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  • 51.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Three narratives: national interpretations of PISA2014In: Knowledge Cultures, ISSN 2327-5731, E-ISSN 2375-6527, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 172-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) has become a major and influential component of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) educational work. This paper examines national reports relating to PISA 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 published on the OECD website in order to identify examples that illustrate the construction of education narratives. These examples are taken from reports from English, German and Nordic speaking countries. When the narratives are analysed, it becomes evident that PISA enables and leads to the production of a variety of different narratives. In this paper ontological, epistemological and reform narratives are examined to demonstrate how the various narratives are constructed through the reporting and discussion of national results. The paper concludes that by means of international and national reports, PISA has created a variety of explicit and implicit narratives for steering national educational policy processes.

  • 52.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Vad kan skolarkiven berätta om den ideologiska styrningen, uppfyllelse av kunskapsmålen och situationen för elever och personal?2011Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Varför tror vi på PISA?2017In: Skola och samhälle, E-ISSN 2001-6727, no 27 februariArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tilltron till PISA-undersökningen är stor. Samtidigt minskar tilliten till att lärare kan bedöma elevers kunskaper på ett likvärdigt sätt. Titt som tätt hörs krav på nationella bedömningar och kanske till och med betygssättning. Daniel Pettersson reder ut den historiska bakgrunden till varför det blev som det blev. (red)

  • 54.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Aasen, Petter
    Högskolan i Buskerud och Vestfold.
    Forsberg, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Preface2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, p. 27012-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    International Knowledge Assessments and the Influence on the Swedish reform of Management by Objectives2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trying to Handle the Question of Differentiation: 70 Years of Swedish School Reforms2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Faculty of Education and Natural Sciences, Høgskolen i Hedmark.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Department of Education, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experts or Algorithms in the Framing of Curriculum Research2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping research in relation to research interest is a common act of performing a research review. This kind of activity is an important part of being a researcher. The act of showing belongingness and relationship to different paradigms and thinkers (Kuhn, 1962) or various epistemic cultures (KnorrVCetina, 1991) has over time been given different forms within the community of research. In relation to the act of framing research by different strategies we raise questions on: who inhabits and cultivates the field of curriculum research according to different strategies for framing?

    In particular, we are interested in the potential movement of research reviews from an act of collective ‘intellectualizing’ among ‘experts’ to an act of ‘technologizing’ dependent on algorithms and terminology embedded in various databases, in which the amount of data is more important in ‘evidenceVmaking’ than the perceived expertise of the source. To put it differently, the databases with their vast aggregation of data, organized by algorithms and terminology, are perceived as the authority and not the authors or the epistemic cultures in which the authors are embedded. Focusing on three different forms of research reviews we describe, analyze and compare various forms of reviews with regards to:

    • how knowledge of a research field is constructed,
    • what kind of research that is selected and privileged,
    • the production of different pictures of a research field.

    In our study we use the field of curriculum research to elaborate on the different forms of research reviews and their consequences for knowledge produced. Within the field of curriculum research, handbooks have had a dominant position in describing the field. Also, explicit research reviews within different journals have been important among researchers in the framing of the field of curriculum. However, in the contemporary, bibliometric analyses grounded in database searches are more and more employed.

    Dependent on which strategies used by researchers for framing different research fields we especially hypothesize on the importance of epistemic cultures and how these epistemic cultures historically have transported research, and how this is transformed, or even disappeared, with the entrance of various databases. We chose the collaborative act of ‘experts’ producing handbooks and research reviews within field specific journals as two modern examples of ‘intellectualizing’ dependent on that some researchers are given, or have taken, the role of ‘experts’. In contrast, we perform bibliometric searches, for reason of illuminating variances, by using Web of Science and Scopus as examples of ‘technologizing’, where databases more than individual researchers or research groups have transformed into the epistemic culture per se. We are as such in a position to elaborate on how the field of curriculum research is portrayed by using different strategies for framing a specific research field. This is most important for understanding how the field of curriculum theory today is reproduced in various research settings.

