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  • 51.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energi och växtnäring från hästgödsel: Förbehandling, rötning och biogödselavsättning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of horses in society is increasing and today, according to Swedish Board of Agriculture, there are approximately 360,000 horses in Sweden, where three-quarters are found in urban or near-urban environments. All these horses will, according to calcula­tions, give rise to a total amount of manure of up to 1.4 million tons per year. If this manure is digested efficiently, this corresponds to an annual biogas production of 641 GWh, which is almost half of all biogas produced in Sweden in 2010. Although there are some practical limitations on how much of the potential that can be exploited, there is nevertheless a significant potential for increased use of renewable energy. By collecting manure and digesting it, three environmental benefits can be achieved:

    1. Emissions from conventional management where the manure is piled and stored, or spontaneously composted, are avoided
    2. Anaerobic digestion of manure produces biogas that can be used to generate elec­tricity and heat and, after upgrading (purification and pressure increase), as vehicle fuel; thereby fossil fuel emissions are reduced
    3. The resulting digestate can be used in agriculture, thereby replacing chemical ferti­lizer which provides additional environmental benefits

    Despite all these possibilities there are some obstacles and gaps in knowledge. This report is a systematic review of the state of knowledge about horse manure management, pre­treatment methods, digestion methods of horse manure, as well as aspects of the prolifer­ation of bio-fertilizer from horse manure. This part is mainly qualitative descriptions while subsequent reports present indicative calculations of the environmental benefits of different ways to design the management.

    The conclusions are that there are many factors that point to extract energy from horse manure, e.g. there are significant amounts of manure relatively close to urban areas, the straw bedding materials provide a supplement in biogas production, there is plenty of land for spreading digestate, and an improved horse manure management is also a good water protection measure. Drawbacks are that the digestion of horse manure is relatively untested and it is difficult to assess how increased waste management costs affect the horse industry. Another conclusion is the general lack of knowledge of horse manure from an environmental perspective at a level required for reliable environmental assess­ments. Nevertheless we hope to be able to propose system solutions which to a greater extent than previously should prove to work technically and be economically feasible. If these systems are translated into practical reality, environmental gains can be made through reduced environmental impact, reduced eutrophication, increased biodiversity and reduced use of finite resources.

  • 52.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure: A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 12, article id 1935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to renewable energy sources and a circular economy has increased interest in renewable resources not usually considered as energy sources or plant nutrient resources. Horse manure exemplifies this, as it is sometimes recycled but not often used for energy purposes. The purpose of this study was to explore horse manure management in a Swedish municipality and prospects for energy recovery. The case study includes a survey of horse manure practices, environmental assessment of horse manure treatment in a biogas plant, including associated transport, compared to on-site unmanaged composting, and finally a simplified economic analysis. It was found that horse manure management was characterized by indoor collection of manure most of the year and storage on concrete slabs or in containers, followed by direct application on arable land. Softwood was predominantly used as bedding, and bedding accounted for a relatively small proportion (13%) of the total mix. Anaerobic digestion was indicated to reduce potential environmental impact in comparison to unmanaged composting, mainly due to biogas substituting use of fossil fuels. The relative environmental impact from transport of manure from horse facilities to anaerobic digestion plant was small. Results also indicate a relatively high cost for horse keepers to change from composting on site to anaerobic digestion in a centralized plant.

  • 53.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Energy recovery from horse manure - exploring energy actors’ experiencesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union and Swedish national energy policy and energy objectives state an increased interest in transition of energy systems to more efficient use of energy, as well as increased use of renewable sources of energy. Horse manure is a potential resource available for renewable energy. Horse manure is sometimes considered a waste problem, resulting in research of possible energy recovery processes, such as combustion and anaerobic digestion. In this study 13 energy actors’ experiences of horse manure were explored by means of interviews and e-mail. Five related to combustion of horse manure and eight related to anaerobic digestion. The aim was to make a compilation of their knowledge and from the results identify how horse manure could be made more attractive as an energy resource. The challenges the actors face are mainly connected with horse manure being a heterogeneous material, primarily due to its bedding content (straw, wood bedding, etc.), and occasionally to other types of added waste. These unpredictable variations in the substrate as well as impurities like sand make it more difficult for plants to have standard procedures for processing horse manure. The view that bedding material needs to be specifically straw pellets and that all impurities should be kept out of the collected horse manure for anaerobic treatment was also expressed. Horse manure as part of co-combustion processes was perceived as a fuel with capacity to contribute to plant economy as it gives revenue from gate fees and could reduce costs for its NOx reducing capacity. Another view was that grate furnaces could possibly be more suitable than fluidized beds as incineration technology. However, problems with odour made two plants end their combustion trials. In farm-scale incineration horse manure required a lot of monitoring and co-combustion with pellets in order to maintain an effective process. When compiling all available information this study has a number of suggestions for how horse manure should be treated already at the production stage in order to be a more versatile resource in energy recovery processes. The recommendation is to keep horse manure dry (transports and incineration), avoid initiation of composting processes (AD and incineration), sort the waste = no added other waste (AD), and depending on intended AD-treatment process, use a specific bedding type. Most of these issues may be solved by supplier’s involvement in the supply chains for resource recovery, i.e. closing natural cycles of plant nutrients and energy recovery.

  • 54.
    Hedlund, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kemikaliesmart förskola: En inventering av 19 kommunala förskolor i Gävle kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish authorities and municipalities are working on the basis of the environmental quality objective non-toxic environment by reducing the use and exposure to health and environmental pollutants (Miljömål, 2016). The Swedish Chemicals Agency, on commission by the government, has drawn up an action plan to achieve the environmental objective. The Action Plan's focus is mainly on achieving a non-toxic everyday environment for children. Thru identication of riskareas, the preschools in Gävle will be able to get a good structure for the work to be done.

    In this diploma work in Environmental technology an inventory of Chemical Smart preschools is conducted. Nineteen municipal kindergartens in the city of Gävle are examined, with the goal of identifying areas of risk and vulnerability of children to chemicals in the preschool environment. A collaboration with the department of Education Gävle ́s environmental strategist has provided contacts and economic opportunity for the staff at the individual preschools to participate during the inventory. The final report is submitted to the department and its preschools to use as the basis of the priorities in the work of chemical smart preschool.

    The implementation is done with an existing template from the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (Naturskyddsföreningen, 2013). The inventory is made in two stages, an interview before the inventory and inventory of chattels and some architectural details such as floor and wall surfaces. The inventory of chattels consists of approximately 100 questions asked and examined at each nursery, they are summarized in table format with descriptive text. Areas of risk are identified based on supported data from Swedish authorities or research in the subjected area.

    The discussion demonstrates the difficulties that arise in the choice of products when the contents are difficult to decipher or inaccessible. But also how the routines for cleaning, washing and airing can influence the identified risk areas. Risk areas according to the objectives and conclusions identified are depicted by type of substance or negative health effects. The identification gave six different areas: Flameproof, water and stain repellents, Chemicals from plastics, allergens, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, lead and mercury. These areas outline the types of product categories that are of concern and what kind of health risk they entail. 

