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  • 51.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Toward a model of work-related self:: a narrative review2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 331Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational work as personal and social identification can be conceptualized as one of the life goals that we strive for and find meaning in. A basic categorization of the phenomenon of work-related identity is suggested, based on psychological theories of identity, memory and relational schema. It distinguishes between organizational, workgroup and professional identity. The two former relate to the concepts of social identity and collective self and the latter to the concepts of personal identity and individual self. These are assumed to form functionally independent cognitive structures, leading to separate motivations and influences on work-related satisfaction. Given this, empirical research on the impact of work-related identity on employee satisfaction, in general terms, is reviewed. The article concludes with some prospective directions for future research by sketching a general model of work-related self. It is hypothesized to evolve by a causal progression from employment across time via emotional and cognitive components.

  • 52.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Butler, A.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Ode Sang, Å.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ångman, E.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, I.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Fieldforest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Before and after a natural disaster: disruption in emotion component of place-identity and wellbeing2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of place-identity and wellbeing, before and after a natural disaster. A total of 656 respondents, living near the area of the largest forest and landscape fire in modern times in Sweden, participated in this study. Before the disaster, a positive association was found between place-identity and wellbeing, indicating that the stronger emotions participants evolved to the place, as well as remembered more and thought about the place, the stronger wellbeing they experienced at the site. After the disaster, the strength of this relationship decreased more than twice, accounted for by the weakening of the emotion-wellbeing link. Accordingly, participants almost lost their emotional bond to the area but maintained their memories and thoughts about the site intact and, by that, their positive wellbeing associations with the location. This indicates tentatively the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth, type of resilience involving operations of cognitive appraisal. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 53.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Relationships between Personal and Collective Place Identity and Well-Being in Mountain Communities2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no JAN, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the relationships between landscape-related personal and collective identity and well-being of residents living in a Swedish mountain county (N = 850). It was shown that their most valued mountain activities were viewing and experiencing nature and landscape, outdoor recreation, rest and leisure, and socializing with friends/family. Qualitative analyses showed that the most valued aspects of the sites were landscape and outdoor restoration for personal favorite sites, and tourism and alpine for collective favorite sites. According to quantitative analyses the stronger the attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place identity) residents felt to favorite personal and collective sites the more well-being they perceived when visiting these places. Similarly, the more remembrance, thinking and mental travel (cognitive component of place identity) residents directed to these sites the more well-being they perceived in these places. In both types of sites well-being was more strongly predicted by emotional than cognitive component of place-identity. All this indicates the importance of person-place bonds in beneficial experiences of the outdoors, over and above simply being in outdoor environments.

  • 54.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ljunglöf, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories2017In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 52, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4 years, participated in a study involving a three × three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. 

  • 55.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nordhall, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Guilt as a motivator for moral judgment: An autobiographical memory study2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no May, article id 750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared. Finally, it was indicated that the more guilt people felt the more hidden/denied (less accessible), but more real (more sensory details), the self-defining moral memory.

  • 56.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sang, A. O.
    Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wellbeing in urban greenery: The role of naturalness and place identity2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate effects of urban greenery (high vs. low naturalness) on place identity and wellbeing, and the links between place identity and wellbeing. It was shown that participants (Gothenburg, Sweden, N = 1347) estimated a stronger attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place-identity), and more remembrance and thinking about and mental travel (cognitive component of place-identity) in relation to high vs. low perceived naturalness. High naturalness was also reported to generate higher wellbeing in participants than low naturalness. Furthermore, place identity was shown to predict participants' wellbeing in urban greenery, accounting for 35% of variance explained by the regression. However, there was a stronger relationship between the emotional vs. the cognitive component of place identity and wellbeing. Finally, a significant role of place identity in mediating the naturalness-wellbeing relationship was shown, indicating that the naturalness-wellbeing connection can be partly accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of people-place bonding.

  • 57.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    3 Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate Change: Concerns, Beliefs and Emotions in Residents, Experts, Decision Makers, Tourists, and Tourist Industry2013In: American Journal of Climate Change, ISSN 2167-9495, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 254-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate effects of different groups of individuals (residents, tourists, experts, decision makers and members of tourist industry) and demographic variables (gender, age, education) on climate change-related concerns, beliefs and emotions. In line with the predictions: 1) Experts were shown to be least concerned for and afraid of climate change impact; 2) Youngest participants were found to be most, and oldest least, concerned for their future; 3) Women were shown to be more concerned for and afraid of the consequences of climate change; and 4) Men and the least educated participants believed their jobs to be more threatened by the environmental laws and protection, and the latter ones believed moreover that the claims about climate change are exaggerated. Implications of these findings for value orientations and their relationships to environmental concerns, beliefs and emotions are discussed.

  • 58.
    Krantz, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Självmedkänsla och föräldraskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This quantitative study’s purpose was to examine if the was any difference in measured self-compassion between parents and non-parents and between the sexes. A survey was published on Facebook, it consisted of the self-compassion formula made by Neff and other additional questions. It was answered by 144 respondents, 97 of them qualified in my target group. My target group was men and women in the age between 25-35 that were in a relationship. A two-ways ANOVA was made and one tendence was seen, between the sexes. Men had a higher amount of self-compassion than women. There was no differences in measured self-compassion between parents and non-parents. Nor was there any significant interaction effect between the sexes and parenthood.

