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  • 51.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Chapter 3: Roll Pass Design2017In: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume / [ed] Lundberg, S.-E., Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) , 2017, p. 337-412Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides a detailed description of what long products are, how they are classified, how they are produced, as well as the types of equipment that produce long products. The volume provides a comprehensive overview of long product production from describing the roll pass design, to the different shapes and sections, to the manufacturing of wire and wire products, to tubular products, and finally to high-alloy steel semi-finished products by casting and ingots.

  • 53.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Allgood, Lee E.
    Lamb, Charles W.
    Ragger, Katharina Sophie
    Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben, Austria.
    Paal, Jürgen
    Schoeller Bleckmann Edelstahlrohr GmbH (SBER), Ternitz, Austria.
    Buchmayr, Bruno
    Materials Center Leoben Forschung GmbH, Leoben, Austria.
    Chapter 7: Manufacture of Steel Tubular Products2017In: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume / [ed] Lundberg, S.-E., Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) , 2017, p. 657-729Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Toschi, Francesco
    Primetals Technology, Castellanza, Italy.
    Head, Mel
    Chapter 4: Production of Bar and Light Sections2017In: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume / [ed] Lundberg, S.-E., Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) , 2017, p. 413-507Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Lundh, Anton
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. Man.
    Thunell, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    En effektiv inköpsprocess på små tillverkande företag: En fallstudie på Alderholmens mekaniska AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purchases account for a large proportion of companies’ turnover. It has therefore long been an important factor to work efficiently with purchasing to achieve increased profitability in companies. Because of the importance of efficient purchasing, the interest in the purchasing process has increased. The existing research, on the other hand, is primarily aimed at how large companies can achieve competitiveness from the purchasing process. Thus, there is limited research on how small companies can efficiently manage their purchasing process. The study has been carried out with a case study at a small manufacturing company with the aim of investigate and recommend how small manufacturing companies can manage their purchasing process in an efficient way. The case study has used a deductive approach where the work began with the collection of existing theory linked to the purpose of the study. Based on the existing theory, the interview questions have been designed to investigate how the purchasing process can look at small manufacturing companies. These interviews laid the foundation for the study's empirical material.

     

    A comparison between the theoretical framework and empirical data has identified important factors for an efficient purchasing process in small manufacturing companies. This is presented in a recommendation model. Generally, it is significant that every step of the purchasing process gets enough focus because all the steps are based on each other.  To forget about parts of the purchasing process will negatively affect the efficiency. It is also important to have durability in mind when performing these steps. Using tools from the Lean philosophy can also help small manufacturing companies to streamline the purchasing process. The tools that the study has found useful have been to eliminate waste and to make use of continuous improvements and respect for people.

  • 56.
    Luzhnica, Donjeta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bioplast: Ett hållbart förpackningsmaterial2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 57.
    Malmgård, Theo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Branddrönare 2030- vision för användning i smarta städer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 58.
    Mohammad, Fedek Kawthar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av inleveransprocesser på lager: Med Human Lean aspekter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Logistics is an integral component in making the production process more efficient in companies. An important concept in logistics is lead time, the time it takes for a product to go through the process from inbound and outbound to the customer. A normal logistical process comprises the initial receival of goods, controls upon arrival and further quality controls carried out before the product ends up in the storage. The delivery process is a central process with many sub-processes including varying working methods and routines that can result in permeating inefficiencies in the company if they aren’t done properly.

    The purpose of the study is to identify causes of inefficiency that might cause extended lead times and reduced productivity in the delivery process. This is achieved by studying the internal workflow and routines of Volkswagen Parts Logistics delivery process. 

    This study’s based on a case and the data is gathered by semi-structured interviews and observations at Volkswagen Parts Logistics. Thereafter the results are analysed through literature and scientific articles. 

    The study first identifies one cause of inefficiency through factors such as simplification, synchronization, communication and integration. To identify the root-cause, a root-cause analysis has been used on these factors, which are then compiled into a cause and effect diagram and finally six factors have been explained. From the analysis and discussion of the six factors, four improvement suggestions have been submitted to Volkswagen Parts Logistics. The suggestions included education & training, standardized working methods, understanding the whole process and cooperation between groups.

    The study presents a scientific gap regarding the efficiency improvement of lead time with Human Lean aspect with a focus on the delivery process. The study contributes to the gap through the six factors and improvement suggestions based on analysis and discussion.

