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  • 51.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Department of Stress Research, Karolinska Institute.
    Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers1995In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  • 52.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Svensk mjölkforskning.
    Lowden, Arne
    Karolinska institutet.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Pernler, Helena
    Karolinska institutet.
    Nordlund, Gerhard
    Umeå universitet.
    Norberg, Hans
    Umeå universitet.
    Mat- och sömnskola: för skolan2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Svensk mjölk.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Friskis & svettis.
    Kosten, kroppen, klockan: att äta, sova och arbeta på udda tider2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1993In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective, nutritionally orientated classification system is necessary to evaluate the frequency, nutritional quality and temporal distribution of eating events in dietary surveys. In this paper a system to classify eating events qualitatively with regard to the types of food items consumed is described and demonstrated. It comprises eight food categories and criteria for their combination into four types of meals and three types of snacks of various nutrient composition. The food categories represent food items of animal and plant origin, and also food products containing sucrose and beverages containing alcohol or lacking energy and nutrients. Classification requires individual data collected by established food-record or recall methods. Data on consumed amounts is not required to classify qualitatively the eating events per se, but is required for quantitative calculations of their content, composition and relative contribution to total intakes. The application of the system to dietary data (80 repeated 24-h recalls, 517 eating events) of 16 male three-shift workers showed that classification of eating events was easy and largely unequivocal compared to traditional methods. Subsequent calculations showed expected differences between eating types with regard to content and relative quality. The meal-classification system might be used as a cost-effective method to evaluate the nutritional profile of meal patterns in surveys.

  • 55.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1997In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 1360-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Nocturnal eating and serum cholesterol of three-shift workers1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES - The goal of this study was to examine the effect of rotating three-shift work on the circadian distribution of dietary intake and to investigate the relationships between displaced eating and nutritional status variables [blood lipids, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI)]. METHODS - Dietary data were collected by 147 replicate 24-h dietary recalls from 22 male industrial workers in rotating three-shift work. The intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated by the use of a nutrient data base. The BMI was calculated, and blood glucose, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured once. RESULTS - The dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrates, sucrose, and dietary fibre did not differ between 24-h periods but did differ between work shifts and were lowest during the night. Correlation analyses between dietary intakes and nutritional status parameters showed that those who redistributed their eating most to the night shift had higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL and a higher LDL:HDL ratio; 63% of the LDL cholesterol level was explained by carbohydrate intake during night shifts. In contrast, the total intake for whole 24-h periods or across entire shift cycles was not related to serum variables or BMI. CONCLUSIONS - Dietary intake is lower during night shifts (34-37% of 24-h intake of various nutrients) than during morning shifts (43-47%) and afternoon shifts (47-59%). The redistribution of food intake to the night may be associated with metabolic disturbances in lipid metabolism.

  • 57.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hälsovetenskaper, Medicinska fakulteten Lunds Universitet .
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Region Västernorrland FoU.
    Risberg, Anitha
    Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hann du äta?: En enkät och intervjustudie av arbetsmåltidens förutsättningar och betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande vid skift- och schemalagt arbete med nattarbete2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 129-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Ohälsosamma matvanor och stress bidrar till sjukskrivningar och nedsatt arbetsförmåga genom övervikt, hjärtkärlsjukdom, diabetes typ 2 och psykisk ohälsa. Slimmade organisationer och flexibla arbetstider begränsar möjligheten att äta hälsosamt i samband med arbete. Särskilt utsatt är personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete. Att inte kunna på-verka när man äter under arbetspasset kan öka stress och irritation, med risk för sänkt prestations- och koncentrationsförmåga. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter om organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) syftar till att främja en god arbetsmiljö och förebygga ohälsa på grund av organisatoriska och sociala förhållanden i arbetsmiljön. Det finns ingen lagstiftning angående matrastens längd eller utformningen av matrum. Arbetsgivaren har rätt att byta ut raster mot måltidsuppehåll, det senare innebär måltid om arbetssituationen medger det. Personal med ständig larmberedskap kan arbeta en hel natt utan möjlighet att äta. Detta är tveksamt med hänsyn till hälsa, säkerhet och arbetsförmåga.