  • 59.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Anställningsbarhet, tillskrivelse av kompetens och karriärutveckling bland nyanlända migranter i Sverige2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den stora ökningen av antalet nyanlända migranter medför nya utmaningar på den svenska arbetsmarknaden och utbildningssystemet. Föreliggande studie är del av ett projekt som ur psykologiska och intersektionella perspektiv utforskar hur nyanlända migranters anställningsbarhet konstrueras och uppfattas. Ett psykologiskt perspektiv fokuserar på individens konstruktion och upplevelse av sin egen anställningsbarhet och vilka beteenden (t ex jobbsökande) denna upplevelse gör tänkbara och uppfattas som möjliga. Intersektionella perspektiv åskådliggör hur sociala kategoriseringar, såsom kön, ålder och utbildning, och kategoriseringen som nyanländ migrant, samverkar i hur nyanlända konstruerar uppfattningar av möjligheter och hinder att anställas. Syftet med studien är att utforska konstruktioner och omformuleringar av migranters anställningsbarhet i en svensk kontext, genom att undersöka råd, rekommendationer och föreskrifter för hur nyanlända migranter kan få tillträde till arbetsmarknaden. Detta kan t ex ske genom validering av tidigare utbildning eller reell kompetens. Offentligt material som är relaterat till anställningsbarhet och kompetens- och karriärutveckling, och information till nyanlända inom ramen för Arbetsförmedlingens etableringsuppdrag analyseras. Föreliggande presentation fokuseras på de möjligheter och svårigheter som tillskrivs nyanlända akademiker.

  • 60.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Ascriptions of employability, competence and career continuance among newly arrived migrants in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of one’s capability to obtain employment, to change or keep one’s job – i.e. employability perceptions – are important assets in our flexible working life (Berntson, 2008). Present day society is strongly influenced by neoliberalism, in which people are regarded as free and transferable individuals, with the capacity to make their own decisions on all aspects of education, work and career (e.g., Davies et al., 2005; Gazso, 2007). Evaluations of potential employees should be based on qualifications and competences, not attributes such as cultural background, gender and ethnicity. Hence, this entails at least superficially a belief in the equal treatment of all employees, and individual responsibility for successful navigation through the labour market. However, norms, presuppositions and contradictions within neoliberal discourses point towards inequality (c.f. Allen et al., 2013; Calas & Smircich, 2006; Kusterer, 2014), and masculine ideals linked to a white, heterosexual normality pervade (e.g., Holgersson, 2003; Mählck, 2012).

     

    The present study aims to explore constructions and reformulations of migrants’ employability, as well as recommendations and prescriptions of how newly arrived migrants should succeed in entering the Swedish labour market. Public documents comprising employability and associated concepts such as competence building and career development are being collected. In order to understand how these concepts are communicated to migrants, we examine information to newly arrived migrants regarding introductory activities and programmes to increase employability. Tentative results demonstrate that although it is assumed that migrants largely lack Swedish language skills, information written in Swedish is often more elaborate than translated versions. The construction of the employable individual builds on tacit assumptions concerning the ability to bring forward required psychological and human capital, in order to appear desirable to potential employers. It seems crucial to be able to measure and verify required competencies and experiences, and perhaps more importantly to work on how you come across to others. Individual employability can thus be constructed as a form of marketing strategy (c.f. Fejes, 2009). Contradictions and shifts between a neoliberal discourse and a social welfare discourse are also noticeable. These shifts could be debilitating for the migrants’ pursuits towards increased employability and career continuance.

  • 61.
    Kusterer, Hanna Li
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psychological and intersectional perspectives on employability among foreign born residents in Sweden 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of one’s capability to obtain employment, to change or keep one’s job are growing more important as our working life is becoming ever more flexible (Berntson, 2008). Present day society is strongly influenced by neoliberalism, in which people are regarded as free and transferable individuals, capable of making their own decisions on all aspects of education, work and career (e.g., Davies et al., 2005; Gazso, 2007). Superficially, this entails a belief in equal treatment of all employees. Evaluations should be based on qualifications and competences, not attributes such as cultural background, gender and ethnicity. However, norms, presuppositions and contradictions within neoliberal discourses point towards inequality (c.f. Allen et al., 2013; Calas & Smircich, 2006; Kusterer, 2014). Sweden is considered one of the most progressive countries in the world in terms of gender equality; nevertheless, society and its organisations are pervaded by masculine ideals related to a white, heterosexual normality (e.g., Holgersson, 2003; Mählck, 2012). There are large differences between Swedish-born and foreign born residents in the labour market, for example regarding unemployment rates and participation in the labour force, and these differences are often gendered (SCB 2014, 2016).

