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  • 51.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation: Global or local?2014In: Proceedings of the 21th EurOMA conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Outsourcing Maintenance – Not always a good idea?2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Balancing innovation and cost imperatives in manufacturing: comparing the outcomes of two outsourcing strategies2007In: Proceedings of 8th International CINet conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 9-11 September, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Outsourcing manufacturing and its effect on firm performance2005In: Proceedings of 6th International CINet Conference in Brighton, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Low-Cost versus Innovation: Contrasting outsourcing and integration strategies in manufacturing2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Low-cost vs. Innovation: Comparing the outcome of two manufacturing outsourcing strategies2008In: Proceedings of 15th International Annual Euroma Conference: University of Groningen, the Netherlands, June 15-18, 2008, 2008, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Outsourcing eller kunskapsintegration?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 58-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Digitalisation of production: The significance of CI capability and teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    People still matters: Digital transformation of production requires CI capabilitiesand teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation: En studie av Huaweis globala produktionssystem2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies2016In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost innovation has been used to describe how firms offer a variety of customised and high-tech products at low prices. Insights into how this trade-off is overcome by supply chain design are lacking. This paper analyses the global supply chain strategies and practices of Huawei Technologies, and specifically how these contribute to cost innovation capability. The paper is based on interviews with managers at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, plus managers at two European supply chain centres. The case study shows that even though Huawei does not possess specifically unique supply chain solutions, there are some features that drive Huawei towards cost innovation in its supply chains. Some of them concern low-cost operations based on the location of main R&D, manufacturing and suppliers to China, in combination with a strong customer orientation, an integrated supply chain organisation and a balanced outsourcing strategy.

  • 62.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    How can they be so rapid? New product development in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovation processes in Chinese firms2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: An illustration of diversity in two Chinese firms2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid NPD processes in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Kunskapsfabriken2000Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings Unbiversitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The integrator´s new advantage: Reassessing outsourcing and production competence in the global telecom industry2006In: Challenges and opportunities in R&D management: new directions for research, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Karabag, Solmas Filiz
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Exploring Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction relates the principal idea behind the book - that knowledge integration is a vital part of the dynamics of the innovation process to previous literature on knowledge integration, with its focus on companies' 'routine' activities. It presents the book's main empirical focus: internationally competing technology-based firms in, for example, the automotive, heavy electrical equipment, packaging machinery, telecom, tooling, and aerospace industries. It also introduces three major trends that affect conditions for innovation and knowledge integration: internationalization of R&D and production, transformation of markets, and changes in the character of developments in science and technology. In contrast to most definitions, the introduction emphasizes that knowledge integration is more than combining, sharing, or transferring different knowledge bases; it is also a process of creating new knowledge. The introduction concludes with an overview of the twelve chapters, describing how they provide an understanding of knowledge integration as a multilevel process.

  • 70.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, AnnaDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.Bengtsson, LarsUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.Söderlund, JonasDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.Hobday, MichaelCentre for Research in Innovation Management (CENTRIM), University of Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success. This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. This book provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in high technology enterprises.

  • 71.
    Borg, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    An empirical examination of Bessant’s evolutionary model of continuous improvement behaviour2006In: Proceedings of the 7th CINet conference: Continuous Innovation and Sustainability – Defining the Road Ahead, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Carlsson, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Developing system supplier capability by integrating knowledge with customers2019In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 91-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As large corporations outsource parts of their manufacturing and services, many small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) suppliers are expected to deepen their capabilities and take on the role of system suppliers. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how knowledge integration with customers may help a SME develop system supplier capabilities. The study is based on a deep longitudinal case study of a SME manufacturer and focuses on continuous development capability as one of the core system supplier capabilities. The results show that knowledge integration (KI) with customers is an effective means to build system capability but that this is a stepwise process. The study identifies three levels of KI with customers: unidirectional knowledge transfer, mutual knowledge exchange and full-range knowledge integration. The analysis further indicates that each level of KI requires specific supplier capabilities.

