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  • 51.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Löfberg, Hans-Allan
    Underlag till kvalitetskriterier för inomhusbelysning: Ett urval1995Book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Niedenthal, S.
    Schools of Arts and Communication, Malmö University, Sweden.
    Lighting in digital game worlds: Effects on affect and play performance2008In: Cyberpsychology & Behavior, ISSN 1094-9313, E-ISSN 1557-8364, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a means of extending the significance of findings in experimental psychology and nonvisual psychological lighting research to digital game research, the present study was designed to investigate the impact of warm (reddish) and cool (bluish) simulated illumination in digital game worlds on game users' affect and play performance. In line with some previous findings, we predicted that lighting in a digital game world might, as in the real world, differently influence the nonvisual psychological mechanisms of affect, which in turn might enhance or impair the players' performance. It was shown that the players performed best and fastest in a game world lit with a warm (reddish) as compared to a cool (bluish) lighting. The former color of lighting also induced the highest level of pleasantness in game users. A regression analysis indicated tentatively that it was the level of pleasantness induced by the warm lighting that enhanced the players' better performance in that digital game world. It was also shown that high- as opposed to medium- or low-skilled players engage almost 2.5 times more per week in game playing. Given their skill, they performed significantly faster and felt significantly calmer and more relaxed in doing so.

  • 53.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nordhall, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Guilt as a motivator for moral judgment: An autobiographical memory study2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, no May, article id 750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the phenomenology of self-defining moral memory and its relations to self-conscious feelings of guilt and willingness to do wrong (moral intention) in social and economic moral situations. We found that people use guilt as a moral motivator for their moral intention. The reparative function of guilt varied, however, with type of situation; that is, participants felt guiltier and were less willing to do wrong in economic compared to social moral situations. The self-defining moral memory was shown to be relatively more easy to access (accessibility), logically structured (coherence), vivid, seen from the first-person perspective (visual perspective), real (sensory detail); but was relatively less positive (valence), emotionally intense, chronologically clear (time perspective), in agreement with the present self (distancing), and shared. Finally, it was indicated that the more guilt people felt the more hidden/denied (less accessible), but more real (more sensory details), the self-defining moral memory.

  • 54.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sang, A. O.
    Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wellbeing in urban greenery: The role of naturalness and place identity2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate effects of urban greenery (high vs. low naturalness) on place identity and wellbeing, and the links between place identity and wellbeing. It was shown that participants (Gothenburg, Sweden, N = 1347) estimated a stronger attachment/closeness/belonging (emotional component of place-identity), and more remembrance and thinking about and mental travel (cognitive component of place-identity) in relation to high vs. low perceived naturalness. High naturalness was also reported to generate higher wellbeing in participants than low naturalness. Furthermore, place identity was shown to predict participants' wellbeing in urban greenery, accounting for 35% of variance explained by the regression. However, there was a stronger relationship between the emotional vs. the cognitive component of place identity and wellbeing. Finally, a significant role of place identity in mediating the naturalness-wellbeing relationship was shown, indicating that the naturalness-wellbeing connection can be partly accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of people-place bonding.

  • 55.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square2006In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  • 56.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    hysical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a park: Cross-cultural and environmental attitude comparisons2008In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 1483-1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the influence of culture (Sweden vs. Japan) and environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a park, within the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons sharing different cultures and environmental attitudes might psychologically differently evaluate a Swedish and a Japanese park despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese were shown to evaluate the weather as warmer and less good for out-door activity than did Swedes, although and according to the PET index participants in both cultures experienced similar comfortable thermal conditions. Japanese were also shown to evaluate the park as more pleasant and warmer place than did Swedes. However, the Japanese felt emotionally less pleasant at the site than did Swedes. An interaction between culture and environmental attitude indicated tentatively a difference in environmental attitude (urban vs. open-air person) between the two countries as regards the place-related wind sensitivity. All these findings are discussed in terms of culture and environmental attitude suggesting that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological and cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with the physiological heat balance models. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    3 Department of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate Change: Concerns, Beliefs and Emotions in Residents, Experts, Decision Makers, Tourists, and Tourist Industry2013In: American Journal of Climate Change, ISSN 2167-9495, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 254-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate effects of different groups of individuals (residents, tourists, experts, decision makers and members of tourist industry) and demographic variables (gender, age, education) on climate change-related concerns, beliefs and emotions. In line with the predictions: 1) Experts were shown to be least concerned for and afraid of climate change impact; 2) Youngest participants were found to be most, and oldest least, concerned for their future; 3) Women were shown to be more concerned for and afraid of the consequences of climate change; and 4) Men and the least educated participants believed their jobs to be more threatened by the environmental laws and protection, and the latter ones believed moreover that the claims about climate change are exaggerated. Implications of these findings for value orientations and their relationships to environmental concerns, beliefs and emotions are discussed.