  • 59.
    Niesten, Eva
    et al.
    Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Economics and Management, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Embracing the Paradox of Interorganizational Value Co-creation–Value Capture: A Literature Review towards Paradox Resolution2019In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 231-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews literature on paradoxical tensions between value co-creation and capture in interorganizational relationships (IORs). The purpose of this review is to make a re-evaluation of the literature by engaging a paradox theory lens, thereby identifying factors that render tensions salient and factors that lead to virtuous or vicious cycles. This review of 143 articles reveals factors that make tensions salient; these relate to plurality (e.g. coopetition), scarcity (e.g. lack of experience with IORs), change (e.g. changes in collaboration scope) or combinations thereof (e.g. IORs in weak appropriability regimes). Results also uncover factors that resolve paradoxical tensions of value co-creation and capture, thus spurring virtuous cycles (e.g. carefully mixing trust and contracts), as well as factors that promote vicious cycles, owing to the emphasis on either value co-creation or capture (e.g. myopia of learning). This review also uncovers a new category of factors that may stimulate either virtuous or vicious cycles, depending on the extent to which they are enforced. This finding expands the value co-creation–capture paradox resolution, and brings to light new dynamics in the paradox framework of dynamic equilibrium. The authors thus contribute by: (1) reassessing the existing literature and applying paradox theory to the well-known hazard of value co-creation and capture; (2) highlighting factors that amplify paradoxical tensions related to this hazard; and (3) outlining factors that solve the paradox by embracing its contradictory poles and factors that hinder paradox resolution by emphasizing either value co-creation or appropriation. 

  • 60.
    Norlund, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Martinussen, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Produktutvecklingsprocessen och integreringen av olika funktioner: En fallstudie vid ett större tillverkande företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's competitive and changing market, places high demands on companies ability to develop new products and is considered crucial for their survival. 40% of all new products are estimated to fail at launch and only one out of 7-10 products have a successful sale. The product development process includes all different activities that gradually transform a product, from idea to launch. Therefore, one of the biggest challenges in the product development process is to control these functions and integrate them with each other. Through integrated product development, collaboration between different functions can be improved and they can be involved at an earlier stage in the process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of a more integrated work between the different functions in the product development process at a major manufacturing company. This work has been performed through a case study at a larger manufacturing company that has a complex product development process with many activities and several functions involved. To collect the empirical material, qualitative data collection methods in the form of semi-structured interviews and document collection have been used. The empirical material together with previous research in the subject has formed the study's analysis and discussion. Furthermore, the conclusion was based on the result of the discussion and analysis. The study's empirical evidence shows that the functions of the case company are in various degrees involved in the product development process and that some functions are given priority. This lead, among other things, to delayed projects, not fully utilized competence and a lack of holistic view. Furthermore, the different functions within the company have a lack of understanding of each other's work. The company needs to improve communication internally since handover in the product development process often fails. Mail has become a major part of the communication and collocation has improved the function's interaction. The company wants to standardize the activities in the product development process to create a more uniform way of working in the organization. The results of this study indicate that integrated work between the functions has a positive effect on the product development process. However, there are factors that make the integrated work more difficult. By working more integrated within the process, this study suggests that the holistic approach for functions would be improved, priorities would be better and that understanding of others' work would increase. Furthermore, a more integrated way of working would help to minimize time from idea to launch.

  • 61.
    Osto, Emanuele
    et al.
    Primetals Technology, Castellanza, Italy.
    Giacomini, Luigi
    Primetals Technology, Castellanza, Italy.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Lagergren, Jonas
    Åkers AB, Åkers Styckebruk, Sweden.
    Oppitz, Mattias
    Ellis, Glyn
    Kocks Pittsburgh Co., Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Fabro, Mario
    SMS group.
    Thorstenson, Eric
    Russula, A Coruña, Spain.
    Fernández, Silvia
    Russula, A Coruña, Spain.
    Sánchez, Daniel
    Russula, A Coruña, Spain.
    Chapter 2: Design and Construction of Rolling Mills for Long Products2017In: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume / [ed] Lundberg, S.-E., Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) , 2017, p. 101-336Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Palmebäck, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Engångsgrillen, sämst på allt: En designlösning mot en miljöbov2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 63.
    Papargyropoulou, Effie
    et al.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Steinberger, Julia K.
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Wright, Nigel
    Nottingham Trent University, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Padfield, Rory
    University of Leeds; Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Ujang, Zaini
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Patterns and causes of food waste in the hospitality and food service sector: Food waste prevention insights from Malaysia2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 21, article id 6016Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste has formidable detrimental impacts on food security, the environment, and the economy, which makes it a global challenge that requires urgent attention. This study investigates the patterns and causes of food waste generation in the hospitality and food service sector, with the aim of identifying the most promising food waste prevention measures. It presents a comparative analysis of five case studies from the hospitality and food service (HaFS) sector in Malaysia and uses a mixed-methods approach. This paper provides new empirical evidence to highlight the significant opportunity and scope for food waste reduction in the HaFS sector. The findings suggest that the scale of the problem is even bigger than previously thought. Nearly a third of all food was wasted in the case studies presented, and almost half of it was avoidable. Preparation waste was the largest fraction, followed by buffet leftover and then customer plate waste. Food waste represented an economic loss equal to 23% of the value of the food purchased. Causes of food waste generation included the restaurants’ operating procedures and policies, and the social practices related to food consumption. Therefore, food waste prevention strategies should be twofold, tackling both the way the hospitality and food service sector outlets operate and organise themselves, and the customers’ social practices related to food consumption.