  • 73.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Balanced scorecards for strategic and sustainable continuous improvement capability2004In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Continuous improvement capability in the Swedish engineering industry2007In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 37, no 3-4, p. 272-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports findings from the Swedish part of the 2nd International Continuous Improvement Survey. Based on Bessant's evolutionary model of continuous improvement behaviour, the continuous improvement capability level of the Swedish engineering industry is estimated. The data analysis shows that there is a need for progression towards higher continuous improvement capability levels. Therefore, the specific abilities to develop in order to support such a move forward are clarified. In addition to being an illustration of manufacturing practices in Sweden from a continuous improvement perspective, this article contributes to the field of Operations Management by being the first attempt to replicate the work of Bessant via a large-scale survey study. The model is found valid and it shows that development of continuous improvement abilities contribute to the enhancement of plant performance.

  • 75.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Continuous improvement capability in the Swedish engineering industry: results from the 2nd international CI survey2004In: Proceedings of the 5th International CINet Conference 2004: September 22-25, Sydney, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Invest or divest?: on the relative improvement potential in outsourcing manufacturing2008In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 212-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study sought to clarify the comparative effect of outsourcing in relation to alternative manufacturing practices. A representative sample of 267 Swedish manufacturing plants was subjected to multiple regression analysis. Results show that in comparison to outsourcing manufacturing, the other practices related to the enhancement of manufacturing capability had a much stronger ability to predict improvements in operating performance. While investments in higher manufacturing capability have only positive effects, outsourcing may entail negative as well as positive effects on operating performance. For the most part, outsourcing leads to negative effects when used as the main strategy to improve performance, but is more likely to cause positive effects if concurrent initiatives are taken to develop manufacturing capabilities. Thus it is argued that there is a far greater performance improvement potential in investing in, rather than divesting, the manufacturing function. Outsourcing is mainly beneficial when used to free resources in order to invest in higher manufacturing capability.

  • 77.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Invest or divest?: on the relative improvement potential in outsourcing manufacturing2006In: Proceedings of the 17th meeting of the Production and Operations Management Society: Managing a world of uncertainties, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Lean manufacturing in Sweden: reinforcement of Taylorism or basis for sustainable work systems?2005In: Proceedings of the 12th International EurOMA conference, June 19-22, 2005, Budapest, 2005, p. 1602-1611Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The role of balanced scorecard in manufacturing: a tool for strategically aligned work on continuous improvements in production teams?2002In: Performance measurement and management control: a compendium of research, Amsterdam: JAI , 2002, p. 181-208Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 80.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Trade-offs in Make-Buy Decisions: Exploring Operating Realities of Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1, p. 228-245Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores trade-offs particularly relevant for firms that compete on innovation, but which have outsourced manufacturing and therefore need to integrate knowledge by involving their new contract manufacturers in the innovation and development activities of outsourced parts. The empirical analysis is based on survey data from 127 manufacturing firms in Sweden. The analysis shows that trade-offs remain in make-buy decisions, especially between cost and flexibility, and cost and speed. When comparing different groups of firms, the results also show that knowledge integration in terms of collaboration between outsourcing firms and their suppliers reduces some trade-offs but intensifies others. The chapter concludes that technologybased firms that compete on innovation often have to involve their new suppliers in the innovation and development activities of outsourced parts. However, when doing so, they have to consider that they cannot 'have it all' as the existing management literature often claims.

  • 81.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bessant, John
    Imperial College London.
    Convergence or national specificity?: testing the CI maturity model across multiple countries2007In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 348-362Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Department of Management and Engeering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sustainable supply management as a purchasing capability: a power and dependence perspective2016In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 2-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to use the relative power and total interdependence concepts as an intervening theoretical lens to explain why and how sustainable supply management (SSM) initiatives by manufacturing firms differ across the Kraljic matrix according to purchasing capability.

    Design/methodology/approach – Tested hypotheses by subjecting survey data from 338 manufacturers on buyer-supplier relationships in Europe and North America to regression analysis.

