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  • 51.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Value of RE for Citizenship Education According to Swedish RE-Teachers2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish RE has the purpose to teach about religion and to present a comprehensive view of different traditions. However, this assignment can be interpreted in different ways by different RE-teachers with different consequences for the education of citizens. In this contribution RE-teachers are considered as socialization agents representing an important part of the enacted curriculum. The purpose of this contribution is to explore Swedish RE-teachers notions of citizenship education in relation to RE as a subject in the compulsory school with a special reference to education for democratic citizenship. A second purpose is to analyze possible implications for civic social action. In order to explore how teachers interpreted their assignment a semi-structured interview study was carried out. The theoretical point of departure is based on a pragmatical analysis of moral political consequences.

  • 52.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet.
    Religious Education Teachers Conceptions of "Religion" and its Implications for Citizenship2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Depictions and presentations of what “religion” comprises is an important part of religious education. In order to introduce religion as a subject matter in school, the teacher has to rely on some portrayal or distinction of the notion of religion for the students. However, the notion of religion is not only part of basic school knowledge. Different conceptions of the meaning and event of religion or the different ways of characterizing the basic functions of religion, also contribute to the ways in which we grasp the impact or non impact of religion in social life.

    This paper addresses how teachers in comprehensive secondary education describe religion. Religious studies teachers can be seen as socialisation agents with the professional task to educate students for participation in society. Their depictions of “religion” does not only have an individual or cognitive signification, but also has implications for how students are approaching what counts as religion or religious and for what and who that become excluded and included in these depictions. Taking on the relationship between the teachers’ depictions and presentations of religion and the implications of them as regards the students’ notions of life in society the teachers’ voices on the notion and subject matter of religion become interesting to explore as an important part of the curricula, and further, for their assignment to see to the students’ democratic citizenship.

    In this paper we approach the teachers’ descriptions not as abstract definitions but as social actions in an educational setting, which is intimately linked to the wider social and societal omission of seeing to this assignment. The purpose is more specifically to study religious studies teacher’s descriptions and presentations of “religion” and its possible consequences for democratic citizenship in our times. The paper is based on a recently carried out empirical study that involves nine semi-structured interviews (5 m + 4 f) in the Swedish comprehensive secondary school.

  • 53.
    Olofsson, Åke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Ahl, Astrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Taube, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Students with dyslexia: Study skills and learning support in Swedish higher education.2011In: British Dyslexia Association 8th International Conference, Harrogate, 2-4 June, 2011: Dyslexia: Beyond Boundaries, British Dyslexia Association , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European countries the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. The present study focuses on how university institutions and teachers are affected by students with dyslexia, the type of support offered by the higher education institutions and the strategies used by the students with these problems. Results from interviews and self-reports of 30 university students and 25 lecturers from 3 Swedish universities showed that the students use both compensation methods offered by the institutions and personal strategies. The results indicated that there are significant knowledge gaps in the educational institutions regarding students who have dyslexia.

  • 54.
    Olofsson, Åke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Söderberg Juhlander, Pernilla
    Linneuniversitetet, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap.
    Speed and accuracy in the first year of reading development.2010In: Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, July 7-10, 2010, Berlin: SSSR 2010 Conference Abstracts, Society for the Scientific Study of Reading , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To provide a detailed description of the development of word recognition during the first year of schooling, with respect to processing speed and decoding accuracy. Method. One year longitudinal study of the first year of reading development in 35 seven year old Swedish children. The study used a computer based measurement procedure with four waves of repeated measurement of reading aloud of single words. The accuracy of word decoding was recorded and analyzed with respect to errors and decoding strategies. Reaction and process times were recorded for reading as well as for rapid naming and letter knowledge. The word material consisted of; (a) very familiar (content and functor) mono syllable simple words; (b) complex words which occur with high frequency in the early stages of children's reading schemes; (c) simple one-syllable pseudowords and (d) two-syllable pseudowords. Also a short spelling task was used. Assessment of letter knowledge and phonological awareness was done prior to school entry. Results. The results show a rapid reading development for practically all children and clear evidence for code oriented and phonologically based decoding strategies. At the first three timepoints monosyllable pseudo words were read more correct than simple words. The development of decoding speed was preceded by an increase in accuracy. Conclusions. When learning to read, in the Swedish orthography, the beginning readers rely on phonological skills and letter knowledge rather than using any holistic strategy. The results give no support to the claim of an initial logographic strategy in reading acquisition.