  • 58.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Prøitz, Tine S.
    University of Southeast Norway, Norway.
    PISA on teachers: the downloading and uploading of narratives2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently in many countries there is a dominant discussion about the challenges the teacher profession is facing due to political moves, new technologies of assessment, accountability and norms intended to regulate daily professional work (Mausethagen & Mølstad, 2015). One aspect of this policy development has been characterized as a ‘datafication’ of governance (Hansen, 2015), meaning e.g. that education is framed and understood in terms of various algorithms (cf. Pettersson, Popkewitz & Lindblad, 2016). This kind of policy is driven by an expert discourse that, by means of comparative strategies, tends to impose natural or common sense answers in national settings (cf. Pettersson, 2008) which provides policymakers with a global policy lexicon concerning what education is and ought to be (cf. Pettersson, 2014) and as such co-construct how ‘teachers’ are conceived. This can be seen in how the OECD, with its international comparative knowledge assessment PISA, has developed into producing international comparative data for educational policies and practices. Through statistics, reports and studies OECD has activated a “common sense” in political decision making by stating that numerical scientific ‘proofs’ are indisputable (Martens et al., 2007). With this in mind, how teachers are presented and defined by PISA becomes a question of high relevance. Our study draws on a previous study (Pettersson & Mølstad, 2016) analysing PISA reports illuminating how teachers are constructed as important and crucial for educational transformation and development. Moreover, teachers were emphasised as developers of education and educational strategies, rather than deliverers of state determined policy. In this current study, we aim to further elaborate on these findings by investigating aspects of uploading and downloading of educational policy (Prøitz, 2015) with a particular eye to teacher narratives in PISA reports. In order to illuminate how a PISA narrative on teachers can be downloaded (and uploaded) across international and national borders we draw on examples from PISA international and national reports concerning education policy developments in evaluation and accountability. The investigation is conducted through content analysis. Hence we elaborate and contribute to a comparative perspective on and the restructuring of the teaching profession in the contemporary.

    References

    Hansen, H. K. (2015) Numerical operations, transparency illusions and the datafication of governance. European Journal of Social Theory. 18(2) p. 203-220. Mausethagen, S., & Mølstad, C. E. (2015). Shifts in Curriculum Control: Contesting Ideas of Teacher Autonomy. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy (NordSTEP), 1(2). Martens, K., Rusconi, A., & Leuze, K. (Eds.). (2007). New arenas of education governance: the impact of international organizations and markets. Palgrave Macmillan. Pettersson, D., & Mølstad, C. E. (2016). PISA Teachers: The Hope and the Happening of Educational Development. Educação & Sociedade (Education & Society), 37(136), 629-645. Pettersson, D. (2008). Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan. (PhD), Uppsala University, Uppsala. Pettersson, D. (2014). Three narratives: National interpretations of PISA. Knowledge Cultures, 2(4). Pettersson, D, Popkewitz, T. S. & Lindblad, S. (2016) On the use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by means of Large-Scale Assessments. Espacio, Tiempo y Education. 3 (1) 177-202. Prøitz, T. S. (2015). Uploading, downloading and uploading again - concepts for policy integration in education research. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy (NordSTEP), 1(1), 70-80.

  • 59.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Meritokratin och jämförande kunskapsmätningar2016In: Skola, Lärare, Samhälle - en vänbok till Sverker Lindblad / [ed] Gun-Britt Wärvik, Caroline Runesdotter, Eva Forsberg, Biörn Hasselgren, Fritjof Sahlström, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S.
    University of Madison-Wisconsin, USA.
    Education Governance by Numbers2019In: Handbuch Educational Governance Theorien / [ed] Roman Langer & Thomas Brüsemeister, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2019, 1, p. 691-710Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our interest is on historically how numbers become a preferred mode of telling the truth about schooling, teachers, pupils, and their relation to society. Numbers are here parts of communication systems whose technologies create distances from phenomena by appearing to summarize complex events and transactions. The seemingly technical appearances of the numbers enter into cultural realms that are never merely numbers but codifications and standardization of what are to constitute ‘reality’ and planning which affect several activities taking place within education. The different activities inscribe rules and standards by which experiences are classified, problems located, and procedures given to order what is ‘seen’, thought about, and acted on. We perform this task by especially discussing the role played by international, regional and national assessments in promoting a reasoning based on numbers affecting educational governance.