    Findings – Shows three situations where relative power and total interdependence determine the effectiveness of purchasing capabilities. First, sustainability programs impact supplier compliance in all Kraljic categories but bottleneck items. Second, there are significant trade-offs between lower cost and higher social and environmental supplier compliance for noncritical components. Third, strategic alignment of sustainability objectives between corporate and supply function levels only leads to improved financial performance for strategic components.

    Research limitations/implications – Further research could take power and dependence into account to explain when and how purchasing capabilities focussed on sustainability can be achieved.

    Practical implications – Shows how supply strategists could devise-tailored approaches for different purchasing categories with respect to power and dependence when pursuing economic, social and environmental objectives in combination – the triple bottom line – along their supply chains.

    Originality/value – Illustrates and provides a theoretical explanation for why SSM is a purchasing capability that must vary across purchasing categories defined by different situations of power and dependence.

  • 83.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; KITE Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KITE Research Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Åhlström, Pär
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Supplier selection or collaboration?: Determining factors of performance improvement when outsourcing manufacturing.2009In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An empirical study was designed to determine factors of performance improvement when outsourcing manufacturing. Findings from a survey of 136 manufacturing plants in Sweden show that most of them achieve their outsourcing motives, but not without trade-offs. Factors of performance improvements such as economies of scale or operations in low-cost countries can improve one performance dimension, such as product cost, yet negatively impact volume flexibility, speed or product innovation. The results show part characteristics and supplier operating capabilities are more important than supplier relationship strategies when outsourcing manufacturing, meaning that supplier selection trumps supplier collaboration in the make-or-buy decision.

  • 84.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Göran
    Oslo School of Management, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Exploring opportunities for moral disengagement in codes of conduct from the textile industry2018In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 371-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to assess how codes of conducts are outlined and formulated in relation to moral disengagement along the supply chain. The research is focused on the idea that supply chain structure may reduce the actors' sense of moral responsibility for the actions and impacts of the supply chain on workers and environment. The research has been conducted as a case study including Swedish firms in the textile industry. The research has used secondary data from codes of conducts. The findings show that codes of conduct do not cover all supply chain practices linked with moral disengagement. This does not cause immoral behaviour as such, but might cause moral disengagement. Supply chain research needs to focus on what should be included in codes of conduct and other ethical guidelines, so as to reduce the risk of immoral behaviour. In order to reduce the likelihood for moral disengagement, there are several supply chain practices that should be included in codes of conduct, such as power asymmetry, managerial support, and incentives.

  • 85.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui Shi, China.
    A questionnaire measuring staff perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare: development and psychometric testing2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    During the past decade, the concept of Lean has spread rapidly within the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of instruments that can measure staff's perceptions of Lean adoption. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring Lean in healthcare, based on Liker's description of Lean, by adapting an existing instrument developed for the service sector.

    METHODS:

    A mixed-method design was used. Initially, items from the service sector instrument were categorized according to Liker's 14 principles describing Lean within four domains: philosophy, processes, people and partners and problem-solving. Items were lacking for three of Liker's principles and were therefore developed de novo. Think-aloud interviews were conducted with 12 healthcare staff from different professions to contextualize and examine the face validity of the questionnaire prototype. Thereafter, the adjusted questionnaire's psychometric properties were assessed on the basis of a cross-sectional survey among 386 staff working in primary care.

    RESULTS:

    The think-aloud interviews led to adjustments in the questionnaire to better suit a healthcare context, and the number of items was reduced. Confirmatory factor analysis of the adjusted questionnaire showed a generally acceptable correspondence with Liker's description of Lean. Internal consistency, measured using Cronbach's alpha, for the factors in Liker's description of Lean was 0.60 for the factor people and partners, and over 0.70 for the three other factors. Test-retest reliability measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the four factors.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    We designed a questionnaire capturing staff's perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare on the basis of Liker's description. This Lean in Healthcare Questionnaire (LiHcQ) showed generally acceptable psychometric properties, which supports its usability for measuring Lean adoption in healthcare. We suggest that further research focus on verifying the usability of LiHcQ in other healthcare settings, and on adjusting the instrument if needed.

