social-ecological relations in a web of life reaching far beyond the built environment of any city. Such research argues that it is in such social-ecological relations where the resilience of cities ultimately rests, for example in a food system consisting of the chain of activities connecting food producing ecosystems, processing, distribution, consump­tion, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities. Contrary to popular belief, it is in such social-ecological research traditions, where the most prolific authors on urban resilience are found.

  • 72.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre .
    Social-Ecological Urbanism and the Life of Baltic Cities2016In: The Nature of Cities, Vol. 2016Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Jane Jacobs critiqued modernist city planning in the now classic book The Death and Life of Great American Cities(1961). This book is now inspiring an urban renaissance. Jacobs proposed that a city must be understood as a system of organized complexity—in other words, as an ecosystem—and that any intervention in the urban fabric with a lack of such understanding is bound to result in unexpected surprises. Trained in zoology, Jacobs viewed the city much like a coral reef, where co-evolutionary dynamics between the coral organisms (the people) and the coral reef (the built environment) result in the emergence of a socio-spatial logic that can support various kind of functions and opportunities for people.

    First line of urban scholarship based on ecological thought

    Blueprint planning based on ideals such as Le Corbusier’s “The Shining City,” or Sir Ebenezer Howard’s “The Garden City,” Jacobs argued, is likely to fail since it lacks the critical understanding of the city as a complex socio-spatial system. Spatial morphology thinking (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) provided a precision and an analytical depth to the insights of Jane Jacobs. Density, accessibility and diversity are outlined as the main features of spatial capital for people in cities (Marcus, 2010), which are akin to insights in ecosystem ecology, where species diversity, species abundance and ecological connectivity are critical features.

  • 73.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Viola has an Acorn in her Pocket2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 74.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering Children’s Connection to Nature Through Authentic Situations: The Case of Saving Salamanders at School2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children’s development of affective relationships  with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children’s enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools.

  • 75.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering children's connection to nature through authentic situations: the case of saving salamanders at school2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no JUN, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children's development of affective relationships with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children's enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools. 

  • 76.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    A Critical Perspective on the “Smart City” Model2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As urban ecologists we support developing smoother traffic systems, providing citizens with more easily accessible information, and of course promoting citizen-participation and local democracy in political decision-making. However, and as is normally the common destiny when new models for sustainable development are appearing, investments in these “smarter” models run the risk of making people blind to problems that need more immediate concern. In short, governance is a matter of prioritizing among different goals. Governance is also about making sure that strong and powerful enterprises and business interests do not hijack the public debate

  • 77.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Smart (Cyborg) City Needs Smarter Ecological Resilience Thinking2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Employing a sort of a cyborg worldview—meaning a living system of intertwined human and machine parts—the Smart City system is seen as contributing to urban sustainability with the basic assumption that ‘the Internet of Things’ serves social and public ends. These ends include economic benefits, improving efficiency and quality of life for people by optimizing control of infrastructures. In this view, urban residents are at the center of a city’s sustainability transformation, while at the same time serving as “data sources”, providing urban planners (central controllers of the cyborg) various sources of information about human behavior that may or may not be exploited. While various efficiency measures often are beneficial for society, at least in the short term, the discussions of resilience of such a cyborg is mostly entirely avoided.

  • 78.
    Basner, Mathias
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry, Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
    Brink, Mark
    Federal Office for the Environment, Noise and NIR Division, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bristow, Abigail
    School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Finegold, Lawrence
    Finegold & So, Consultants, 1167 Bournemouth Court, Centerville, Ohio 45459, USA.
    Hong, Jiyoung
    Eco-Transport Research Division, Korea Railroad Research Institute, Republic of Korea.
    Janssen, Sabine A.
    Department of Urban Environment and Safety, The Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), Delft, Netherlands.
    Klaeboe, Ronny
    Department of Safety, Security and Environment, Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Oslo, Norway.
    Leroux, Tony
    School of Speech Language and Audiology, University of Montreal, Montréal (Québec), Canada.
    Liebl, Andreas
    Department of Acoustics, Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Matsui, Toshihito
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Japan.
    Schwela, Dieter
    University of York, Environment Department, Stockholm Environment Institute, York, United Kingdom.
    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola
    Department of Audiology and Phoniatrics, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Poland.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden.
    ICBEN Review of Research on the Biological Effects of Noise 2011-20142015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 75, p. 57-82Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  • 79.
    Batista, Rúben
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. University of gävle.
    The impact of shadowing in photovoltaic systems and how to minimize it: An analysis with the PVsyst Software2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 80.
    Bayo, Oihane
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Economic and Environmental Analysis of PV Electricity Storage in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energies, and among them solar photovoltaics, are becoming more important in the last years due to the lack of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of them. PV installed capacity is increasing over and over in some countries and the prices of the installation are decreasing while the prices of the electricity are predicted to increase. Electricity use in buildings account for an important part of all electricity use in the world. This two facts make the PV installation in the rooftops of buildings a good opportunity to reduce the purchase of electricity from the grid.