  • 55.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energy and nutrients from horse manure: Life-cycle data inventory of horse manure management systems in Gävleborg, Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of horse manure is seldom subject to energy recovery. In the current project solutions for energy recovery of horse manure, with a focus on biogas production as the process not only recovers energy but also closes nutrient cycles, are identified and asses­sed from an environmental point of view. The number of horses in society is increasing. Today, according to Statistics Sweden, there are more than 360,000 horses in Sweden, of which three-quarters are situated in urban or near-urban environments. With a dry matter content of 40 %, this equates to a quantity of 1,360 tonnes of horse manure per annum and corresponds to an annual biogas production of 641 GWh, which corresponds to almost 40 % of all biogas produced in Sweden in 2013. Although there are some practical limitations on how much of that potential can be exploited, this is still a significant potential for increased use of renewable energy. Collecting manure and anaerobically digesting it achieves three environmental benefits:

    1. Emissions from conventional management, where the manure is piled and stored, or spontaneously composted or decomposed, are avoided.
    2. Anaerobic digestion of manure produces biogas that can be utilised to generate electricity and/or heat or, after upgrading (purification and pressure increase), as vehicle fuel; thereby emissions from fossil fuels are reduced.
    3. Following the process, the resulting digestate can be used in agriculture, thereby re­placing chemical fertiliser and providing additional environmental benefits.

    The aim of this project is to find a greater breadth of system solutions than previously, solutions that are proven to function technically and be economically feasible. If these systems are translated into practical reality, environmental gains are made, for example, through reduced environmental impact such as reduced eutrophication and reduced use of finite resources.

    This report documents a data inventory made for the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of horse manure management systems in the Gävleborg region, Sweden. The overall result is that data are scarce for all parts of the system, from feedstock characteristics to waste treatment methods as well as utilisation of biofertiliser. There are few plants for solid state anaerobic digestion, at least using horse manure as substrate, and little is known about emissions from current manure practise. Moreover, as the number and location of horses are hard to estimate, the forthcoming systems analysis has to be made for a hypo­thetical amount of horse manure and emissions etc. have to be expressed per ton VS. Given these uncertainties the systems analysis will just give indicative results.

  • 56.
    Henriksson, Greger
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Andersson, Maria
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Psykologiska Institutionen, Götebors Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Guath, Mona
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL - Svenska miljöinstitutet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Institutionen för Kulturvetenskaper, Lunds Universitet.
    Hållbar avfallshantering: utvärdering av styrmedel från ett psykologiskt och etnologiskt perspektiv2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom psykologi och etnologi studeras företeelser ur perspektiv som återfinns hos den enskilda individen samt i det lokala eller sociala sammanhanget. I studien har olika styrmedel bedömts från ett etnologiskt och psykologiskt perspektiv. Studien har därvid inneburit nya arbetsmetoder – i varken psykologi eller etnologi brukar man arbeta med att förutsäga hur olika medel (t.ex. styrmedel) påverkar människan, normalt arbetar man efter att beskriva hur människan upplever ett befintligt styrmedel. Nytt i arbetssättet är också att utvärdera styrmedlen i olika framtidsscenarier.

    De viktigaste slutsatserna om de studerade styrmedlen är enligt följande.

    Information är ett viktigt styrmedel, men bör främst ses i kombination med andra styrmedel. Information bör utformas så att den är anpassad för olika grupper, hellre än massutskick och glättiga kampanjer. Informationen bör vara både deklarativ (ge information om effekter och konsekvenser) och procedurell (beskriva hur man ska göra). Information är viktigast som styrmedel i de hållbara scenarierna, men är av betydelse i samtliga scenarier. Vad gäller verksamheter kan man skilja på information till företagsledningen och information till anställda.

    Styrmedlet ”Reklam ja tack” förväntas leda till minskad mängd pappersavfall och är lätt att förstå för hushållen. Styrmedlet är mest effektivt i de hållbara scenarierna. Styrmedlet bedöms verksamt även i scenariot regional marknad eftersom det då är större tryck på verksamheterna att föra ut sitt budskap.

    Negativ kemikaliemärkning bedöms vara ett effektivt styrmedel, och framför allt effektivare än positiv märkning. Negativ kemikaliemärkning bedöms också vara effektivt i alla scenarier.

    I styrmedlet viktbaserad avfallstaxa kan storleken på den rörliga delen av avfallstaxan påverka styrmedlets genomslagskraft. Viktbaserad avfallstaxa bedöms fungera bäst i de marknadsdrivna scenarierna där individen tar ett stort ansvar själv. I de hållbara scenarierna kan styrmedlet komma att upplevas negativ eftersom ansvaret för miljöfrågorna är mer överflyttade till staten från medborgarna.

    Miljödifferentierad avfallstaxa bedöms ge ytterst små styreffekter eftersom det med den givna utformningen kan vara svår att kommunicera med människorna. Med vissa ändringar skulle det däremot kunna bli kraftfullt.

    Utvecklade insamlingssystem bedöms leda till ökad källsortering i alla scenarier. Detta gäller både ökad fastighetsnära insamling och insamling i materialströmmar.

  • 57.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Materialåtervinning och klimatnytta: Hur räknar återvinningsaktörer i Sverige?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att sammanställa hur aktörer verksamma i återvinningsbranschen i Sverige tar fram siffror på, och kommunicerar klimatnyttan vid återvinning av olika material, samt att undersöka hur väl de använda metoderna överensstämmer med vetenskapliga studier. Resultaten visar att flera stora aktörer inom branschen kommunicerar klimatnytta på likvärdiga sätt, i syftet att visa på ”den klimatnytta som återvinningen redan idag medför och vilken potential som finns att öka återvinningens bidrag till en minskad klimatpåverkan”. Detta innebär bland annat att aktörerna har för avsikt att vara både tillbakablickande och framåtblickande, samt att företag inte försöker jämföra sig med varandra med utgångspunkt i klimatnytta.

    Det tillgängliga underlaget och hur det används för beräkningar och kommunikation av klimatnytta visar sig ha flera brister som är signifikativa för miljöbedömningar. I huvudsak handlar dessa om att man kombinerar siffror från studier med olika antaganden vad gäller tidsperspektiv, geografisk täckning och val av växthusgaser, vilket innebär att resultaten inte blir rättvisande för något ändamål, och att man i princip inte kan dra några slutsatser från materialet. Samtidigt finns det gott om studier som rätt hanterade kan komma till användning för de syften de är framtagna för.

    I rapporten framhålls tre viktiga aspekter att förbättra vid beräkning och kommunikation av klimatnyttan med återvinning, samt vid användning av resultaten. För det första handlar klimatnytta inte bara om koldioxid, och miljönytta handlar inte bara om växthusgaser. Beräkningar av andra typer av utsläpp kan visa på ytterligare fördelar och eventuella nackdelar med återvinning. För det andra bör metodval och antaganden vara kopplade till studiens syfte, samt vara konsekventa, för att ge rättvisande och jämförbara resultat. För det tredje bör resultaten från olika studier endast användas för det syfte de är avsedda för, alternativt bearbetas för att kunna användas i andra sammanhang.

    Eftersom samtliga aktörer inom återvinningsbranschen i Sverige verkar ha liknande syften med sin kommunikation av klimatnyttan med materialåtervinning, och då tillgängligt dataunderlag inte ger något utrymme för att jämföra företag med varandra identifieras följande möjligheter för det fortsatta arbetet.