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är 1) att få en bättre förståelse av de faktorer som påverkar möjligheten och formerna för att äta i samband med natt- och skiftarbete och de val anställda gör utifrån de förutsättningar som finns 2) att öka förståelsen av hur arbetsmåltiden påverkas av organisatoriska och psykosociala förhållanden, och måltidens betydelse för återhämtning, välbefinnande och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar

    Hur gestaltas arbetsmåltider för personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete? Vilka strat-egier och handlingsutrymmen har personalen för att planera sina arbetsmåltider? Vi kommer särskilt att uppmärksamma vad personalen äter, under vilka omständigheter de äter samt vilken betydelse måltiden har för välbefinnande och gemenskap.

    Urval och metod

    Enkät riktas till anställda med dag-, skift- och schemalagt arbete inom industri och hemtjänst. Intervjuer genomförs med chefer inom dessa verksamheter.

    Resultat

    Studien startar våren 2018 med inledande intervjuer och test av enkät till målgrupper efter arbetsplatsbesök. Under konferensen kommer vi att kortfattat sammanfatta den forskning som finns inom ramen för våra frågeställningar samt att redovisa resultat från några intervjuer med chefer.

    Genom vårt deltagande vill vi bidra till att sätta arbetsmåltiden på agendan inom arbetsmiljöforskning och diskutera med andra forskare hur de ser på arbetsmåltiden ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv.

  • 58.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Johansson, Michael
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Wetterstrand, Martin
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Avdelningen för Design och datavetenskap.
    Meals and shift work: food choice, time of day and meal environment - three important dimensions for rest and health2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Lowden, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Forslund, A.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Forslund, J.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Carbohydrate vs. high fat meal - effects on performance and sleepiness during a 24h wake period2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University .
    Time of day and type of food­relation to mood and hunger during 24 h of constant conditions2001In: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 30, no 1-2, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A six-day high-carbohydrate meal (HC; 65 E% (energy percent) carbohydrates, 20 E% fat and 15 E% protein) and asix-day high-fat meal (HF; 40 E% carbohydrates, 45 E% fat and 15 E% protein) were given to seven healthy subjects in a crossover design. On the last day. subjects were kept awake for 24 hours in a metabolic laboratory while substrate utilisation and energy expenditure were measured by indirect calorimetry. The subjects were given isocaloric meals every four hours. Results showed that hunger decreased at night (F=4.2, p<0.05) and linearly increased after meal intake. Macronutrient composition (fat/carbohydrates) seemed to be of less importance for hunger. Hunger and thirst were found to be strongly associated with gastrointestinal substances, for hunger the strongest being a negative correlation with triacylglycerol (partial correlation=-0.39). It is suggested that it might not be necessary for shift workers to eat full portions at night but that satiation will occur with less food. Possibly lack of adjustment of nocturnal food intake might be one reason why overweight is common in shift work populations.

  • 61.
    Lowden, Arne
    et al.
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    IPM—National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forslund, Jeanette
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forslund, Anders
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Performance and sleepiness during a 24 h wake in constant conditions are affected by diet2004In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of high-carbohydrate (HC) and high-fat (HF) diet on cognitive performance, and subjective and objective sleepiness. Seven male participants were kept awake for 24 h in a metabolic ward. Meals were given every 4 h and cognitive performance and sleepiness ratings were assessed hourly. The Karolinska Drowsiness Test (KDT, EEG derived) was performed twice after meal. Performance in simple reaction time showed a significant interaction of diet and the post-prandial period, a slower reaction time was observed for the HC-diet 3.5 h after meal intake. Diet did not affect EEG measures but a general post-prandial increase of objective sleepiness was observed 3.5 h after meal servings. The HC-diet was significantly associated with an increase of subjective sleepiness. The study demonstrated that the HC-diet caused larger oscillation in performance and increased sleepiness as compared to HF-diet throughout day and night.

  • 62.
    Löwden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Moreno, Claudia Roberta
    School of Public Health, University of São Paulo.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Kristianstad University College.
    Tucker, Philip T.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University.
    Eating and shift work: Effects on habits, metabolism, and performance2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 150-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to individuals who work during the day, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases (eg, obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels, and metabolic syndrome). At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating, however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. In this overview, we examine studies on food and nutrition among shift workers [ie, dietary assessment (designs, methods, variables) and the factors that might influence eating habits and metabolic parameters]. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. We conclude with some dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers.

