hig.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 51 - 80 of 80
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Barros, H
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Torres Gonzales, F
    Departmental Section of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, E
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Melchiorre, MG
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy.
    Lindert, J
    Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Stankunas, M
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Psychological abuse among older persons in Europe: A cross-sectional study2013In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 16-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Elder abuse is an issue of great concern world-wide, not least in Europe. Older people are increasingly vulnerable to physical, psychological, financial maltreatment and sexual coercion. However, due to complexities of measurement, psychological abuse may be underestimated. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse toward older persons within a 12 month period.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study design was cross-sectional and data were collected during January-July 2009 in the survey “Elder abuse: a multinational prevalence survey, ABUEL”. The participants were 4,467 randomly selected persons aged 60-84 years (2,559 women, 57.3 per cent) from seven EU countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden). The sample size was adapted to each city according to their population of women and men aged 60-84 years (albeit representative and proportional to sex-age). The participants answered a structured questionnaire either through a face-to-face interview or a mix of interview/self-response. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression methods.

    Findings – The prevalence of overall psychological abuse was 29.7 per cent in Sweden, followed by 27.1 per cent in Germany; 24.6 per cent in Lithuania and 21.9 per cent in Portugal. The lowest prevalence was reported in Greece, Spain and Italy with 13.2 per cent, 11.5 per cent and 10.4 per cent, respectively. Similar tendencies were observed concerning minor/severe abuse. The Northern countries (Germany, Lithuania, Sweden) compared to Southern countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) reported a higher mean prevalence (across countries) of minor/severe abuse (26.3 per cent/11.5 per cent and 12.9 per cent/5.9 per cent, respectively). Most perpetrators (71.2 per cent) were spouses/partners and other relatives (e.g. children). The regression analysis indicated that being from Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain was associated with less risk of psychological abuse. Low social support, living in rented housing, alcohol use, frequent health care use, and high scores in anxiety and somatic complaints were associated with increased risk of psychological abuse.

    Social implications – Psychological abuse was more prevalent in Northern than Southern countries and factors such as low social support and high anxiety levels played an important role. Further studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of psychological abuse and risk factors among older persons in other EU countries. Particular attention should be paid to severe abuse. Such research may help policy makers and health planers/providers in tailoring interventions to tackle the ever growing problem of elder abuse.

    Originality/value – The paper reports data from the ABUEL Survey, which collected population based data on elderly abuse.

  • 52.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Walander, A
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Soares, Joaquim JF
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Violence against women in Stockholm County: Does marital status matter?2013In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 101-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences in victimization among single and married mothers using data (n=6,388 women) from the 2006 Stockholm County Public Health Survey (SCPHS), a cross-sectional survey based on a self-administered postal questionnaire. Design/methodology/approach: Results showed higher odds of victimization among lone mothers compared to married ones. Additionally, the greatest odds of victimization were observed among those with low education, low income, and decreased social and practical support. Findings: In Sweden, particularly in Stockholm, there is a need for future population-based surveys regarding the prevalence of violence and to identify high risk groups. Furthermore, it is crucial that these surveys include items that will enable investigation of direct links between violence and health effects, and the utilization of health care for these women. Originality/value: This paper is original and it addresses for the first time violence among single mothers within a social epidemiology perspective.

  • 53.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Walander, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Living in the Municipality of Gävle: Report on the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes Survey - Wave 12013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many industrialized countries including those in Europe, there is an established relationship between work conditions and health. For instance employment status and conditions have been reported to influence physical health (self-assessed health, pain and various somatic conditions), as well as mental health outcomes such as anxiety and depression, even if debate is still ongoing. Employment conditions have been suggested to be a key determinant of health inequalities, although this factor has been less researched than have education and income. Therefore, a study of the role played by employment status/conditions in a small geographical area such as Gävle Municipality (with its pattern of industries, plant and services closures, and high levels of unemployment) could contribute to knowledge on ways to reduce ill health related to labour market. 