    1. Först och främst kan man inom branschen stämma av och eventuellt enas om vilka olika syften man vill uppnå med att beräkna klimatnytta.
    2. Därefter kan man gå vidare och arbeta tillsammans för att komma tillrätta med de brister som finns i underlaget, samt i hur det används. En möjlighet är att anlita en expert för att välja ut, bearbeta och komplettera det underlag som finns, så att det kan användas för de syften man vill uppnå. Branschen kan sedan försöka komma överens om gemensamma siffror, samt om hur de bör kommuniceras på lämpligt sätt.
    3. En framtida möjlighet inom området kan också vara att utveckla gemensamma riktlinjer för hur man ska ta fram och kommunicera företagsspecifika siffror på klimatnytta, i syfte att möjliggöra jämförelser mellan olika företag.
  • 58.
    Hillman, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Department of Environmental Engineering, DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Fluck, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Climate Benefits of Material Recycling: Inventory of Average Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Denmark, Norway and Sweden2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to compare emissions of greenhouse gases from material recycling with those from virgin material production, both from a material supply perspective and from a recycling system perspective. The method for estimating emissions and climate benefits is based on a review, followed by a selection, of the most relevant publications on life cycle assessment (LCA) of materials for use in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The proposed averages show that emissions from material recycling are lower in both perspectives, comparing either material supply or complete recycling systems. The results can be used by companies and industry associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to communicate the current climate benefits of material recycling in general. They may also contribute to discussions on a societal level, as long as their average and historic nature is recognised.

  • 59.
    Isendahl, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Archeology, history, and urban food security: integrating cross-cultural and long-term perspectives2018In: Routledge Handbook of Landscapes and Food / [ed] Joshua Zeunert and Tim Waterman, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 61-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Ivarsson, Elvira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Saneringsalternativ för ett förorenat område: Nedlagda deponin i Tierp 2:1, 2:662017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 61.
    Ives, Christopher D.
    et al.
    School of Geography, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, United Kingdom; Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Fischer, Joern
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Abson, David J.
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Klaniecki, Kathleen
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Dorninger, Christian
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Laudan, Josefine
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Abernethy, Paivi
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg; Germany Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    Martín-López, Berta
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kendal, David
    School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences & Melbourne School of Design, The University of Melbourne, Australia.
    von Wehrden, Henrik
    Faculty of Sustainability, Leuphana University, Lueneburg, Germany.
    Human–nature connection: a multidisciplinary review2017In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 26-27, p. 106-113Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainability science calls are increasing for humanity to (re-)connect with nature, yet no systematic synthesis of the empirical literature on human–nature connection (HNC) exists. We reviewed 475 publications on HNC and found that most research has concentrated on individuals at local scales, often leaving ‘nature’ undefined. Cluster analysis identified three subgroups of publications: first, HNC as mind, dominated by the use of psychometric scales, second, HNC as experience, characterised by observation and qualitative analysis; and third, HNC as place, emphasising place attachment and reserve visitation. To address the challenge of connecting humanity with nature, future HNC scholarship must pursue cross-fertilization of methods and approaches, extend research beyond individuals, local scales, and Western societies, and increase guidance for sustainability transformations.

  • 62.
    Karami, Peyman
    et al.
    KTH.
    Twumasi Afriyie, Ebenezer
    KTH.
    Norberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. KTH.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH.
    A study of the thermal conductivity of granular silica materials for VIPs at different levels of gaseous pressure and external loads2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 85, p. 199-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast and reliable methods for the determination of thermal properties of core materials for vacuum insu-lation panels (VIPs) are needed. It is of great importance to know the thermal performance of a VIP core atdifferent levels of vacuum and external loads. In this study a new self-designed device, consisting of twocylindrical cavities connected to a Transient Plane Source instrument, is used to determine the thermalconductivity of low-density nanoporous silica powders, from atmospheric pressure down to 0.1 mbarwhile applying different levels of external pressure up to 4 bars. The study includes a brief theoreticaldiscussion of methods. The TPS is validated through comparison with available data for commercial silicaas well as through independent stationary measurements with a hot plate apparatus and with a TransientHot Bridge method. The different materials illustrate clear but different trends for the thermal conductiv-ity as a function of the level of vacuum and external pressure. The analysis of experimental results showsthat the transient methods are less suitable for measuring the thermal conductivity of low-density sil-ica powders, especially for the cases when the density is less than a limit at which the heat transfer byradiation becomes dominant compared to pure conduction.

  • 63.
    Lidberg, Tina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik.
    Ramírez Villegas, Ricardo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energiteknik.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    An approach to illustrate strategies for improved energy efficiency at the municipal level2014In: Proceedings from the 14th International Symposium on District Heating and Cooling / [ed] Anna Land, Swedish District Heating Association, 2014, p. 50-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on how implementation of wellknown refurbishment strategies, applied on multifamily buildings in a post-war housing complex in Sweden can affect the generation of district heating. Both the energy use and the power load were considered.

    The study was performed in Borlänge municipality, Sweden, where the municipality owns both the energy and the housing companies. The strategies for energy efficiency were simulated with IDA-ICE for the Tjärna Ängar area, a housing complex built between 1969- 1971, with access to documented information about the buildings and energy audit. The results of the building simulation were implemented in a simplified model of the local district heating system.

    The results indicate how different renovation strategies affect the demand of energy and power load within the district heating system and can be used to provide indicators for different scenarios. The larger goal of the research is how to maximize the economic and environmental efficiency of improvement strategies on a municipal level as well as how to find appropriate energy optimization methods that can be proposed by building contractors. The initial study presented here was conducted within the research program Reesbe.

  • 64.
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Östblom, Göran
    National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Integrated economic and environmental assessment of waste policy instruments2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for new policy instruments supporting the on-going transition from end-of-pipe waste treatment to resource management has been recognized in European policy. Instruments need to be carefully assessed before implementation to promote the desired changes and avoid problem shifting. Mathematical models may assist policy makers in such assessments. This paper presents a set of soft-linked models for assessing the economic and environmental impacts of policy instruments for both the prevention and management of waste and discusses its strengths and limitations. Consisting of (1) a macro-economic model, (2) a systems engineering model for waste management and (3) a life cycle assessment model for waste management, the set is primarily suited to assessing market-based instruments and environmental regulations. Considerable resources were needed for developing and using the set, and there are clear limits as to what can be addressed. However, if only one of the models had been used, neither the range of instruments nor the scope of impacts would have been possible to cover. Furthermore, soft-linked models allow many disciplines to contribute within one harmonized framework. Such integrated assessments may become increasingly useful for continuing the implementation of policy for sustainable governance of society’s material resources. © 2016 by the authors.

  • 65.
    Magnusson, Peter
    et al.
    Cardiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, and Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle,.
    Olszowka, Maciej
    3Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, Uppsala University.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koyi, Hirsh
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle and Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Outcome of implantable loop recorder evaluation2018In: Cardiology Journal, ISSN 1897-5593, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 363-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate implantable loop recorders (ILRs) in an unselected cohort in order to determine diagnostic yield, time to pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation, predictors thereof, safety issues, and syncope management including usage of preceding diagnostic tools.

    Methods: Patients who underwent ILR evaluation in any of three centers in Region Gävleborg, Sweden, between April 2007 and April 2013 were included and their medical records retrieved. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of pacemaker/ICD outcome expressed as odds ratios (ORs) and Kaplan-Meier estimates for time-dependent analysis.