     

    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the profitability and the environmental impact (when using a hot water accumulator) of a PV system with different storage systems placed in the rooftop of two dwellings located in Gävle (Sweden). The storage systems can be either batteries or hot water accumulators. The purpose of the storage system is to increase the self-consumption rate of the PV system and to save the highest amount of money possible. It is also studied the difference of installing PbA and Li-ion batteries, and the reliability of the data used in the simulation of the alternative systems with the help of the software PVsyst.

     

    Results show that the profitability of the proposed three alternative PV systems with storage is not higher than the PV system without storage. The reason for this has been found in the low prices of electricity and DH nowadays. Moreover, the impact of decreasing the heating demand from DH network does not benefit the environment, because the electricity has to be produced in power plants that produce more pollutants. It can be said also that the data obtained in PVsyst has been determined reliable and that the difference between the two types of batteries is not conclusive.

     

    It can be concluded that if the cost of the PV systems or the batteries would decrease, the profitability will be higher. Furthermore, the increase in the price of electricity, DH or governmental subsidies would improve the results. 

  • 81.
    Bell, Raoul
    et al.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Röer, Jan P.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Storch, Dunja
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Buchner, Axel
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany.
    The Effect of Cognitive Control on Different Types of Auditory Distraction2017In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 359-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deviant as well as changing auditory distractors interfere with short-term memory. According to the duplex model of auditory distraction, the deviation effect is caused by a shift of attention while the changing-state effect is due to obligatory order processing. This theory predicts that foreknowledge should reduce the deviation effect, but should have no effect on the changing-state effect. We compared the effect of foreknowledge on the two phenomena directly within the same experiment. In a pilot study, specific foreknowledge was impotent in reducing either the changing-state effect or the deviation effect, but it reduced disruption by sentential speech, suggesting that the effects of foreknowledge on auditory distraction may increase with the complexity of the stimulus material. Given the unexpected nature of this finding, we tested whether the same finding would be obtained in (a) a direct preregistered replication in Germany and (b) an additional replication with translated stimulus materials in Sweden.

  • 82.
    Bendrik, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Airwasher: Luftrening med hjälp av växter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet omfattar en designprocess innehållande, litteraturstudier, intervjuer, observationer, marknadsundersökning, idégenerering, fokusgrupp, utvärdering och kommunikation. Syftet var att vidareutveckla en luftrenare/luftfuktare kallad Airwasher för företaget Växt och Miljödesign. Växt och Miljödesign är ett litet företag som grundar sin verksamhet på att hyra ut och underhålla växter till andra företag. De hyr även ut sin egen uppfinning Airwasher. Airwasher bygger på växters naturliga luftreningsegenskaper då den med hjälp av en fläkt suger in luft från rummet och med hjälp av ett rör för den ner till rötterna där en reningsprocess sker. Växt och Miljödesign hade inte några önskemål på hur Airwasher skulle vidareutvecklas utan det var upp till mig att hitta områden med utvecklingspotential. För att identifiera vilka problem som fanns med Airwasher gjordes intervjuer och observationer ute hos kunder. Det visade sig att det största problemet var att hitta lämpliga platser för Airwasher eftersom den endast kommer i en golvstående kruka med en diameter på 50 cm. Efter att problemen var identifierade började en idégenereringsprocess med målet att hitta lösningar. Alla lösningar som kom fram till en början skulle inte förbättra produkten nämnvärt men däremot göra den mer komplicerad. Det var inte önskvärt så jag tog ett steg tillbaka och funderade över det verkliga behovet, vilket var att förse kunderna med frisk luft. För att göra det på bästa sätt bestämde jag mig för att fokusera på att utveckla tjänsten Airwasher, inte produkten. Slutresultatet blev en serie med tre olika storlekar anpassade efter Växt och Miljödesigns sortiment av krukor. På så vis skulle man kunna utnyttja alla naturliga platser för blomkrukor och enkelt få frisk luft över hela kontoret. För att bestämma ett formspråk för nya Airwasher samlade jag en fokusgrupp där tre värdeord som Airwasher står för diskuterades fram. Orden som bestämdes var naturlig, diskret och pålitlig. Utifrån dessa följde ett skissarbete, först på papper sedan i 3-dimensionellt medium. De bästa idéerna togs ut för att sedan utvärderas mot samma fokusgrupp. När formen var bestämd valdes lämplig produktionsmetod utifrån Växt och Miljödesigns förutsättningar, vilket var 3D-skrivning. För att hålla sig till värdeorden valdes ett träfärgat filament av sågspån och PLA-plast, vilket passar bra in i krukans naturliga färgpalett.