     The overall aim of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status, household income and physical and psychological health outcomes among economically active people residing in Gävle Municipality, using data from Wave 1 of the Gävle Household, Labour Market Dynamics and Health Outcomes (GHOLDH) survey, a household panel survey carried out between April and June 2012. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and mixed multivariate models.

    There were differences in physical and psychological health by employment status. Individuals who were outside the labour market were more likely to report poor health, body pain and exhaustion than were individuals who were employed. In addition, those individuals who were outside work had a higher prevalence and risk of anxiety and depression. Data on household income also showed associations with physical and psychological health, with a concentration of poor self-reported health, somatic complaints, anxiety and depression in lower income households.

    Interestingly, the study findings revealed that anxiety was also prevalent among employed people, suggesting that people with insecure jobs might also be at risk of poor mental health. This finding requires further research to discern the role of precarious employment conditions on inequalities in physical and mental health outcomes. In addition, studies on the impact of gender on the relationship between employment status/conditions and physical and psychological health outcomes are warranted. To this end, the follow-up survey to be carried out in 2014 might provide additional knowledge pertaining to ways to reduce employment-related health inequalities within the municipality.

  • 54.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Epidemiology Unit-ISPUP, University of Porto, Portugal.
    Winersjö, Rocio
    Swedish Board of Health and Social Welfare, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Department of Research, Gävleborg Region, Sweden.
    MacGrath, Cormac
    LIME, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Public Health, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Fear of crime and its relationships to self-reported health and stress among men2017In: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 169-174, article id 1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County.Design and Methods: The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. Results: There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47- 2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Conclusions: Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

  • 55.
    Macassa, Gloria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Differentials in overall and cause-specific mortality among infants born in and out of wedlock, Stockholm 1878–19252006In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates differentials in the decline of cause-specific infant mortality by marital status of the mother in Stockholm (1878 –1925) and factors contributing to the explanation of these differentials using computerized records of individual entries from the Roteman Archives. Included in the analysis were 120,094 children less than 1 year of age who lived in Södermalm during this period. Cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for three time periods. Cox's regression analysis was used to study the relationship between overall and cause-specific risk of infant death and of being born in and out of wedlock in relation to a set of variables. Infant mortality rates and mortality risks were higher among children born out of rather than in wedlock. The most pronounced differentials in cause-specific mortality rates between these groups of children were seen in cases of diarrhea. The socioeconomic status of the household head and number of children in the household were statistically significant with infant mortality, but explain only part of the excess mortality risk of children born out of wedlock. In Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century being born out of wedlock was strongly associated with poor health outcomes, particularly in diarrheal diseases, pneumonia/bronchitis, and immaturity/congenital causes.

  • 56.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Chiatti, Carlos
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre of Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, I.N.R.C.A., Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health Science, Protestant University of Applied Sciences, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mid Sweden University and Karolinska Institute.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap.
    Social Support, Socio-Economic Status, Health and Abuse among Older People in Seven European Countries: Social support and elder abuse in Europe2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, p. e54856-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Social support has a strong impact on individuals, not least on older individuals with health problems. A lack of support network and poor family or social relations may be crucial in later life, and represent risk factors for elder abuse. This study focused on the associations between social support, demographics/socio-economics, health variables and elder mistreatment.

    Methods

    The cross-sectional data was collected by means of interviews or interviews/self-response during January-July 2009, among a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged 60–84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden).

    Results

    Multivariate analyses showed that women and persons living in large households and with a spouse/partner or other persons were more likely to experience high levels of social support. Moreover, frequent use of health care services and low scores on depression or discomfort due to physical complaints were indicators of high social support. Low levels of social support were related to older age and abuse, particularly psychological abuse.

    Conclusions

    High levels of social support may represent a protective factor in reducing both the vulnerability of older people and risk of elder mistreatment. On the basis of these results, policy makers, clinicians and researchers could act by developing intervention programmes that facilitate friendships and social activities in old age.