     

    The present project aims to investigate how aspects associated with employability – directly or indirectly – can highlight possiblities and difficulties for migrants in their establishment in the Swedish labour market. Psychological and intersectional perspectives are used to explore how employability is constructed for and perceived by foreign born women and men residing in Sweden. This entails a focus on the subjective and individual experiences, as well as on how public and official discourses and practices are exhibited and used by public authorities, recruitment firms and media. We start by collecting public documents on employability and associated concepts such as competence building and career development. We give special attention to information on programmes for newly arrived migrants and other temporary measures to resist long-term unemployment. In a second step, interviews are conducted with individuals who have taken part in such programmes, and with employees from organisations involved in training and recruitment, as well as government officials concerned with these issues. At the conference, we will present preliminary results on the construction of employability within one programme for newly arrived migrants, and compare this with the view of employability displayed in interviews with unemployed Swedish-born residents who have taken part in a programme to resist long-term unemployment.

  • 62.
    Langeborg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Anchoring in numeric judgments of visual stimuli2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  • 63.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Neiberg, Daniel
    KTH, Ctr Speech Technol, Dept Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Mimmi
    KTH, Ctr Speech Technol, Dept Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Inger
    KTH, Ctr Speech Technol, Dept Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elenius, Kjell
    KTH, Ctr Speech Technol, Dept Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Expression of affect in spontaneous speech: Acoustic correlates and automatic detection of irritation and resignation2011In: Computer speech & language (Print), ISSN 0885-2308, E-ISSN 1095-8363, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 84-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of previous studies on vocal expression have been conducted on posed expressions. In contrast, we utilized a large corpus of authentic affective speech recorded from real-life voice-controlled telephone services. Listeners rated a selection of 200 utterances from this corpus with regard to level of perceived irritation, resignation, neutrality, and emotion intensity. The selected utterances came from 64 different speakers who each provided both neutral and affective stimuli. All utterances were further automatically analyzed regarding a comprehensive set of acoustic measures related to F0, intensity, formants, voice source, and temporal characteristics of speech. Results first showed that several significant acoustic differences were found between utterances classified as neutral and utterances classified as irritated or resigned using a within-persons design. Second, listeners’ ratings on each scale were associated with several acoustic measures. In general the acoustic correlates of irritation, resignation, and emotion intensity were similar to previous findings obtained with posed expressions, though the effect sizes were smaller for the authentic expressions. Third, automatic classification (using LDA classifiers both with and without speaker adaptation) of irritation, resignation, and neutral performed at a level comparable to human performance, though human listeners and machines did not necessarily classify individual utterances similarly. Fourth, clearly perceived exemplars of irritation and resignation were rare in our corpus. These findings were discussed in relation to future research.

  • 64.
    Laukka, Petri
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Quick, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise: A questionnaire study among athletes2013In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 198-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both quantitative items that assessed the prevalence of various uses of music, and open-ended items that targeted specific emotional episodes in relation to music in sports. Results showed that the athletes most often reported listening to music during pre-event preparations, warm-up, and training sessions; and the most common motives for listening to music were to increase pre-event activation, positive affect, motivation, performance levels and to experience flow. The athletes further reported that they mainly experienced positive affective states (e.g., happiness, alertness, confidence, relaxation) in relation to music in sports, and also reported on their beliefs about the causes of the musical emotion episodes in sports. In general, the results suggest that the athletes used music in purposeful ways in order to facilitate their training and performance.

  • 65.
    Modig, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Arbetstagares upplevelser av sin återgång till arbete efter en utmattningsdiagnos2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to understand how workers experience their return to work after a job burn out and how experiences, thoughts and feelings are perceived to promote return to work. The study was qualitative and the data collection consisted of phenomenological interviews with one person at a time with a total of eight participants. The study found mainly a congruence between what has been shown in previous research and what emerged from acquired empirical evidence. Some experiences that have proven to be effective for returning to work in previous research have also been shown by participants in this study to be particularly effective and valuable. The internal resources in terms of confirmation, insight and coping were of great importance for recovery and return in work combined with experienced practical and emotional support, especially by the care, manager and family. A difference from previous studies was that the perceived support from the family was expressed and addressed to a greater extent in this study than in previous studies. The main conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that experienced support, both practical and emotional, both during sick leave and at return to work, is of crucial importance both for recovery and return to work.

  • 66.
    Molén, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Guström, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Attrahera och behålla volontärarbetare med hjälp av employer branding: En kvalitativ studie utförd på en volontärorganisation i Mellansverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose was to examine how employer branding can be used to attract and retain volunteers with a high skill level in an organization that depends on skills. Another purpose was to explore the experience of active work with employer brandingto attract and retain volunteers. Six interviews were conducted with volunteers in a volunteers organization. The result showed that there were four main percevied themes that could be linked to the respindent's choice of a volunteers organization. These themes could also be linked to the organization's attractiveness. The result showed that there were four perceived main factors that could be associated with respondent's choice of volunteers organization. It also emerged that a personal connection and personal benefits of the organization was of great importance to the respondents. It was clear from the interviews that the perception of the organization as structured was considered a positive aspect in regards to remain in the organization. Finally, it appeared that the general awareness of the organization created motivation for the volunteers.