    Results: A total of 173 patients (52.6% females) with a mean age of 56.2 years received an ILR during a mean follow-up of 605 days. In the 146 patients evaluated for syncope/presyncope, 28.1% received a pacemaker (n = 39) or ICD (n = 2). The cumulative incidence at 6, 12, and 18 months were 8.8%, 21.3%, and 26.7%, respectively. Age > 75 years was the only significant predictor for outcome (p = 0.010) and the following variables showed a tendency toward significance: abnormal elevation of the biomarker brain natriuretic peptide (OR 2.05, p = 0.100), a history of trauma (OR 1.71, p = 0.179), and pathologic ECG (OR 1.68, p = 0.231). A computerized tomography of the skull was performed in 52.1% of the syncope cases.

    Conclusions: In syncope evaluation in an unselected cohort, 28.1% were diagnosed with an arrhythmia necessitating a pacemaker/ICD. The only significant predictor was advanced age. Time to diagnosis is unpredictable and prolonged ILR monitoring is warranted in addition to optimal use of other diagnostic tools.

  • 66.
    Nordlund, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Granström, Robert
    Test Site Sweden.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Zampoukos, Kristina
    Avdelningen för turismvetenskap och geografi, Mittuniversitetet.
    Användarnas beteende och syn på laddbara bilar: Rapport från projektet SELF-i2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Erfarenheter av dagligt bruk

    Inom ramen för projektet SELF-i, ”Svensk Enkät Laddbara Fordon – introduktionsfas”, genomfördes under våren-sommaren 2016 för första gången en nationellt övergripande enkät riktad till användare av laddbara bilar i Sverige. Projektet har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och syftet har varit att söka svar på vad dessa personer, med erfarenheter av dagligt bruk/ägande, tänker om ”elbilar och elektromobilitet”. Som ett första steg släpps denna populärvetenskapligarapport. Fram till sommaren 2017 kommer sedan tre fördjupningsrapporter att produceras.

    Villaägare överrepresenterade

    Övergripande konstateras, inte helt oväntat, att det finns en tydlig överrepresentation av villaägare bland de som kör laddbara bilar privat.Så mycket som 80 procent av elbilsanvändarna bor i villa. Till bilden hör att den vanligaste konsumenten bland de som svarat – välutbildade, manliga förare över 50 som bor i villa – köper fler nya bilar än snittbefolkningen. Men en första tolkning av resultaten är den höga andelen villaägare bland laddbilsförare kan förklaras med att det är enklare att ordna med laddning för denna grupp.

    Laddhybrid vanligare i enbilshushåll

    Endast 15 procent av de elbilsanvändare som svarat på enkätendisponerar inte någon annan bil i hushållet/verksamheten, och för laddhybridsanvändarna ärmotsvarande siffra 30 procent. Det är alltså dubbelt så vanligt med laddhybrid än med elbil i enbilshushåll. Omvänt kan man konstatera att 15% av elbilsanvändarna klarar sig med endast en elbil.Totalt sett har 19 procent av elbilsanvändarna som besvarat enkäten –9 procent av totala antalet respondenter –endasttillgång till en eller flera elbilar. Räknar vi bort användare av Tesla Model S är det 12 procent av elbilsanvändarna som bara har tillgång till elbil(ar)med kortare räckvidd.

    Flerbilshushåll en tydlig konsumentgrupp

    Hushåll med flera bilar är en mycket tydlig konsumentgrupp. 18 procent av elbilsanvändarna säger att köpet inneburit att man nu äger en bil till. Men noterbart är att 19 procent av flerbilshushållen är säkra eller nästan säkra på att dom kommer att göra sig av med sin andra bil. Över 40 procent av elbilsanvändarna med en fossilbil instämmer helt i påstående att dom kommer att ersätta sin andra bil med en ren elbil. 46 procent av dessa ägare räknar med att byta bilen inom 2 år. Samtidigt anger 30 procent av elbilsanvändarna att de reser mer eller mycket mer med bil sedan den laddbara bilen köptes, och för användare av laddhybriderär siffran ca 10 procent. Endast ett fåtal procent anger att de reser mindre eller mycket mindre. Cirka 10 procent anger dessutom att resandet med kollektivtrafik har blivit mindre eller mycket mindre.

    Elbilen – enstadsbil?

    Uppfattningen att rena elbilar är stadsbilar och att laddhybrider passar för personer utanför städerna stärks inte av enkätmaterialet. Från materialet ser vi att runt 40 procent av de som kör en elbil bor i ett samhälle med mindre än 10 000 invånare. För användareav laddhybrider är andelen i mindre samhällenendast 30 procent. Omvänt kan endast 4 procentav elbilarnakopplas till bostadsrätter i städer med fler än 100 000 invånare. Motsvarande siffra för laddhybrider är 6 procent. Men vi får avvakta analyserna av data innan vi utropar elbilen som populärare på landsbygden. Först krävs bland annat en jämförelse mot statistik över vanliga diesel-och bensinbilar och en analys som skiljer på mindre samhällen på landsbygden och i nära anslutning till städer.

    Jämförelse svensk och norsk studie

    SELF-i-studien har tidsmässigt synkroniserats med en norsk studie med vissa gemensamma frågor. En första jämförelse mellan den norska och den svenska studien visar att det är en större andel villaägare med elbil i Sverige (80 procent) än i Norge (69 procent). Sverige verkar även ha färre elbilar i storstäderna än man har i Norge. Tillgång till laddplatser/parkeringar, bussfiler mm kan ha stimulerat den norska urbana elektromobilitetsutvecklingen, men vad skillnaden beror på och om den kan/böranvändas som argument för att stimulera laddbara bilar i städer är dock för tidigt att säga. Det kan ju vara så att villaägare i mindre orter kör mer/längre och att ett stort laddbilsintresse i denna grupp då ger en möjlighet att spara mer olja och erbjuda en högre miljönytta per såld laddbar bil i denna tidiga fas av elektromobilitetsutvecklingen.

    Laddning

    Laddningen i anslutning till hemmet dominerar. Vi ser även att många laddar via vanlig Shucko-kontakt och att standardiserade ladduttag är vanligare på arbetsplatser än i hemmet. Tre-fasladdare i bilen är tydligt önskat och faktiskt mer eftertraktat än nya modeller från tillverkarna. Vi ser att en större andel av laddhybridsanvändarna sällan eller aldrig laddar offentligt/vid köpcentra. Laddhybridanvändarna stör sig mer på behovet att ladda ofta och en betydligt större andel av dem ser hantering av laddkabel som en nackdel.

    Tjänstebilar viktigt segment, nästa bil blir en elbil

    Mer än 90 procentav de som kör elbil är mycket säkra på att nästa bil blir en elbil eller en laddhybrid och endast 2,5 procent är tveksam eller mycket tveksam till en laddbar bil nästa gång.Tittar man djupare i statistiken ser man att elbilsanvändare överlag verkar mer nöjda än de som använder laddhybrid. Av de som kör elbil idag kommer en väldigt stor andel att välja en elbil nästa gång: 89procent är säkra eller mycket säkra på att även nästa bil blir en ren elbil. Endast 48 procent av laddhybridsanvändarna är säkra/mycket säkra på att man väljer en laddhybrid igen och 21 procent står och väger. I båda grupperna är färre än 30 procent tveksamma eller mycket tveksamma till påståendet att 4 av 5 tjänstebilar som säljs 2021 är laddbara. Gällande en sådan fördelning bland de närmaste vännerna är tveksamheten betydligt större, bland laddhybridsanvändare hela 52 procent.