  • 83.
    Bennhult, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Engren, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Bedömning av området energi: En jämförelse mellan Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 och PHI2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish building and property management sector are responsible for about 30 % of the total energy use. In order to take environmental consideration, different environmental assessment tools and standards are used. Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 and PHI are some of these. There has been increased interest to certify buildings and therefore it is of interest to evaluate the assessment of the energy field to see if relevant energy aspects are assessed. First a literature review was carried out with delimitation to evaluate the systems manuals and guidelines for new produced multi-apartment dwellings in Sweden. Then a comparison between the systems assessments and methods of calculations for the energy field as well as the systems considerations for the energy’s environmental effect was carried out. The comparison was based on emissions related to production and use and also depletion of non- renewable resources. Finally the theory from the literature review and the results from the comparison were discussed and that led to some recommendations for the systems.

    Different assessment systems that are used for the systems are grading systems, marking systems and certifications. The systems judge similar indicators and subfields for energy. Something that they all judge is building’s annual energy use but they define them differently. Beyond that, the systems distinguish in the judgements of the energy field. The requirements of the inputs for energy calculations are different for the systems. As well as the energy’s environmental impact, all systems take some consideration by judging the energy use. Some of the systems also take into consideration the environmental impact through assessment of energy source’s environmental impact or through energy form factors and primary energy factors for the energy type.

    For all systems the indicators and the subfields are mandatory but the criteria and requirement levels are different. The systems that take consideration to climatic zones allow buildings located in colder climate to use more energy and have more environmental impact, the systems should reformulate the criteria and requirements were consideration is not taken to climate zones. The requirements of the heat effect demand for buildings should not take consideration to the heating system because the heating system does not affect the heat effect demand.

    At the moment the systems are undeveloped when it comes to consideration to the energy’s environmental impacts and should therefore revise this. Some recommendations for the judgements of the energy field is to allocate the energy use/ per person and to judge primary energy or carbon dioxide emissions, other emissions and to judge the energy’s environmental impacts from “the cradle to the grave”. However it can be problematic to judge primary energy because today, there are no standards for how primary energy factors should be calculated currently.

    Key words: environmental assessment tools, Passive house standards, Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12, PHI, energy, environmental impact 

  • 84.
    Berg, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Smoketrack - En digital plattform för personer som har bestämt sig för att sluta röka2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan cigaretten introducerades under 1800-talet har rökningens vara eller inte vara debatterats ständigt. Riskerna med rökning har lett till att fler och fler åtgärder införts för att försvåra tillgången till tobak, och möjligheterna att röka överallt har kraftigt begränsats. I samarbete med företaget Deversify och deras produkt Smoketrack avser examensarbetet att skapa en digital plattform i syfte med att erbjuda hjälp till ett rökfritt liv. 

    Arbetet behandlar vilka funktioner en applikation ska innehålla, och processen som ledde fram till det, för att i kombination med produkten Smoketrack uppmuntra till rökavvänjning. Arbetet har utförts genom en designprocess bestående av intervjuer och användartester samt litteraturdata. Resultatet av arbetet gestaltas genom en mobilapplikation med fokus på en community för sina medlemmar.