  • 61.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Internationella jämförelser av skolresultat2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med denna systematiska forskningsöversikt är att beskriva och analysera forskning om internationella jämförelser av skolresultat genom storskaliga studier (International Large Scale Assessments, ILSA). Hur är kunskapsläget och vad kännetecknar forskningsfältet? Vilken relevans har forskningen? Vad betyder systematiska forskningsöversikter för kunskapsutveckling och expertis inom utbildningsområdet? Vår genomgång inriktades på OECDs forskningsprogram PISA (Programme for Individual Study Assessment), och IEAs (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement ) två program TIMSS ( Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) och CIVED/ICCS ( International Civic and Citizenship Education Study) till vilka sammanlagt närmare 9000 publikationer kunde knytas. I olika steg filtrerades publikationerna så att vi slutligen erhöll studier som kunde klassificeras som primärforskning av internationell komparativt slag i ”peer reviewade” vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Dessa studier kodades med fokus på argument och belägg. Det kartlagda forskningsfältet syntetiserades sedan inom avgränsade fområden. Vi identifierade vissa sätt att resonera inom forskningsfältet - som resonemangs-stilar där vissa slutledningar är giltiga men inte andra. Möjligheter och begränsningar att översätta den aktuella forskningen till praktisk verksamhet undersöktes dels med avseende på vad som skrevs i de aktuella publikationerna, dels genom specialundersökning av den gråzon där PISA-resultat översattes till ranking av utbildningsystem och strategier för förbättringar av dessa system. Slutsatser drogs om hur den valda modellen för forskningsgenomgångar fungerade. Vidare diskuterades premisser och konsekvenser av systematiska forskningsgenomgångar och hur de kan utnyttjas.

  • 62.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Popkewitz, Tom
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Vad kan vi lära av internationella jämförelser av skolresultat?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En systematisk genomgång av forskning om internationella skolresultat har utförts och två frågor ställts: Vilka resultat kan forskningen visa på? Vad leder systematiska forskningsgenomgångar inom utbildningsområdet till för kunskap?

    En s.k. Systematic Research Review (SRR) har genomförts i enlighet med de principer som internationellt utvecklats för att uppnå systematik och transparens. Detta kräver tydliga kriterier för att finna relevant forskning och bestämma vilka publikationer som ska ingå eller uteslutas.

    Arbetet med att göra en SRR är tidskrävande för stora internationella forskningsprogram som PISA, TIMSS och PIRLS. Via sökmaskiner identifierade vi drygt 11 000 artiklar. Detta reducerades stegvis, exempelvis för PISA-studier från 4 406 till 849 utifrån bestämda kriterier. Den utvalda gruppen analyserades i sin tur och kvar blev en mindre grupp om 357 texter.

    Preliminära resultat är att vissa studier med stor politisk genomslagskraft hamnar helt utanför det vetenskapliga fältet, en begränsad del bygger faktiskt på internationella jämförelser, samt forskning som söker förklara skolresultat gör det ofta utifrån elevers sociala och kulturella tillhörighet.