  • 63.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Byström, Marianne
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Missing a Meal: Effects on Alertness during Sedentary Work2004In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute effects of missing a meal on alertness. The participants were ten university students between 20–29 years old, five females and five males. Participants were chosen on the basis of their good sleep and eating practices. Measurements were collected during an eight hour period starting at 8.00 AM on four separate days. During the test period, participants carried out their normal study activities while on separate days receiving either just breakfast, just lunch, both lunch and breakfast, or no meal at all. During the test period, EEG was monitored continuously while subjective ratings of performance and tiredness were collected every half-hour. The results showed that while there were neither physiological nor subjective indications of tiredness which could be attributed to meal consumption, subjective feelings of lack of energy and motivation was significantly more pronounced at the end of the workday when missing a meal or two.

  • 64.
    Nordlund, Gerhard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Norberg, Helena
    Karolinska institutet.
    Måltider och dryck, särskilt mjölk, hos högstadieelever: med uppdelning på kön, morgon- och kvällsmänniskor2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Nordlund, Gerhard
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Norberg, Hans
    Umeå universitet.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Gillberg, Mats
    Karolinska institutet.
    Pernler, Helena
    Karolinska institutet.
    Dygnsrytm och skolarbete2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förord

    I media och från skolor kommer ständigt rapporter om trötta och stökiga elever som har svårt att hänga med i skolan. Många undersökningar har genom åren genomförts för att utröna vad som är orsaken till att vissa elever klarar sig sämre genom skoltiden än andra. Inga tydliga svar har presenterats. I denna unika, tvärvetenskapliga undersökning utgår vi från kunskap om hur människans biologiska rytm, som inverkar på sömn, aptit och prestationsförmåga, förändras under puberteten. Vi möter eleven från tre olika vetenskapliga discipliner: pedagogik, nutrition och folkhälso-vetenskap med inriktning mot sömn-och stressforskning. Våra antaganden om att den biologiska dygnsrytmen inverkar på beteende och skolprestation besannades över förväntan. En majoritet av eleverna blir morgontrötta "kvällsmänniskor" under puberteten, en period som innebär en stor hormonell omställning och tillväxtspurt. Inte oväntat bygger "kvällsmänniskorna" upp en sömnskuld under skolveckan och de går oftare till skolan utan frukost med en tilltagande trötthet under resten av dagen till följd. Denna undersökning visar tydligt att kroppens biologiska dygnsrytm inverkar på välbefinnande och prestationsförmåga. Forskarna som genomfört denna unika studie hoppas att resultaten blir en väckarklocka för skola och elever. En hungrig och trött elev är en rastlös och stökig elev. Skolan och hemmen kan tillsammans genomföra åtgärder som, utan att de kostar något i ekonomiska termer, ökar förutsättningar för inlärning i skolan. Vi tackar Svensk Mjölk för bidrag till genomförandet av studien. Vi vill även rikta ett varmt tack till alla elever som deltagit i studien samt även till skolpersonal och andra som bidragit till att göra undersökningen möjlig.

