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  • 51.
    Nakata, Minori
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    From, Carin
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Solving tangled cases of work-related musculoskeletal disorders by international scientific cooperation.2005In: NEW SOLUTIONS: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy, ISSN 1048-2911, E-ISSN 1541-3772, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 343-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) have become a serious worldwide problem. At the same time a number of workers experience a problem in getting their WRMSDs acknowledged. As an attempt to solve these problems, Japanese school lunch cooks' working conditions were discussed at international scientific meetings and a detailed inspection was done at a Japanese school kitchen by Swedish researchers. It revealed that both national and international researchers' opinions coincided. Statements of medical views were written for several tangled cases in Japan and Sweden referring to both the national and international literature. As a result, these tangled cases were acknowledged officially as WRMSDs. New arbitrators and mediators of WRMSDs are required who can understand and communicate between the world of medical and labor sciences and also between the world of science and daily work life.

  • 52.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A comparison of managers’ and safety delegates’ perceptions of work environment priorities in the manufacturing industry2012In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 235-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the attention and priority accorded to factors of work environment within manufacturing companies, as perceived by managers and safety delegates at small- and medium-sized enterprises. Representatives from 142 Swedish manufacturing companies answered a 43-item questionnaire covering seven areas of the work environment and a priority-ranking question of company interests. Respondents (n = 249) rated the present situation and the situation one year earlier, using a visual analogue scale. The findings showed that both managers and safety delegates ranked profitability as the main company interest. Respondents rated the priorities of the work environment currently as higher than one year earlier (p = <0.05). Managers rated the priorities of the work environment higher than did the safety delegates (p = <0.05). We conclude that the two professional roles, managers and safety delegates, differ in their perceptions as of to which extent different work environment factors are being attended to.

  • 53.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    A proposed web-based model for teaching risk assessment methods2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades much research has focused on the association between work-related exposures and musculoskeletal disorders, and a number of risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed (Neumann 2007, Takala, Pehkonen et al. 2010).

    However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services (OHS). The ergonomists often assess risks in the work environment by sole observation, based on his/her own knowledge and experience, without the use of any specific method (K. Eliasson et al., manuscript). Further, a survey investigating the use of evidence based practice within the OHS concluded that there is a need for education and training in reliable and valid methods (Alipour, Nyman et al. 2012).

    Although there already exist both shorter courses and master programs in ergonomics at university level, there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on risk assessment methods.

    Web-based education and training often allows self-directed, self-paced instruction and can be considered a good alternative to traditional learning methods for ergonomists wanting to increase their professional competence. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the pros and cons of using e-learning within this field.

    The present study is part of the OBS-project, an on-going project with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures. The six methods are: Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART) (Ferreira, Gray et al. 2009), Hand Arm Risk Assessment Method (HARM) (Douwes and de Kraker 2012), Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA) (The Swedish Work Environment Authority 2011), Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist (Occhipinti and Colombini 2006), Quick Exposure Check (QEC) (David, Woods et al. 2008), and Strain Index (SI) (Moore and Garg 1995).

    The specific objective of this sub-study was to evaluate a web-based pedagogical model targeting OHS professionals aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of observational risk assessment methods.

  • 54.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rehn, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council .
    A Web-Based Model for Teaching Risk Assessment Methods2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    During the last decades many risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services. Although there are both shorter courses and full Master programs on ergonomics on advanced level within the regular educational system (university level), there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on different risk assessment methods.

    2.  Methods

    As a part of a larger ongoing project investigating the validity, reliability and usability of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work, a web-based pedagogical model aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of risk assessment methods has been developed.

    The web-based model consists of recorded lectures and self-supported training using a video library of different work tasks. The model uses a web-based platform originally developed for student-teacher communication in a university setting. The platform supports group discussions and possibilities for interaction with teachers.

    As a part of the project, the model are now being tested, by letting 12 ergonomists from the occupational health services with more than 5 years of experience of ergonomic risk assessments learn six different observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work. The six methods are:

    1. Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist
    2. Quick exposure checklist Quick Exposure Check (QEC)
    3. Strain Index (SI)
    4. Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART)
    5. Hand Arm Risk-assessment Method (HARM)
    6. Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority

    After learning the six different methods, the ergonomists are given an evaluation questionnaire, specific for each method. The questionnaires are then used for designing group interviews concerning both the usability of the methods, as well as the web-based pedagogical model.

    3.  Results

    Preliminary questionnaire analyses and interviews indicate that the ergonomists are mainly positive to the present web-based pedagogical model. Group interviews are carried out during spring 2014, and further results will be presented at the conference.