  • 55.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan2010In: Vuxenutbildning i samverkan, 2010Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Internationella kunskapsmätningar: När, Hur och Varför?2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 57.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Internationella kunskapsmätningar och deras funktioner2010In: Bedömning i och av skolan: Praktik, principer, politik / [ed] Christian Lundahl & Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, p. 259-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    National interpretations of OECD:s PISA studies2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Om internationella kunskapsmätningar, jämförande pedagogik och nationella resultatkulturer2013In: Läsning! / [ed] Gustaf Skar & Michael Tengberg, Stockholm: Svensklärarföreningen , 2013, p. 169-187Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Revisiting Narratives of Large Scale Assessments: Comparative Education Review (1974 & 1987), and European Educational Research Journal (2012) compared2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Snäv mätning styr skolpolitiken2013In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 3 decemberArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Development of the IEA: the rise of large-scale testing2014In: Transnational Policy Flows in European Education: the making and governing of knowledge in the education policy field / [ed] Andreas Nordin & Daniel Sundberg, Oxford: Symposium Books, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Impact of International Knowledge Assessments (OECD & IEA) in Terms of National Reports2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The Narratives of Large Scale Assessments Revisited: Thru the Lenses of Comparative Education Review, 1974 and 19872013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Three narratives: national interpretations of PISA2014In: Knowledge Cultures, ISSN 2327-5731, E-ISSN 2375-6527, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 172-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has become a major and influential component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) educational work. This paper examines national reports relating to PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 published on the OECD website in order to identify examples that illustrate the construction of education narratives. These examples are taken from reports from English, German and Nordic speaking countries. When the narratives are analysed, it becomes evident that PISA enables and leads to the production of a variety of different narratives. In this paper ontological, epistemological and reform narratives are examined to demonstrate how the various narratives are constructed through the reporting and discussion of national results. The paper concludes that by means of international and national reports, PISA has created a variety of explicit and implicit narratives for steering national educational policy processes.

  • 66.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Vad kan skolarkiven berätta om den ideologiska styrningen, uppfyllelse av kunskapsmålen och situationen för elever och personal?2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 67.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    International Knowledge Assessments and the Influence on the Swedish reform of Management by Objectives2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trying to Handle the Question of Differentiation: 70 Years of Swedish School Reforms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet.
    Den svenska skolans resultat: Från standardprov till PISA2010In: PISA: sannheten om skolen? / [ed] Eyvind Elstad og Kirsten Sivesind, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2010, p. 222-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Lundahl, Christian
    In search of the Swedish schools performance2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Various internationalities?: Constructions of the “international” in curriculum work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to investigate the construction of the “international” in curriculum work in social science education in Sweden, England and Germany. The “international” will be handled as an understanding of a virtual global space that is constructed by local actors embedded in particular contexts. By perceiving the “international” not as an arena where certain phenomena are defined and disseminated into local contexts, but as constructed in the very local as various internationalities, we challenge impact-models that seek a path from the global down to the local. We approach our aim by focusing curriculum work in a field of education that by the character of its subjects has a deep interest in relating to the “international”. By asking the subject matter and didactic question of how global literacy is to be developed in social studies in secondary education, we investigate, through discourse analysis, the construction of a world-level that obviously makes such competencies necessary from the perspective of curriculum makers. We argue that such constructions differ regarding both levels of curriculum work and national contexts. A comparison of three countries, presenting three different traditions of curriculum work, will become an analytical device to understand the impact of the contexts both internationally and nationally. Our empirical study will comprise in all cases analyses of governmental documents concerning social science education, curriculum, syllabi and/or national standards and complementary materials. Furthermore, we will self-reflecting publicistic work of teachers in each of the subjects (teacher journals) and conduct focus group interviews with teachers. The data will cover all relevant levels of curriculum work.

  • 72.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wester, Anita
    Skolverket.
    Skolan i världen: internationella kunskapsmätningar2010In: Lärande, skola, bildning / [ed] Ulf P. Lundgren, Roger Säljö och Caroline Liberg, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wester, Anita
    Skolverket.
    Skolan i världen: internationella kunskapsmätningar2014In: Lärande, skola, bildning / [ed] Ulf P Lundgren, Roger Säljö & Caroline Liberg, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2014, 3, p. 491-518Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Selander, Staffan
    et al.
    Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Geyer, Lena
    Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dialog på undantag?: samverkan mellan lärarutbildningen och avnämnarna i det svenskspråkiga Finland2013Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Ensuring Literacy through ‘Didactic Arranging’2010In: International Conference on Special Education, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Ensuring literacy through didactic arranging      : the Witting method set in context2010In: Focus on Europe, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Praxisnära forskning: skriftspråkligt arbete i några olika klassrumsmiljöer2010In: Svenska Dyslexiföreningens utbildningskonferens, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Säkerställa skriftspråklighet – vad kan det innebära? 2010In: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, no 4, p. 9-11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Swärd, Ann-Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Vad erfarna och skickliga lärare gör när de arbetar med läs- och skrivundervisning2010In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift - att undervisa, ISSN 2000-429X, no 1, p. 17-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Söderberg Juhlander, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linneuniversitetet, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap.
    Olofsson, Åke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Spelling development during the first year of school2011In: SSSR 2011 Conference Abstracts, Society for the Scientific Study of Reading , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pernilla Soderberg Juhlander (Linnaeus University)Ake Olofsson - Gavle University and Umea University - Spelling development during the first year of school. Purpose: To provide a detailed description of the development of spelling during the first year of schooling, and a comparison of the development of decoding and spelling. Method: One year longitudinal study of the first year of reading development in 35 seven year old Swedish children. Word decoding and letter knowledge was assessed with a computer based procedure and spelling was measured with paper and pencil tasks. The word material consisted of; (a) very familiar (content and functor) mono syllable simple words; (b) complex words which occur with high frequency in the early stages of children's reading schemes; (c) simple one-syllable pseudowords and (d) two-syllable pseudowords. Assessment of letter knowledge and phonological awareness was done prior to school entry. Results: The children had problems spelling words containing orthographic complexities, bi-syllabic nonwords were a bit easier to spell. The best result was found for simple words and for mono syllabic nonwords. Simple words and mono syllabic nonwords were relatively easier to spell than to read. On the contrary, complex words and bi-syllabic words were easier to read than to spell. Conclusions: When learning to read and spell, in the Swedish orthography, the beginning readers frequently encounter simple and short (mono syllabic) words. This may give the impression that spelling is easier than reading. This impression is reinforced by the phenomenon that it is often easier to interpret a misspelled word than a misread one. The pedagogical implications of these findings are discussed.