  • 58.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Earth Sciences Centre, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Psychological mechanisms in outdoor place and weather assessment: Towards a conceptual model2009In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general aim has been to illuminate the psychological mechanisms involved in outdoor place and weather assessment. This reasoning was conceptualized in a model, tentatively proposing direct and indirect links of influence in an outdoor place-human relationship. The model was subsequently tested by an empirical study, performed in a Nordic city, on the impact of weather and personal factors on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. In line with our predictions, we report significant influences of weather parameters (air temperature, wind, and cloudlessness) and personal factors (environmental attitude and age) on participants' perceptual and emotional estimations of outdoor urban places. All this is a modest, yet significant, step towards an understanding of the psychology of outdoor place and weather assessment.

  • 59.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Ulla
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    Urban Climate Spaces: A Multidisciplinary Research Project2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 2307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed bye-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal-compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

  • 61.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Predicting general mental health and exhaustion: the role of emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity.2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 8, article id e00735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity and self-reported general mental health and exhaustion, in Swedish teachers (N = 768). In line with our predictions, we showed that the emotion component of personal work-identity and the cognition component of collective work-identity associated positively with general mental health and negatively with exhaustion. The reverse result was found, however, for the cognition component of personal work-identity and emotion component of collective work-identity. In general, all this indicates that person-work bonding might, to some degree, account for general mental health and exhaustion in employees. In particular, the findings suggest that general mental health and exhaustion may vary symmetrically across the: (1) Type of person-work bonding (personal vs. collective work-identity); and (2) Type of psychological component (emotion vs. cognition) involved in personal- and collective work-identity.

  • 62.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Teachers´personal work-identity predicts emotional exhaustion and work motivation: amediating role of job demands and resources2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018: Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Teachers´ psychological job demands (large class sizes, low social support, and expectations to care for pupils, parents and colleagues) are positively related to their emotional exhaustion. Teachers´ psychological job resources (autonomy, mastery of skills, and experiences of their work as incentive and interesting) are positively related to work motivation and engagement, which can be defined as the positive antipode of emotional exhaustion. In addition, job demands and resources may, in general terms, explain the relationships between the employee and different work motivation- and mental illness outcomes.

    Furthermore, teachers´ personal work-identity comprises cognitive- (coherence, correspondence, mental time, reflection, agency) and emotional- (attachment, belongingness, closeness) components, differently associated with various work-related outcomes. Our previous results show that the cognitive component positively relates to emotional exhaustion, and the emotional one positively relates to self-determined work motivation. These relationships have up to date not been theoretically and practically related to organizational/job characteristic factors, such as, job demands and resources.

     

    Aims

    Firstly, we investigated if a positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work-identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands. Secondly, we checked for if a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work-identity and self-determined work motivation was mediated by psychological job resources.

    Methods

    768 members, representing eleven different local teachers´ trade unions, working in the south and middle part of Sweden replied to a digitized questionnaire measuring cognitive- and emotional components of personal work identity, job demands (prosocial extra-role performances) and resources (educational inspirations), emotional exhaustion and self-determined work motivation. Two mediation analyzes were performed by PROCESS macro for SPSS (version 2.16.3), model 4.

     

    Results

    A positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work- identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands: completely standardized indirect effects: β= .04, 95% CI [.0180, .0650].

    Also, a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work- identity and self-determined work motivation was positively mediated by psychological job resources: completely standardized indirect effect: β= .09, 95% CI [.0569, .1178].

    This suggests that, when teachers think (cognitive component of work-identity) more of their work, they will be more emotionally exhausted, but when they feel (emotional component of work-identity) more of their work they will be more motivated to work. Psychological job demands and resources may however and to some extent explain these relationships, respectively.

  • 63.
    Ode Sang, Å.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Sang, N.
    SLU.
    Hedblom, M.
    SLU.
    Sevelin, G.
    SLU; Kreera.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, B.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Are path choices of people moving through urban green spaces explained by gender and age?: Implications for planning and management2020In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 49, article id 126628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood green space is an important asset for the urban population, providing valuable ecosystem services such as supporting human health. Distance or access to urban green areas is well established as being important for the potential use of the area but how different demographic groups move within greenspace is still somewhat unknown. Previous studies have shown that there are gender as well as age differences in visual perception, audio experience and recreational activities as well as estimated well-being experienced from use of urban green space. Here we explored people´s movement within their local green space in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. The results showed that movement took place over large parts of the green spaces studied, not only along paths. The data further showed that the movement pattern differed significantly between men and women as well as between young adults and old adults. Movement patterns of demographic groups could provide support to planning for sustainable urban green areas, help avoid conflict, identify areas for solitude and ensure equal access for people of different gender and age.