    Drivkrafter vid inköp

    Av de skäl som lyfts fram som drivkrafter vid valet av biltyp är miljöegenskaper, intresset för teknik, driftsäkerhet och låga drivmedelskostnader viktiga frågor. Det bör noteras att dessa faktorer, som brukar lyftas fram som reella elbilsfördelar, värderats högre än konstruerade elbilsfördelar som supermiljöbilspremien och lägre förmånsvärde på bilen. En annan faktor vid inköp som varit viktig är att tillgång till laddning på arbetet/skola och hemma. En överväldigande majoritet ser det också som en fördel att kunna ladda hemma.

  • 67.
    Norell, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sundqvist, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Granulat på konstgräsplaner i Gävle kommun: Miljöpåverkan vid spridning via dagvattensystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial turfs have been shown to be a significant source of microplastics. The filling material used on artificial turf is called granules and are under the definition microplastic. There are different kinds of granules on the Swedish market, these are SBR, TPE, EPDM and R-EPDM. The granules spread mainly through stormwater from artificial turf, which may then end up in nearby streams. Previous studies have shown that the granules can release toxic substances that risk contaminating the water. Aquatic organisms can misinterpret microscopic particles as food, which can cause consequences such as constipation and starvation. The substances that may leach from the granules belongs to the collective name environmental toxins and are stable, toxic, reproductive and accumulative.

     

    The purpose of this study is to provide a description of the filling material that are used in artificial turfs in Gävle, investigate how these granules can spread and then identify suggestions to reduce the spread. The purpose is also to present the artificial turf's stormwateroutlets and water status to describe the potential environmental impact that the granulate may cause. The methods used in this work are literature studies, personal communication, field observations, map systems and figures and water samples.

     

    Gavlefastigheter owns five artificial turfs in the municipality of Gävle which are Träffen IP, Gavlevallen, Nynäs IP, Sörby IP and Andersberg. These turfs use SBR- TPE and R-EPDM granules. There are open water wells on every turf area and granules can spread to these by surface water at intensive rain, snow plowing and meltwater and with the players when they leave the turf. Most turfs have drainage systems connected to stormwater pipelines that can spread leachable substances to water. The water pipelines have outlets in Testeboriver, Bäckebrostream, Gavleriver and Hemlingbystream. The physical properties of the granules have a significant effect if the particle sinks to the bottom or if it is transported along with the water. The artificial turfs that are primarily in need of taking actions to reduce the spread of granules are Sörby, Anderberg and Nynäs.

     

    The waters do not achieve good chemical status and substances that occur at high concentrations varies depending on the kind of water. According to previous studies, several of these substances may leach from the granules which means that there is a risk of a contribution of these substances if spreading occurs.

  • 68.
    Olsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    An approach towards sustainable renovation: a tool for decision support in early project stages2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 20-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through energy reduction in buildings is a high priority for policy-makers in the European Union and elsewhere. However, although long-term sustainability targets exist on the societal level, it is not obvious how these targets may trickle down to individual sectors and further down to specific organizations or buildings. The aim of this paper is to illustrate an approach for evaluating renovation measures in order to identify appropriate target levels in early project stages and what is needed to achieve a number of proposed sustainability targets. The evaluation approach is supported by a tool that can be seen as an aid to making rough estimations of the environmental impacts. Sustainability target levels in a Swedish context are presented for three issues: operational energy use, GHG emissions due to total energy use for building operation, and embodied GHG emissions due to production of materials. The approach to support well-grounded retrofit decisions is shown with a case study. The tool developed, in combination with a suggested step-by-step evaluation approach, provides an effective way to evaluate various potential improvements, and their consequences, in early project stages. However, other tools with similar functionality may be used. Results from the case illustration imply that it is possible to achieve the proposed sustainability targets for operational energy use by implementing nine measures. However, the targets for GHG emissions for operational energy use and embodied GHG emissions were not achieved because of an energy supply with too high a share of non-renewable fuels.

  • 69.
    Olsson, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Managing Sustainability Aspects in Renovation Processes: Interview Study and Outline of a Process Model2015In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 6336-6352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European countries, there are building stocks in need of extensive renovation. This constitutes an important opportunity to perform energy-saving measures and improve indoor environmental quality aiming at a more sustainable built environment. In this paper, we report results from an interview study with the aim of obtaining an in-depth understanding of renovation processes and how sustainability aspects are handled by various Swedish property owners. Examples of important barriers revealed in the interviews are insufficient inspection of existing buildings, absence of both overarching and detailed sustainability targets and guidelines, and lack of knowledge about sustainability aspects. Based on the interview study, conclusions are drawn for the further development of a process model which aims at systematize integration and effectively address energy, environmental, and indoor environmental quality aspects throughout a renovation process; we refer to this as sustainable renovation. Some key starting points for the process model are to suggest routines, provide checklists and tools, and offer guidance for formulating sustainability targets. However, the interviews show that in order to reach a more sustainable built environment, there is a need for government subsidies, other incentives or new business models that value environmental aspects higher.

  • 70.
    Powell, Stina
    et al.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ah-King, Malin
    Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hussénius, Anita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    ‘Are we to become a gender university?’ Facets of resistance to a gender equality project2018In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 127-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality (GE) is something ‘we cannot not want’. Indeed, the pursuit of equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for all women and men throughout a society freed from gendered oppression is widely visible in recent organizational GE initiatives. In practice, however, GE initiatives often fail in challenging gendered norms and at effecting deep-seated change. In fact, GE measures tend to encounter resistance, with a gap between saying and doing. Using a GE project at a Swedish university, we examined the changing nature of reactions to GE objectives seeking to understand why gender inequality persists in academia. We used ‘resistance’ to identify multiple, complex reactions to the project, focusing on the discursive practices of GE. Focusing our contextual analysis on change and changes in reactions enabled a process-oriented analysis that revealed gaps where change is possible. Thus, we argue that studying change makes it possible to identify points in time where gendered discriminatory norms are more likely to occur. However, analysing discursive practices does not itself lead to change nor to action. Rather, demands for change must start with answering, in a collaborative way, what problem we are trying to solve when we start a new GE project, in order to be relevant to the specific context. Otherwise, GE risks being the captive of consensus politics and gender inequality will persist.

  • 71.
    Ramirez Villegas, Ricardo
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Falun, Sweden; Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå, Sweden.
    Assessment of renovation measures for a dwelling area - Impacts on energy efficiency and building certification2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 97, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has an ambitious plan to reduce energy use and emissions by the year 2030. The building and real estate sectors have a great potential to help reduce emissions by energy efficiency. However, different energy sources and environmental standards affect the decision making of these major renovations in the existing stock. This study investigates how different renovation strategies affect the energy rating of a selected Building Environmental Assessment Tool and analyses the consequences in terms of greenhouse gas emissions for the local district heating system. Both building energy simulations and energy systems cost optimization were used to determine the energy use and local emissions. The results of different renovation scenarios were used to evaluate the rating in the selected tool and the impact in the district heating local emissions. The used methodology illustrates how energy efficient renovation impacts on the district heating system’s local emissions. However, a bias towards resource classification within the Swedish Building Environmental Tool, Miljöbyggnad, needs to be addressed in order to assess the impact of local emissions.