  • 63.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet.
    Den svenska skolans resultat: Från standardprov till PISA2010In: PISA: sannheten om skolen? / [ed] Eyvind Elstad og Kirsten Sivesind, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget , 2010, p. 222-239Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 64.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Lundahl, Christian
    In search of the Swedish schools performance2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Lundahl, Christian
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindh, Gunnel
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindh-Munther, A
    Uppsala universitet.
    Temaintroduktion: Bedömningspraktiker i skolans vardag2004In: Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy, ISSN 1652-2729, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 66. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Ett ord och dess betydelse2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, p. 21-23Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 67. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Forskning av och om praktik2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, p. 239-242Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 68. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, LindaUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 69. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Inledning: Social kommunikation i ett sammanhang2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, p. 13-20Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 70. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Magnusson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Uppsala universitet.
    Kommunikativa aktiviteter och miljöer i förskolan2017In: Förskolans kommunikationsmiljö: betraktelser och reflektioner kring Gävle förskolors kommunikativa möjligheter / [ed] Pettersson, D. & Magnusson, L., Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2017, p. 105-107Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Molstad, Christina
    Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    The Making of Educational Facts: A History of International Large-Scale Assessments2016In: NERA 2016, Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of abstracts, 2016, p. 163-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a meritocracy society performance in schools has been increasingly judged on the basis of effective student learning outcomes. This can be studied e.g. in shifts of emphasis between curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation (e.g. Mølstad, 2015). Countries inspired by the importance of comparisons and data developed tools and techniques for evaluation and assessment as part of their efforts to improve student learning outcomes; this because education is characterized as a central requirement for national economic development and political democratization. Since the end of the 19th century production of numbered data starts to be used for bringing new visions of the social and economic world. The new construction of epistemic references for defining “reality” with the help of data is linked to the creation and management of the self-defined “democratic” state. Numerical data also provided more than an “objective way” of seeing reality, it “instituted” reality by creating a “common cognitive space” that could be both observed and described through data (Lussi, Borer, & Lawn, 2013). This “common cognitive space” has been framed by e.g. the narratives of different international knowledge assessments. Consequently, we are able to discuss some prerequisites for the creation and dissemination of International Large-Scale Assessments (ILSA).

    ILSA produce educational facts through international comparative data influencing curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation (cf. Bernstein, 1977). Through statistics, reports and studies the ILSA organizations have activated a “common sense” by stating that scientific “proofs” are indisputable (Martens, 2007). The policy is driven by an expert discourse that, by means of comparative strategies, tends to impose natural or common sense answersin national settings (cf. Pettersson, 2008). While ILSA serves national policymakers well with a comparable discourse in terms of statistics, it also provides them with a global policy lexicon concerning what education is and ought to be (cf. Pettersson, 2014). However, what becomes evident is that ILSA forms how educational concepts are interpreted and understood. Consequently, ILSA creates not only facts for policy, they also creates facts for e.g. science, grey-zone actors (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015), mass-media, school development actors and public opinion.

    Our article illustrates different historical trajectories on international comparisons and the usage of data as important phenomenon for understanding how various ILSA became well knownproducers of educational facts. We also highlight how the phenomenon of comparisons and data usage was manifested, disseminated and established as the very core of educational thinking – interpreted, legitimated and put into practice within meritocracy and creating frames for curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation

  • 72.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Molstad, Christina E.
    Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Pisa teachers : The hope and the happening of educational development [Les enseignants du PISA: L’espoir et la réalisation de l’éducation] [Professores do PISA: A esperança e a realização da educação]2016In: Educação & Sociedade, ISSN 0101-7330, E-ISSN 1678-4626, Vol. 37, no 136, p. 629-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) activities and their effects are diverse, and it can be said that PISA both creates and forms a specific reasoning (HACKING, 1992) about how to argue, talk, and think about education. In this study of PISA activities, ideas about teachers, the activities they perform, and how these are conceptualized within a textual PISA narrative are analyzed. The results show that teachers are highlighted as being important in and crucial for educational transformation and development. Teachers are also interpreted as being essential for closing a measured ”achievement gap” among students in terms of how they perform in PISA tests. Moreover, “good” teachers and “effective” teaching are described as teachers and strategies that facilitate the closure of measured “achievement gaps”. Consequently, the main PISA reports emphasize teachers as developers of education and educational strategies, rather than deliverers of state determined policy. As such, teachers are regarded as indicators of the effectiveness of the education system, and as important factors for raising the performance standards, thereby regarding them as the hope and the process of education. 