  • 67.
    Mählck, Paula
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Department of social and welfare studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Vulnerability, gender and resistance in transnational academic mobility2018In: Tertiary Education and Management, ISSN 1358-3883, E-ISSN 1573-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on Tanzanian and Mozambican PhD students funded by Swedish development aid, this article investigates how everyday academic work life is gendered in Sweden and in the students’ home academic departments. In particular, it focuses on the role of ‘important others’, such as international donors, universities, colleagues and family, in enhancing or alleviating vulnerability and how this shifts across spatial contexts. Integral to this is exploring how obstacles are managed and negotiated by PhD students, and how they articulate capability and therefore resist a position as a victim. The results indicate the glonacality of vulnerability as something that stretches over institutional and national boundaries, and how vulnerability can be (re)produced at local university level despite the good intentions of donors and universities operating at a global level. In addition, a translocational and intersectional perspective highlights how situations of vulnerability are gendered and radicalised differently in different academic contexts.

  • 68.
    Mård, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sandberg, Jan-Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Anställningstypens betydelse för arbetsmotivationen: Självbestämd och icke självbestämd arbetsmotivation hos sjuksköterskor anställda av vårdgivare respektive bemanningsföretag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strength and type of work motivation among regular and contractual nurses using Self-Determination Theory. Data was collected through a web-based questionnaire which was distributed to the respondents through email and social media. Altogether 384 respondents replied. Work motivation was measured using WEIMS (Work Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Scale). Data was analyzed using a mixed-design ANOVA. The result showed that contractual nurses had higher work motivation compared to regular nurses. This was not in line with hypothesis 1. The result showed that both regular and contractual nurses had higher self-determined than nonself-determined work motivation. This was not in line with hypothesis 2. Due to some problems with the collection of data concerning the discovery and extinction of confounding variables, such as nurses’ professional orientation, it could be motivated to replicate the study under better control over those factors. 

  • 69.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Future-oriented people show stronger moral concerns2013In: Current Research in Social Psychology, ISSN 1088-7423, E-ISSN 1088-7423, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 52-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that moral concerns weigh more heavily when people are experimentally induced to think about the distant vs. near future. The current research demonstrates that this also applies to people whose thinking is intrinsically and generally oriented toward the future rather than the present. More specifically, we show that people with a future time perspective are more condemning of others who transgress ethical rules and that they are more committed to follow ethical rules themselves. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • 70.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed bye-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal-compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

  • 71.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Predicting general mental health and exhaustion: the role of emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity.2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 8, article id e00735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity and self-reported general mental health and exhaustion, in Swedish teachers (N = 768). In line with our predictions, we showed that the emotion component of personal work-identity and the cognition component of collective work-identity associated positively with general mental health and negatively with exhaustion. The reverse result was found, however, for the cognition component of personal work-identity and emotion component of collective work-identity. In general, all this indicates that person-work bonding might, to some degree, account for general mental health and exhaustion in employees. In particular, the findings suggest that general mental health and exhaustion may vary symmetrically across the: (1) Type of person-work bonding (personal vs. collective work-identity); and (2) Type of psychological component (emotion vs. cognition) involved in personal- and collective work-identity.

  • 72.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Teachers´personal work-identity predicts emotional exhaustion and work motivation: amediating role of job demands and resources2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018: Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Teachers´ psychological job demands (large class sizes, low social support, and expectations to care for pupils, parents and colleagues) are positively related to their emotional exhaustion. Teachers´ psychological job resources (autonomy, mastery of skills, and experiences of their work as incentive and interesting) are positively related to work motivation and engagement, which can be defined as the positive antipode of emotional exhaustion. In addition, job demands and resources may, in general terms, explain the relationships between the employee and different work motivation- and mental illness outcomes.

    Furthermore, teachers´ personal work-identity comprises cognitive- (coherence, correspondence, mental time, reflection, agency) and emotional- (attachment, belongingness, closeness) components, differently associated with various work-related outcomes. Our previous results show that the cognitive component positively relates to emotional exhaustion, and the emotional one positively relates to self-determined work motivation. These relationships have up to date not been theoretically and practically related to organizational/job characteristic factors, such as, job demands and resources.

     

    Aims

    Firstly, we investigated if a positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work-identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands. Secondly, we checked for if a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work-identity and self-determined work motivation was mediated by psychological job resources.

    Methods

    768 members, representing eleven different local teachers´ trade unions, working in the south and middle part of Sweden replied to a digitized questionnaire measuring cognitive- and emotional components of personal work identity, job demands (prosocial extra-role performances) and resources (educational inspirations), emotional exhaustion and self-determined work motivation. Two mediation analyzes were performed by PROCESS macro for SPSS (version 2.16.3), model 4.

     

    Results

    A positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work- identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands: completely standardized indirect effects: β= .04, 95% CI [.0180, .0650].

    Also, a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work- identity and self-determined work motivation was positively mediated by psychological job resources: completely standardized indirect effect: β= .09, 95% CI [.0569, .1178].

    This suggests that, when teachers think (cognitive component of work-identity) more of their work, they will be more emotionally exhausted, but when they feel (emotional component of work-identity) more of their work they will be more motivated to work. Psychological job demands and resources may however and to some extent explain these relationships, respectively.