  • 72.
    Raymond, Christopher
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An embodied perspective on the co-production of cultural ecosystem services: Toward embodied ecosystems2018In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 61, no 5/6, p. 778-799Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite arguments justifying the need to consider how cultural ecosystem services are coproduced by humans and nature, there are currently few approaches for explaining the relationships between humans and ecosystems through embodied scientific realism. This realism recognises that human–environment connections are not solely produced in the mind, but through relations between mind, body, culture and environment through time. Using affordance theory as our guide, we compare and contrast embodied approaches to common understandings of the co-production of cultural ecosystem services across three assumptions: (1) perspective on cognition; (2) the position of socio-cultural processes and (3) typologies used to understand and value human–environment relationships. To support a deeper understanding of co-production, we encourage a shift towards embodied ecosystems for assessing the dynamic relations between mind, body, culture and environment. We discuss some of the advantages and limitations of this approach and conclude with directions for future research. 

  • 73.
    Rosales, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Characterization of microbial growth in lignin-based residues and biodegradation of vanillin:: Optimizing factors for maximizing the extraction of a biodegradation compound of vanillin and investigating the potential for lipid accumulation.2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3methoxybenzaldehyde) is one of the most employed aromatic and flavoring additives in food and cosmetic industry. The industrial interest in vanillin could also apply to its biodegradation products. The microbial transformation of vanillin can open the possibility of new products with new areas of application for products related to vanillin. For example, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid and ferulic acid are currently used in the pharmaceutical or food industry. Some species reported to biodegrade vanillin into the related products vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid, are: Brettanomyces anomalus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, certain microorganisms possess the ability to accumulate lipids when cultivated on different carbon sources, opening the possibility of microbial lipid production as another industrial application. The present investigation focuses on the optimization of extraction methods for vanillin biodegradation products, as well as identifying the isolates of a collection of microorganisms originating from the Faroe Islands that are amenable to being cultivated on a lignin-based media. Finally, the potential for microbial lipid accumulation was also studied. Two analytical methods, Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography (GC) were employed for characterizing the biodegradation products obtained after 24 hours and 72 hours of culture in growth medium supplemented with 1 mM of vanillin. The results showed that after 24 hours of incubation, the model microorganism, strain FMYD002, had consumed some of the vanillin and transformed it into biodegradation products. TLC retention factors and GC chromatograms revealed that the main biodegradation product after 24 hours - when compared to a standard – is likely to be to vanillyl alcohol. Furthermore, vanillin and its biodegradation products were relatively temperature-stable based on a temperature test of supernatant from a 24-hour culture, however, when the 72-hour culture had been subjected to the highest temperature (60 °C) some spontaneous decomposition occurred. The biodegradation pattern of the 72-hour culture evidenced by TLC revealed two additional biodegradation products, one of which migrates in a similar fashion to vanillic acid. After 72 hours of incubation, the biodegradation product presumed to be vanillyl alcohol was no longer observed. Acidification tests showed that the best route for extraction of the product believed to be vanillyl alcohol is to adjust the extracted sample to a pH of 9. The cultivation test of the isolates in media prepared from different lignin-based residual products showed that 26 out of 60 initial strains grew regardless of the concentration of lignosulfonates and vanillin. Moreover, 17 strains grew in nitrogen-limited medium. Eight of the strains accumulated lipids. A preliminary categorization of isolates based on their colony morphology and capacity of growth on different substrates showed that to some extent, their morphology can predict the ability to grow on lignin- and vanillin-based media. This could help future scientists to easily screen for and select isolates with interesting activity for the ligno-cellulose industry.

  • 74. Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra Ann Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood2018In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

  • 75.
    Samuelsson, Kalle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Social-ekologisk stadsbyggnad: perspektiv på urban resiliens och hållbar utveckling2016Report (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Spatial analyses of people's experiences in urban landscapes2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Limiting cities’ negative impact for global sustainability suggests compact city development. However, extensive and accessible urban nature is important for urban dwellers’ wellbeing. Aligning efforts to make cities locally and globally sustainable means resolving this conflict.

    This thesis applies spatial analysis of urban dwellers’ regularly occurring experiences, as these are important wellbeing indicators, looking specifically at Stockholm, Sweden. The aim is to contribute to a nuanced understanding of urban environments’ influence on urban dwellers’ experiences. Paper I investigates how accessibility to various environment features impact the probability that people have positive or negative experiences. Paper II applies resilience principles to investigate what experiences exist together in neighbourhoods.

    The environment have considerable influence on people’s experiences. Some common indicators in urban planning display weak relationships with experiential outcome, while other less common ones have larger effects. Neighbourhood compositions of experiences display consistent patterns, both spatially across Stockholm and with respect to resilience principles. Many neighbourhoods harbour diverse positive experiences, while a few are dominated by negative ones.

    The results suggest that human-environment relations should be given more consideration in urban discourse and urban planning. A relational approach could improve urban dweller’s experiences, and positively influence their wellbeing. For urban planning to be able to handle the complexity of such an approach, I suggest that resilience principles can be heuristics for an urban development that does not compromise people’s experiences. The methodological framework developed here can be applied in other cities, as it can identify specific places for transformation, but also increase knowledge of the interplay between urban environments and people’s experiences across different contexts.

  • 77.
    Samuelsson, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Peterson, Garry D.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Legeby, Ann
    School of Architecture, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Impact of environment on people’s everyday experiences in Stockholm2018In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 171, p. 7-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to construct urban environments that limit negative impacts for global sustainability while supporting human wellbeing, there is a need to better understand how features of the environment influence people’s everyday experiences. We present a novel method for studying this combining accessibility analysis and public participatory GIS (PPGIS). Seven environment features are defined and accessibility to them analysed across Stockholm municipality. We estimate the probabilities of positive and negative experiences in places based on these environment features, by using spatial regression to extrapolate from the results of an online PPGIS survey (1784 experiences of 1032 respondents). Six of the seven studied environment features have significant impact on experiential outcome, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation among the data. The results show that number of residents and proximity of nature environments and water, all common quality indicators in urban planning and research, have weak statistically significant effects on people’s experiences. However, areas dominated by large working populations or proximity to major roads have very low rates of positive experiences, while areas with high natural temperature regulating capacities have very high rates, showing that there are considerable qualitative differences within urban environments as well as nature environments. Current urban planning practices need to acknowledge these differences to limit impacts on the biosphere while promoting human wellbeing. We suggest that a good way to start addressing this is through transformation of negatively experienced urban areas through designs that integrate closeness to urbanity with possibilities to have nature experiences on a daily basis. 