  • 85.
    Berg, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Ett nytt användningsområde för materialet OrganoComp®: genom en materialdriven designprocess2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att med hjälp av en materialinriktad designprocess skapa en produkt av biokompositmaterialet OrganoComp® för att demonstrera dess styrkor och möjligheter. Arbetet kommer att följa metoden ”Material Driven Design (MDD)”, vilket betyder att processen kommer att börja med en noggrann studie av materialet – dels tekniskt och ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv, men även jämförelsemässigt mot andra material.

    Insikterna från dessa studier kommer sedan trattas ner och sammanfattas i en ”designintention” som ska sätta målet för designarbetet. Slutligen kommer ett antal koncept som uppfyller designintentionen arbetas fram, varav ett koncept – ett litet, ihopvikbart och nedbrytbart paraply/regnskydd kommer att väljas ut som det slutgiltiga. Paraplyet visar på materialets vattenavvisande egenskaper, i kombination med hårdhet och vikbarhet. 

    Målet med projektet är att skapa en demonstrator som även har potential att bli en användbar produkt i framtiden, och samtidigt ge företaget OrganoClick nya insikter och flera förslag på nya användningsområden för sitt material.

  • 86.
    Bergkvist, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av fukt i en yttervägg på ett fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 87.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Brunifiering av Öjaren: Analys och framtida utsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The colouring of water in many lakes across the Northern hemisphere is increasing. This is also the case in Lake Öjaren in Sandviken municipality in Sweden. The lake is the main water source in Sandviken and has a high and increasing watercolour. This leads to more complex cleaning methods and higher costs for the society. This study focuses on the changing and increasing watercolour in the lake over a period from 1995-2015. The factors analysed in this study are those who is considered to have an effect on the watercolour in the lake.

    The reasons for increased brownification are different depending on which type of water body is studied. Climate, soil conditions and pollutants contributes in varying extent to brownification. Increased levels in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron are common reasons for brownification in Lake Öjaren and other water bodies, in Lake Öjaren increased levels of manganese are also shown to affect brownification.

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between the watercolour and the factors: iron, pH, COD, manganese, temperature and precipitation. The aim is also to investigate which actions are possible to apply to prevent increased watercolour.

    Water samples from Lake Öjaren between the years 1995-2015 have been the basis for the executed statistical analysis. Evaluating the correlation between the factors we have used Minitab 17 and calculated Pearson´s correlation coefficient. To further explain the relationship between the factors a principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed. Future scenarios and current trends have also been produced, in order to develop a better foundation for further studies.

    The correlation analysis reveals that the most significant connection with watercolour are iron, COD and manganese. The result of the PCA also corroborates this connection where three factors are the ones that are most co-variating.

    The trend and the future scenario for all the factors in Lake Öjaren are that they all are increasing and the watercolour is expected to be increasing by 63 % until year 2050. This scenario means that actions are needed to counteract the increasing colouring of the water.

  • 88.
    Bergman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of ventilation for an office building: Situated in Gävle, Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the CO

    2-emissions and electricity prices are ever increasing many companies have tried to reduce their energy consumption in order to reduce both CO2-emissions and the cost of using energy. Therefore, in this article an office building situated in Sweden have been investigated with its current ventilation flow and what saving poten-tials can be made from heat recovery and a different ventilation flow in regards to health, energy and cost. Empirical data have been collected to be able to calculate ener-gy savings made by heat recovery and new ventilation flow. A ventilation flow of 25 l/s per office were chosen and that the conference room should have at least 3 l/s per m² the dining room and locker was not investigated thoroughly and therefore a ventilation flow from the recommendations of Sweden was followed. The total flows became, 530 l/s respectively 630 l/s for the top and bottom floor. A rotating heat exchanger with an es-timated efficiency of 80% was used for heat recovery and through the two methods combined an energy reduction up to 96,4 % for heating and 83,4 % from the electricity could be reduced.