  • 57.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    et al.
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Di Rosa, Mirko
    Scientific Direction, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Centre for Socio-Economic Research on Ageing, Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging, Ancona, Italy.
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Centro de Investigaciones Biomedicas en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lindert, Jutta
    Department of Public Health, University of Emden, Emden, Germany; Women's Studies Research Center, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    Department of Health Management, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania; Health Service Management Department, Centre for Health Innovation, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Department of Sociology, National School of Public Health, Athens, Greece.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim J F
    Department of Health Sciences, Section of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Abuse of older men in seven European countries: a multilevel approach in the framework of an ecological model2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0146425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Several studies on elder abuse indicate that a large number of victims are women, but others report that men in later life are also significantly abused, especially when they show symptoms of disability and poor health, and require help for their daily activities as a result. This study focused on the prevalence of different types of abuse experienced by men and on a comparison of male victims and non-victims concerning demographic/socio-economic characteristics, lifestyle/health variables, social support and quality of life. Additionally, the study identified factors associated with different types of abuse experienced by men and characteristics associated with the victims.

    METHODS: The cross-sectional data concerning abuse in the past 12 months were collected by means of interviews and self-response during January-July 2009, from a sample of 4,467 not demented individuals aged between 60-84 years living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain and Sweden). We used a multilevel approach, within the framework of an Ecological Model, to explore the phenomenon of abuse against males as the complex result of factors from multiple levels: individual, relational, community and societal.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analyses showed that older men educated to higher levels, blue-collar workers and men living in a rented accommodation were more often victims than those educated to lower levels, low-rank white-collar workers and home owners, respectively. In addition, high scores for factors such as somatic and anxiety symptoms seemed linked with an increased probability of being abused. Conversely, factors such as increased age, worries about daily expenses (financial strain) and greater social support seemed linked with a decreased probability of being abused.

    CONCLUSIONS: Male elder abuse is under-recognized, under-detected and under-reported, mainly due to the vulnerability of older men and to social/cultural norms supporting traditional male characteristics of stoicism and strength. Further specific research on the topic is necessary in the light of the present findings. Such research should focus, in particular, on societal/community aspects, as well as individual and family ones, as allowed by the framework of the Ecological Model, which in turn could represent a useful method also for developing prevention strategies for elder abuse.

  • 58.
    Priebe, Stefan
    et al.
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Matanov, Alexandra
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Schor, Ruth
    Unit for Social and Community Psychiatry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK .
    Straßmayr, Christa
    Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Social Psychiatry, Vienna, Austria.
    Barros, Henrique
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal.
    Barry, Margareth M
    Health Promotion Research Centre, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland .
    Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel
    Madrid Salud, Madrid, Spain .
    Gabor, Edina
    National Institute for Health Development, Budapest, Hungary.
    Greacen, Tim
    Laboratoire de recherche, Etablissement Public de Santé Maison Blanche, Paris, France.
    Holcnerová, Petra
    Department of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Kluge, Ulrike
    Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lorant, Vincent
    Institute of Health and Society (IRSS), Université Catholique de Louvain, Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Moskalewicz, Jasec
    Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland.
    Schene, Aart H
    Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gaddini, Andrea
    Laziosanità ASP - Public Health Agency, Lazio Region, Rome, Italy.
    Good practice in mental health care for socially marginalised groups in Europe: a qualitative study of expert views in 14 countries2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, p. -Article Number: 248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socially marginalised groups tend to have higher rates of mental disorders than the general population and can be difficult to engage in health care. Providing mental health care for these groups represents a particular challenge, and evidence on good practice is required. This study explored the experiences and views of experts in 14 European countries regarding mental health care for six socially marginalised groups: long-term unemployed; street sex workers; homeless; refugees/asylum seekers; irregular migrants and members of the travelling communities.      