  • 64.
    Persson, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Design.
    Mejselhammaren och dess vibrationer med användarvänlighet och ergonomi i fokus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mejselhammaren är ett verktyg som används inom byggbranschen och kommer i olika storlekar beroende på användningsområde (se Figur 1). Arbetet med maskinerna är tungt och slitsamt för den fysiska hälsan, mestadels på grund av de vibrationer som användaren utsätts för. Det är svårt att följa de rekommenderade riktlinjer som finns angående arbetstider för maskinerna då dessa riktlinjer gör att arbetet oftast tar längre tid. Problemet blir att användaren utsätts för skadliga vibrationer under en längre tid, vilket i sin tur resulterar i arbetsskador i fingrar, handleder och underarmar, där bland annat blodkärlen påverkas. Syftet med detta examensarbete har varit att förbättra de ergonomiska aspekterna hos mejselhammaren med fokus på de vibrationer användaren utsätts för. Detta har jag valt att göra genom att använda mig av en designprocess där jag delar upp projektet i olika faser med start i Research och Analys. Här intervjuar jag användare och analyserar ergonomin i olika arbetsställningar samt gör marknadsanalys där jag jämför existerande maskiner och ställer dem mot varandra. I denna fas genomförs också research inom fysik för att förstå hur vibrationer sprider och beter sig. Sedan genereras idéer genom 3D skiss för att finna lösningar på de ergonomiska problemen. Där testades olika former av handtag, olika lösningar för problemområden så som tyngd och arbetsvinklar, men även vibrationsdämpare i olika material. Sedan gick jag tillbaka för att utvidga kunskaperna i fas två av Research och Analys, där jag gick ännu djupare in i fysiken och undersökte andra områden med liknade problematik. Resultatet av den nya kunskapen användes sedan i ett experiment där olika vätskors förmåga att dämpa vibrationer undersöktes. Denna kunskap togs sedan vidare in i ett koncept där vätskan utgör en viktig roll i att motverka vibrationerna som sprids vidare till användaren. Valet av koncept grundar sig i att motverka vibrationerna samtidigt som lösningen inte blir alltför radikal att använda utifrån användarens perspektiv. Handtagets greppvänlighet har även justerats för att passa bättre för en bredare grupp användare, där storleken har förminskats och avtryckaren förflyttats för att tillåta ett mer avslappnat grepp.

  • 65.
    Pettersson, Madelené
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Hur hållbarhet kan integreras i inkubatorverksamhet och startup-företag: En designprocess och fallstudie i samarbete med Movexum2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är ett examensarbete inom Design och formgivning, som är genomförd med två övergripande metoder; designprocess och fallstudie. Syftet med detta examensarbete var att utforska hur entreprenörer och inkubatorbolag systematiskt kan arbeta ekonomisk-, social-, och ekologisk hållbart från start i produkt, tjänst och företag. Kopplat till detta syfte var också att undersöka hur en företagsinkubator (Movexum), som eget företag, kan inkludera ekonomisk-, social- och ekologisk hållbarhet i sin egen organisation.

    I den här forskningsrapporten undersöks vetenskaplig litteratur inom hållbarhet och företagande samt hållbarhetsteorier. Det har även omfattat benchmarking av internationella och lokala företag för att finna metoder, verktyg och inspiration. Workshop, observationer och intervjuer för Movexum, entreprenörer och inkubatorbolag har ägt rum, för att skapa en övergripande hållbarhetsbild av Movexums verksamhet, inskrivna entreprenörer och inkubatorbolag hos Movexum. Det för att förstå problem och behov utifrån att arbeta systematiskt med hållbarhet i det egna företaget. Ur all insamlad information har ett förslag på en guidemanual tagits fram till Movexum, entreprenörer och inkubatorbolag för att informera om hållbarhet, hållbarhetsteorier och användbara hållbarhetsverktyg. Genom guiden kan de kartlägga och identifiera vilken hållbarhetsteori de arbetar med i sitt företag eller önskar att arbeta mer med, för att få olika tips på hållbarhetsverktyg att använda genom att utvärdera, integrera och skapa ett mer hållbart företag tillsammans med sin affärscoach.

    Denna forskningsrapport kan vara till nytta för andra inkubatorverksamheter som vill skapa kunskap hur hållbarhet kan integreras i inkubatorverksamheter och för entreprenörer och inkubatorbolag i deras företag. Den kan beprövas i andra inkubatorverksamheter och utveckla möjligheter och idéer till att arbeta systematiskt med hållbarhet från start.