  • 55.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Sensia Företagshälsovård & Enheten för ergonomi, KTH Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hägg, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Belastningsergonomisk riskbedömning: Vägledning och metoder2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 56.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Järvholm, Bengt (Contributor)
    Umeå universitet.
    Hogstedt, Christer (Contributor)
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindberg, Per (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas (Contributor)
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Helgesson, Magnus (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Bo (Contributor)
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Psykisk ohälsa, arbetsliv och sjukfrånvaro: en kunskapsöversikt2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapsöversikten visar att det finns ett vetenskapligt samband mellan arbete, psykisk ohälsa och sjukskrivning. Riskfaktorer i arbetslivet är psykiskt ansträngande arbete, höga krav, låg kontroll, obalans mellan ansträngning och belöning, samt rollkonflikter. God kontroll och rättvisa ger minskad risk för sjukskrivning på grund av psykisk ohälsa.

    Det vetenskapliga underlaget för vilken åtgärd som är mest effektiv vid återgång i arbete efter en sjukskrivning på grund av psykisk ohälsa är svagt. Kunskaps- översikten visar dock tydligt att arbetsplatsen måste vara involverad för att medarbetaren ska komma tillbaka i arbete på ett bra sätt. Det finns flera vetenskapligt dokumenterade friskfaktorer i arbetet som kan minska risken för psykisk ohälsa och som bör användas i det förebyggande arbetet.

    Kunskapsöversikten visar också att effekten på den psykiska hälsan är likartad när kvinnor och män utsätts för samma faktorer i arbetet.

  • 57.
    Vingård, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Blomkvist, Vanja
    Uppsala universitet.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindberg, Per
    Voss, Margareta
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Josephson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet.
    A physical fitness programme during paid working hours: impact on health, work ability and work among women working in the social service sector: A three year follow up study2009In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 58. Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Divergences in descriptions of the internal work environment management, between employees and the management, a case study2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the case study was to critically compare the descriptions of employees and managers of how the work environment is prioritised in a medium-sized Swedish retailer belonging to an international group. The study is based upon a questionnaire study of employees (n=55), and on interviews with people in leading positions with partial responsibility for the work environment at the company (n=6) as well as with the local safety delegate (n=1). The results show that the driving forces behind the work environment are, according to respondents, finances, legislation, trademarks and the attitudes of the upper management. The on-going work environment management is described differently in terms of its form and content by employees and persons in leading positions.

  • 59.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Intra-rater reliability of the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM)2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Apart from visual demands and dryness a number of environmental factors including design of the work station, lighting, glare, and the quality of the computer screen might exert an impact on eye-related symptoms. To date, there is a lack of valid and reliable instruments assessing factors associated with eye- or visual symptoms. Therefore, a new method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces was developed in Sweden between 2014 and 2016, the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method - VERAM. A first version of the method was drafted by the researchers mainly from existing checklists and instruments, and tested in the field by trained visual ergonomists. The method was then revised and used in the field to collect data for validity and reliability analyses. The final version of VERAM includes both a questionnaire for the employee, and an expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace. The questionnaire consists of subjective ratings in six domains: eye discomfort (frequency and intensity), musculoskeletal discomfort (frequency and intensity), ratings of visual symptoms (e.g. blurred and double vision) and ratings of the visual environment (e.g. illumination levels, glare and reflexes from a work object or a computer screen). The expert evaluation consists of both objective measurements and subjective assessments resulting in an overall expert risk assessment (no risk, low risk or high risk) of eight factors: daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work posture.

    Aim: At the IEA conference 2018 the new VERAM method will be presented together with results from intra-rater reliability analyses.

    Results: Intra-rater reliability was evaluated with a re-test interval of minimum two and maximum three weeks. 99 employees were included in the analyses and 32 visual ergonomists performed the corresponding expert evaluations. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were between 0.70 and 0.87 for the six subjective domains, and there were no significant systematic differences between the first and second rating for any of the subjective domains (rmANOVA, p > 0.05, α = 0.008). For the eight environmental factors the expert estimated the risk equally during the first and the second assessment in 69-92% of the cases, and, as seen for the subjective domains, there were no significant systematic differences for any of the eight factors (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p > 0.014, α = 0.006). To control for multiple comparisons the Bonferroni method was used.

    Conclusion: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method – VERAM showed good intra-rater reliability, both for the subjective questionnaire for the employee, and for the expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace when performed by a trained visual ergonomist.

  • 60.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Reliability of a new risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation.

    Objective

    To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation.

    Methods

    Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed with weighted kappa coefficients and absolute agreement. Systematic changes were analysed with repeated measures analyses of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank test.

    Results

    The ICC of the questionnaire indices ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, while SEM ranged from 7.21 to 10.19 on a scale from 1 to 100, and SDC from 14.42 to 20.37. Intra-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 69 to 91%. Inter-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 52 to 87%.

    Conclusion

    VERAM is a reliable instrument for assessing risks in visual work environments. However, the reliability might increase further by improving the quality of training for evaluators. Complementary evaluations of VERAM's sensitivity to changes in the visual environment are needed.

    Relevance to industry

    It is advantageous to set up a work environment for maximal visual comfort to avoid negative effects on work postures and movements and thus prevent visual- and musculoskeletal symptoms. This method, VERAM, satisfies the need of a valid and reliable tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment.

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