  • 89.
    Bergman, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Hållbar formgivning för framtidens elvägar: Gestaltningsidéer och vidareutveckling av eHighway2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete omfattar en designprocess med målsättningen att ge ett nytt formförslag för framtidens elvägar för tung trafik. Dessa elvägar eller eHighway som det också benämns är ett nytt fenomen som är ett resultat av den strävan att minska användningen av fossila bränslen som finns idag finns i samhället. För att utveckla och testa tekniken har Trafikverket tillsammans med Region Gävleborg drivit ett projekt med företag från Sveriges näringsliv där man har gjort en två kilometer lång demonstrationssträcka på Europaväg 16. Komponenter till eHighway är i dagsläget utformade och anpassade för användning av höghastighetståg vilket har lett till att ett missnöje har uppstått kring dess visuella påverkan på vägrummet. Denna problematik blev grunden för denna rapport där syftet var att ta fram ett koncept på en ny utformning av eHighway som stämmer överens med dess hållbara intentioner samt gynnar framtida utveckling av tekniken för elväg med tung trafik. Designprocessen som användes har varit anpassad för att se till allmänhetens behov kring vägrummet där enkätundersökning, omröstningar och diskussioner har varit verktyg för att inkludera allmänhetens önskningar. Designarbetet som har gjorts har innefattat en hel del skissande och idégenerering som har utvärderats med hjälp utav olika metoder som har valts med omsorg för att uppnå bästa möjliga resultat. För en effektiv kommunikation av resultatet gjordes en modell i skala 1:18 samt presentationsbilder. Resultatet av detta examensarbete blev slutkonceptet ”Velum”  som betyder segel på latin. Velum är en stolpe till eHighway där intentionen under projektet har varit att ha ett holistiskt perspektiv med fokus på allmänhetens behov. Resultatet är inspirerat av naturens former och med hjälp av konstruktionens vajrar förs tankarna till lövens ådringar, dessa vajrar är även tänkt att kunna fungera som stöd åt lättskötta klätterväxter som skulle kunna planteras vid stolparna för ett mer bonat vägrum. Stolpen är också tänkt att kunna vara kompatibel med att kombineras med annan teknik som till exempel vägbelysning.

  • 90.
    Bergman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekonomisk och miljömässig värdering av en sänkt returtemperatur i ett fjärrvärmenät: En studie av ett fjärrvärmenät i Bollnäs2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For district heating companies it is extremely important that the heat they produce is utilized as efficiently as possible by their customers. However, there are a lot of problems with customers heat exchangers, which create obstacles to this goal. The heat exchangers tend to send a certain amount of uncooled water back to the district heating plant. Round passages and drain valves are other examples of problem areas in a district heating network.

     

    Bollnäs Energi AB wants to review how the district heating network and production facility in Bollnäs would be affected economically and environmentally if the return temperature dropped. What primarily is dealt with in this report is how it would affect the flue gas condenser.

     

    Flue gas condensation is when the amount of energy that has been used to produce steam by the moisture in the fuel during combustion again becomes liquid. This amount of energy is being utilized by heat exchanging it with the district heating network return line. It is simplistic to say that the lower the return temperature, the higher the effect output will be made possible from the flue gas condenser.

     

    If 1 MWh of energy is extracted from the flue gas condenser, that is 1 MWh less that needs to be burned in the company's boilers. If there are several boilers running simultaneously operated with different fuels, it is the fuel that has the highest cost that will be saved into. However, it can cause problems when the boiler is loaded into a cogeneration unit, ie, that it produces both heat and electricity, because even electricity production will then be reduced.

     

    Data has been collected from the company's logs and a simulated reduction in the return temperature has been made. This has demonstrated that lowering the return temperature by one degree would lead to a saving of approximately 442 000 SEK per year.

     

    When this "free energy" comes from flue gas condenser instead from waste or oil combustion so it also becomes a major environmental gain. Therefore, the amount of energy from the flue gas condensation was compared with if the same amount of energy would have been produced by burning waste or oil. The calculations show that the same reduction as above would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 378 and 762 tonnes per year respectively.

  • 91.
    Bergqvist, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Kemi som pedagogiskt verktyg: En studie som berör barnens utveckling och lärande i förskola2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 92.
    Bergqvist, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Mot en grön framtid: Ett examensarbete där designprocessen använts för att öka barnfamiljers konsumtion av vegetarisk mat2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan man genom design utveckla en produkt eller tjänst som skapar medvetenhet, nyfikenhet samt intresse hos barnfamiljer kring vegetarisk mat? Det var frågan jag ställdes inför i inledningsskedet av mitt examensarbete och som jag sedan undersökte. Bakgrunden till frågeställningen är en kombination av min egen livsstil som vegetarian tillsammans med det växande samhällshotet som den ökande köttkonsumtionen utgör. Jag har använt mig av olika metoder och verktyg som intervjuer, litteratur och workshops för att utforska mitt problemområde på djupet. Processen resulterade i en applikation som på ett enkelt och roligt sätt hjälper barnfamiljer att äta mer vegetarisk mat och samtidigt ökar barnens delaktighet i både inhandlingen och tillagningen av maten. I den här uppsatsen kommer jag grundligt berätta hur jag gått till väga för att nå mitt slutresultat.