  • 66.
    Ramstedt, Anton
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Alm Johansson, Calle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Modell för analys och effektivisering av monteringslina: En fallstudie hos Eco Log AB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization, shorter product life cycles and larger product variation has increased the competition for industrial companies in today's business environment. This creates a higher need for an efficient production where reduction of throughput time has proved to be a crucial efficiency factor. Production lead time, which is a part of the total throughput time, has gained limited attention in previous research. Therefore, this study aimed to design and evaluate a model for assembly lines, which analyzes it and makes it more efficient, especially focusing on production lead time. The model was later applied and evaluated at a company.   By conducting a literature review, interviews and observations with an abductive approach the purpose of the study was answered. A model was designed based upon ten identified factors, such as communication and quality, from both literature and the company. The model was then completed with suggested actions, such as 5S and supporting IT-systems, connected to the different factors. The structure of the model was inspired by a similar model, conducted earlier, but has been simplified and customized to the purpose of this study.   With the identified factors as a starting point, the model was applied to the company Eco Log AB by analyzing their harvester assembly line. This was completed with suggested actions. The model reached a satisfactory level by giving a clear picture of what factors were affecting the efficiency, allowing fast navigation between factors and actions and also the actions being seemingly suiting and relevant. To strengthen the generalization of the model, potentially, it can be applied to additional companies. Going more in-depth into each factor to find additional action propositions is perhaps a future development of the model.

  • 67.
    Reichart, Fabian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Melman, Patrick
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Proposing a model for the holistic use of sustainability initiatives – a multiple case study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate how companies address sustainability holistically and compare the practical results to theoretical findings. The holistic approach of sustainability includes four dimensions and five corporate system elements.

     

    Methods: For creating the theoretical framework a literature review was executed. Empirical data was gathered from a multiple case study. In total five case companies have been selected and five interviews have been conducted. Furthermore the interview guideline included a small survey. Empirical data was complemented by information from sustainability reports and companies website.

     

    Main findings: Sustainability is partly executed in differently in practical terms compared to theory research. The differences are mainly explained by the unique use of sustainability initiatives, which are adapted to companies circumstances.

     

    Academic contributions: Previously, only a few researchers investigated the combination of initiatives to provide a holistic sustainability approach. Furthermore a lack of practical research in the field of sustainability has been identified. This thesis contributes to close this gap by investigating five case companies regarding the use of multiple initiatives.

     

    Practical implications: Based on the findings a model was created by the authors. By applying this model and using recommended initiatives companies are able to establish a holistic sustainability approach, involving all sustainability dimensions and corporate system elements.

     

    Limitations: The interviews have been translated from German or Dutch into English, which increases the risk of wrong interpretations. Further the interview involved only one representative per company. Additionally the number of small case study companies and case companies from the service sector might limit the generalization of the results.

  • 68.
    Rudefors, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundin, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Layout för godsmottagning: För ett effektivt internt flöde2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 69.
    Seeger, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Design.
    User eXperience: Design, teknik, business – men vad innebär det egentligen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    User Experience, UX, som till en början främst användes inom IT-världen och sägs härstamma från HCI (Human Computer Interaction) används idag i allt större utsträckning. Den här studien syftar till att förtydliga vad UX innebär, hur definieras det samt hur ser yrkesrollerna ut inom UX. Denna studie är en jämförelse mellan teori och praktik för att se om praktiken matchar litteraturen. Ytterligare fokus ligger på organisationers UX-mognad samt vad det innebär för någon som är yrkesverksam inom UX. Vad innebär det för designers när mognaden är låg respektive hög? I den här studien användes huvudsakligen metoderna litteraturstudie, semi-strukturerade intervjuer där deltagarna alla är aktiva utövare inom UX och en enkät om upplevd UX-mognad. UX kommer från användbarhet, då användbarhet anses för snävt för att täcka alla områden man jobbar med vid utvecklingen av en produkt eller tjänst. I teorin beskrivs UX till större del som ett användarfokuserat arbetssätt där användaren ses som experten istället för designern. Eftersom det idag finns en uppsjö av digitala produkter och tjänster har UX blivit viktigt för att kunna uppnå ökad konkurrenskraft på marknaden. Därav har allt fler organisationer börjat intressera sig för UX. För att veta vart en organisation befinner sig i UX-mognaden finns en mängd olika UXmognadsmodeller som kan vara användbara för att fastställa detta samt guida hur en organisation kan avancera. Om UX-mognaden är låg innebär det att ingen eller få jobbar med UX i en organisation. Är det få som jobbar med UX innebär det att de får ta på sig en väldigt bred roll, det blir ett väldigt stort ansvar. Är det verkligen rimligt att en person ska behöva bära det ansvaret? Är däremot UX-mognaden är hög så jobbar hela team eller hela organisationen med UX på något sätt. Det underlättar för designer och bidrar till att skapa ett bättre samarbete inom organisationen. Men om allt fler använder sig av UX och det blir en del av flertalet olika yrken, vad kommer då hända med rollen?