  • 86.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China.
    Lean i primärvården - en bild av hur Lean tillämpas2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 112-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Lean har sitt ursprung i bilindustrin och har spridits till andra sektorer såsom hälso-och sjukvård. Implementering av Lean syftar vanligtvis till att öka vårdkvaliten. Vid utvärderingar av Lean saknas ofta en beskrivning av vilka principer av Lean som implementeras och i vilken utsträckning. Föreliggande studie utgår från Likers beskrivning av Lean. Liker beskriver Lean i fyra övergripande grupper kallad 4P modellen; philosophy, processes, people and partners, och problem-solving (filosofi, processer, anställda och partners, och problemlösning), som består av ett antal principer. Att implementera alla principer och involvera alla medarbetare är ovanlig, vilket Liker menar är avgörande om organisationen ska nå de mål de satt med att införa Lean.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att illustrera hur Lean praktiseras inom primärvården. 

    Metod

    Studien utgår från ett större forskningsprojekt där både privata och landstingsägda primärvårdsenheter deltog. All personal vid enheterna fick 2016 besvara en enkät om Lean-principer, svarsfrekvens 35% (298 medarbetare vid 45 enheter). Höga Lean skattningar indikerade hög mognad av Lean vilket innebar att medarbetarna var kunniga rörande den efterfrågade Lean-principen; låg mognad av Lean innebar att man helt saknade principen på sin arbetsplats eller hade implementerat den i liten utsträckning av ett fåtal medarbetare. Baserat på enkätsvaren valdes fyra enheter ut för observationer, två med hög mognad av Lean och två med låg mognad. Observationerna inkluderade intervjuer och fältanteckningar som illustrerade hur 4P-modellen praktiserades på enheterna. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal med olika professioner deltog (n=28).

    Resultat

    Rörande filosofi ansåg medarbetarna vid alla fyra enheter att den närmaste chefen, återkommande men i varierande utsträckning, kommunicerade gemensamma mål. Patienternas behov styrde planeringen av vården. Processer kunde innefatta att medarbetarna baserade sin planering av vården på statistik. För vissa patientgrupper eller symtom fanns generella ordinationer, d.v.s. utan kontakt med läkare, t.ex. på vilka prover som skulle tas. Rörande anställda och partners var det vanligt att arbeta i team både inom och utanför sin enhet. Men det framkom även att medarbetarna inte arbetade tillsammans fast de borde det. Problemlösning förekom men ofta ostrukturerat med brister på uppföljning. En enhet hade påbörjat utvecklande av problemlösning genom dagliga möten och strullistor att dokumentera problemen på.

    Konklusion

    Tillämpning av Lean varierar i stor utsträckning mellan vårdcentralerna. Ett par enheter hade implementerat Lean i större utsträckning och dessa enheter var mer strukturerade rörande t.ex. problemlösning och teamarbete.

     

  • 87.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Lean maturity and quality in primary care2019In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 141-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to 1) describe Lean maturity in primary care using a questionnaire based on Liker’s description of Lean, complemented with observations, and 2) determine the extent to which Lean maturity is associated with quality of care measured as staff-rated satisfaction with care and adherence to national guidelines. High Lean maturity indicates adoption of all Lean principles throughout the organization and by all staff.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected using a survey based on Liker’s four principles, divided into 16 items (n = 298 staff in 45 units). Complementary observations (n = 28 staff) were carried out at four units.

    Findings - Lean maturity varied both between and within units. The highest Lean maturity was found for ‘adhering to routines’ and the lowest for ‘having a change agent at the unit’. Lean maturity was positively associated with satisfaction with care and with adherence to national guidelines to improve healthcare quality. 

    Practical implications - Quality of primary care may benefit from increasing Lean maturity. When implementing Lean, managers could benefit from measuring and adopting Lean maturity repeatedly, addressing all Liker’s principles and using the results as guidance for further development.

    Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to evaluate Lean maturity in primary care, addressing all Liker’s principles from the perspective of quality of care. The results suggest that repeated actions based on evaluations of Lean maturity may help to improve quality of care.