  • 73.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    et al.
    Deptarment of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, c/o Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The effects of naturalness, gender, and age on how urban green space is perceived and used2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 18, p. 268-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood green space serves an important function for the urban population, and provides valuable ecosystem services for human well-being. In this article, we investigate the effects of naturalness, gender, and age on the activities, aesthetics, and self-reported well-being associated with urban green space. Our findings are based on a postal survey of residents living in close proximity to six different green spaces in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. It is shown that higher perceived naturalness generated more activities and higher aesthetic values and self-reported well-being for residents living close to urban green spaces. The results also indicated that, regardless of the type of naturalness, women were more active in urban green spaces than were men. Women also saw greater aesthetic value in green spaces than men did, and had higher self-reported well-being associated with the urban green spaces. Finally, older residents were shown to participate in a greater number of nature-related activities than younger residents. Older residents also saw greater aesthetic values and had higher self-reported well-being associated with urban green spaces than younger people did. Seemingly, this poses a considerable planning challenge if areas of perceived naturalness are to be retained in cities, since the present trend is for reduced green spaces in cities and a ‘parkification’ of surviving natural areas. Further, because of the importance of perceived natural areas to the elderly, and in particularly women, distances to urban green areas should not be too great.

  • 74.
    Oliver, Langenberg
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Albin, Andersson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mäns attityd till könsbaserad ojämlikhet i arbetslivet och förekomsten av mäns kollektiva skuld gentemot kvinnor.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence of collective guilt among men against women in working life and its possible correlation with men's attitude towards gender-based inequality at the workplace. Differences in collective guilt and attitude towards gender-based inequality between young (18-41 years) and elder (42-65 years) men was studied. A survey was distributed to an international telecom company. The survey was based on the Branscombe Colletive Guilt Scale (BCGS) which measured the level of collective guilt and the Men´s Polarized Gender Thinking Questionnaire (MPGQ) which measured men's attitude towards gender-based inequality in the workplace. The result demonstrated that collective guilt in men occurred. A significant correlation was measured between MPGQ and BCGS. Young men reported significantly higher levels of collective guilt compared to older men. This study illustrates the existence of collective guilt, its link to attitude, as well as the age's impact on collective guilt.

  • 75.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Effects of Ethnicity and Gender on Youth Health2016In: Cogent Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2331-1886, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1186136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most to-bacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospi-tals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  • 76.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Young people’s identity & Facebook behaviour: the role of gender and ethnicity2017In: Cogent Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2331-1886, Vol. 1, no 35, article id 1359895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the effects of gender and ethnicity on Facebook visit and identity among young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. According to the results obtained, males were shown to visit more Facebook and had a stronger Facebook identity than did females. However, females compared to males considered themselves to be persons that are more similar online as offline, and their Facebook activity represented more who they were than it did for males. Hindu participants were shown to most infrequently visit Facebook. They were also the group with the weakest Facebook identity. Creole and Muslim groups were reported to have the strongest Facebook identity followed by the Mixed participants. This study concludes that both gender and ethnicity might have a sig-nificant impact on Facebook activity and identification among young people.

  • 77.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle.
    Auchoybur, Nashad
    University of Mauritius.
    Gender and Health in Higher Education: A Study of Undergraduates from University of Mauritius2012In: Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, ISSN 1530-5686, E-ISSN 1530-5686, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores health among men and women from the undergraduates at the University of Mauritius. A representative sample of 250 undergraduates was selected from the register of the University of Mauritius using stratified random sampling strategy to carry out Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) which demonstrated significant differences between men and women from the study group. The study found that women reported more physical and mental health problems as compared to men. In addition, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of awareness about sexual health risks which were mainly related to promiscuity and the use of condoms. Moreover, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as participation in sports activities. Finally, it was found that more men reported about facing barriers such as money and location with regards to access to health care services. This paper therefore concludes that gender could explain most of the significant differences in terms of health among the undergraduates at the University of Mauritius.

  • 78.
    Robinson, Yohan
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olerud, Claes
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Do biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs reduce the spinal fracture risk related to ankylosing spondylitis?: A longitudinal multiregistry matched cohort study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 12, article id e016548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is associated with an increased spinal fracture risk due to the loss of elasticity in spinal motion segments. With the introduction of biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (bDMARD) treatment for AS, the individual course of the disease has been ameliorated. This study aims to examine the association of bDMARD treatment and risk of spinal fracture.

    Design: Longitudinal population-based multiregistry observational matched cohort study.

    Setting: Swedish Patient Registry 1987-2014 and Swedish Prescribed Drugs Registry 2005-2014.

    Participants: Included were patients ≥18 years of age receiving treatment at a healthcare facility for the primary diagnosis of AS. About 1352 patients received more than one prescription of bDMARD from 2005 to 2014. An untreated control group was created by propensity score matching for age, sex, comorbidity, antirheumatic prescriptions and years with AS (n=1352).

    Main Outcome Measures: Spinal fracture-free survival.