  • 70.
    Smith, Richard H.
    et al.
    Carpenter Technology Corp., Reading, PA, USA.
    Wennström, Henrik
    Morgårdshammar AB, Smedjebacken, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Chapter 8: Production of High-Alloy Semi-Finished Steel Products by Ingot Casting, Rolling and Forging2017In: The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel: Long Products Volume / [ed] Lundberg, S.-E., Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology (AIST) , 2017, p. 731-895Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Sund, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Götrich, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ledtidsreducering för skräddarsydda produkter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 72.
    Svedlund, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Andersson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Arbetsmetod för ökad produktionseffektivitet genom involvering av människor och bättre data2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today's industrial market is facing fierce competition. The competition forces companies to work with different types of improvements. OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) is one of the most useful methods of working with improvements in manufacturing. The purpose of OEE is to measure the production efficiency of an individual machine.

    Problem: Data used must be collected with effective methods, be relevant and then processed appropriately. It will be hard to make improvements if problems concerning data are not addressed. Data used must also be understood by the whole organization. Therefore, the study wants to create a logical working method that increases production efficiency with a focus on involving people and data.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to give a deeper understanding of the view of production efficiency and to develop a working method of increasing production efficiency.

    Method: The study has used an abductive approach to answer the purpose and research questions. Data has been derived from a case study at Sandvik AB where interviews have been conducted. The interviews and collected data from the case company have been compared in parallel with a conducted literature review. The literature review is conducted in the fields of OEE-improvement methods, data collection and general improvement methods.

    Conclusions: Through our presented working method, companies can ensure that people become more involved in the improvement work on production efficiency. The method provides conditions for efficiently collecting and analyzing credible data to generate wellfounded suggestions for improvement.

  • 73.
    Thorsager, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Design.
    Spångrep för stall: Ett effektivare alternativ2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En grep är det verktyg man använder för att mocka hästars boxar, alltså städa bort avföring från den ytan de står på i ett stall. De grepar som idag finns för mockning av djurstallar har haft samma design i över 100 år. Mockning är ett tungt och tidskrävande arbete och med de nya strömaterialen, alltså det underlag som är till för att göra boxens golv mjukare, så behövs nu en ny spångrep för att boxen ska kunna mockas ren på ett effektivare sätt, samt spara pengar och gynna miljön genom att mindre strömaterial går åt. Examensarbetet görs tillsammans med Kamilla Fredberg som har tagit fram ett nytt material att tillverka grephuvudena i som har potentialen att underlätta och effektivisera mockning. Materialet är ett nät i stål som byter ut de plastpiggar som idag används. Själva materialet är alltså inte nytt, utan det är användningsområdet för materialet som är nytt. Detta medför att det största och mest tidskrävande problemet vid mockning löses, vilket är att man inte får upp de så kallade småpluttarna. I detta examensarbete har jag använt Kamillas material för att ta fram en ny, bättre anpassad grep.

    Mitt syfte med det här projektet är att produktifiera Kamillas innovation. Eftersom effektiviseringsproblemet redan har en lösning har jag fokuserat på andra relevanta problem baserat på användarnas behov, form och handhavande.

    Min designprocess och de metoder jag använt mig av har till stor del inspirerats av det jag läst om i boken Design process och metod (Wikberg Nilsson, Ericson, Törlind, 2015). Eftersom min produkt är så pass användarcentrerad, samt att syftet var att uppfylla användarnas behov, ökar behovet av kontakt med användarna. Jag har därför lagt stor vikt vid intervjuer och användartester i projektet. De två största problemen som uppkom under intervjuerna var att plasten på de befintliga greparna lätt går sönder, samt att det inte fanns något alternativ för barn. Jag har även gjort flera analyser under projektet för att till exempel få reda på vad som är tilltalande, värdefullt och vackert för just min målgrupp, vilket är viktigt eftersom jag vill att min produkt ska uttrycka kvalitet. Det kom även upp flera mindre behov av användarna under intervjuer och tester, till exempel att skaftet är kallt, grepen är tung och att skruvarna i grepen matas ut.

    Jag har först och främst bytt ut materialet mot stål som är mer slittåligt än plast, eftersom plasten i de befintliga greparna lätt går sönder. Sedan har jag även skapat en grep som är speciellt anpassad för barn. Förutom att barngrepen gör det enklare för barn att mocka så bidrar den även med att öka barnens lust och vilja att testa mocka, och den minskar risken för arbetsskador på barnen jämfört med om de använt en vuxengrep. 