    Methods: Two highly deprived areas were selected in the capital cities of 14 countries, and experts were interviewed for each of the six marginalised groups. Semi-structured interviews with case vignettes were conducted to explore experiences of good practice and analysed using thematic analysis.      

    Results: In a total of 154 interviews, four components of good practice were identified across all six groups: a) establishing outreach programmes to identify and engage with individuals with mental disorders; b) facilitating access to services that provide different aspects of health care, including mental health care, and thus reducing the need for further referrals; c) strengthening the collaboration and co-ordination between different services; and d) disseminating information on services both to marginalised groups and to practitioners in the area.      

    Conclusions: Experts across Europe hold similar views on what constitutes good practice in mental health care for marginalised groups. Care may be improved through better service organisation, coordination and information.      

      

  • 59.
    Ramezanian, Maryam
    et al.
    Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden; Health Services Management Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Khankeh, Hamid
    Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Health, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Clinical Sciences and education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health among school-aged adolescents in Tehran2016In: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, ISSN 1016-1430, E-ISSN 2251-6840, Vol. 30, no 1, article id 447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic status has been found to have a significant impact on the health as well as risk behaviors of adolescents across different contexts. This study was conducted to assess the effect of social relations adjusted by social class on physical and psychological well-being of adolescences in Teheran, Iran. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study and carried out on 1,742 adolescences living in Tehran during 2011. Adolescences were selected, using proportional stratified sampling method and a questionnaire was filled over an interview for data gathering. Data were analyzed, using SPSS18 logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychological symptoms was more than 24% and had a large range (24%-93%), while physical symptoms showed a lower prevalence with a smaller range (12%-33%). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between the adolescences gender and feeling the need for others' help (p<0.001). Factors related to feeling the need for others help, anxiety, and worrying were the most prevalent among both boys and girls. In the section of family social relations, talking to the mother and talking to the father had the lowest and the highest prevalence among girls and boys, respectively. With respect to relations, the number of close friends and after school gathering time with close friends had the highest prevalence among girls, while the number of close friends and E-communication with close friends had the lowest and the highest prevalence among boys, respectively. Conclusion: The physical and psychological symptoms were common among adolescents from families with high socioeconomic status.

  • 60.
    Soares, Joaquim F J
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Fraga, Silvia
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal..
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningnen för Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet Avdelningen för Socialvetenskap.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    The chronicity and severity of abuse among older persons by country: a European study2014In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 3-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to investigate chronicity (frequency) in different abuse types (e.g. psychological) and overall abuse (all abuse types) by severity (minor, severe, total) in seven European cities, and scrutinize factors associated with high chronicity levels (frequency on the median and higher) in psychological and overall abuse by severity.

    Design/methodology/approach: – The study design was cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 4,467 randomly selected women/men (2,559 women) aged 60-84 years from seven European cities, and data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Findings: – Chronicity varied across country and by abuse type. For instance, Germany had the highest chronicity means in physical and sexual abuse; Greece in physical, injury, sexual and overall abuse; Lithuania in physical, injury, financial and overall abuse; Portugal in physical abuse; Spain in physical, sexual and financial abuse; and Sweden in psychological, injury, financial and overall abuse. In general, Italy had the lowest chronicity means. The main perpetrators were people close to the respondents and women (in some cases).

    Research limitations/implications: – The independent relationship (regressions) between chronicity/ severity of abuse, country and other variables (e.g. depression) was examined only for psychological and overall abuse. More research into this issue with other types of abuse (e.g. sexual) is warranted.

    Originality/value: – The paper reports data from the ABUEL survey, which gathered population-based data on elderly abuse.