    Results: No bDMARD treatment-related effect on spinal fracture-free survival was observed in the matched cohorts. Male gender (HR=2.54, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.36) and Charlson Comorbidity Index score (HR=3.02, 95% CI 1.59 to 5.75) contributed significantly to spinal fracture risk.

    Conclusion: bDMARD had no medium-term effect on the spinal fracture-free survival in patients with AS.

    Trial Registration Number: NCT02840695

  • 79.
    Robinson, Yohan
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sheta, Reda
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Al Ahrar Specialised Hospital Zagazig, Zagazig, Egypt.
    Salci, Konstantin
    Department of Neurosurgery, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Blood loss in surgery for aggressive vertebral haemangioma with and without embolisation2015In: Asian Spine Journal, ISSN 1976-1902, E-ISSN 1976-7846, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 483-491Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their benign nature some symptomatic aggressive vertebral haemangiomas (AVH) require surgery to decompress spinal cord and/or stabilise pathological fractures. Preoperative embolisation may reduce the considerable blood loss during surgical decompression. This systematic review investigated whether preoperative embolisation reduced surgical blood loss during treatment of symptomatic AVH. PubMed Medline, Web of Science, and Ovid Medline were searched for case reports and clinical studies on surgical AVH treatment. Included were cases from all publications on surgical treatment of AVH where the amount of surgical blood loss and the use of preoperative embolisation were documented. 51 cases with surgically treated AVH were retrieved from the included studies. Blood loss in the embolised treatment group (980±683 mL) was lower than the non-embolised control group (1,629±946 mL). This systematic review found that embolisation prior to AVH resection reduced surgical blood loss (level of evidence, very low) and can be recommended (strong recommendation).

  • 80.
    Rosenlind, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    ”Vi” mot ”dom” i fyra nyhetstidningars diskurser kring Breivik och Akilov2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to study how the terrorist, represented by Anders Behring Breivik and Rakhmat Akilov, was constructed in four Swedish newspapers after two terrorist attacks in Norway July 22, 2011, and in Sweden, April 7, 2017. The study takes on a social psychological and discourse analytic perspective, where the social identity theory with its ingroups and outgroups is central. The result shows that there were different discourses for the two offenders, where Breivik was portraied as an individual who is a purposeful cold-blooded loner, while Akilov was defined on the basis of his presumptive group affiliations as a passive and collective alien. Based on the results, Breivik can be placed in an ingroup and Akilov in an outgroup, which indicates a social climate where ”we” are set against ”them”, something that in turn can influence the individuals identity and values.

  • 81.
    Röde, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sundell, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Utmaningar, möjligheter och förändringar på framtidens arbetsmarknad: Några av arbetsmarknadens psykologiska effekter för individen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unemployment in Gävleborgs län is the highest in Sweden and at the same time, the level of education in the county is the lowest. Low mental health is also noteworthy among the county's residents. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the county’s future labor market. The study results also show how different phenomena on the labor market such as precarious employment, work incarceration and digitization can affect the county's residents from a psychological perspective. The result shows that the county suffers from a structural unemployment and that the county is facing a structural change. This is a result from the workforce incapability to adapt to digitization and globalization, which puts great demands and desirability on the workforce to be flexible. The county, as well as the rest of Sweden has high immigration which leads to great challenges in managing integration of the new arrivals. The result of the study shows both challenges, opportunities and changes in the future labor market of Gävleborgs län.

  • 82.
    Sellman, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Första linjens chefers upplevelser av den egna psykosociala arbetsmiljön i en vårdorganisation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and summarize how first-line managers (FLM’s) in a healthcare organization is experiencing their own psychosocial work environment, what they think works well, what challenges they see, and what support they need to improve their own psychosocial work environment. I conducted semi-structured interviews to collect data and two classic models in the psychosocial work environment research: demand-control-support and effort-reward, have served as theoretical frameworks of interpretation. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data and identify themes for the result. The result showed seven themes that the respondents experienced affected their own psychosocial work environment: the manager role, workload, control of daily operations, impact/decision latitude, information/communication, working relationships/cooperation and support functions. Some challenges for FLM are: unreasonable high demands, large workgroups, challenges with staffing, time-consuming administration, lack of long-term planning and improvement work, a lot of overtime and more support needed to reduce workload. An interpretation of the result is that the organization needs to change several parts to improve FLM’s psychosocial work environment and conditions for the manger role.

  • 83.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vocal age disguise: the role of fundamental frequency and speech rate and  its perceived effects2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between vocal characteristics and perceived age is of interest in various contexts, as is the possibility to affect age perception through vocal manipulation. A few examples of such situations are when age is staged by actors, when ear witnesses make age assessments based on vocal cues only or when offenders disguise their voice to appear younger or older. This paper investigates how speakers spontaneously manipulate two age related vocal characteristics (f0 and speech rate) in attempt to sound younger versus older than their true age, and if the manipulation corresponds to actual age related changes in f0 and speech rate (Study 1). Further aims of the paper is to determine how successful vocal age disguise is by asking listeners to estimate the age of generated speech samples (Study 2) and to examine whether or not listeners use f0 and speech rate as cues to perceived age. In Study 1, participants from three age groups (20-25, 40-45 and 60-65 years) agreed to read a short text under three voice conditions. There were 12 speakers in each age group (six women and six men). They used their natural voice in one condition, attempted to sound 20 years younger in another and 20 years older in a third condition. In Study 2, 60 participants (listeners) listened to speech samples from the three voice conditions in Study 1 and estimated the speakers’ age. Each listener was exposed to all three voice conditions. The results from Study 1 indicated that the speakers increased fundamental frequency (f0) and speech rate when attempting to sound younger and decreased f0 and speech rate when attempting to sound older. Study 2 showed that the voice manipulations had an effect in the sought-after direction, although the achieved mean effect was only 3 years, which is far less than the intended effect of 20 years. Moreover, listeners used speech rate, but not f0, as a cue to speaker age. It was concluded that age disguise by voice can be achieved by naïve speakers even though the perceived effect was smaller than intended.