  • 73.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Molstad, Christina
    Forsberg, Eva
    A Game of Thrones: Scientific Facts Travelling by a Corpus of PISA-research2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S.
    Department of Curriculum and Instruction, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Department of Education and Special Education, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    In the grey zone: large-scale assessment-based activities betwixt and between policy, research and practice2017In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 29-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates on a systematic research review containing 11,000 articles on international large-scale assessment (ILSA) research. Several activities operating under the ?formal radar? of science and governmental policy are observed, which we analytically name ?grey zone? activities. These activities are historicised, presented and discussed. An analytical division into three different reasons for performing the activities is made: an entrepreneurial policy reason, an entrepreneurial profitable reason and an appurtenance reason. This division highlights some of the actors in the educational grey zone. The paper is theoretical and elaborative, and contains examples of the activities that can be found in a grey zone.

  • 75.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, United States.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    On the use of Educational Numbers: Comparative Constructions of Hierarchies by means of Large-Scale Assessments [Sobre el uso de los números de la Educación : construcciones comparativas de jerarquías a través deevaluaciones a gran escala]2016In: Espacio, Tiempo y Education, ISSN 2340-7263, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 177-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our text is focusing on two central knowledge problematics. First, the relation between educationand a specific technology, framed by ideologies on modernity and meritocracy, understood as a selection to differentand hierarchical positions in society by means of education performances. Second, the development and expansion ofnational, regional and international assessments and the increasing use of them within educational practice, policy andbureaucracy is acknowledged. In doing so we note that an historical tradition within education to compare and use dataevolved into a specific technology for framing education with a centrality of numbers. Educational numbers came as suchto be transformed from representations of education into education per se. This could happen due to societal historicalconnections to reasoning about modernity and meritocracy, which were considered as central in the development of thestate and society. Porter (1995) is making an argument about that the reason that numbers came to be central in thedevelopment of society had to do with that numbers are perceived as «objective» and as such «neutral», but in reality thisis in many respect false, and even contradictory. Instead, numbers should be perceived as a technology of steering andmanaging society and the state, a technology based on connotations of «objectivity», but also as a technology of distanceand neutrality. What we are making an argument about is connected to Porters statements. We state that comparisonsand the use of numbered data for describing education dependent on parallel societal processes, in science, society andstate, came to be transformed into that numbered data on education came to be perceived as education per se. Thisdevelopment can be described in several aspects, but we are primarily describing it through emphasizing some historicalcomparative and data aggregative collaborations within science and governmental organizationsimportance of transnational agencies and international, regional and national assessments.

  • 76.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Pröitz, Tine
    Högskolan i Buskerud och Vestfold.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Curriculum versus Didaktik revisited: towards a transnational curriculum theory2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, article id 27014Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Pröitz, Tine S.Román, HenrikWermke, WielandUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Curriculum versus Didaktik revisited: towards a transnational curriculum theory: A special issue of Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, NordSTEP2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue collects papers presented at the Fifth Nordic Curriculum Theory Conference that took place at Uppsala University, Sweden, on 23 and 24 October 2013. Around 60 researchers from all the Nordic countries gathered to discuss the challenges presented by the emergence of curriculum theory over the past 20 years. This issue is devoted to approaches which theorise curriculum from both novel and revitalised perspectives. In doing so, it aims to elaborate on analytical instruments for the understanding of our object of study in a globalising world. There have been explicit expressions of desire for a transnational curriculum theory which might satisfy a need for devices that contribute to an under- standing of how public education is reshaped, at a time when earlier reference frames, such as the nation state systems which took a Westphalian form, are undergoing transformation within highly interdependent transna- tional spaces. This issue presents, in particular, approaches that on the one hand provide possible analytical as well as empirical means which have the potential to sharpen our arguments and deepen the discussion on curriculum from a transnational perspective. On the contrary, the ap- proaches illustrate the value of curriculum theory to other fields of research, such as comparative and international education.