  • 61. Soares, Joaquim F J
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fandino-Losada, Andres
    Psychosocial experiences among female and male primary care patients with and without pain2007In: Pain clinic (Print), ISSN 0169-1112, E-ISSN 1568-5691, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 58-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examined the psychosocial characteristics and experiences of female and male primary care patients with and without pain with particular interest in gender differences and whether females were more vulnerable to pain than males.Patients and methods: A total of 1122 primary care patients from 20 randomly selected primary care centres in Stockholm were assessed cross-sectionally on various variables during 15 consecutive days. The data were examined with chi-square tests, ANOVAs, Dunn?Bonferroni tests and multivariate logistic/linear regression analyses.Results: Pain patients compared to pain-free patients reported more depression, burn-out, job demands, less job control, more job strain, and financial problems, with no gender differences in general. These constructs were associated with pain in the regressions and some of them were inter-related. Factors such as sick-leave were also important. Female pain patients had a more severe clinical profile (e.g. pain intensity) than male patients. Female gender was a 'risk' factor for pain and for pain intensity/complexity, but other factors (e.g. sick-leave) were also important. In other areas (e.g. diagnoses), there were no gender differences. Missing data from the non-participant control group may have resulted in cases and controls that were not well matched. This may have weakened the strength of the comparisons between patient groups. Nevertheless, the results derive from a large clinical sample and are noteworthy.Conclusions: Pain patients did less well psychosocially and had received many traditional treatments for their pain without good effects. Interventions should be attentive to this and approaches such as cognitive-behaviour therapy used more often. Variables such as sick-leave and financial difficulties were associated with psychological and pain problems, and female gender was a 'risk' factor for pain and for pain intensity and complexity (multiple types of pain). Interventions should consider psychosocial factors and problems experienced particularly by women. The results confirmed previous findings from other studies and may have provided new insights into the experiences of female and male primary care patients with and without pain.

  • 62.
    Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Grossi, Giorgio
    Stockholm University.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Örjan, Sundin
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Psychological distress in a sample of Swedish women: a longitudinal study2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63. Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Barros, Henrique
    Torres-Gonzales, Francisco
    Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth
    Lamura, Giovanni
    Lindert, Jutta
    Dios Luna, Juan de
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Stankūnas, Mindaugas
    Abuse and Health Among Elderly in Europe2010Book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Soares, Joaquim J F
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grossi, Giorgio
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fandino-Losada, Andres
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social support among lifetime victimized men2008In: Victims and Offenders, ISSN 1556-4886, Vol. 3, no 2-3, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined differences in demographics/socioeconomics, lifestyle, and social support between victimized/nonvictimized men, and identified and quantified variables associated with social support. The participants were 520 men and the design cross-sectional. The univariate analyses showed that victims reported higher social support; were more often younger, blue-collar/low white-collar workers; were on student allowances/unemployment; were financially strained; were smokers; and more often had secondary school education than nonvictims. The regressions showed that among victims unemployment and depression were associated with reduced social support; smoking, threatening/aggressive language, and violent threats were associated with increased social support. We may have provided new insights into the social support experiences of victimized men.

  • 65.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden, and Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Grossi, Giorgio
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Psychosocial Correlates of Hopelessness Among Men2008In: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined overall hopelessness, explored differences in various variables (e.g. burnout) between men reporting no/mild hopelessness and moderate/severe hopelessness, and scrutinized factors associated with hopelessness. The study design was cross-sectional, and the participants were 517 men randomly selected from the general population. About 12% of men reported moderate/severe hopelessness, and men with moderate/severe hopelessness were more often older, divorced/widowed, low educated, employed in blue-collar positions, on sick leave/other/unemployment/retirement, and financially strained. They also reported more depression, posttraumatic symptoms, and burnout. Only unemployment/retirement, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were independently associated with an increased risk for moderate/severe hopelessness in the regression analysis, with unemployment and retirement as the most important factors. In conclusion, this study seems to corroborate previous findings and may provide new insights into men's experiences and predictors of hopelessness. More research into the predictors of hopelessness in men is warranted.

  • 66. Soares, Joaquim J.F
    et al.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Quality of life among lifetime victimized men2007In: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, E-ISSN 1945-7073, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 289-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men.