  • 64.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    et al.
    Deptarment of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, c/o Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The effects of naturalness, gender, and age on how urban green space is perceived and used2016In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 18, p. 268-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neighbourhood green space serves an important function for the urban population, and provides valuable ecosystem services for human well-being. In this article, we investigate the effects of naturalness, gender, and age on the activities, aesthetics, and self-reported well-being associated with urban green space. Our findings are based on a postal survey of residents living in close proximity to six different green spaces in the city of Gothenburg, Sweden. It is shown that higher perceived naturalness generated more activities and higher aesthetic values and self-reported well-being for residents living close to urban green spaces. The results also indicated that, regardless of the type of naturalness, women were more active in urban green spaces than were men. Women also saw greater aesthetic value in green spaces than men did, and had higher self-reported well-being associated with the urban green spaces. Finally, older residents were shown to participate in a greater number of nature-related activities than younger residents. Older residents also saw greater aesthetic values and had higher self-reported well-being associated with urban green spaces than younger people did. Seemingly, this poses a considerable planning challenge if areas of perceived naturalness are to be retained in cities, since the present trend is for reduced green spaces in cities and a ‘parkification’ of surviving natural areas. Further, because of the importance of perceived natural areas to the elderly, and in particularly women, distances to urban green areas should not be too great.

  • 65.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Effects of Ethnicity and Gender on Youth Health2016In: Cogent Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2331-1886, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1186136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of ethnicity and gender on the health of young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. Combinations of female and male by four ethnic groups—“Creole”, “Hindu”, “Muslim” and “Mixed”—were used for multivariate analysis of variances. “Mixed” ethnic group consumed most to-bacco, alcohol and drugs compared to other ethnic groups. They were also the ones that mostly skipped breakfast and lunch and were found to eat most fast food. Moreover, “Mixed” ethnic group had heard most about HIV/AIDS programmes, but were least satisfied with such programmes and with public hospitals and health services. Females were shown to perceive more physical and mental health issues than did males; although males smoked more cigarettes and drunk more alcohol. However, females consumed more fast food and deep fries and rated public hospi-tals and sexual and reproductive health services as less good than did males. The findings call for further research on the health of young people living in Mauritius with respect to socio-economic variables in order to promote social justice in the Mauritian society. In addition, this article also emphasises on the need of having a new National Youth Policy for Mauritius, which is long overdue.

  • 66.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Young people’s identity & Facebook behaviour: the role of gender and ethnicity2017In: Cogent Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2331-1886, Vol. 1, no 35, article id 1359895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the effects of gender and ethnicity on Facebook visit and identity among young people (14–25 years old) living in Mauritius. According to the results obtained, males were shown to visit more Facebook and had a stronger Facebook identity than did females. However, females compared to males considered themselves to be persons that are more similar online as offline, and their Facebook activity represented more who they were than it did for males. Hindu participants were shown to most infrequently visit Facebook. They were also the group with the weakest Facebook identity. Creole and Muslim groups were reported to have the strongest Facebook identity followed by the Mixed participants. This study concludes that both gender and ethnicity might have a sig-nificant impact on Facebook activity and identification among young people.

  • 67.
    Rambaree, Komalsingh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. University of Gävle.
    Auchoybur, Nashad
    University of Mauritius.
    Gender and Health in Higher Education: A Study of Undergraduates from University of Mauritius2012In: Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies, ISSN 1530-5686, E-ISSN 1530-5686, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores health among men and women from the undergraduates at the University of Mauritius. A representative sample of 250 undergraduates was selected from the register of the University of Mauritius using stratified random sampling strategy to carry out Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVAs) which demonstrated significant differences between men and women from the study group. The study found that women reported more physical and mental health problems as compared to men. In addition, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of awareness about sexual health risks which were mainly related to promiscuity and the use of condoms. Moreover, there were significant differences between men and women in terms of consumption of alcohol and cigarettes, as well as participation in sports activities. Finally, it was found that more men reported about facing barriers such as money and location with regards to access to health care services. This paper therefore concludes that gender could explain most of the significant differences in terms of health among the undergraduates at the University of Mauritius.