  • 66.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Personalrestaurangen som måltidsarena: uppfattningar om och attityder till maten och måltiden på arbetsplatsen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary in EnglishLennernäs M, Nyberg M Jahncke H, Ljung R. Staff Restaurant as a meal arena – perceptions of and attitudes towards food and meal at work. Kristianstad University and Gävle University in cooperation with the National Centre for Meals, Sweden, 2012.BackgroundWorking life and family life has changed in many ways during the last 50 years. Rules of the Organization of working hours are examples of such changes. Also more meals are eaten outside the home. Food choice and timing of meals affect health and well-being, and probably also work performance. Other factors than individual preferences are known to influence food choice and meal context at work. It might be structural factors such as working hours, meal breaks, the supply of food and also opportunities for self storage and cooking of food. Also the physical environment that surrounds the meal in the staff restaurant and staff place might affect the catering experience, social relations and the possibility of recovery during meal breaks.Aim and designA cross-sectional study was carried out to examine meal experiences at three different work places including attitudes to, and satisfaction with, staff restaurant and dining room (staff room). Other questions concerned the degree of own control over working meals. The overall objective of the study was to gain knowledge-base for the training of catering staff and unions and employers that influence over the breaks (timing and duration), place, space and atmosphere in connection with meals at work. This report also provides a brief literature review of safety legislation (physical meal environment and breaks) and also public health aspects in relation to meals at work.Work places and subjectsThree companies participated, a manufacturing base, a regiment (armed forces), as well as a regional hospital. The intention was to study the meal at work in different social environments and different activities. A total of 724 completed questionnaires were collected, the response rate was 78 %.MethodsQuestionnaires were distributed to persons who were in place at the time of the questionnaire's award, or distributed by contact persons internally. Physical measurements of noise and light conditions were done in staff restaurants when they were empty and also when they had most meals guests during the day. The questionnaire's 20 question areas included multiple choice questions, scales with seven increments as well as open questions. Survey questions concerning the physical meal place also stress and experiences in relation to the meals at work originates from established questionnaires in environmental psychology. Catering questions were designed inspired by FAMM (Five Aspect Meal Model), the Association Key hole criteria document for caterers (service types/categories and basic concepts), the National Food Administration's administrative report "good food at work", as well as Tellström & Jönsson definition of gastronomy. General questions about working times, meal times, lifestyle and health were added. A question about Diurnal Type was included. Attitudes and experiences were assessed by using9scaled questions from 1 to 7 with the endpoints “Are not at all satisfied to Very satisfied”; “Not at all” to “A very high degree”, “No control at all to Completely self-monitoring”. Low value is interpreted as a negative attitude, high value as a positive attitude.AnalysisData from the survey and the results from light and noise measurements in the staff room was imported to the statistical programme SPSS for in-depth analyses of statistically significant differences for any selected questions. Data is organized and interpreted according to the thematic analysis which includes seven aspects:Time (working hours, meal breaks, pauses); Room (where to eat – staff restaurant or staff room, physical environment, including the measurement of light and noise, planning in relation to the room); Product – food (including self-monitoring, values and planning in relation to the product). Meeting (colleagues, catering and service personnel). Logistics and planning. Atmosphere (subjective catering experience) and finally, Food, lifestyle and health.ResultsEmployees in industry and Defense (Regiment) worked during the day and a full-time basis, at the hospital had 69% work daytime, 6% had scheduled work night, 25% of circadian cycles, night hours. The majority (95%) had meal breaks with an opportunity to leave the work place (the rest had a meal pause). 13% spent less than 20 minutes at a working meal. 20-30 minutes was most common in the Industry, more than 45 minutes was the most common to the armed forces and 31-45 minutes at the hospital. One third of all had low control over the duration of their meal break. The shortest food breaks and minimum control was reported by industry.SummaryThe natural meal environment has a major impact on the choice of place to eat and catering experience. In the survey, staff experienced better recovery in staff rooms. Staff felt more happy, bright and has "loaded battery" better after a meal in the staff room compared to Staff Restaurant. Flavors and variety in the menu is more important than e.g. local or eco-labelled food. The taste is the most important factor for satisfaction in the staff restaurant. There was a large discrepancy between how important taste was estimated to be, and how tasty the food was perceived in staff restaurants. Participants have low self-control over the possibility to eat in desirable society or in isolation or when they are hungry. Environmental factors and culinary sensations, with the greatest impact on satisfaction with the meal, need to be improved, as well as service and friendliness from the catering staff. The cooperation between meal researchers and environmental psychologists resulted in a broader analysis of how the catering environment affects meal experiences and satisfaction with working meals.Conclusions and future recommendationsPeople need food and rest to hurricane work. Energy from foods and meals, as well access to psychological detachment from work probably counteracts stress disorders and also promotes health and cognitive performance. The most striking outcome of the study was the lack of recovery during meal pauses, and especially in the staff restaurant ambience. The study also shows that employees have a relatively low control over the opportunity to eat in privacy or in10desirable companion, and even low control over the length of the meal and the opportunity to eat when hungry. Other concerns were the queues and poor logistics in the staff restaurant, but also in the staff room at the hospital.Food in the workplace is an important issue for the company because as the lack of recovery might lead to poor work performance and contribute to long term stress disorders. Furthermore, inappropriate eating habits leading over time to ill health and reduced work performance.Keywords: Workplace, meals, staff restaurant, atmosphere, recovery, detachment, stress, noise, dining room, food service, restitution

  • 67.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sollerhed, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Förskolebarns hälsa och välbefinnande: dialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn, Kristianstad Kommun2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    I slutet av 2009 beslöt Barn- och Utbildningsförvaltningen i Kristianstad Kommun att tillsammans med Högskolan Kristianstad genomföra ett antal så kallade dialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn i kommunen. Grunden till samarbetet byggde på kommunens intresse av att ta reda på vilka frågor föräldrar har kring barns hälsa och välbefinnande, samt att forskare från Högskolan Kristianstads besatt specifika kunskaper inom området. Initiativet grundade sig också i Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer kring maten och måltiden i förskolan, vilka bland annat innebär att förskolorna rekommenderas att byta ut standardmjölk mot lättmjölk samt att använda lättmargarin med låg halt av mättat fett. Kommunens beslut att följa rekommendationerna har bidragit till upprördhet, irritation och oförståelse bland många föräldrar, vilken också avspeglats i media. Föräldrarnas reaktioner tillsammans med problem med övervikt och fetma hos barn i dagens samhälle, även i tidig ålder, var två viktiga anledningar till att beslutet togs att genomföra studien.