  • 93.
    Bergström, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tilläggsisolering av småhus ur ett klimatpåverkansperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i en tid med klimatförändringar till följd av människans levnadssätt. Energiutvinning ger påverkan på klimatet genom växthusgaser, då främst genom koldioxid. Riksdagen har beslutat att Sverige ska minska energianvändningen i bostäder och lokaler med 20 % fram till år 2020 och med 50 % till år 2050 (Statens Energimyndighet, 2007). Det finns flera sätt att minska energianvändningen för bostäder, att minska transmissionsförlusterna genom klimatskalet är det mest vedertagna. Ett sätt att minska dessa transmissionsförluster är att tilläggsisolera fasaden.

    I denna studie har klimatpåverkan till följd av en tilläggsisolering satts i relation till de minskade emissionerna på grund av reducerat värmebehov. Studie är gjord på sju olika uppvärmningssätt och sex olika tjocklekar på isoleringen. För det beräknade värmebehoven gjordes en jämförelse mellan fyra olika städer i Sverige med olika klimat, en stad i varje klimatzon enligt Boverkets byggregler (BBR). 

    Resultatet visar variationer mellan klimatzonerna, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätten. Studeras istället primär energianvändning i det olika fallen skiljer det sig en del från emissioner av växthusgaser. Slutsatsen är att sett över hela isoleringens livstid är det mest klimatsmarta valet att tilläggsisolera. Detta oavsett klimatzon, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätt (av de i studien granskade).

  • 94.
    Berner Wik, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Värmereglering utifrån byggnadens tidskonstant i en värmetrög fastighet: Prognostiseringar utav värmeenergianvändningen och dess ekonomiska kostnader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to continue the development towards a more sustainable city of Gävle, Gävle Energi AB will implement a new season-based capacity model by the year 2019. It creates economic incentives for energy efficiency in real estate’s within Gävle's district heating network.

    This report investigates how the heat energy is used for a building that risks an increased heat energy cost, due to the new pricing model. The aim of the study is to reduce the heat energy usage without investing in the building, which is made possible by regulating the thermal energy supply to the building.

    By programming one year of historical data of temperatures, solar radiation, power- and heat effects the heat supply is forecasted the same way as the building's control system Kabona Eco-pilot is working. The control system applies a floating indoor temperature, which contribute that the thermal inertia of the building is included in the heat load control.

    The study includes two forecasts that are compared to the actual heat energy use and the new capacity price model. Forecast 1 is based on an annual cycle and forecast 2 is based on the range of November 2017 to Mars 2018. The aim of forecast 2 is to apply a strategic heat load control to reduce the heat capacity needed at -10˚C.

    Forecast 1 indicates a potential heat energy saving of 26% even though Diös Fastigheter AB does not invest in any energy saving technology. A saving of approximately 44 700 SEK is forecasted for the annual cycle. The building has an energy class D and has the potential to achieve energy class C after the change of control system parameters.

    Forecast 2 indicates a potential capacity reduction corresponding to 46,1% while the variable heat energy consumption decreases. Overall, there is an approximated heat energy saving potential of 47,8%, which corresponds to 216 700 SEK, during the range of 2017-11-01 to 2018-03-31. Due to the consequence of a lower indoor temperature.

  • 95.
    Björklund, Tony
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building engineering.
    Steiner, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fästning eller fikaställe: Arbetsplatsens förvaltning, identitet och arkitektur2014Book (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Björkman, Carolina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Falk, Jasmine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utvecklingen av ett hållbart avfallshanteringssystem i Bangalore2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    India is a country that is growing economically while the problems with the waste andit´s treatment are still in the development phase. The study focuses on how the waste ishandled in the city of Bangalore. From a Swedish point of view the waste collection andtreatment have been investigated Bangalore and shortcomings identified. Suggestionsfor improvements are presented from the lack of the waste management and the focushas been on how Swedish solutions could be implemented in Bangalore.