  • 68.
    Richter, Hans O
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Superior low-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during voluntary efforts to accommodation2006In: 29th European Conference on Visual Perception: Perception 35. Suppl, 2006, p. 131-131Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterise short-(S)-wavelength-sensitive-cone mediated contrast sensitivity (CS) across twenty symptom-free subjects and eight asthenopics, all with normal-unaided-or-corrected visual acuity with no sign of oculomotor dysfunction. Threshold contrast sensitivity was assessed by the von Békésy tracking method from a viewing distance of 2.4 m (0.40 D). Three counterbalanced tasks required central fixation of black-and-white square-wave gratings (1, 5, 10, 14, and 17 cycles deg-1) presented through a low-pass (400 - 450 nm) tinted blue lens: through (i) a 0.0 D lens, (ii) a -1.50 D lens, (iii) a +1.50 D lens while attempting volitional accommodation to minimise blur. Baseline increases in eye-strain, which approached high levels at the end of the experiment, did not differentiate between the two groups of volunteers. Compared with symptom-free subjects, asthenopics exhibited larger magnitudes CS performance in the intermediate spatial frequencies during experimental conditions requiring voluntary increases in accommodation. The residual filtered light may encompass reference wavelengths habitually used by the asthenopics in retinal alignment as an adaptive strategy to spare accommodation from eye-strain. Alternatively, asthenopics, owing to inherent retinal factors, may 'drive' their accommodative system harder than symptom-free subjects.[Supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research Grant 2005-0488 to HR.]

  • 69.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Superior short-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during reflexive readjustments of ocular accommodation2007In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 361-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS) under short-wavelength illumination in 20 symptom-free subjects and eight asthenopics: all had normal unaided or corrected visual acuity and no sign of oculomotor disease. Threshold CS was assessed using the von Bekesy tracking method from a viewing distance of 2.4 m (0.40 D). Three counterbalanced tasks required central fixation of black-and-white square-wave gratings (1, 5, 10, 14 and 17 c/deg) presented through a low-pass filter blue lens and (1) a +1.50 D lens; (2) a -1.50 D lens and (3) a 0 D lens, while attempting accommodation to minimize blur. Baseline increases in eye strain, which approached high levels at the end of the experiment, did not differentiate between the two groups of volunteers. All the subjects made evident appropriate accommodation during the low blur condition (0 D); the CS curve exhibited the expected characteristics. When the minus lens was placed before the eyes of the observers the distant square-wave gratings were still seen clearly, the eyes presumably had accommodated by an amount equal to the power of the negative lens. Compared with symptom-free subjects, asthenopics exhibited greater CS at the intermediate spatial frequencies both during the low blur and the minus blur conditions. Asthenopics may exhibit an individualized sensory tendency to react more strongly to shorter wavelengths of light and may therefore reflexively 'drive' their accommodative system harder than symptom-free subjects. This would explain the presence of their asthenopia in the first place. Blue light may, in addition, induce more arousal and higher alertness in this category of participants. This would boost the oculomotor aspects of their performance. These findings add to the current understanding of individual variability in the level of oculomotor loads following strenuous near work.

  • 70. Tengberg, A.
    et al.
    Fredholm, S.
    Eliasson, I.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Saltzman, K.
    Wetterberg, O.
    Cultural ecosystem services provided by landscapes: Assessment of heritage values and identity2012In: Ecosystem Services, ISSN 2212-0416, E-ISSN 2212-0416, Vol. 2, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide a conceptual analysis of cultural ecosystem services and how they are linked to the concepts of landscape, heritage and identity. It discusses how these cultural ecosystem services can be assessed and integrated into spatial and physical planning. The paper presents two case studies to shed light on the assessment process. A case study from Sweden combines an analysis of ecosystem services with methods for documenting cultural heritage values in landscapes. A second case study from the Arafura-Timor Seas combines an analysis of cultural ecosystem services with methods for assessment of priority environmental concerns at the seascape scale.We demonstrate that the methods from cultural heritage conservation provide tools for the analysis of historical values as well as historical drivers of change in landscapes that can add time-depth to more spatially focused ecosystem assessments. We propose that methods for valuation of cultural heritage and identity in landscapes are integrated into assessments of ecosystem services to inform policy making and physical and spatial planning for sustainable management of ecosystems and landscapes. This could also provide an approach for bringing about integrated implementation of conventions and instruments from the environmental and cultural heritage fields, respectively. 

  • 71. Thorsson, S.
    et al.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptuel evaluations of outdoor spaces2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Wigö, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Psychological impact of air velocity variations in a ventilated room2005In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1086-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Wigö, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of velocity variations in ventilated room on comfort, affect and cognitive performance2002In: Indoor air 2002: proceedings of 9th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, Monterey, California, June 30-July 5, 2002, Santa Cruz, CA: IAIAS , 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
12 51 - 73 of 73
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