    Föräldradialogerna byggde på att föräldrarna samtalade och diskuterade utifrån frågor och problem som de själva formulerat och därmed fick de möjlighet att ge uttryck för egna funderingar och tankar. Målsättningen var att föräldrarna skulle få framföra sina frågor, synpunkter och önskemål kring små barns hälsa och välbefinnande både i förskolan och hemma, men också att intresserade föräldrar skulle få information och kunskap inom området.

    Dialogerna fokuserade på 3 huvudområden: Maten och måltiden, sömnen och dygnsrytmen, den fysiska aktiviteten. Dessa områden präglar vardagslivet och kräver rutiner och vanor för att fungera. De utgör en betydande del av förskolan men också hemmet, och i mötet mellan dessa två arenor blir rutiner, vanor och beteenden särskilt tydliga.

    Syftet med samarbetet var således att genomföra ett antal föräldradialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn i Kristianstad kommun samt att forskare från Högskolan Kristianstad i samband med dessa också skulle hålla föredrag samt besvara föräldrarnas frågor kring de ovan nämnda temana. Det var viktigt att barnens hela livssituation skulle inbegripas, såväl på som utanför förskolan.

    Bakgrund

    Mat, måltider, sömn, återhämtning samt fysisk aktivitet är alla viktiga delar av våra <em>levnadsvanor</em>. Gynnsamma levnadsvanor stärker våra livsresurser och hjälper kroppen och hjärnan att komma till sin rätt. Under tillväxtåren har kroppen ökade behov och en ökad sårbarhet. För att fungera optimalt gynnas kroppen av förutsägbara och regelbundna måltider under dagtid. Likaså har sömnen, dess kvalitet, tidpunkt och längd stor betydelse för aptit, immunsystem och hälsa. Kroppen mår bra av en stabil dygnsrytm där vi växlar mellan aktivitet och vila, ätande och fasta, vakenhet och sömn. Daglig fysisk aktivitet och utevistelse i dagsljus har en stärkande effekt på kropp och hjärna.

    Redan som barn socialiseras vi in i vissa vanor och beteende när det gäller maten, sömnen eller den fysiska aktiviteten. Det är viktigt att barnet tidigt etablerar hälsosamma matvanor och får möjlighet till ett balanserat ätande. Såväl undernäring (för lite energi och/eller näring) som övernäring (för mycket energi, övervikt och fetma) och felnäring (fetma i kombination med brist på livsnödvändiga näringsämnen) förekommer hos barn, och här har både förskola, skola och föräldrar ett ansvar. Utöver maten och måltiden är sömnen nödvändig för psykisk och fysisk överlevnad och välmåga. När vi sover får kroppen möjlighet att växa, reparera organ och vävnader och att underhålla immunsystemet. Barn behöver mycket sömn, från 1416 timmar som spädbarn till cirka 9 timmar som tonåring. Sömnstörningar är dessvärre vanligt, även hos barn, och forskning har visat sig finns samband mellan sömnbrist och fetma. Vidare rör sig barn generellt för lite, vilket inte bara är ett problem när de är små, utan också när de blir äldre. Antalet överviktiga förväntas att öka dramatiskt eftersom unga fysiskt inaktiva riskerar att bli fysiskt inaktiva som vuxna. En fysiskt aktiv livsstil är förenad med minskad risk att utveckla sjukdomstillstånd som hjärt-kärlsjukdomar, typ 2-diabetes, fetma, osteoporos, cancer, demens, depression med mera. Fysisk aktivitet stärker sömnen och gynnar mental prestationsförmåga Fysisk aktivitet har även visat sig ha positiva effekter på den mentala hälsan samt på möjligheten att hantera stress. Studier har också visat på kopplingar mellan fysisk kapacitet och betyg i skolan. Trots den fysiska aktivitetens positiva effekter, har utrymmet för denna minskat i skolan.