  • 67.
    Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miranda, Jamilette
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Health among lifetime victimized men2007In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 66, no 4, p. 351-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We examined differences in demographics/socio-economics, lifestyles and mental/physical health between victimized/non-victimized men, and identified/quantified factors associated with mental/physical health.Study design. The study design was cross-sectional.Methods. The men were assessed in various areas (e.g., depression) by means of a questionnaire.Results. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared with non-victims were younger. They also had higher intermediate education levels, were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, were on student allowances and financially strained, smoked more, had a lower BMI, and reported headaches, depression, tension and cognitive difficulties more frequently. The regression analyses showed that financial strain rather than violence was a more important factor for ill-health. Only headaches and cognitive difficulties were associated with violence.Conclusions. Quite an number of men were in a poor physical/mental state, but there were few differences between victims/non-victims. Financial strain was determined to be a more important factor for ill-health than violence. Our data indicate that violence had little effect on men's health. Our findings do not generally support a relationship between poor health and the abuse of men.

  • 68.
    Sundin, Örjan
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Division of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Institution for Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Grossi, Georgio
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    The experiences of burnout among migrant and native Swedish women: a longitudinal study2011In: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 643-660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Tahir, M. N.
    et al.
    Punjab Emergency Service, Punjab, Pakistan .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Akbar, A. H.
    University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Naseer, R.
    Punjab Emergency Service (Rescue 1122), Punjab, Pakistan .
    Zia, A.
    Punjab Emergency Service, Punjab, Pakistan .
    Khan, S.
    Punjab Emergency Service, Punjab, Pakistan .
    Road traffic crashes in Ramadan: An observational study [Accidents de la circulation pendant le ramadan: Une étude d'observation]2013In: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, ISSN 1020-3397, Vol. 19, no Suppl. 3, p. S147-S151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate trends in road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by an emergency service, Rescue 1122, in 2011 in Punjab, Pakistan. RTC data were collected from 35 districts of Punjab and reviewed retrospectively. Data analysis revealed that the service responded to 12 969 RTC emergencies during August 2011 (Ramadan), compared with an average of 11 573 RTCs per month from January to August 2011. The younger age group (11-27 years) was victims in 29% of RTCs; 39% were due to speeding and 43% occurred in peak rush hours (14: 00-18: 00) before iftar (breakfast).Results of the study showed that Rescue 1122 faced more RTCs during Ramadan compared with the preceding months. Road safety is an important public health issue in Pakistan. Although there have been great improvements in roads in the past few years, much work needs to be done to deal with mounting trends in RTCs. Public awareness, political will and stringent law enforcement are key factors.

  • 70. Tahir, Navid
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Naseer, Rizwan
    Durani, Mohsin
    Hashmi, Waseem
    Causes of Fire Emergencies managed by Rescue 1122 in Punjab, Pakistan2011Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Tahir, Navid
    et al.
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Naseer, Rizwan
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Khan, Samina Mohsin
    Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hashimi, Waseem
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Durrani, Moshin
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan2012In: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 347-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005–2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16–35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement.

  • 72.
    Winnersjö, Rocio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Departmento de Epidemiologia, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Soares, Joaquim F
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Violence and self-reported health: does individual socioeconomic position matter?2012In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence is a major public health problem. Both clinical and population based studies shows that violence against men and women has physical and psychological health consequences. However, elsewhere and in Sweden little is known of the effect of individual socioeconomic position (SEP) on the relation between violence and health outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of individual SEP on the relation between violence and three health outcomes (general health, pain and anxiety) among women in Stockholm County.

    METHODS: The study used data from the Stockholm Public Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2006 for the Stockholm County Council by Statistic Sweden. 34 704 respondents answered the survey, the response rate was sixty one percent. Analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis in SPSS v.17.0.