  • 78.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Prøitz, Tine Sophie
    Department of Educational Sciences, University of Southeast norway, Vestfold, Norway.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Department of Pedagogy, didactics and Educational Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    From role models to nations in need of advice: Norway and Sweden under the OECD’s magnifying glass2017In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 721-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By analysing five separate OECD reviews of evaluation and assessment practices with Norway and Sweden as cases, our study illustrates different ways in which a specific international educational reasoning is blended into more context-based national education policies and, as such, works in parallel with internal reforms and agendas. It is evident that an overarching narrative promotes the importance of coherent and integrated systems of evaluation and assessment in order to strengthen social and political endeavours for equity, quality and achievements. The parallel mix of OECD discourses and national discourses creates a combined narrative in which evaluations and assessments appear natural, self-evident and rational as well as highly adaptable to national settings. The study shows that national vertical and/or horizontal developments are intertwined with the OECD policy recommendations, which are quite general in character. In a continuing process of uploading and downloading, within different contexts, policies are elaborated and recontextualised. Evaluations and assessments are part of a contemporary rational paradigm for mapping and promoting performance in national educational systems – what we identify as a comparative curriculum code.

  • 79.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Various internationalities?: Constructions of the “international” in curriculum work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to investigate the construction of the “international” in curriculum work in social science education in Sweden, England and Germany. The “international” will be handled as an understanding of a virtual global space that is constructed by local actors embedded in particular contexts. By perceiving the “international” not as an arena where certain phenomena are defined and disseminated into local contexts, but as constructed in the very local as various internationalities, we challenge impact-models that seek a path from the global down to the local. We approach our aim by focusing curriculum work in a field of education that by the character of its subjects has a deep interest in relating to the “international”. By asking the subject matter and didactic question of how global literacy is to be developed in social studies in secondary education, we investigate, through discourse analysis, the construction of a world-level that obviously makes such competencies necessary from the perspective of curriculum makers. We argue that such constructions differ regarding both levels of curriculum work and national contexts. A comparison of three countries, presenting three different traditions of curriculum work, will become an analytical device to understand the impact of the contexts both internationally and nationally. Our empirical study will comprise in all cases analyses of governmental documents concerning social science education, curriculum, syllabi and/or national standards and complementary materials. Furthermore, we will self-reflecting publicistic work of teachers in each of the subjects (teacher journals) and conduct focus group interviews with teachers. The data will cover all relevant levels of curriculum work.

  • 80.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wester, Anita
    Skolverket.
    Skolan i världen: internationella kunskapsmätningar2010In: Lärande, skola, bildning / [ed] Ulf P. Lundgren, Roger Säljö och Caroline Liberg, Stockholm: Natur & Kultur , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    Wester, Anita
    Skolverket.
    Skolan i världen: internationella kunskapsmätningar2014In: Lärande, skola, bildning / [ed] Ulf P Lundgren, Roger Säljö & Caroline Liberg, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2014, 3, p. 491-518Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Skott, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet.
    Differentieringsfrågan under 70 år av skol(forms)reformer2015In: Utbildning, makt och politik / [ed] Sverker Lindblad & Lisbeth Lundahl, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015, 1, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Education.
    The world we live in: Construction of ‘the international’ in citizenship education in Sweden, England and Germany2013In: International Knowledge Assessments: changing perspectives over time, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation wants to discuss the conceptual framework of a comparative study investigating construction of ‘the international’ in social studies/citizenship textbooks in the three national contexts of Sweden, England and Germany, which are characterised by different perspectives on how state and individuals interact. This involves looking at how the state regulates the welfare security of its citizens by deciding how e.g. democracy, equity and equality should be reproduced and secured in society. In this study we make use of Esping-Andersen’s (1990) Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, in which he presents three prototypes: a universal type, a corporatist-statist type such as that found in Germany, and a liberal type, commonly found in England. Our empirical approach draws on analyses of global literacy/global citizenship as product of global learning as it has been manifested in curriculum and textbooks for secondary students today. This kind of literacy apparently needs to be learned in order to cope with the demands and challenges of a globalising world. Here we assume significant context-related variances in the description of the ‘world we live in’ and the competences we apparently need to be able to cope with. It is thereby illuminated how the ‘international’ is constructed as a product of local circumstances.