    Det finns ett antal nationella och internationella policydokument och handlingsplaner med syfte att motverka fetma, stimulera till bättre matvanor och en ökad fysisk aktivitet. Däremot saknas än så länge rekommendationer för sömnens och dygnsrytmens betydelse trots att forskningen inom området är övertygande. Nordiska Ministerrådet har bland annat utarbetat en nordisk handlingsplan för hälsa, mat och fysisk aktivitet. I överensstämmelse med EU Kommissionen framhåller Nordiska Ministerrådet att barn och ungdomar ska prioriteras i det hälsofrämjande arbetet, vilket bland annat innebär att det ska finnas tillgång till hälsofrämjande mat under skoldagen samt att ett ökat intag av frukt och grönt i skolan förordas. Vidare lyfts betydelsen av att fysisk aktivitet integreras i vardagliga inomhus- och utomhusaktiviteter. Betydelsen av att främja goda kostvanor och fysisk aktivitet återfinns också i regeringens proposition för en förnyad folkhälsopolitik samt i Livsmedelsverkets och Folkhälsoinstitutets handlingsplan för goda matvanor och fysisk aktivitet. De nordiska och svenska näringsrekommendationerna (NNR och SNR) bidrar med råd och rekommendationer för en näringsmässigt riktig kost för olika åldersgrupper, samt innehåller rekommendationer för fysisk aktivitet.

    Metod och tillvägagångssätt

    Under mars 2010 genomfördes totalt 4 föräldradialoger på olika skolor i Kristianstad Kommun. Inbjudan till dialogerna gick ut till föräldrar till förskolebarn i åldrarna 6 månader till 6 år, bland annat genom att lappar delades ut där intresse kunde anmälas. Föräldradialogen som metod bygger på aktivt deltagande från medverkande personer och på deras egna frågor, funderingar och erfarenheter. Totalt medverkade 86 föräldrar under dessa 4 träffar, varav 70 var kvinnor och 16 män. Föräldradialogerna varade i cirka två och en halv timme per tillfälle. Efter en kortare inledning och introduktion av syfte och tillvägagångssätt delades föräldrarna upp i mindre grupper för diskussion. Medverkande i grupperna var därutöver en moderator (en rektor från skolområdet) som ledde diskussionen, samt en forskare från högskolan som observatör i varje grupp. Anteckningar gjordes från diskussionerna, vilka tillsammans med de frågor som föräldrarna själv antecknat på post-it lappar, utgjorde materialet för analysen och det empiriska underlaget. Resultatet av föräldradialogerna tillsammans med en kunskapsbakgrund kring betydelsen av och rekommendationer kring maten, sömnen och den fysiska aktiviteten, utgör merparten av materialet i rapporten.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av studien visade att föräldrarna hade många frågor och funderingar kring de områden som studien fokuserade på. De flesta frågor handlade om maten och måltiden, om tidpunkter för ätande och om hälsosam mat för barn. Många gånger var det detaljfrågor, till exempel funderingar kring fetthalt i specifika livsmedel, och sällan sattes problematiken i ett övergripande sammanhang där matvanor, levnadsvanor, sömn och fysisk aktivitet integrerades. Flera föräldrar gav uttryck för upplevelsen att vi alltmer gått ifrån ”den naturliga maten”. När det erbjuds lättmjölk istället för standardmjölk ses det av många som ett hot mot det naturliga och därmed det upplevt hälsosamma. Att manipulera med barns hälsa känns obekvämt och man vill gärna att barnen ska serveras den mat ”som man brukar göra”. Förändringar av detta slag ses till stor del som ett hot.</p><p>Frågorna gav också uttryck för en känsla av bristande insikt i vad som serverades på förskolan och vilken mat som barnet egentligen fick i sig. Man undrade vad det är som styr de olika val som kommunen och förskolan gör kring till exempel inköp av mat. Kopplat till uppfattningar om ”den naturliga matens förträfflighet” fanns också funderingar kring beslut bakom var maten ska tillagas. Att maten lagas lokalt, gärna på plats på förskolan, och att det används så mycket råvaror som möjligt istället för halv- och helfabrikat, lyftes fram som eftersträvansvärt.