  • 74.
    Toth, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Knapp, Joacim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Direktupphandling i offentlig sektor: En fallstudie hos Sveriges regioner för att effektivisera inköpsprocessen2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The year of 2016, healthcare accounted for almost 10.9% of Sweden’s total GDP, which corresponds to almost 478 billion SEK. A significant part of an organization's expenditure is linked to procurement, but in the context of procurement in public sector there is not enough research done, and the studies that have been done indicates that there are opportunities for improvement. This study has focused on direct procurement, and the purpose is, therefore, to increase understanding of direct procurement in Swedish healthcare and to formulate recommendations that streamline the process of direct procurement.

     

    This work was a multicase study, interviews were conducted with four employees in three different regions who worked with procurement linked to healthcare, in addition to these interviews, requests for other material relevant to direct procurement were sent out to several other regions. The findings were analyzed and discussed with the help of a literature review.

     

    It was discovered early in the work during the interviews that resources were not prioritized for direct procurement. Direct procurement is always carried out if it is allowed, and it is permitted if the value of the procurement does not exceed SEK 586 907 if there are no special reasons. These amounts are governed by the Public Procurement Act (LOU), and in addition to this limits there are many other parts in LOU that the public sector must relate to - and the laws and regulations set are the main reasons why the purchasing process in the public sector is more complicated than in the private sector.

     

    A successful purchasing function is characterized by, among other things, team-based structure and good cooperation between the different parts of the organization. One part of the study's contribution is that digitization should be seen as a performance area and success factor in public procurement. The public sector has a socio-economic responsibility, but because of LOU, it is not easy to stimulate local economic growth, as an example. In this study, several recommendations have been proposed, for instance, to become more cost-effective, and to how the problem of socio-economic responsibility may be circumvented without risking committing violations of the public procurement laws. One recommendation is digitalization of the process to increase efficiency in several performance areas. Another recommendation is to work closer to the suppliers and the customers to, as an example, encourage innovation and sustainability.

  • 75.
    Tungström, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Study Piece: Studiero för barn i trångbodda hem - ett portabelt skrivbord2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har drivits av en designprocess vars syfte har varit att skapa en lösning där barn i trångbodda hem kan få utrymme och ro till studier. Designprocessen (något som jag fått lära mig under min tid på utbildningen) har hjälpt mig att definiera problem och behov och att utveckla mina idéer till det slutkoncept som presenteras i mitt resultat. Designprocessen som jag genomförde är uppdelad i två olika delar där den första delen handlat om att samla in data och den andra delen om att kreativt generera idéer. I min första del där jag gjorde research för att samla in data så använde jag mig av vetenskapliga artiklar och litteratur, enkätstudie, intervjuer samt marknadsanalys. Detta var viktigt för att kunna bekräfta de problem/behov som jag analyserat fram. Marknadsanalysen fungerade även som en övergång till den kreativa fasen då jag kunde inspireras av det som jag hittat i min analys. I min kreativa del där jag genererade idéer använde jag mig av metoderna brainstorming, prototypande och mockups. Dessa metoder är alla en form av skissning som på olika sätt och vid olika tidpunkter i processen hjälpte mig att komma vidare i utvecklandet av min lösning. Jag jobbade även konceptuellt med idéer för att kunna utveckla dessa ytterligare i min kreativa fas. Resultatet av min designprocess är ett portabelt skrivbord i väskformat gjort av tyget canvas, pressad nålfilt och detaljer av metall samt polyester/nylon. Det portabla skrivbordet erbjuder en plats/utrymme för studier och förvaring av saker, det skärmar mot omgivningen och dämpar ljud. Den slutgiltiga modellen av mitt valda koncept saknar dock delar av skärmarna då jag gjorde felberäkningar i min mockupfas som gjorde att dessa inte fick plats.