  • 88.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Towards a Questionnaire to Measure Lean in Health Care2014In: 8th NOVO Symposium, Sustainable health care production systems - Abstract book / [ed] Kasper Edwards och Jørgen Winkel, Lyngby: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, 2014, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid spread of Lean implementation within the health care sector has made it urgent to evaluate the effects of Lean on productivity, working conditions and health. Therefor an instrument is needed to measure Lean in primary care. The aim with this research is to find an instrument that captures the character of Lean. A literature search was conducted in Academic Search Elite, WileyOnlineLibrary, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycInfo, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Emerald and Scopus. Keywords used were reflecting Lean and measurement and the search resulted in 7933 hits. Included were articles that presented an instrument that had the possibilities to distinguish between high or low Lean adoption. Malmbrandt and Åhlstöm´s (2014) instrument fulfilled criteria and was chosen. The original instrument was firstly translated to Swedish. A back translation was made by a bilingual authorized translator. The prototype will be tested among health care professions in Sweden using the think aloud method (TA) with the aim to explore how the participants perceive and interpret the Swedish version (Collins 2003). Immediately afterwards, they will be interviewed about how they interprets specific expressions in the questionnaire. After every round of 5-15 interviews the prototype will be adjusted and when saturation is reached the TA will terminate. After psychometric tests the finalized Swedish version of the instrument is to be used in a longitudinal study to describe status of Lean and how Lean correlate with the health of primary health care staff, there working conditions and productivity over time.

  • 89.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Staff perception of Lean, care-giving, thriving and exhaustion: a longitudinal study in primary care2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 652Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Lean is commonly adopted in healthcare to increase quality of care and efficiency. Few studies of Lean involve staff-related outcomes, and few have a longitudinal design. Thus, the aim was to examine the extent to which changes over time in Lean maturity are associated with changes over time in care-giving, thriving and exhaustion, as perceived by staff, with a particular emphasis on the extent to which job demands and job resources, as perceived by staff, have a moderated mediation effect.

    Method

    A longitudinal study with a correlational design was used. In total, 260 staff at 46 primary care units responded to a web survey in 2015 and 2016. All variables in the study were measured using staff ratings. Ratings of Lean maturity reflect participants’ judgements regarding the entire unit; ratings of care-giving, thriving, exhaustion and job demands and resources reflect participants’ judgements regarding their own situation.

    Results

    First, over time, increased Lean maturity was associated with increased staff satisfaction with their care-giving and increased thriving, mediated by increased job resources. Second, over time, increased Lean maturity was associated with decreased staff exhaustion, mediated by decreased job demands. No evidence was found showing that job demands and job resources had a moderated mediation effect.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that primary care staff may benefit from working in organizations characterized by high levels of Lean maturity and that caregiving may also be improved as perceived by staff.

  • 90.
    Karlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    The Managerial Challenge of Setting Goals Conducive to Individual Ambidexterity2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Laursen, Keld
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Knowledge integration across boundaries in open innovation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    KITE, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Laursen, Keld
    DRUID, Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark; Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Tell, Fredrik
    KITE, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Match and manage: the use of knowledge matching and project management to integrate knowledge in collaborative inbound open innovation2016In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 333-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite mounting evidence on the potential benefits of inbound open innovation, little is known about how firms purposefully manage inflows of knowledge. We investigate the use of two knowledge governance procedures—project management and knowledge matching—in collaborative inbound open innovation. Our findings suggest that, in addition to “knowledge-precursors,” which the literature on open innovation and absorptive capacity has shown to be important for the integration of external knowledge, the firm’s choice of knowledge governance matters for innovation performance.

  • 93.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Laursen, Keld
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    The role of knowledge governance in open innovation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    et al.
    Carlo Cattaneo University (LIUC), Castellanza, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University (LIUC), Castellanza, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Pierluigi, Rippa
    University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy.
    Openness and innovation performance: an empirical analysis of openness determinants and performance mediators2017In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 463-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Focusing on some relevant constructs defined by the open innovation (OI) literature (i.e. determinants of openness; openness choices operationalized in terms of collaboration depth with scientific and business partners; organizational and social context; innovation performance in terms of novelty and efficiency), this paper investigates the relationships among such constructs. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse two types of relationships: between some contextual factors and firms’ openness choices; and among openness choices, a set of organizational-managerial and social factors, and OI performance outcomes.