  • 84.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Approaching the space issue in Nordic curriculum theory: National reflections of globalization in social studies/citizenship textbook pictures in Sweden, England and Germany2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 27011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on globalisation in Nordic curriculum theory by investigating the issue of space. It puts forward an increased interest in the practical levels of schooling and argues globalisation should be investigated not only as a policy phenomenon, but also as instructional matter in different contexts. It presents two perspectives of space, a container and a relational perspective. A distinction between the two perspectives contributes to an understanding of how the world is constructed at different levels of curriculum. The article tests its argument with an explorative social studies and citizenship textbook study in the national contexts of Sweden, England and Germany. It can be shown that all cases differ in their portrayals of globalisation and in the constructions of space related issues.

  • 85.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala University.
    International comparisons in Swedish mass media2017In: Online Programme and Conference App, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in large scale comparative studies of students’ assessment has increased considerably during the last decades and the results have been widely spread in Swedish media. Among the different international surveys of students’ assessment PISA is standing out in publicity, meaning that the results have received an extraordinary significance as an assessment of the education system and education policy. In earlier studies of Swedish media reporting on PISA (Pettersson, 2008; Runesdotter et al., 2015), we could observe a precipitous increase dedicated to the Swedish students’ performance. Particularly the deteriorating results in relation to other countries were focused and have contributed to a publicly embraced debate of the critical state of education in Sweden and demands for political measures in order to improve the education. A point of departure for this paper is that media creates certain conditions for how educational results are classified, regulated and communicated in society (Luhmann, 1996), and has thus become a powerful actor in the making of a comparativistic paradigm (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015) in education. We consider media as a conglomerate of actors participating in the intersection of science, educational policy, and society, the agora (Nowotny et al., 2003) where the results are communicated and measures proposed. The aim is to analyze how valid statements are produced on the basis of PISA-results: Which kind of actors are present, what kind of comparisons are made and which conclusions are drawn, what is selected by media to be in focus for the reporting. The analysis has a particular focus on the making of diversity and context, and the surveys from 2009, 2012 and 2015.

    References

    Lindblad, S., Pettersson, D. & Popkewitz, T.S. (2015): International Comparisons of School Results: A Systematic Review of Research on Large Scale Assessments in Education. Stockholm Vetenskapsrådet. Luhmann, N. (1996) Social Systems. Stanford University Press: Stanford. Nowotny, H., Scott, P. & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction:Mode 2'revisited: The new production of knowledge. Minerva, 41(3), 179-194. Pettersson, D (2008) Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Studies in Education No 120. Uppsala universitet: Uppsala. Runesdotter, C. Wärvik, G-B., Andersson, E. & Harling, M. (2015). Media attention and representations of national and international ranking lists in Sweden.ECER, 8-11 Sept 2015 in Budapest.

  • 86.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Runesdotter, Caroline
    Gothenburg University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    PISA, Communicative Acts and the Media: The Discourse of "Failure" and "Success"2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in large-scale comparative studies of students’ assessment has increased considerably during the last decades and the results have been widely spread in media. Among the different international surveys of students’ assessment -PISA is standing out in publicity, meaning that the results have received an extraordinary significance as an assessment of the education system and education policy. The OECD seem to be well-aware of the importance of dissemination and one activity taking place in relation to the presentation of results are press-releases and “newsletters” presenting theresults for media, as well as for policymakers and others in a focused and simplified way. In the paper, we pay special attention to these activities which we consider to be communicative acts (cf. Luhmann, 1996). A point of departure for the paper is that media, through the communicative acts by OECDs strategy for dissemination, creates certain conditions for how educational results are classified, regulated and communicated in society (Luhmann, 1996), and has thus become a powerful actor in the making ofa comparativistic paradigm (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015) in education. We consider media as a conglomerate of actors participating in the intersection of science, educational policy, and society, the Agora (Nowotny et al., 2003) where the results are communicated and measures proposed. The aim is to analyze how valid statements are produced on the basis of PISA-results: Which kind of actors are present, what kind of comparisons are made and which conclusions are drawn, what is selected by the OECD and the media to be in focus for the reporting. The analysis has a particular focus on the making of diversity and context in terms of “failure” and “success”.

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