    Föräldrarnas frågor präglades också av undringar kring hur de ska göra om barnet inte äter. Det handlade om specifika livsmedel, men också om måltidstillfällen. Hur man som förälder ska få barnet att äta vissa grönsaker, att inta frukost under tidig morgon eller att inte ”småäta” var exempel på sådana frågor. Det eftersträvades också tips på mellanmål, och hur man på bästa sätt skulle kunna fördela dagens måltider över dygnet, när förskolans och hemmets tider ska anpassas till varandra. Betydelsen av miljön för måltiderna diskuterades också och på vilket sätt en stökig miljö kunde bidra till att barnen inte åt ordentligt.

    Frågorna om sömnen kretsade till stor del kring hur mycket barn i en viss ålder ska sova, samt vikten av när sömnen inträder. Betydelsen av en regelbunden dygnsrytm över veckans alla dagar diskuterades också. Föräldrarna efterfrågade dessutom tips på hur man kan hantera sömnproblem och insomningssvårigheter hos barn i olika åldrar.

    Att barn måste röra sig är sällan en nyhet, men flera frågor handlade om hur mycket barn i en viss ålder måste röra sig och om barn utifrån detta får tillräckligt med fysisk aktivitet i sin vardag. Funderingar kring mängden utevistelse i förskolan diskuterades också som en viktig del i att främja fysisk aktivitet. Om barnet kan ha för många aktiviteter, var en annan fundering, och om risken finns att man som förälder överstimulerar genom att uppmana till för mycket rörelse.

    Ansvaret för barnens hälsa och välbefinnande fördelas mellan föräldrar, förskola och kanske mellan familjer som barnen bor växelvis i. Detta ställer krav på ett logistikarbete och en insikt och öppenhet mellan de olika arenor som barn befinner sig på i sin vardag. Här finns utmaningar men också möjligheter när det gäller att förbättra förutsättningarna för barns hälsa.

  • 68.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Forskningsmiljön Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    I tid och otid - arbetsmåltidens betydelse för återhämtning och hälsa2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    School of Learning and Environment, Department of Human Sciences, Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Impossible meals?: the food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia – a qualitative interview study2017In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 113, no 1, p. 162-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times.

  • 70.
    Sepp, H.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV).
    Abrahamsson, L.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Hagman, U.
    Pettersson, R.
    Pre-school children's nutrient intake at pre-school and home2000Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A pre-school-based dietary survey, using seven-day records, was carried out in the Greater Stockholm area. The aim was to assess the intake of food and the quality of diet of 109 pre-school children aged 3-5 years, and to compare the dietary intake to the

  • 71.
    Sepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV).
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för hushållsvetenskap (IHV).
    Preschool children´s meal patterns analysed using the Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes model2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 1748-2976, E-ISSN 1748-2984, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 131-138Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 72.
    Sepp, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Rickard
    Department of Information Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Children's nutrient intake at preschool and at home2001In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 483-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A preschool-based dietary survey, using 7-d records, was carried out in a suburb of Stockholm. The aim was to assess the intake of food and the quality of the diet of preschool children aged 3-5 y at preschool and at home, and to compare the dietary intake with the Swedish dietary recommendations for preschool children. The respective mean intakes of protein, fat, carbohydrates and sucrose, expressed as a percentage of total energy intake were 14, 38, 50 and 9 at preschool, and at home 14, 36, 52 and 12 on weekdays, 14, 34, 55 and 16 on weekend days. The mean intakes of seven vitamins and minerals were low only for selenium as compared with the recommended level. No differences were found in nutrient density between diet at preschool and diet at home, with the exception of dietary fibre (higher at preschool). On weekdays there was a significantly higher nutrient density for calcium, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin C and dietary fibre compared with weekend days. Conclusion: The average intakes of energy and nutrients per meal at preschool compared with the recommended levels for children aged 4-6 y were low for all meals (breakfast, lunch and afternoon snack). This, however, was compensated for by home meals.

  • 73.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping; Uppsala University, College of Health and Caring Sciences, Department of Nursing, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria A. C.
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala, National Food Administration.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Elderly patients' meal patterns: A retrospective study1996In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine possible causes of malnutrition in geriatric patients on admission to hospital by evaluation and comparison of their meal pattern between periods of working, retirement and hospitalization, respectively. Forty-five consecutive patients aged 60 years or older participated. By use of modified dietary history interviews, a retrospective assessment of food intake was carried out. A qualitative system for meal classification was then applied. In the retirement period there was a strong reduction in daily eating frequency when compared to working and hospital periods. Thus, the daily intake and also distribution of energy and nutrients seem to be reduced during retirement, which might lead to nutritional deficiency.