  • 84.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

  • 85.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Inst för klinisk neurovetenskap, sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Associations between scores of psychosomatic health symptoms and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents2013In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 11, no 176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aims of the present study are to investigate whether there are differences in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) between girls and boys in two different age groups, to study how much of children’s variance in HRQoL can be explained by common psychosomatic health symptoms, and to examine whether the same set of psychosomatic symptoms can explain differences in HRQoL, both between girls and boys and between older and younger school children.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 253 children, 99 of ages 11-12 years (n=51 girls, n=48 boys) and 154 of ages 15-16 years (n=82 girls, n=72 boys), in Swedish schools. The KIDSCREEN-52 instrument, which covers 10 dimensions of HRQoL and additional questions about psychosomatic health symptoms, were used. Analyses of variance were conducted to investigate differences between the genders and age groups, and in interaction effects on the KIDSCEEN-52 dimensions. Regression analyses were used to investigate the impacts of psychosomatic symptoms on gender and age group differences in HRQoL.

    Results: Boys rated themselves higher than girls on the KIDSCREEN dimensions: physical and psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, and autonomy. Main effects of age group were found for physical well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, and school environment, where younger children rated their HRQoL more highly than those aged 15-16 years. Girls rated their moods and emotions dramatically lower than boys in the older age group, but the ratings of emotional status were more similar between genders at younger ages. Psychosomatic symptoms explained between 27% and 50% of the variance in the children’s HRQoL. Sleeping difficulties were a common problem for both girls and boys. Depression and concentration difficulties were particularly associated with HRQoL among girls whereas stomach aches were associated with HRQoL among boys.  

    Conclusions: Girls and adolescents experience poorer HRQoL than boys and younger children, but having psychosomatic symptoms seem to explain a substantial part of the variation. Strategies to promote health among school children, in particular to alleviate sleep problems among all children, depression and concentration difficulties among girls, and stomach aches among boys, are of great importance.

  • 86.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Wallinder, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Seager, Paul
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire.
    The green halo: Mechanisms and limits of the eco-label effect2015In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 43, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers believe that “eco-labeled” products taste better, which, at least in part, may be an effect of the label. The purpose of the current series of experiments was to examine some mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. In Experiment 1, an eco-label effect of similar magnitude was found for taste ratings of both conventional and organic bananas. Experiment 2 showed eco-label effects for a wider range of judgmental dimensions (i.e., health, calories, vitamins/minerals, mental performance, and willingness to pay) and the effect was about the same in magnitude for judgments of grapes and raisins. Experiment 3, with water as the tasted product, found no eco-label effect on judgments of taste, calories and vitamins/minerals, but an effect on willingness to pay, judgments of health benefits and judgments of mental performance benefits. Experiments 2 and 3 also included questionnaires on social desirability traits, schizotypal traits and pro-environmental consumer traits. The last was the strongest predictor of the eco-label effect amongst the three. In all, the eco-label effect is a robust phenomenon, but depends on interactions between product type and judgmental dimension. Implications for several accounts of the effect are discussed.

  • 87.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 88.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hedblom, Daniel
    The University of Chicago.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling?: Taste and willingness to pay for 'eco-friendly' coffee2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. e80719-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Glorification of eco-labeled objects: An effect of intrinsic or social desirability?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally friendly consumables and products are often perceived as superior to their conventional counterparts. The reason for this, at least in part, is that people tend to glorify eco-labeled objects. For example, people prefer the taste of coffee called “eco-friendly” in comparison with another cup of coffee called “conventional”, even when the two cups of coffee are actually identical and merely named differently. What is the underlying mechanism of this eco-label effect? Do people report superior evaluations of eco-labeled products for intrinsic reasons or because they think this attitude is approved by others (a social desirability mechanism)? In two experiments, the participants’ concerns with social desirability were manipulated by telling them that their taste judgments of consumables were monitored by others. The eco-label effect was just as strong in the high social desirability concerns condition as in a control condition (Experiments 1 and 2). However, the eco-label effect was stronger in magnitude for participants who were told that consumers are morally responsible for the environmental consequences of their consumer behavior (Experiment 2). Taken together, the eco-label effect appears to be caused by intrinsic desirability processes, not by social desirability processes.