    Design/methodology/approach The authors carried out a theory testing survey, involving four European countries (Finland, Italy, Sweden and the UK). The authors applied descriptive statistics and a series of regressions.

    Findings The authors analysed the impact exerted by external and internal variables on the collaboration depth with scientific and business partners: technological trends are relevant to move firms towards external collaborations, with both types of partners; efficiency goals pursued in collaborations are related to the collaboration depth with both types of partners, while an aggressive innovation strategy is positively related only to scientific-partner depth. Besides, collaboration depths with both partners are positively related to the both sides of innovation performance (i.e. novelty and efficiency), but the organizational-managerial and social contexts emerge as relevant mediator variables. Organizational-managerial and external relational social capital exert a beneficial role on the both types of innovation performance, while internal relational social capital benefits only novelty.

    Research limitations/implications The work shows important limitations such as the low level of the explanatory values in the regression models. Therefore, the results must be considered as preliminary explorative insights that may be useful to encourage further studies.

    Practical implications This work serves to raise managers’ awareness on the opportunity of developing organizational-managerial mechanisms, as well as on the importance of social capital to profit from collaborations.

    Originality/value Although during the last decade many researchers have claimed that we are in the era of OI, empirical works, which provide both a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the phenomenon, are still few. Moreover, the specific action of the context (managerial, organizational and social) as possible mediator of the performance outcomes of openness is empirically under-studied. The authors’ work attempts to fulfil these gaps.

  • 95.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    et al.
    LIUC Universita Cattaneo, Castellanza, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    LIUC Universita Cattaneo, Castellanza, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    Universita di Pisa, Italy.
    Rippa, Pierluigi
    Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Current practices of European Open Innovators2015In: R&D Management Conference 2015: Book of abstracts, RADMA , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96. Luzzini, Davide
    et al.
    Caniato, Federico
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A proposal for research in Purchasing and Supply Management2009In: Proceedings of the 18th IPSERA conference in Oestrich-Winkel, Germany, 5 – 8 April., 2009, p. 1328-1346Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    et al.
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Öhrwall-Rönnbäck, Anna
    Ölundh, Gunilla
    Garcia Matrinez, Marian
    Kianto, Aino
    Pikko, Harri
    Sanchez, Mercedes
    Are we actually in the open innovation era?: Current practices of Europeanmanufacturing companies2013In: Proceedings of the 14th international CINetconference, 9-11 September, 2013, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Rosell, David
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Purchasing Capabilities for Supplier Innovation in New Product Development2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Product Development Management Conference, Delft, 5-7 June, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?2016In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 232-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the tense appropriability-openness relationship, defined by some as paradox. Based on an international survey of 415 manufacturing firms, we investigate how the use of different kinds of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) affects interfirm R&D collaboration while considering partner location in the analysis as well. Our results show that the use of formal, semi-formal or informal IPPMs has different effects on openness in terms of partner variety and depth of collaboration with academic partners, value chain partners and competitors. Moreover, when considering location we uncover previously hidden appropriability-openness liaisons showing that semi-formal or informal IPPMs are mainly valid in relation to national partners, whereas formal appropriability explains international collaborations. One implication of the study is that to better understand the appropriability-openness relationship it is imperative to differentiate between national and international settings. We further suggest that the potential paradox delineating this relationship has a geographical dimension.

  • 100.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Appropriability mechanisms, openness and firm performance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unclear how companies choose intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) in open innovation and how this choice affects firm performance. Our study addresses these gaps by using a data sample of 415 manufacturing firms from three European countries. The analysis covers eight IPPMs used in open innovation with four types of partners. Findings show that combinations of IPPMs vary according to partner openness. Moreover, companies using all kinds of IPPMs perform better than those relying on informal or semiformal IPPMs.

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