  • 76.
    Tångeryd, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Omställningsarbete i stora maskiner: En fallstudie gjord hos SMT, Sandviken Hot, Sandvik AB.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att undersöka orsaker till varierande ställtider och klargöra hur relationen mellan ställtider och tillgänglighet påverkar produktionsplaneringen.  I dagsläget söker tillverkningsföretag efter metoder för att öka effektiviteten inom produktionen i syfte att öka flexibilitet mot kund samt konkurrenskraft mot rådande marknad. Lean konceptet kan generera effektivitet och fördelar som ökad produktkvalitet, ökad produktivitet och flexibilitet samt möjlighet att reducera lagernivåer genom bättre produktionsplanering.  Ett av lean verktygen är SMED-metoden anses vara en av det bäst lämpade för att reducera ställtider inom produktion och därmed minska slöseri. En reducering av ställtider innebär ökad tillgängligheten, högre flexibiliteten och att en effektivisering i produktionsplanering mot kund. Studien baseras på en kvalitativ metod i form av en fallstudie med fem semistrukturerade intervjuer med de verktygsmän som jobbar med omställning av extrusionspressen, tidsstudie av tre omställ samt en workshop. Deltagande i workshopen var verktygsmän från den aktuella extrusionspressen, flödeschefen, en produktionstekniker, produktionschefen samt logistikchefen i syfte att hitta potentiella förbättringsförslag till reducering i omställningstid. I diskussion- och analysavsnittet jämförs empirin mot den teoretiska referensramen i syfte att besvara forskningsfrågorna och syftet med studien.  Resultatet av fallstudien visar att material- och detaljplaneringen påverkas av produktion som i sin tur påverkas av ställtiden och därmed bör ett förbättringsarbete implementeras för att effektivisera och reducera ställtiden. SMED har metoden och verktygen som kan förbättra ställtiden och körplaneringen inom produktion men att den till viss del kan begränsas av otydliga arbetsroller, arbetssätt samt av omställningsmoment och arbetsområdet kring maskinen. För att lyckas med en förbättringsprocessen och standardisering av arbetssätt så är den viktigaste faktorn att skapa ett engagemang och acceptans hos arbetare. Arbetare inom produktion bör därför ansvara för implementering och utveckling av standardiseringen av arbetssätt för att vidhålla långsiktig hållbarhet. För att lyckas med standardisering är dokumentation även en kritisk faktor. Dokumentationen är arbetarens hjälpmedel för att utföra dess arbete och är högst relevant för att skapa stabilitet i arbetet. Slutligen bör SMED-metoden utvecklas ytterligare för att optimera produktionsplanering genom att först analysera och reducera ställtiden för stora omställningar och sedan skapa en prioriteringslista för delomställningar efter ställtiden. Genom detta kan ytterligare omställningsmoment och ställtid reduceras som effektiviserar produktionsplaneringen. 

  • 77.
    Törnell, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Myr, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Kontroll över informationsspridning vid outsourcing av underhåll för säkerhetskritiska system: En fallstudie inom industrisektorn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing of the maintenance activities related to safety-critical systems poses several challenges, where unauthorised access can lead to severe consequences in terms of data vulnerability and huge income lost. Companies can prevent the dissemination of information by managing security, which also contributes to economic and social sustainability. The purpose of the study was to investigate how organizations in the industrial sector deal with the issues of information dissemination in the outsourcing of maintenance activities related to safety-critical systems. To study the area, eleven companies have been interviewed where the results have been compiled in a cross-case analysis, which has been analysed against previous research. The study shows that there are several factors leading to an increased risk of undesired dissemination. Furthermore, the study has resulted in a model for managing control over the dissemination of information in the outsourcing of maintenance for safety-critical systems.

  • 78.
    Velasquez, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skydda ängen: ett skydd för ängsytor i urbana miljöer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet är ett Eu-projekt där Augmentet Urbans tillsammans med Gävle högskola och Gavlegårdarna ska skapa attraktiva utemiljöer för människor med fokus på biologisk mångfaldDen omfattande minskningen av vilda pollinerande insekter är ett problem och det innebär att en förändring behöver ske. 90 procent av världens växtarter är beroende av pollinering.

    Examensarbetet genomfördes med en designprocess som består av observationer, intervjuer, idégenerering och prototypande.

    Syftet var att ta fram en lösning som skyddar ängsytor i stadsmiljö och att kommunicera ut värdet i biologisk mångfald. För att bilda mig en uppfattning kring ämnet gjordes observationer av bostadsområden, intervjuer med experter inom biologi, intervjuer med de boenden som ska uppleva ängsytorna och även underhåll av utemiljöer.

    Intervjuerna och observationerna gjorde det möjligt att identifiera problem och behov. I detta skede avgränsades arbetet till behoven kring de mindre ängsytorna och sommartid. Nästa steg blev att ta fram förslag på hållbara lösningar kring hur en avgränsning kan se ut och fungera. Olika idéer testades genom skisser och modellbyggen. Idéerna utvärderades och det ledde fram till ett form arbete för att skapa en prototyp som svarar på behoven av att skydda, skärma av och informera om ängen. Förhoppningsvis kan denna lösning bidra till att fler människor förstår värdet i dessa ängar och på så vis bevaras ängen inför framtidens klimatförändringar.

  • 79.
    Wessman, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Uppman, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Centralisering av reservdelslagerhållning: En fallstudie om industriell förrådsverksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies in the Swedish industry often make maximum use of their machines in order to meet the demand of their products. This leads to wear on the machines and thus a great need for access to spare parts and components, which is required for a functioning maintenance process. At the same time, the companies bind a lot of capital in their spare parts inventories. To achieve economies of scale and reduced costs, companies may consider centralizing their inventory structures. In view of the above-mentioned aspects, it is essential to examine the possibilities for increased co-storage of spare parts in the Swedish pulp industry.