  • 78.
    Schewenius, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Integrated Planning and Design2017In: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre; Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, p. 47-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Schwenius, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Erixon-Aalto, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture.
    Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Science Report: Campus Albano: On integrated planning and social-ecological urban design2017Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Sergienko, Olga I.
    et al.
    ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Dinkelaker, N. V.
    ITMO University, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Arrevaara, Eeva
    Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Lahti, Finland.
    Kärnä, Päivi
    Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Lahti, Finland.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Sorvari, Jaana
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    Serkkola, Ari
    Aalto University, Aalto, Finland.
    The concepts of resource efficiency and corporate environmental responsibility: a brief overview of the ERREC intensive week in St. Petersburg [Концепции ресурсной эффективности и корпоративной экологической ответственности: краткий обзор интенсивной недели по проекту ERREC в Санкт-Петербурге]2016In: Scientific journal NRU ITMO, ISSN 2310-1172, Vol. 4, p. 95-101Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 40 participants from five universities and four companies attended and actively contributed to the Intensive week «Sustainable Product Design & Resource Efficiency» organized at the ITMO University in St. Petersburg, 10–14 October, 2016 as a part of the ERREC «Environmental Responsibility and Resource Efficiency in companies» project, funded by the Nordic-Russian Cooperation in Education and Research program (SIU) and the Nordic Council of Ministers. Representatives of universities, including students, and business exchanged their views on how resourceefficiency could be achieved and the environmental impact of current consumption and production patterns decreased. A number of key tools and recommendations were formulated for companies under the new educational paradigm of blended learning, which is introducing a mix of traditional and modern educational methods. The trainees obtained a comprehensive experience for solving specific industry-related problems from the viewpoint of resource efficiency on the basis of pre-course assignments, lectures, teamwork, round-table discussions and an excursion. Particularly the waste management problems in Russia and abroad were highlighted. This paper summarizes the lectures and results from the case studies focusing on technical, managerial, and new information and communication technology applications for improving resource efficiency, and developing environmental responsibility in companies.

  • 81.
    Soam, Shveta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Technical and environmental assessment of the growing hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) for a sustainable transport in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping Unviersty, Linköping, Sweden.
    Assessment of Airflows in a School Building with Mechanical Ventilation Using Passive Tracer Gas Method2017In: Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy: Selected Papers from the World Renewable Energy Network’s Med Green Forum / [ed] Sayigh, Ali, Springer, 2017, 1, p. 619-631Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to assess the airflows in a school building built in 1963 in Gävle, Sweden, which is subject to energy conservation measures (ECMs) in a forthcoming renovation. Today, the school building is mainly ventilated by several mechanical ventilation systems, which are controlled by a constant air volume (CAV) strategy. Schedules and presence sensors impose a high operation mode during the day and a low operation mode at night, on weekends and on holidays. The homogeneous tracer gas emission method with passive sampling is used to measure the average local mean age of air (τ) during different operation modes. Temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration are simultaneously measured. The calculated relative uncertainty for the average local mean age of air in every measured point is approx. ±20 %. The results during low operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 8.51 h [corresponding to 0.12 air changes per hour (ACH)], where τ in various zones ranges between 2.55 and 16.37 h (indicating 0.06–0.39 ACH), which is related to the unintentional airflow in the school. The results during mixed operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 4.60 h (0.22 ACH), where τ in various zones ranges between 2.00 and 8.98 h (0.11–0.50 ACH), which is related to both unintentional and intentional airflows in the school. Corridors, basement and attic rooms and entrances have lower τ compared to classrooms, offices and other rooms. High maximums of the CO2 concentration in some rooms indicate an imbalance in the mechanical ventilation systems. During a regular school week of mixed operation, which includes both high and low operation modes, it is found that mainly the low operation modes show up in the results. The dynamics of the highly varying airflows in the building cannot be identified using the passive sampling technique.

  • 83.
    Wahlborg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Andersson, Lars T.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Allergenic potency of birch pollen2016In: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium. Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, article id 553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people sensitized to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in industrialized countries is vast and still rising. The purpose of this study was to develop a method with sensitivity high enough to measure the Bet v 1 content of a few birch pollen grains without the interference of environmental factors such as diesel particles, ozone level, humidity, temperature and precipitation. Grains were collected from catkins at two locations in Sweden over a period of 5 years. Allergens were extracted over polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters and Bet v 1 quantification was made with a luminescence immunoassay. The average content of Bet v 1 was 3.6 ± 0.6 pg per pollen grain for samples collected in three different pollination seasons. This is the first in a series of controlled experiments on the release of the major allergen Bet v 1 from birch pollen grains.

  • 84.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Building materials are important for sustainable development2017In: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunnigham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 95-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current material world human beings consume more natural resources and use more energy than ever before. The consumption of goods connected to planning, design and management of the built environment is seldom highlighted, even though the building and property sector is highly responsible for the use of large amounts of natural resources, production of waste and carbon dioxide emissions. This chapter describes important research that acknowledges environmental impacts of building materials.

  • 85.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Environmental Assessment Tools for Neighbourhoods and Buildings in relation to Environment, Architecture, and Architects2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores Neighbourhood and Building Environmental Assessment Tools’ (NBEATs’) function as assessment tools and decision support, and their relation to environment, architecture and architects. This is done by analysing, testing, and discussing a number of NBEATs (LEED-NC, Code for Sustainable Homes, EcoEffect, LEED-ND, BREEAM-C, and ENSLIC-tool), their manuals and use. Moreover, professionals’ (architects’) self-rated opinions regarding use and knowledge of NBEATs and environmental aspects are surveyed.

    Similarities and differences in NBEATs are found regarding: content, structure, weighting and indicators used. Indicators distinguished as procedure, performance and feature are used to varying extents to assess social, environmental and technical aspects. NBEATs relation to environmental sustainability has limitations due to: non-transparency, tradable indicators, relative measures, low criteria levels, limited life cycle perspective, and exclusion of relevant environmental aspects, such as embedded toxic substances, nutrient cycles, land use change, and ecosystem services. Ratings and architecture are influenced by NBEATs in varying ways. Higher criteria levels would probably increase their impact on architecture. Thus more research regarding NBEATs and links to architectural design, theory and practice is welcomed.

    There is limited use of NBEATs as decision support in early design phases such as in architectural competitions. Architects rate the importance of environmental aspects high, but few rate their skill in handling environmental aspects high. This calls for increasing knowledge and know-how of environmental strategies and solutions among architects and adaptation of NBEATs to early design processes. The values NBEATs reflect and the values we want them to create is also important. To support ‘environmental’ architecture, an increased socio-eco-technological system perspective is put forward, and other measures besides NBEATs are needed.

  • 86.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Gender Differences in Environmental Perspectives among Urban Design Professionals2018In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban design professionals are key actors in early design phases and have the possibility to influence urban development and direct it in a more sustainable direction. Therefore, gender differences in environmental perspectives among urban design professionals may have a marked effect on urban development and the environment. This study identified gender differences in environment-related attitudes among urban design professionals involved in the international architectural competition 'A New City Centre for Kiruna' in northern Sweden. Participants' self-rated possibility to influence environmental aspects was higher for males than for females. Conversely, the importance placed on environmental aspects had higher ratings among females, although the differences regarding the rating of personal responsibilitywere small. The gap between the participants' self-rated belief in their ability to influence and rated importance of environmental aspects was larger among female participants. Females placed great importance on environmental aspects even though they felt that their possibility to influence these was rather low. Conversely, male participants felt that they had the greatest possibility to influence, although some males rated the importance of environmental aspects thelowest. The gender differences identified are important froman equality and environmental perspective as they may influence pro-environmental behavior among urban design professionals and ultimately influence the environmental performance of the built environment.