  • 81.
    Söderlund, Maud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    A concept of caring aiming at health2013In: International journal for human caring, ISSN 1091-5710, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to explore and describe nurses´, patients´ and relatives´ lived experiences in care giving settings.  Findings presented emerge from reanalysis three previous qualitative studies carried out by the author.  Reanalysis is a documented method as it extend existing knowledge that generates new understanding about phenomenon experienced. Using a triangulation in approaches, the phenomenographical, phenomenological and hermeneutical reanalysis data shows the characteristics of caring as a phenomenon, conceptions of caring and how caring affects peoples being-in-the world. Using abduction and applying hermeneutic as an overall design a qualitative meta-synthesis a concept of caring is drawn from three different perspectives.

  • 82.
    Söderlund, Maud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Applying hermeneutics as an overall design2010In: Conference Hermeneutics in the Health and Caring Sciences, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Söderlund, Maud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Reanalys ger ny kunskap för vårdvetenskapen2010In: NCCS (Nordic College of Caring Sciences) konferens Metodologiska innovationer på vårdvetenskapens villkor, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Söderlund, Maud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Vårdande2011In: Vårdvetenskapliga begrepp i teori och praktik / [ed] Bergbom, I., & Wiklund-Gaustin, L., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Söderlund, Maud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Karlsson, Margareta
    Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan.
    Hermeneutisk läsning enligt Gadamer: ’Hermeneutiken’ som den söndrade helhetens tjänare2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Contextualising teachers’ professional autonomy in time and space2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education. Stockholms universitet.
    Höstfält, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet.
    Contextualizing teacher autonomy in time and space: A model for comparing various forms of governing the teaching profession2014In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 58-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to develop a model for comparing different forms of teacher autonomyin various national contexts and at different times. Understanding and explaining localdifferences and global similarities in the teaching profession in a globalized world requireconceptions that contribute to further theorization of comparative and internationaleducation. Drawing on a governance perspective and building on considerations ofcurriculum evaluation, the study argues that teacher autonomy is a crucial factor that hasto be conceptualized in its national and historical contexts. It presents an examination ofthe teaching profession from both an institutional and service perspective. In both perspectives,teacher autonomy, framed by curriculum evaluation, can be regarded as bothextended and restricted, but not necessarily at the same time. This point of view enablesus to discuss different forms of autonomy in relation to each other. To support this idea,the study discusses cases of teachers in various contexts of time and space.

  • 88.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Höstfält, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet.
    Silent and explicit borrowing of international policy discourses: the case of the Swedish teacher education reforms of 2001 and 20112014In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 445-460, article id 23417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents different models of comparative education by discussing the government committee reports (SOU) which prepared the Swedish teacher education reforms of 2001 and 2011. These serve as examples for different kinds of policy borrowing from an international Bologna process discourse in national government document. The article facilitates Waldow (2009) term of “silent borrowing”. The reform of 2001 shows distinct references to international discourses without making this explicit. The reform of 2011 is then an example for explicit borrowing. The related government committee report refers very obvious to the Bologna process. However, this is seen as strategy in order to mark its distinction to its predecessor reform. Our cases are assumed to show how socio-historical and political contexts condition national discourses’ resources of legitimation.

  • 89.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The world we live in: Construction of ‘the international’ in citizenship education in Sweden, England and Germany2013In: International Knowledge Assessments: changing perspectives over time, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation wants to discuss the conceptual framework of a comparative study investigating construction of ‘the international’ in social studies/citizenship textbooks in the three national contexts of Sweden, England and Germany, which are characterised by different perspectives on how state and individuals interact. This involves looking at how the state regulates the welfare security of its citizens by deciding how e.g. democracy, equity and equality should be reproduced and secured in society. In this study we make use of Esping-Andersen’s (1990) Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, in which he presents three prototypes: a universal type, a corporatist-statist type such as that found in Germany, and a liberal type, commonly found in England. Our empirical approach draws on analyses of global literacy/global citizenship as product of global learning as it has been manifested in curriculum and textbooks for secondary students today. This kind of literacy apparently needs to be learned in order to cope with the demands and challenges of a globalising world. Here we assume significant context-related variances in the description of the ‘world we live in’ and the competences we apparently need to be able to cope with. It is thereby illuminated how the ‘international’ is constructed as a product of local circumstances.

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