    In Sweden the sorting of waste at a household level is managed from different fractionsin containers and therefore the waste has a higher degree of recyclability. Theprocessing steps that are providing energy are sufficient leading to very little wastebeing added to landfills. A constant work is done based on the waste hierarchy. InBangalore, the situation is the reverse and the waste collected mostly ends up inlandfills or unofficial dumping sites around the city. In Sweden, waste is handled by theformal sector, while Bangalore is largely dependent on an informal sector whereindividuals collect waste.

    A literature study has provided insight into the difficulties developing countries mayhave to face regarding waste management and the factors that come into play in theexecution of a functioning system. Within the project, an observational study was madein Bangalore for two weeks. Based on the observational study a lot of previousinformation on how waste is handled could be examined more critically and morerealistic conclusions drawn. The lack of a functioning system for waste collectionthroughout Bangalore results in a lot of waste ending up directly on the streets or onabandoned plots. This in turn gives rise to odors for residents and an unhygienicenvironment. The collection available to the public was in most cases insufficient.

    Three factors were identified that prevent the waste management from functioning.These were politics, the formal and informal sector, as well as the practical collectionof waste. A major obstacle in Bangalore is the lack of political interest of functioningwaste management. No major action is taken against the growing amounts of wasteproduced. A good integration between the formal waste collectors consisting of thetransport of waste and waste collectors versus informal waste collectors is missing.Bangalore also lacks formal collection systems and the people are not given the rightconditions to be able to go anywhere to get rid of their waste. This leads to increasedignorance about how waste should be sorted for processing appropriately and whereenergy can be recovered.

    A clearer collection is needed if Bangalore is to achieve sustainable development and tocurb the escalating environmental problems they face. Some form of waste treatment isneeded to reduce the pressure on the city landfill. By doing this there is a change for thecity to be sustainable and green.

  • 97.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Air exchange and ventilation in an underground train station2012In: 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012: Vol. 2 / [ed] Eliza Morawska, 2012, p. 1406-1411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air climate of an underground train station was investigated during two days in January 2008. The underground platform was accessed from ticket halls on each side with air volumes of 1 000 m3 and 1 430 m3, respectively. The station platform air volume was approximately 14 300 m3. Air from the outside could enter either via the ticket halls or via the train tunnels from ventilation towers situated on each side of the platform area. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using pumped sampling and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The average air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was found to be 3.62 h-1, ranging from 4 h-1 at rush hours to slightly more than 3 h-1 at night and in the middle of the day. The largest ACH (4.5 h-1) was found at rush hour in one of the ticket halls, corresponding to a flow rate of 75 000 m3/h. The lowest ACH (2.8 h-1) was found in the other ticket hall at night, corresponding to a flow rate of 47 000 m3/h. In the middle of the station platform the ACH was lower than the ACH at the platform ends.

  • 98.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Att ändra sin förståelse: exemplet faser och fasövergångar2012In: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson & Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, p. 195-216Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Högskolan i Gävle: Omorganisation - översyn: Scenario 1 SOM NU-fast bättre2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utredningen för Scenario 1:Som Nu - fast bättre i Högskolan i Gävles översyn av organisationen. Rapporten lyfter fram flera skäl till att förbättra den nuvarande organisationen snarare än att söka skapa en ny, oprövad organisationsform.

  • 100. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kemi för de yngre åren2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 109-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är bakgrunden till att små barn är fascinerande av att leka Titt-ut,men som alla föräldrar vet så försvinner den lekens lockelse när barnet blir äldre. Barn utvecklas snabbt i de yngre åren, vilket skapar både möjligheter och begränsningar för hur lärande i naturvetenskap och kemi uppstår i förskolan och grundskolan. Det finns många skäl till att kemirelaterade aktiviteter bör introduceras i de yngre åren och i det här kapitlet diskuteras några av dessa skäl ur ett kemididaktiskt perspektiv. Kapitlet är uppbyggt kring några av de betydande framsteg som gjorts i den utvecklingspsykologiska forskningen under de senaste tjugo åren (Gärdenfors, 2006). Idag vet vi ganska mycket om hur våra hjärnor fungerar och utvecklas. Insprängt i denna beskrivning kommer jag att reflektera kring hur detta skulle kunna påverka valet av innehåll när det gäller naturvetenskapligt lärande för yngre barn. På slutet sammanfattar jag tankarna om innehåll med ett speciellt fokus på kemi.

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