  • 87.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Peter
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Cardiology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ecological worldview among urban design professionals2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The built environment is responsible for a large proportion of the global use of energy, natural resources, and emissions. Architects and other urban design professionals are key actors in the building process whose behavior and decisions will influence these impacts. Because environmental attitudes are linked to pro-environmental behavior, this study aims to measure environmental worldview among urban design professionals involved in the architectural competition ‘A New City Center for Kiruna’. The mean score registered for the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) scale was 3.68 (standard deviation 0.51) and there were no significant differences with regard to age (mean 41.3 years) or gender (64.7% males). The ecological worldview of the participants was similar to most other samples from diverse countries, but a lower score was reported in comparison to environmentalists. The score ranged from 2.53 to 4.67 which shows heterogeneity at an individual level. Thus, future efforts to improve environmental attitudes among urban design professionals are needed.

  • 88.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Research, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Professionals' knowledge and use of environmental assessment in an architectural competition2017In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 426-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In early design phases, architects, landscape architects and urban planners are key actors whose decisions determine the environmental impact of planning and building projects. Environmental and sustainability assessment tools for buildings and neighbourhoods have been developed to promote sustainable building, but their usage has not been thoroughly evaluated. This study investigated self-reported knowledge and usage of such tools among competitors and jury group from 10 European countries involved in the international architectural competition '€˜A New City Centre for Kiruna'€™ in Sweden. The questionnaire revealed that 13% used environmental assessment tools or management systems in the competition, although 47% had used them previously. Tool users reported greater knowledge of how to handle environmental impacts than non-users. However, the self-rated experience of handling various environmental impacts, in the competition and in general, was low for both groups. Nevertheless, the self-rated importance of environmental impacts was high among all participants. Based on this study, it is concluded that environmental assessment tools, issues and goals can be better integrated into the processes of early design in planning and building projects, and in architectural competitions. Furthermore, to limit environmental impacts in building and planning projects, professionals need to be educated about environmental strategies and solutions.

  • 89.
    Wang, Zhao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Liu, Longcheng
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neretnieks, Ivars
    Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hard-sphere fluid mediated interaction: a pressure expression with application of the weighted correlation approach2016In: Molecular Physics, ISSN 0026-8976, E-ISSN 1362-3028, Vol. 114, no 5, p. 599-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using a so-called differential-integral method on the chemical potential of a hard-sphere fluid, a special variant of our previously developed expression that describes the interaction between charged plates immersed in an electrolyte, is introduced to examine the hard-sphere fluid mediated pressure in a slit. The resulting expression consists of a kinetic contribution and a hard-sphere contribution, and it is formulated as a function of the single-particle direct correlation function and the density distribution of a hard-sphere fluid. It allows us to conveniently apply the classic density functional theory to explicitly investigate the influence of the hard-sphere excluded-volume effect on the interaction pressure between surfaces. In this study, a newly proposed weighted correlation approach (WCA)-Denton and Ashcroft (DA) method is employed to predict the interaction pressure as well as its pressure components for a hard-sphere fluid inside a slit pore. Comparisons with the results from the Monte Carlo simulations and the fundamental measure theory suggest that the WCA-DA method is able to accurately capture the detailed characteristic pattern of the pressure-separation curves at different fluid densities. It is also found, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that the hard-sphere pressure contribution dominates over the kinetic pressure contribution in determining the oscillatory behaviour of the interaction pressure curves, especially when a hard-sphere fluid of high density is concerned.

  • 90.
    Wangel, Josefin
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Analysis (fms), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods: what do they really certify?2016In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 56, p. 200-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification systems for sustainable neighbourhoods started to emerge around a decade ago. This study analysed the content, structure, weighting and indicators of two established certification systems for sustainable urban development - BREEAM Communities and LEED for Neighborhood Development. Several limitations of these systems were identified: both have a bias for procedure and feature indicators over indicators that assess actual performance; performance demands are set according to a relative understanding of sustainable development; the focus is on internal sustainability, while upstream and downstream impacts of construction are disregarded; the number and distribution of mandatory issues do not cover essential sustainability aspects; and the disproportionately large number of non-mandatory issues makes benchmarking difficult and signals that sustainability aspects are exchangeable. Altogether, this means that an area can be certified without being sustainable. Moreover, the lack of continuous development of certification requirements in the systems means that they risk exerting a conservative effect on urban development, rather than pushing it forward.

  • 91.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Patulin in food2015In: Current Opinion in Food Science, ISSN 2214-7993, E-ISSN 2214-8000, Vol. 5, p. 105-109Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin is produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. It is a mycotoxin that primarily contaminates pome fruit products, but is being reported from other fruit and foods, for example shellfish and cheese. New findings reveal that patulin binds to the bases of DNA, in addition to its well-established ability to conjugate sulfhydryl groups. Novel cellular targets are also being uncovered. In the EU, patulin levels in apple products are now mostly below specified limits. Biocontrol agents either prevent infection by mycotoxigenic fungi or lower patulin levels. More knowledge about critical control points, the role of patulin in plant disease, and the environmental cues that stimulate patulin production will enable the tailoring of effective, future control measures.

  • 92.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Novel biodegradation of vanillin by a woodinhabiting isolate of Cystobasidium sp.2018In: Book of abstracts: International Specialized Symposium on Yeasts ISSY 34, 2018, p. 114-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cystobasidium species are mostly found in temperate or cold environments. They have been isolated from a wide range of habitats: plants, soils, rocks, aquatic environments and indoor dust. The genus Cystobasidium mainly consists of species of red yeasts in the Rhodotorula minuta clade. These basidiomycetous yeast species are commonly found in temperate to cold regions. In the present study, two strains of Cystobasidium sp. were isolated from decaying wood of housing on the Faroe Islands, where the average yearly temperature ranges from 2°C to 13°C. The sequences of the two strains had two identical gaps within the ITS1ހ5.8SހITS2 region and a second gap within the D1/D2 LSU unit, when aligned to those of C. laryngis CBS 2221, their closest match. The isolates were designated as Cystobasidium sp. Both isolates converted vanillin into vanillyl alcohol in the presence of oxygen. The biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi, but to our knowledge, it has not previously been reported for any basidiomycetous yeast species. Rhodotorula rubra, a distantly related basidiomycetous yeast converts vanillin into vanillic acid. In the present study, the two isolates of Cystobasidium sp. did not produce any trace of vanillic acid, as determined by LC-MS, 1HހNMR and GC. Oxidizing vanillin into vanillic acid should be preferred by the fungi, since it results in more chemical energy, as compared to reducing it to vanillyl alcohol. The fungus may choose this pathway to escape the toxicity of both vanillin and vanillic acid. Vanillin has antimicrobial activity, and vanillic acid is more toxic than vanillyl alcohol. Vanillin is a constituent of the lignin molecule. Cystobasidium species are commonly found in the phyllosphere. Their ability to utilize plant chemicals should render them successful competitors on plants and wood.

  • 93.
    Yang, Frank
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Goldman, Mattias
    Forum for reforms, entrepreneurship and sustainability (Fores), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lagercrantz, Jakob
    The 2030 secretariat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable Mobility the Chinese Way: Opportunities for European cooperation and inspiration2018 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book introduces China's endeavours in sustainable mobility to combat climate change and ease air pollution, including electric vehicles, high-speed rail, shared bikes and cars, etc. Suggestions are given on how Europe and China can learn from each other for a more sustainable world.

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