  • 90.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Women Assimilate across Gender, Men Don’t: The Role of Gender to the Own-Anchor Effect in Age, Height and Weight Estimates2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1733-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the own-anchor effect (i.e., assimilation in age, height and weight estimates) in same- and cross-gender age, height and weight estimates. The own-anchor effect is believed to be stronger for same-gender estimates, but the investigation reported here is the first to test this hypothesis with participants and target persons of both genders. Several own-anchor effects were found in females’ same- and cross-gender estimates, whereas males only showed own-anchor effects in same-gender estimates. These results lean towards the possibility that women assimilate across gender, whereas men do not. Explanations of these results with reference to Krueger’s theory of social projection and the consequences for witness reliability are discussed.

  • 91.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, U.K.
    Social desirability does not underpin the eco-label effect on product judgments2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What reason underpins why people say they prefer eco-labeled over conventional products during direct perceptual comparison? One possibility is that there is no difference in the perceptual experience of the products; the participants just say there is because they wish to gain other’s approval. In this paper, we tested this social desirability account of the eco-label effect by requesting participants to judge grapes that were in truth identical but labeled “eco-friendly” and “conventional” respectively. The eco-label effects were similar in magnitude for an impression management condition (participants were told that their responses were monitored) and a no-instructions control condition, but greater in a moral-instructions condition (the participants were told, amongst other things, that conventional agriculture is harmful). The experiment suggests that people do not say that they prefer eco-labeled products because they seek other’s approval. Social motives may underpin reasons to purchase “green” products at the grocery store, but social motives are not the direct cause of the eco-label effect on the perceptual experience of the products.

  • 92.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Disruption of writing processes by the semanticity of background speech2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have noted that writing processes are impaired by task-irrelevant background sound. However, what makes sound distracting to writing processes has remained unaddressed. The experiment reported here investigated whether the semanticity of irrelevant speech contributes to disruption of writing processes beyond the acoustic properties of the sound. The participants wrote stories against a background of normal speech, spectrally-rotated speech (i.e., a meaningless sound with marked acoustic resemblance to speech) or silence. Normal speech impaired quantitative (e.g., number of characters produced) and qualitative/semantic (e.g., uncorrected typing errors, proposition generation) aspects of the written material, in comparison with the other two sound conditions, and it increased the duration of pauses between words. No difference was found between the silent and the rotated-speech condition. These results suggest that writing is susceptible to disruption from the semanticity of speech but not especially susceptible to disruption from the acoustic properties of speech.

  • 93.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm2012In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habituation of the orienting response is a pivotal part of selective attention, and previous research has related working memory capacity (WMC) to attention control. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in WMC contribute to habituation rate. The participants categorized visual targets across six blocks of trials. Each target was preceded either by a standard sound or, on rare trials, by a deviant. The magnitude of the deviation effect (i.e., prolonged response time when the deviant was presented) was relatively large in the beginning but attenuated toward the end. There was no relationship between WMC and the deviation effect at the beginning, but there was at the end, and greater WMC was associated with greater habituation. These results indicate that high memory ability increases habituation rate, and they support theories proposing a role for cognitive control in habituation and in some forms of auditory distraction.

  • 94. Tengberg, A.
    et al.
    Fredholm, S.
    Eliasson, I.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saltzman, K.
    Wetterberg, O.
    Cultural ecosystem services provided by landscapes: Assessment of heritage values and identity2012In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 2, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a conceptual analysis of cultural ecosystem services and how they are linked to the concepts of landscape, heritage and identity. It discusses how these cultural ecosystem services can be assessed and integrated into spatial and physical planning. The paper presents two case studies to shed light on the assessment process. A case study from Sweden combines an analysis of ecosystem services with methods for documenting cultural heritage values in landscapes. A second case study from the Arafura-Timor Seas combines an analysis of cultural ecosystem services with methods for assessment of priority environmental concerns at the seascape scale.We demonstrate that the methods from cultural heritage conservation provide tools for the analysis of historical values as well as historical drivers of change in landscapes that can add time-depth to more spatially focused ecosystem assessments. We propose that methods for valuation of cultural heritage and identity in landscapes are integrated into assessments of ecosystem services to inform policy making and physical and spatial planning for sustainable management of ecosystems and landscapes. This could also provide an approach for bringing about integrated implementation of conventions and instruments from the environmental and cultural heritage fields, respectively. 

  • 95.
    Willander, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multimodal retrieval of autobiographical memories: sensory information contributes differently to the recollection of events2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on autobiographical memory have focused on unimodal retrieval cues (i.e., cues pertaining to one modality). However, from an ecological perspective multimodal cues (i.e., cues pertaining to several modalities) are highly important to investigate. In the present study we investigated age distributions and experiential ratings of autobiographical memories retrieved with unimodal and multimodal cues. Sixty-two participants were randomized to one of four cue-conditions: visual, olfactory, auditory, or multimodal. The results showed that the peak of the distributions depends on the modality of the retrieval cue. The results indicated that multimodal retrieval seemed to be driven by visual and auditory information to a larger extent and to a lesser extent by olfactory information. Finally, no differences were observed in the number of retrieved memories or experiential ratings across the four cue-conditions.

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