    RESULTS: Individual SEP increased the odds of reporting poor health outcomes among victimized women in Stockholm County. Regarding self-reported health women in low-SEP who reported victimization in the past twelve months had odds of 2,36 (95% CI 1.48-3.77) for the age group 18-29 years and 3.78 (95% CI 2.53-5.64) for the age group 30-44 years compared with women in high-SEP and non-victim. For pain the odds was 2,41 (95% CI 1,56-3,73) for the age group 18-29 years and 2,98 (95% CI 1,99-4,46) for women aged 30-44 years. Regarding anxiety the age group 18-29 years had odds of 2,53 (95% CI 1,58-4,03) and for the age group 30-44 years had odds of 3,87 (95% CI 2,55-5,87).

    CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that individual SEP (measured by occupation) matters to the relationship between violence and health outcomes such as general self-reported health, pain and anxiety. Women in lower SEP who experienced victimization in the past twelve months had increased odds of reporting poorer self-rated health, pain and anxiety compared to those in higher SEP with no experience of victimization. However, further exploration of the relationship between poverty, individual SEP is needed using other Swedish population samples.

  • 73.
    Yahaya, Ismael
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK .
    Uthman, Olalekan A
    Warwick-Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, United Kingdom, and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, International Health Group, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK .
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden, and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in Sub-Saharan Africa: A multilevel analysis2013In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 13, no 33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and child sexual abuse CSA.

    Methods

    We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008.

    Results

    The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16).

    Conclusion

    We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals.

  • 74.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    A. Uthman, Olalekan
    Warwick - Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coven try, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Midsweden University, Sweden, and Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of sixcountries in Sub-Saharan Africa2013In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA.

    METHODS: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008.

    RESULTS: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on Childhood sexual abuse.

  • 75.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Centre for Evidence-Based Global Health, Nigeria.
    Ponce De Leon, Antonio
    Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Department of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Childhood sexual abuse among girls and determinants of sexual risk behaviours in adult life in sub-Saharan Africa2015In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviours as well as its potential mediators.

    Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study used data from a cross-sectional study from 12,800 women between 15 and 49 years of age included in the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to assess the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and sexual risk behaviours.

    Findings The authors found that CSA was directly associated with sexual risk behaviours. In addition, the association between CSA and sexual risk behaviour was also partially mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Research limitations/implications The results show that being abused in childhood is important for the subsequent development of sexual risk behaviours in adulthood and the association is mediated by alcohol and cigarette use.

    Practical implications The results may be helpful for policy makers and health care planners in designing cultural sensitive public health intervention that will reduce the burden of CSA, its long-term effects (sexual risk behaviours) and intervening mediators that increase the risks.

    Social implications These findings suggest that to reduce sexual risks, interventions to address sexual abuse needs to include other social problems (smoking, alcohol) that victims result to when faced with trauma.

    Originality/value The current study is the only one so far in sub-Saharan Africa to have explored the relation between CSA and sexual risk behaviours using SEM.

  • 76.
    Yahaya, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    A comparative study of the socioeconomic factors associated with childhood sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa2012In: Pan African Medical Journal, ISSN 1937-8688, E-ISSN 1937-8688, Vol. 11, no 51, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a problem of considerable proportion in Africa where up to one-third of adolescent girls report their first sexual experience as being forced. The impact of child hood sexual abuse resonates in all areas of health. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and variations across socioeconomic status in six sub-Saharan countries. Methods: Datasets from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in six sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 2003 and 2007 were used to access the relationship between CSA and socio economic status using multiple logistic regression models. Results: There was no association between CSA and education, wealth and area of settlement. However, there was contrasting association between CSA and working status of women. Conclusion: This study concurs with other western studies which indicate that CSA transcends across all socio economic group. It is therefore important that effective preventive strategies are developed and implemented that will cross across all socio-economic groups. © Ismail Yahaya et al.