  • 74.
    Wallin, Gisela van der Ster
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala; Department of Psychiatry, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria A. C.
    National Food Administration, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Michael I.
    Department of Statistics, Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Comparisons between recalled and observed dietary intake in anorectics and bulimics: A validation study1995In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A validation study was performed in order to compare the observed versus the self-reported food consumption in anorectics (n = 9), anorectic bulimics (n = 6) and bulimics (n = 10). The observed meals (breakfast, lunch and/or dinner) were served in a hospital setting. Foods on plates were unobtrusively weighed before and after serving to each subject, and the foods consumed were compared with data from a 24-hour recall the subsequent day. Data analyses via a nutrient database comprised amounts of food items from seven food groups as well as energy, macro nutrients, vitamin C, calcium and iron. Analyses of recalled intakes showed consistently high correlations with observed intakes, suggesting that the 24-hour recall gives valid results, and could thus be suitable for this category of patients. This notion contrasts with previous statements, although no validation studies have been undertaken in order to support this view

  • 75.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria A.-C.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition Unit, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Meal patterns and meal quality in patients with leg ulcers2000In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Wound healing is a complex process, which requires adequate energy sources, proteins, and specific minerals and vitamins. If an individual is unable to get or to eat the nutrients required, the wound healing process might be disrupted. The aim of this study was to investigate food-related factors, meal patterns and meal quality in relation to nutritional status in elderly out-patients with leg ulcers. Methods. Nutritional status was assessed by use of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in 70 patients living in their own homes. Fifty-six of the patients recorded actual meals and snacks over four consecutive days. Meal patterns and meal quality were evaluated with the help of a qualitative classification system, the Food Based Concept for Classification of Eating Episodes. Results. Thirty-six patients were classified as well-nourished, 32 were at risk of malnutrition and two were malnourished. More patients in the risk group for malnutrition did not buy their own food, and usually ate alone. Incomplete Meals and Low Quality Snacks were the most common eating types. The patients at risk of malnutrition had significantly fewer prepared Complete Meals than the well-nourished patients. Conclusion. The results show a diet and meal quality which hardly meets the requirements for nutrients that are important in wound healing, especially for those patients assessed at risk of malnutrition.

  • 76.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Medicine and Care, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Monitoring of dietary quality in outpatients by qualitative meal classification method1998In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether qualitative meal-classification used as a dietary evaluation tool reflects eating frequency and key nutrients in the diet, and whether it could be used to monitor the dietary quality in elderly outpatients. The qualitative meal-classification tool used was based on eight food categories combined into four types of meals: Complete, Incomplete, Less Balanced and Vegetarian Meals, and three types of snacks: High-, Mixed- and Low-Quality Snacks. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed during 7 consecutive days by use of an estimated food record in nine elderly women with leg ulcers. Mean 7-day dietary intakes of energy, macronutrients, beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin E, ascorbic acid, calcium, iron, zinc and dietary fibre were calculated. Each eating event was classified in accordance with the food-based classification method. The frequency of the four types of meals and three types of snacks, their energy content and nutrients, and their contribution to total intake were subsequently analysed. Results: Meals were associated with a higher energy, vitamin and mineral content than were snacks. Complete Meals were the major source for beta-carotene and ascorbic acid. Intakes from Low-Quality Snacks were relatively high in energy fat and sucrose. Conclusion: The qualitative meal-classification tool was found to be simple to use and useful for reflecting meal order and the nutritional roles of different types of meals and snacks in the diet. This method is recommended for dietary monitoring.

  • 77.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hälsouniversitetet, Norrköping.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Lennernäs, Maria A.-C.
    National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of domestic sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Linköping University, Campus Norrköping, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Caring Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Linköping.
    Nutritional intake and physical activity in leg ulcer patients1997In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 571-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the nutritional intake, meal patterns, physical activity and need for help in nine women living in their own homes and being treated for venous leg ulcers. Food habits were identified by use of interviews and food diaries completed by the women during a period of seven days. The intake of energy and nutrients from 304 eating events during seven days was calculated and meal patterns were evaluated using a qualitative system for meal classification. Physical activity and the degree of need were identified with the help of interviews. The intakes of energy and key nutrients for wound healing, such as protein, vitamin C and zinc, were not optimal according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations, although food habits were well organized. Most of the women had hardly any physical activities and the need of help and support varied, from daily visits to visits every second week.

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