     

    The purpose of this study is to examine the conditions required in order to centralise spare part storage.

     

    Based on the nature of the research questions, the choice of method is a mixture between qualitative and quantitative method, with an emphasis on the qualitative part. The approach of the work is of an inductive type, since the problem area was identified early, and no theoretical acquisition took place until later into the research process. A case study was conducted in order to obtain in-depth and detailed information concerning the research questions. This also made it possible to employ a combination of the qualitative and quantitative method. Data collection was done through literature studies, document analysis and interviews. The interviews were of a semi-structured type and took place both over the telephone and on site at the case company. 

    The financial aspect is the most significant motive for centralization and the biggest advantage that such a change can bring. The reason behind this is that the total number of spare parts can be reduced, which also help to lower costs in other areas. In addition, the study shows that a centralization leads to a reduced environmental impact. Barriers to centralization of the storage operations are the need for transparency, standardization and openness between the parties involved. Furthermore, a fair distribution of costs between the participants is needed, where individual performance targets exists.

     

    The spare parts suitable for being stocked at a central warehouse are those that are shared by at least two production facilities, are bulky, have a high purchasing value, and are aging quickly.

     

    Using a modified version of the Center of Gravity Method, a centrally located warehouse for the case company’s all Swedish mills has been located to Örebro and the surrounding area. If, however, the central warehouse is only assigned to the case company’s four northernmost mills, the warehouse should according to the modified Center of Gravity Method be located to Ludvika.

  • 80.
    Wigelius, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av on-demandbaserad biltvättsbokning utifrån ett UX-perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 81.
    Zhao, Ming
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Yang, Janfieng
    School of Data Science, Department of Data Science, Guizhou Institute of Technology, Guiyang, 550003, Chin.
    Zhao, Bo
    Department of Mathematics, Reliability Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.
    Wu, Zhenpeng
    Department of Mathematics, Reliability Center of Guizhou Province, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.
    Copula-based reliability modelling of wireless sensor networks with dependent failures2019In: International Journal of Sensor Networks (IJSNet), ISSN 1748-1279, E-ISSN 1748-1287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 90-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have widely been applied in various industries and business fields covering large geographical regions. It is therefore important to be able to model, assess and predict the reliability of WSNs since the failures can have a great effect on the monitoring or control systems that are normally depending on the WSNs. In this paper, the general WSN reliability models are developed by deleting the independent assumption of component or subsystem failures and are consequently more reasonable to characterise the failure process of WSNs. The methodology in the proposed WSN reliability models is to consider that the failure times of subsystems are dependent variables and their joint distribution is obtained by binding their marginal failure distributions together through a copula function. For specific Frank copula functions, the Star-based WSN reliability models are derived and their properties are also discussed in this paper. 

  • 82.
    Åsberg, Anton
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Länge leve kläderna: Förslag på metoder för att minska textilkonsumtionens klimatpåverkan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är ett arbete som behandlar textilindustrins klimatpåverkan i allmänhet och klädesindustrins klimatpåverkan i synnerhet. I arbetet undersöks på vilka sätt man kan engagera människor till en långsiktig förändring med fokus på att aktivt förlänga kläders livslängd i Sverige. För att förstå och få möjligheten att greppa den negativa påverkan som textilindustrin har på klimatet redogörs en grundlig litteraturstudie som undersöker kläders livscykelanalys, textilindustrins utsläpp av kemikalier och metoder för att positivt påverka och även en stor del som tar upp psykologiska barriärer. 

    I mitten av arbetet presenteras ett experiment som under en vecka handlade om att reparera privatpersoners jeans. Experimentet tillsammans med mötena med människorna vars jeans jag lagade kom att spela en stor roll för arbetet och resultatet.

     I experimentet presenteras ett förslag på hur man med relativt små medel kan avsevärt minska konsumtionen och klimatpåverkan i form av en tjänst eller system som tillgodoser behovet av att reparera jeans. Tjänsten bygger på tjänstefierad cirkulär ekonomi och förslag på hur det kan implementeras i jeansens livscykel redovisas. Den designade tjänsten i fråga testas i verkligheten och genererar ett resultat som påvisar goda möjligheter till förbättrad ekologisk, ekonomisk och social hållbarhet. 71 par jeans lagas under en veckas tid, vilket sparar 1 000 000 liter vatten jämfört med om nya jeans köpts istället för lagats. 

  • 83.
    Örn, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Linander, Fredric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering.
    Konstruktion av testbänk för karaktärisering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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