  • 77.
    Zacarias, A. E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Soares, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Women as Perpetrators of IPV: the Experience of Mozambique2012In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Zacarias, AE
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Interpersonal violence against women in Mozambique2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Svanström, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Antai, Diddy
    Division of Global Health and Inequalities, The Angels Trust - Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria.
    Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization in female victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Maputo City, Mozambique2012In: International Journal of Women's Health, ISSN 1179-1411, E-ISSN 1179-1411, Vol. 4, p. 491-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little knowledge exists in Mozambique and sub-Saharan Africa about the mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization) of women victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV) by type of abuse (psychological aggression, physical assault without/with injury, and sexual coercion). This study scrutinizes factors associated with mental health among women victims and perpetrators of IPV over the 12 months prior to the study.

    Methods and materials: Mental health data were analyzed with bivariate and multiple regression methods for 1442 women aged 15–49 years who contacted Forensic Services at Maputo Central Hospital (Maputo City, Mozambique) for IPV victimization between April 1, 2007 and March 31, 2008.

    Results: In bivariate analyses, victims and perpetrators of IPVs scored higher on symptoms of mental health than their unaffected counterparts. Multiple regressions revealed that controlling behaviors, mental health comorbidity, social support, smoking, childhood abuse, sleep difficulties, age, and lack of education were more important in explaining symptoms of mental health than demographics/socioeconomics or life-style factors. Victimization and perpetration across all types of IPV were not associated with symptoms of mental health.

    Conclusion: In our sample, victimization and perpetration were not important factors in explaining mental ill health, contrary to previous findings. More research into the relationship between women’s IPV victimization and perpetration and mental health is warranted as well as the influence of controlling behaviors on mental health.

  • 80.
    Zacarias, Antonio Eugenio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and do Mondlane University, Faculty of Medicine, Maputo City, Mozambique .
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Svanström, Leif
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim JF
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and Department of Health Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Antai, Diddy
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and Center for Global & Population Health, The Angels Trust Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria .
    Intimate partner violence against women in Maputo city, Mozambique2012In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited research about IPV against women and associated factors in Sub-Saharan Africa, not least Mozambique. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence, severity, chronicity and "predictors" of IPV against women in Maputo City (Mozambique).

    Methods

    Data were collected during a 12 month-period (consecutive cases, with each woman seen only once) from 1,442 women aged 15--49 years old seeking help for abuse by an intimate partner at the Forensic Services at the Maputo Central Hospital, Maputo City, Mozambique. Interviews were conducted by trained female interviewers, and data collected included demographics and lifestyle variables, violence (using the previously validated Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and control (using the Controlling Behaviour Scale Revised (CBS-R). The data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Results

    The overall experienced IPV during the past 12 months across severity (one or more types, minor and severe) was 70.2% (chronicity, 85.8 +/- 120.9).a Severe IPV varied between 26.3-45.9% and chronicity between 3.1 +/- 9.1-12.8 +/- 26.9, depending on IPV type. Severity and chronicity figures were higher in psychological aggression than in the other IPV types. Further, 26.8% (chronicity, 55.3 +/- 117.6) of women experienced all IPV types across severity. The experience of other composite IPV types across severity (4 combinations of 3 types of IPV) varied between 27.1-42.6% and chronicity between 35.7 +/- 80.3-64.9 +/- 110.9, depending on the type of combination. The combination psychological aggression, physical assault and sexual coercion had the highest figures compared with the other combinations.. The multiple regressions showed that controlling behaviours, own perpetration and co-occurring victimization were more important in "explaining" the experience of IPV than other variables (e.g. abuse as a child).

    Conclusions

    In our study, controlling behaviours over/by partner, own perpetration, co-occurring victimization and childhood abuse were more important factors in "explaining" sustained IPV. More investigation into women's IPV exposure and its "predictors" is warranted in Sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Mozambique.

12 51 - 80 of 80
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard-cite-them-right
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • sv-SE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • de-DE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf