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  • 51.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Diversity of tasks and information technologies used by office workers at and away-from-work2011Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, nr 11, s. 1017-1028Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with computer use among office workers and lack of variation caused by too little exposure diversity between work tasks has been proposed as an important etiological factor. However there is little information on the diversity of occupations and information and communication technologies (ICT) used by office workers and none which extends beyond the traditional workday. Whilst direct observation is expected to provide the most accurate data, it is resource intensive and self report and sampling alternatives may be a viable alternative.

    Method: This paper describes direct observation and self-report data on the occupations and ICT use of 24 Australian office workers in their natural environments at work and away-from-work, over 12 hours of a working day.

    Results: Participants were observed for a mean [SD] for 642[40] minutes, 67% of which was at the workplace. Productive occupations (405[122] minutes) accounted for 63% of the observation period, compared to 17% for instrumental (106[57] minutes), 12% for self-care (75[46] minutes) and 8% for leisure occupations (54[39] minutes). Non ICT tasks occurred during 44% of the observation period (285[89] minutes); New ICT accounted for 36 % (234[118] minutes), Old ICT accounted for 15% (98[73] minutes), and Combined ICT tasks 4% (24[30] minutes). The proportions of occupations and ICT use differed between work and away-from-work. Computer-based New ICT was most used for work tasks. Observed and self-reported time on occupations and ICT were similar, though with some differences. Self-reported time on occupations and ICT was similar for the first day and the subsequent 4 days.

    Conclusion: The first detailed description of occupations and ICT used by office workers at work and away-from-work shows that the variety of Old, New, Combined and Non-ICT used for performing typical work and non-work tasks offered a diversity of exposures for the workers. This information provides an important step for further investigations into exposure variation in this group, and possible musculoskeletal health risks.

  • 52.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part I: Children's occupations and use of information and communication technologies2011Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 401-412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports in the popular media are that school children use modern information and communication technology (ICT) on a regular basis for a variety of purposes, however little has been documented in the scientific literature about how school children spend their time and the different types of ICT they use.

    Method: This paper describes the observed occupations and ICT use of nine Australian primary school children in their natural environments at school and away-from-school during one school day, and compares self-reported exposures with direct observations. Self-reported discomfort scores were obtained throughout the day.

    Results: The study identified that paper-based ICT (Old ICT) was used mostly for productive occupations at school, while electronics-based (New ICT) was used mostly during leisure in away-from-school locations. Tasks involving no ICT (Non ICT) accounted for the largest proportion of time in both locations during self-care, leisure and instrumental occupations. End-of-day self-reported time performing different occupations was consistent with data from independent observations. Self reported time using Old ICT and New ICT was marginally over-estimated, and time spent using Non-ICT was marginally under-estimated.

    Conclusion: The children in this study used a variety of ICT in the performance of daily occupations in their natural environments. New ICT use was primarily for leisure, but time spent was less than reported among other child studies. Discomfort reports among the participants were low. Children’s self-reports of daily occupations and ICT use has utility as an exposure assessment metric.

  • 53.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part II: Variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies2011Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 413-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with modern information and communication technology (ICT) tasks presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited.

    Method: Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVAsd and APDF(90-10).

    Results: Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks.

    Conclusion: Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation of postures and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  • 54.
    Csöff, Rosina-Martha
    et al.
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lindert, Jutta
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Körperliche Beschwerden bei älteren Migranten in Deutschland [Somatic Complaints among Elderly Migrants in Germany]2010Inngår i: Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, ISSN 1661-4747, E-ISSN 1664-2929, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 199-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bodily complaints are widespread among the elderly; few surveys investigating bodily complaints among elder migrants exist in Germany and internationally. Our multi-centric cross section study examined bodily complaints among persons between 60 and 84 years dwelling in Stuttgart on the basis of the short version of the Giessen Complaint Questionnaire (GBB-24). In Germany 648 were explored with 13.4% (n = 87) born outside of Germany. Gender distribution was equal among migrants and non-migrants; socioeconomic status was lower among the migrants: 8.0% (n = 7) of the migrants and 2.5% (n = 14) of the non-migrants had at most four years of education; 12.6% (n = 11) of the migrants and 8.2% (n = 46) of the non-migrants held a net income of below 1000 (sic); 26.4% of the migrants and 38.1% (n = 214) of the non-migrants disposed over 2000 (sic) monthly. The incidence of somatic complaints was 65.5% (n = 57) among the migrants and 55.8% (n = 313) among the non-migrants. Women (61.8%) displayed more often somatic complaints than men (51.8%). Somatic complaints increased with age. Except of the group aged between 70-74 years no significant difference between migrants and non-migrants could be shown concerning the incidence of bodily complaints. Outlook: population based studies on bodily complaints among migrants are urgently needed.

  • 55.
    Cutts, F T
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Dos Santos, C
    Ministry of Health Mozambique.
    Novoa, A
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    David, P
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Soares, A C
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Child and Maternal Mortality during a Period of Conflict in Beira City, Mozambique1996Inngår i: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 349-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Child mortality rates have been declining in most developing countries. We studied child and maternal mortality and risk factors for child mortality in Beira city in July 1993, after a decade of conflict in Mozambique.       

    Methods A community-based cluster sample survey of 4609 women of childbearing age was conducted. Indirect techniques were used to estimate child mortality (‘children ever born’ method and Preceding Birth Techniques [PBT]), and maternal mortality sisterhood method). Deaths among the most recent born child, born since July 1990, were classified as cases (n = 106), and two controls, matched by age and cluster, were selected per case.                 

    Results Indirect estimates of the probability of dying from birth to age 5 (deaths before age 5 years, 5q0 per 1000) decreased from 246 in 1977/8 to 212 in 1988/9. The PBT estimate for 1990/91 was 154 (95% confidence interval(CI): 124–184), but recent deaths may have been underreported. Lack of beds in the household (odds ratio[OR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8), absence of the father (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8), low paternal educational level (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 0.8–5.4), young maternal age (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.7), self-reported maternal illness (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9), and home delivery of the child (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2–4.5) were associated with increased mortality, but the sensitivity of risk factors was low. Estimated maternal mortality was 410/100 000 live births with a reference date of 1982.                 

    Conclusions Child mortality decreased slowly over the 1980s in Beira despite poor living conditions caused by the indirect effects of the war. Coverage of health services increased over this period. The appropriateness of a risk approach to maternal-child-health care needs further evaluation.

  • 56.
    Dahlin, Olov
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder i Gävle: Sveriges mest uthålliga och integrativmedicinska hälsoanläggning : rapport avseende: förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder : ett projekt finansierat av Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder” har genomförts under hösten 2008. Arbetet har varit inriktat på att följa och genomföra den projektbeskrivning som gavs i samband med ansökan om medel. Till stöd i arbetet har projektledaren haft Arbetsgruppen för en integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder, vilken sammanträtt fyra gånger under projekttiden. Flera av medlemmarna i arbetsgruppen har också deltagit i studieresorna och föreläsningsserien som anordnats. I syfte att undersöka förutsättningarna för en etablering av hälsomottagningen har en attitydundersökning genomförts bland ett antal utvalda vårdtagare och vårdgivare, politiker, anställda och arbetsgivare, samt besökare vid Fjärran Höjder. Undersökningen visar i korthet att det finns ett stöd för anläggandet av en hälsopark vid Fjärran Höjder. De studieresor och den föreläsningsserie med avslutande dialogmöte som genomförts, har syftat till att förankra idén hos de hälsoaktörer som kan tänkas bli involverade i projektet framöver. Arbetet i arbetsgruppen har mycket handlat om att arbeta fram en projektidé, ett program eller en projektplan för den föreslagna integrativa hälsomottagningen. En viktig del i en sådan plan har varit att sätta in mottagningen i ett större sammanhang, det vi nu vill kalla Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder. Hälsomottagningen skulle då ingå i en större helhet, en miljö vars samtliga delar syftar till att främja hälsan hos parkens besökare. Visioner och mål för hälsoparken har arbetats fram, liksom ett preliminärt förslag till utformning av hälsoparken och verksamhet där vid. I fortsättningen av projektet avses att söka medel från Osherstiftelsen och i det fall projektet får fortsatt stöd från Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg även EU-medel, eftersom det krävs egenfinansiering vid sådana ansökningar. Förslag till hur projektet kan vidareutvecklas lämnas i rapportens avslutande del.

  • 57.
    Dannberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kartläggning av Känslan av Sammanhang bland personal inom äldreomsorgen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 58.
    Deniz, Nathalie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Disease in theMiddle East2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare between ethnicities if there is a difference in survival and treatment when it comes to cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East. To find out if there is a difference 28 articles was selected for inclusion, both qualitative and quantitative studies. Searches were made in the databases Medline, PubMed, Google and Google Scholar.The results showed that it is possible that there are differences in mortality and morbidity between ethnicities affected by cardiovascular disease. These may be due to differences in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance in diabetes and other risks such as C-reactive protein in the blood plasma which is normally excreted in inflammation in the body and also adiponectin, which is a hormone found in fat tissue whose secretion is diminished in people who have diabetes. But studies saying that a difference does exist are too few and the need for more and larger studies is needed. It may also be that not all ethnicities are as benefited from current treatments available against cardiovascular diseases for example beta-blockers. The conclusion of this study is that more research in this area is needed as well as more comprehensive studies regarding public health in the Middle East.

  • 59.
    Dgedge, Martinho
    et al.
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Novoa, Ana
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Sacarlal, Jahit
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Black, James
    Epidemiologista, Direcc¸a˜ o Provincial de Sau´ de, Manica, Mozambique..
    Michaud, Catherine
    Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge MA, USA..
    Cliff, Julie
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    The burden of disease in Maputo City, Mozambique: registered and autopsied deaths in 19942001Inngår i: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 79, nr 6, s. 546-552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To classify the causes of death in Maputo City, Mozambique, using the methods of the Global Burden of Disease study, in order to provide information for health policy-makers and to obtain a baseline for future studies in Maputo City and provincial capitals.

    Methods:  Data were taken from the Maputo City death register and autopsy records for 1994.

    Findings: A total of 9011 deaths were recorded in the death register, representing a coverage of approximately 86%. Of these, 8114 deaths (92%) were classified by cause. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 5319 deaths; noncommunicable diseases for 1834; and injuries for 961. The 10 leading causes of registered deaths were perinatal disorders (1643 deaths); malaria (928); diarrhoeal diseases (814); tuberculosis (456); lower respiratory infections (416); road-traffic accidents (371); anaemia (269); cerebrovascular diseases (269); homicide (188); and bacterial meningitis (178).

    Conclusions: Infectious diseases of all types, injuries, and cerebrovascular disease ranked as leading causes of death, according to both the autopsy records and the city death register. AIDS-related deaths were underreported. With HIV infection increasing rapidly, AIDS will add to the already high burden of infectious diseases and premature mortality in Maputo City. The results of the study indicate that cause of death is a useful outcome indicator for disease control programmes

  • 60.
    Edström, Katrin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Att delta i en hälsofrämjande intervention på arbetsplatsen: En intervjuundersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The Swedish Work Environment Authority has developed a new guideline that gives employees a great responsibility to promote a good working environment and prevent ill health among their employees. The reason that these guidelines have been developed is that illness among employees at work in Sweden has increased.

    Background At a workplace in a medium sized city in Sweden a group of employees was offered to participate in a health promotion intervention. The goal of the intervention was to give the employees the best conditions for prosperous health and a chance to improve their lifestyle, if they had a need for it. With the help from a coach, the employees worked in groups and individually in areas such as stress, nutrition, physical activity, ergonomics and mental health, and it was the individual´s needs and interests that guided the entire process.

    The aim of the study was to examine what the participants experienced when participating in a workplace intervention with focus on health promotion.

    The method used in the study was a semi-structured interview with four participants, both men and women aged twenty five to sixty three, which were subsequently analyzed through a qualitative content analysis.

    The result showed that the workplace as an arena was of great importance for the individuals. It was perceived as positive that the intervention took place during work hours, otherwise it would have been doubtful that the participants would have participated. It was important for the individuals to discuss the process they went through with their colleagues. However, all participants experienced a sense of shame and did not want to share their inner thoughts with their colleagues. It turned out to be difficult to formulate their individual goals, their focus was instead on what others expected from them.

    The conclusion was that fear of failure among the participants was the reason why they did not want to share their individual goals with their colleagues. In order to continue to feel motivated for a change in life style, the support from the coach and colleagues was necessary.

  • 61.
    Egal, Ebtisam
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Utlandsföddas erfarenheter av arbetslöshet och hälsa: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka utlandsföddas erfarenheter av arbetslöshet och hur de upplever att deras fysiska samt psykiska hälsa påverkas. Forskning indikerar att arbetslöshet kan leda till ohälsa och att utlandsfödda löper en större risk för ohälsa i jämförelse med inrikes födda individer. En kvalitativ metod användes i denna empiriska studie och intervjuer genomfördes för att samla in data. Urvalet var tre kvinnor och tre män som bott i Sverige mellan fyra och åtta år. Av dessa informanter hade fem uppehållstillstånd och en hade haft ett arbetstillstånd. De hade inte arbetat på minst sex månader vilket gjorde dem till långtidsarbetslösa. Resultatet visade att utlandsföddas psykiska hälsa hade påverkats och de upplevde stress, oro och trötthet. De oroade sig över att arbetslöshet under en längre tid skulle leda till psykisk och fysisk ohälsa. De upplevde att stöd var en viktig faktor i hanteringen av arbetslösheten och deras familj och vänner var ett stort stöd för dem. Myndigheter upplevdes ej som ett socialt eller psykologiskt stöd. Däremot hade informanterna stort förtroende för att få ekonomiskt stöd om de behövde det. De hinder utlandsfödda upplevde i sitt arbetssökande var språket och kompetens. De upplevde att dessa brister hade stor inverkan på deras chanser till att få ett arbete. Slutsatsen av denna studie var att utlandsföddas psykiska hälsa har påverkats negativt av arbetslösheten men inte deras fysiska hälsa. De var dock oroliga för att få både psykisk och fysisk ohälsa om de inte får ett jobb inom en snar framtid. Mer kvalitativa studier behövs för att få ökad förståelse för utlandsföddas situation under arbetslöshet. 

  • 62.
    Ekström, Sandra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Rektorers medverkan i elevhälsan: En studie om systematiskt hälsofrämjande arbete i svenska grundskolor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka  i vilken utsträckning rektorer medverkar i elevhälsans systematiska hälsofrämjande arbete i svenska grundskolor.

    Metod: En deskriptiv, kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie användes som metod för att besvara studiens syfte. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med hjälp av egenkonstruerade webbenkäter för att samla in data från 200 slumpmässigt utvalda rektorer från grundskolor från hela Sverige. Enkäterna skickades ut till rektorernas e-postadresser tillsammans med ett missivbrev. Av de 200 valda rektorerna deltog 28 % i studien och besvarade enkäten.

    Resultat: 88 % av rektorerna svarade (n= 51) att elevhälsan aktivt bedriver ett systematiskt hälso-främjande utvecklingsarbete. Majoriteten av rektorerna (n=52) angav att elevhälsan, aktivt bedriver samtliga faser av det systematiska arbetet. Svarsfrekvensen om rektorernas medverkande vid faserna analys, planering, och uppföljning var relativt lika då hälften av rektorerna angav att de medverkade ofta och hälften medverkade varje gång. En skillnad uppstod då 31 % av rektorerna svarade att de sällan medverkade i genomförandefasen.  Den yrkeskategori som nämndes flest gånger som initierar majoriteten av hälsofrämjande insatser var elevhälsoteamen på skolorna som bestod av skolsjuksköteterskor, rektorer, kuratorer, lärare och elever.  51 % av rektorerna angav att det var på rektorns egna initiativ som elevhälsan bedrev ett systematiskt hälsofrämjande utvecklingsarbete på skolan. Fyra rektorer nämnde att elevhälsan var de som utförde hälsofrämjande arbete i skolorna. 80 % av rektorerna ansåg även att deras medverkan var betydelsefull för att elevhälsan ska kunna bedriva ett systematiskt hälsofrämjande arbete i grundskolor.

    Slutsats: Rektorer initierar, bedriver och medverkar i hälsofrämjande arbete och elevhälsans systematiska hälsofrämjande arbeten inom skolorna. Elevhälsoteam eller elevhälsogruppen som fanns lokalt placerade på skolorna var de som initierade hälsofrämjande insatser. Elevhälsan initierade mycket sällan hälsofrämjande insatser på skolorna. Detta kan ifrågasätta ifall det hälsofrämjande elevhälsoarbete som bedrivs är övergripande eller möter elevernas behov. 

  • 63.
    Elversson, Josefin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kvinnors syn på hälsa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning var att se hur kvinnor i olika åldrar uppfattade begreppet hälsa ochvad de ansåg att de kunde göra för att främja hälsa, och om det fanns några speciella hinder till attfrämja hälsa. Denna studie genomfördes med en kvalitativ ansats. Sammanlagt deltog 12 kvinnormed ett åldersspann på 22 – 65 år. Dessa personer var uppdelade i två fokusgrupper med 5respektive 7 personer i varje grupp. Till en början skulle det vara tre stycken fokusgrupper men pågrund av bortfall blev det tillslut två stycken.Resultatet analyserades genom ett fenomenografiskt sätt där det som var mest relevant för studienplockades ut. Resultatet visar att hälsa för dessa kvinnor var något väldigt brett och att det är mångaolika faktorer som kan påverka vår hälsa. De olika faktorerna som kom på tal var: kost, motion,känsla av meningsfullhet, inre välmående och sociala kontakter. Det som grupperna hade mestgemensamt när de diskuterade begreppet hälsa var att kosten och motionen har en stor betydelse förvår hälsa. Det huvudsakliga som deltagarna gjorde för att främja sin egen hälsa var därför tänka påvad de åt och motionera så mycket de hade tid för. Just tiden ansåg dessa kvinnor vara ett hinder tillatt främja hälsa och de ansåg att den fysiska aktiviteten var det som de valde bort först när tidenblev för knapp för att hinna med allt.

  • 64.
    Emil, Söderström
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ska jag säga ja eller nej till droger?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to examine what attitudes young adults have on drugs by problematizing what influence education might have on potential drug use. Furthermore, the study wants to scrutinize how primary schools use Alcohol, Narcotics. Doping, Tobacco teaching (ANDT).

     

    The method used for acquiring empirical data constituted of two focus groups with a total of ten young adults and a survey with twelve primary school principals. The conversations from the focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically which resulted in four different themes.

     

    The results demonstrate that the respondents have shaped their attitudes on drugs through their parents during their upbringing. Furthermore, the results display how attitudes on drugs might be influenced by peer pressure. However, teaching in school did not show any correlation to the respondents’ attitudes.

     

    The conclusion of the study is that knowledge about drugs in general might result in a better understanding about the consequences, for instance how drug use damages the body and might create an addiction. The study shows that the attitudes among young adults are shaped under influence of several factors and arenas, but that further research on the topic is still needed for the public health.

  • 65.
    Enebrink, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett barn som har astma: En kvalitativ studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 66.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Universitetssjukvårdens forskningscentrum, Örebro.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Kriminologi.
    Dåligt stöd för att psykiska sjukdomar ökar bland unga (DN Debatt)2019Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 21 majArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialstyrelsen presenterar en katastrofal ökning av psykisk ohälsa bland unga och tolkar det som en reell ökning av psykiska sjukdomar. Vilket leder till rubriker med ord som epidemi. Men slutsatsen håller inte rent vetenskapligt. Vi måste ta signalerna från unga på allvar, men risken för en medikalisering av normala livserfarenheter är uppenbar, skriver tre forskare.

  • 67.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och kriminologi, Kriminologi.
    Socialstyrelsens snabba slutsatser är bristfälligt underbyggda (slutreplik): slutreplik DN Debatt 22/52019Inngår i: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, nr 29 majArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    SLUTREPLIK DN DEBATT 22/5. Olivia Wigzell och Thomas Lindén från Socialstyrelsen har kommenterat vårt inlägg när det gäller psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga. Det framkommer inte något nytt i deras svar som i stort sett repeterar innehållet i myndighetens rapporter i ämnet under senare år, skriver forskarna Ingemar Engström, Sven Bremberg och Sofia Wikman.

  • 68.
    Enhol Näslund, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hälsofrämjande ledarskap inom kommunal äldreomsorg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 69.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    The effect of meaningful irrelevant speech on teachers´ attention and memory2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 70. Enmarker, Ingela
    The effect of road traffic noise on teachers´ attention and memory2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Noise annoyance in schools – Teachers’ perceptions2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on memory1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Center for Care Research, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Faculty of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Berg, Anne Grethe
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Health in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3-study2012Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 718-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The main objective was to compare older male and female cat, dog, and non-owners with regard to demographic and health-related characteristics. Method : Data in the present cross-sectional population study were drawn from HuNT-3 in Norway. A total of 12,297 persons (5631 men; 6666 women) between the ages of 65 and 101 years were included, of whom 2358 were pet owners. Results : The main finding was that owning a dog demonstrated several health-related characteristics to a higher positive degree than both non-pet and cat ownership among the participants. Cat owners showed higher body mass index values and higher systolic blood pressure, and reported worse general health status. They also exercised to a lower degree than the others. Conclusions : As the result implies that older cat owners are negatively outstanding in many aspects of health compared with the dog owners, in the future, more focus must be put on the worse health of those. Further, there were more married male than female cat and dog owners. This probably depends on traditional cultural thinking; the man is the owner of the pet even if the woman lives with and cares about it. It is important to point out that different groups in the population might select different pets. Consequently, the findings showing a correlation between pet ownership and health may be owing to unrelated confounding factors.

  • 74.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Center for Care Research, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Department of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    T. Berg, Anne-Grethe
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Vivarium-Haukeland sykehus, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Norway/Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Depression in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)-32015Inngår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 347-352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners.

    Method: The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).

    Results: The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status.

    Conclusions: Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. Results from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.

  • 75.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The Effects of Aircraft Noise on Memory, Stress and Arousal in Older Persons2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 76.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Nord - Trøndelag, Norge.
    Olsen, Rose Mari
    Høgskolen i Nord - Trøndelag, Norge.
    Utprøving av kommunal behandlingsenhet: erfaringer og utfordringer i bruk av akuttplasser i sykeheim2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Denne rapporten redegjør for følgeforskning av det 3-årige prosjektet «Akuttplasser i sykehjem»(UP-8) –et prosjekt gjennomført i regi av Midtre Namdal Samkommune (Namsos, Overhalla, Fosnes og Namdalseid) i samarbeid medOsen kommune og Flatanger kommune. Prosjektet UP-8 er ett av flere underprosjekt til «Helhetlige helsetjenester». Følgeforskningen er bestilt av Midtre Namdal Samkommune, og har vært ledet av Ingela Enmarker.Hensikten med UP-8 har værtå klargjørehvordan sykehjemstjenesten kanstyrkes og utvikles i tråd med samhandlingsreformens ideer, herunder utrede hvordan kommunene skal kunne bli i stand til å gi tilbud til pasienter både før, istedenfor og etter sykehusinnleggelse. Under prosjektperioden våren 2011 til sommeren 2013 er akuttsenger utredet og prøvd ut ved Overhalla Sykehjem.

    Følgeforskningen avUP-8 har pågått fra våren 2012 til januar 2014, og har vært finansiert gjennom strategiske midler i Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag (HiNT); Namdalsmidler. Hensikten med prosjektet har vært å beskrive erfaringer og utfordringer i bruken av akuttplasser vedOverhalla sykeheim, samt skape aksjoner som kan lede til heving av kvaliteten på tjenestetilbudet. Vi vil rette en stor takk til pasienter, pårørende og pleiepersonale som har vært involvert.

  • 77.
    Ericsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ung och utan arbete - Hur mår man då?: En enkätundersökning om ungdomsarbetslöshet och hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet var att undersöka ungdomars upplevelse av arbetslöshet och hälsa. Det gjordes genom en enkätundersökning som innehöll kvantitativa frågor och kvalitativa frågor. Den besvarades av 41 arbetslösa ungdomar i åldern 17-24 år.

    Resultatet visar att ett större antal unga anser sig ha bra hälsa och att det var vanligast med ett psykisk välbefinnande. Häften av ungdomarna kände sig stressade i viss mån. En större andel kvinnor än män hade självmordstankar. Det var endast kvinnor som hade gjort självmordsförsök. Arbetslösa ungdomar upplevde arbetslösheten som negativ, trots det såg de positivt eller någorlunda dvs. varken positivt eller negativt på framtiden. Många upplevde goda möjligheter att studera vidare men chanserna att få ett arbete upplevdes av flertalet vara bra eller någorlunda. Majoriteten av de unga försöker vara aktiva under tiden de är arbetslösa. De upplever arbetslösheten som en meningslös tid, då deras hälsa knappast förbättras, snarare försämras. De får anstränga sig för att må bra och inte bli nedstämda.

    Slutsatsen är att forskning om ungdomsarbetslöshet och hälsa är särskilt viktig eftersom tidigare forskning visat att ungdomars hälsa påverkas mer än vuxnas hälsa av arbetslöshet.

  • 78. Eriksson, Anna
    Hälsofrämjande arbete utfört av hälsopedagoger inom företagshälsovården2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien var en undersökning riktad till hälsopedagoger verksamma inom en företagshälsovård i

    Sverige, med syftet att beskriva deras hälsofrämjande arbete. Genom ett tillfällighetsurval

    kontaktades åtta hälsopedagoger via mail med en förfrågan om de kunde tänka sig att delta i

    studien. Studien var av kvalitativ form där respondenterna fick svara på muntligt ställda frågor

    under enskilda intervjuer. Fem av intervjuerna genomfördes under personliga möten och tre av

    dem genomfördes via telefon. Resultatet visade att respondenterna arbetade på individ-, gruppoch

    organisationsnivå. Deras arbetsuppgifter var mycket varierande och bestod av

    hälsoprofilbedömningar, hälsokartläggningar, viktminskningsgrupper, rökavvänjningskurser,

    främjande av arbetsmiljö, föreläsningar, utbildningar och strategiskt arbete med mera. Arbetet

    upplevdes av dem själva bidra till förändrade vanor hos deras företagskunder och kunde därmed

    ses bida till en förbättrad folkhälsa. Flera av dem nämnde att det hälsopedagoger specifikt kunde

    tillföra företagshälsovården var ett unikt främjande perspektiv med fokus på det friska.

    Majoriteten av dem var även säkra på att hälsosamma medarbetare bidrog till en mer effektiv och

    lönsam arbetskraft, och att de arbetsgivare som investerade i företagshälsovård hade mycket att

    vinna i längden.

  • 79.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Christian Communities and Prevention of HIV among Youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people in South Africa, particularly females, are at great risk of acquiring HIV, and heterosexual sex is the predominant mode of HIV transmission. In order to curb the epidemic the Department of Health encourages all sectors in the society, including religious institutions, to respond effectively.

    The present thesis seeks to increase the understanding of the role of Christian communities in prevention of HIV for young people. Three denominations in KwaZulu-Natal were selected to reflect the diversity of Christian churches in South Africa: the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, and the Assemblies of God.

    Using qualitative interviews the first paper explores how religious leaders (n=16) deal with the conflict between the values of the church and young people’s sexuality. Study II reports on attitudes to HIV prevention for young people among religious leaders (n=215) using questionnaire survey data. Study III investigates how young people (n=62) reflect on messages received from their churches regarding premarital sex by analysing nine focus group discussions. In the fourth paper, based on questionnaire survey data, we report on young people’s (n=811) experiences of relationships with the opposite sex and their perceived risk of HIV infection.

    The view that young people in churches are sexually active before marriage was common among religious leadership. The majority of religious leaders also reported that they are responsible for educating young people about HIV prevention. Religious leaders who had received training on HIV were more likely to run a life skills programme for young people, however they were ambivalent about prevention messages. Young people reported premarital sexual abstinence as the main HIV prevention message from their churches. The majority responded that they had received information about HIV in church. To be in a relationship was common, more so for males for whom multiple relationships also were viewed more acceptable. To perceive themselves at risk of HIV infection was common.

    Further training for religious leaders is needed to enable them to manage the conflict between the doctrine of the church and their willingness to assist young people in the transition into adulthood.

  • 80.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Haddad, Beverley
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Ambivalence, silence and gender differences in church leaders' HIV-prevention messages to young people in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2010Inngår i: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 103-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of semi-structured interviews on HIV prevention were conducted with South African clergy with pastoral and liturgical responsibilities from the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church and the Assemblies of God. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by interpretive descriptive analysis. Three themes indicative of church leaders' approach to HIV prevention among youth emerged: dilemmas in breaking the silence on HIV and AIDS; ambivalent HIV-prevention messages from church leaders to young people; and gender differences in HIV-prevention messages. While church leaders had taken steps to overcome the stigma, the dilemmas of balancing theological understanding with resistance from their congregations presented a complex scenario. Ambivalence to HIV prevention concerned whose responsibility it was to educate young people about HIV; talking about sexuality in public; pre-marital abstinence and condom use; and resistance from congregation members towards HIV prevention. Finally, findings indicated a discrepancy between church leaders' belief in gender equality and the HIV-prevention messages they verbalised, which appears to burden girls.

  • 81.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Haddad, Beverley
    School of Religion and Theology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa .
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Faith, Premarital Sex and Relationships: Are Church Messages in Accordance with the Perceived Realities of the Youth?: A Qualitative Study in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa2013Inngår i: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 454-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since religious messages on life style have a strong impact in South Africa, it is important to assess how they relate to the situation for young people at risk of HIV infection. Nine focus group discussions were conducted with youth (n=62), aged 13–20 years, from the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, and the Assemblies of God. Young people were ambivalent toward sexual contacts since these generally were expected to be part of a relationship even though the church condemns premarital sex. Girls perceived the moral norms to concern them more than the boys for whom sexual needs were more accepted. These moral barriers lead to lack of information about protection and may increase the risk of HIV. The realities young people facing should be a major concern for the faith communities.

  • 82.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Haddad, Beverley
    School of Religion and Theology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa .
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa.
    Involvement of religious leaders in HIV prevention, South Africa2011Inngår i: Svensk Missionstidsskrift, ISSN 0346-217X, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 119-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Religious leaders do not easily get involved in HIV prevention for young people since discussing sexuality publicly is taboo. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted among local religious leaders (n=215) August-October 2008, when they convened at regional meetings in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data, previous HIV education and attitudes to HIV prevention for young people, policy issues, and questions on stigma. The participants (186 males, 29females) were affiliated to the Catholic Church (66), Lutheran church (82),and the Assemblies of God (67). Religious leaders regarded themselves as responsible for educating young people about HIV, and were interested in topics concerning young people’s sexuality. However, only 39% reported that their church had run a life-skill programme for youth in the last six months. The results indicated that religious leaders who had participated in HIV training were more likely to have arranged a life-skill programme for young people and also more likely to have taken an HIV test.

    Religious leaders were positive about further training on HIV- related issues, and if learning opportunities are offered to them, this might increase their involvement in HIV prevention among young people.

  • 83.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Haddad, Beverley
    School of Religion, Philosophy and Classics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Young people, sexuality, and HIV prevention within Christian faith communities in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey2014Inngår i: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 1662-1675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Faith communities exert a powerful influence on the life of their members, and studies are needed about how they may be able to influence young people's attitudes regarding sexuality and HIV prevention. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from young people (811), aged 15-24 years, affiliated to the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church and the Assemblies of God. The majority of participants perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection (53 %). Premarital sexual abstinence was the most frequently (88 %) reported prevention message, followed by faithfulness (23 %), HIV testing (18 %) and condom use (17 %). Furthermore, religious affiliation was associated with education on sexuality and HIV in youth groups, with better information given to members of the Lutheran and Catholic churches. Faith communities need to strengthen their capacity to educate young people in a more holistic way about sexuality and HIV prevention.

  • 84.
    Eriksson, Emma
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Vem påverkar våra livsmedelsval: En enkätstudie om vilka olika källor deltagarna vänder sig vid sökandet efter information om kost och livsmedel.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine which sources people turn to in order to find information about food and diets. Another aim was to find out how reliable people thought the various sources to diet – related information was. The method used to collect data was a web-based survey which was published on the writers private Facebook page. The total number of respondents was 48, between the ages of 18 and 55. The results showed that the most reliable source of information, was not the most likely first hand choice that the respondents would turn to, in order to find information.

    The conclusion of this study was that it is necessary to continue research among the public regarding their views on credibility of their sources of information, not least on the internet

  • 85.
    Eriksson, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hälsobudskap i hälsotidningar: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to categorize and analyze articles in health magazines, how health messages about health is being described. Using a qualitative content analysis the researcher answered the aim by three research questions: What kind of health messages about health factors do the magazines describe? Do the health magazines talk about risk factors for unhealthy behavior? What kind of commercial messages do the magazines provide? The result from the content analysis showed that health magazines presented social support, self-esteem, acceptance, equality and strategies as health factors. They tried to change readers’ perceptions to get a healthy lifestyle. They presented norms, traditions, perspectives, unrealistic body ideals and unhealthy behaviours as risk factors, in relation to consequences.  Also, today's view on healthy ideals was described as a risk factor. The commercial health messages that were analyzed were food products. They were presented with information on how the products were produced, their health benefits for the body and how people would feel when the product was consumed.

    Some of the text was difficult to interpret the meaning of. This may cause confusion when assessing if the health messages being presented in the magazines are of a good quality or not.

    Keywords: Public health, health messages, health magazines, health factors, risk factors 

  • 86.
    Eriksson Klockare, Magdalena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Tillämpning av näringsrekommendationer inom förskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på hur chefer och kökspersonal på förskolor arbetade för att främja goda matvanor hos barn enligt de nationella riktlinjer som finns.Metoden som användes var kvalitativ intervjuundersökning med fem förskolechefer och fem kökspersonal i en kommun i östra Svealand. Kravet för att medverka i undersökningen var att förskolorna skulle tillaga och planera maten på egen hand. I kommunen fanns det 65 förskolor som lagade och planerade maten själva. Lottdragning tillämpades för att välja ut vilka förskolor som skulle delta i undersökningen.Resultatet visade att förskolecheferna hade det yttersta ansvaret för att Statens livsmedelsverks riktlinjer följdes men de delegerade ansvaret till kökspersonalen då dessa ansågs vara experter inom området. Resultatet visade dock att kökspersonalen inte följde riktlinjerna till fullo, då de ansåg att de hade tillräckligt med kunskap. Förskolans ekonomiska situation bidrog också till vilken mat man kunde erbjuda barnen. Förskolecheferna ansåg att ett sätt var att laga så mycket mat som möjligt från grunden, först och främst för att kunna hålla matkostnaderna nere. De var även noga med att göra barnen delaktiga och få förståelse för sin egen kost.Slutsatsen visade att det trots regelbunden kontakt, fanns brister i kommunikationen mellan förskolechefer och kökspersonal samt brist på tydliga ramar och riktlinjer för vad som ska följas i arbetet. Förskolechefen och kökspersonalen bör ha en gemensam uppfattning kring i vilken omfattning riktlinjerna ska eller bör följas för att uppnå en god standard på maten. Förskolans ekonomiska situation hade en stor betydelse för kökspersonalens planering av matinköp. Hade förskolan en stram budget, var ett sätt för att få ner kostnaderna att laga mat från grunden och byta ut dyrare livsmedel. Alla förskolor var måna om att barnen skulle få i sig näringsriktig mat av god kvalité.

  • 87.
    Eriksson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Associationer mellan arbete, hälsa, kost och motion: En kvantitativ undersökning bland personliga assistenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to examine if there were any associations between subjective self-rated health, workload and scheduling in relation to habits involving diet and physical activity among personal assistants. This study was carried out as an online based survey where all the participants was selected nonrandomly through one single private company in the middle regions of Sweden.

    Associations were tested through cross table analysis, also known as Chi2-tests. No associations was established in regards to the thesis main purpose. However, some associations could be drawn between the participants’ willingness to change their current dietary- and exercise habits and their current habits. The main conclusion from this study was that further research is needed amongst personal assistants to determine how their professional life relates to their dietary and exercise habits.

  • 88.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Central Unit for Child Health Care, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Miniscalco, Carmela
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Problems and limitations in studies on screening for language delay2010Inngår i: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 943-950Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses six common methodological limitations in screening for language delay (LD) as illustrated in 11 recent studies. The limitations are (1) whether the studies define a target population, (2) whether the recruitment procedure is unbiased, (3) attrition, (4) verification bias, (5) small sample size and (6) inconsistencies in choice of "gold standard". It is suggested that failures to specify a target population, high attrition (both at screening and in succeeding validation), small sample sizes and verification bias in validations are often caused by a misguided focus on screen positives (SPs). Other limitations are results of conflicting methodological goals. We identified three such conflicts. One consists of a dilemma between unbiased recruitment and attrition, another between the comprehensiveness of the applied gold standard and sample size in validation and the third between the specificity of the gold standard and the risk of not identifying co-morbid conditions.

  • 89.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Vårdvetenskap.
    National telephone advice nursing in Sweden: patient safety and communication2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 90.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Holmström, Inger
    Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap Uppsala Universitet.
    Engström, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Computerized decision support systems in telenursing: how it is perceived by telenurses2009Inngår i: Med-e-Tel 2009: proceedings, 2009, s. 409-410Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone advice nursing (telenursing) is an expanding service in many Western countries and in recent year’s centralization of telenursing services has occurred in some countries. Telenursing is a complex and knowledge intensive health service were registered nurses (RN’s) individually triage callers need for further care, give self care advice or refer the caller to appropriate care giver. These telenurses have numerous patient encounters every day, regarding all ages of callers and questions presented to the telenurses addresses a broad variation of medical conditions.  

    Telenursing has shown to be appreciated by the population as well as cost efficient.

     In an attempt to ensure quality and safety within telenursing the use of computerized decision support systems (CDSS) increased since CDSS enables uniformity and consistency of advices given to callers.   

    Traditionally, telenurses have relied on clinical knowledge, collegial support and books when triaging callers and few studies describe how telenurses perceive CDSS in their daily work.

    Eight telenurses from three different telephone advice call centres, all using CDSS took part in semi-structured interviews in 2006. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    The aim of the study was to describe telenurses experiences of working with CDSS. Telenurses described that the CDSS had both positive and negative influences of their work. They described that the CDSS simplified their work, complemented their knowledge and gave them a sense of security. They also described how the CDSS contributed to quality improvement of telenursing. The negative aspects of the CDSS were described as being inhibited by the system. Telenurses described how they perceived the system as partly incomplete and controlling and that they sometimes disagreed with the measures presented by the system.

    These advantages and disadvantages perceived within the system can be connected to the concepts of usability: user-worthiness and user-friendliness. Software should be easy to learn, contain few errors and be easy to orient in, to enhance usability. Hence usability could be further improved in the present system.

    There might be a risk that the CDSS will mechanize and undermine the communication between callers and telenurses. It is important, in order to increase the telenurses’ professional competence and the feeling of tele-presence that callers not only are given a correct estimation of their conditions but also a sense of security and confirmation. Otherwise callers may seek emergency care solely because of insecurity and anxiety.

  • 91.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Holmström, Inger
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Telenurses' experiences of working with computerized decision support: Supporting, inhibiting and quality improving2009Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 65, nr 5, s. 1074-1083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study conducted to describe telenurses' experiences of working with computerized decision support systems and how such systems could influence their work. Background. Telenursing is an expanding service in many Western countries, and in recent years centralization of telenursing services has occurred in Sweden. In connection with this, the use of computerized decision support has increased. Method. Eight Registered Nurses from three telephone advice call centres in Sweden who were using computerized decision support took part in semi-structured interviews in 2006. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Findings. The findings are presented as one theme and three categories. Telenurses experienced their work with a decision support system as supporting, inhibiting and quality improving. Based on two of the categories -'supporting' and 'inhibiting'- a theme was revealed: being strengthened, but simultaneously controlled and inhibited. This theme represents the individual level. The telenurses found that the decision support system simplified their work, complemented their knowledge, gave them security and enhanced their credibility. They also described experiencing the system as incomplete, sometimes in conflict with their own opinions and controlling. The third category referred to the organizational level: the decision support system ensured the quality of telenursing. Conclusions. Although the telenurses experienced computerized decision support as both supporting and inhibiting, they preferred working with it. They also described how a computerized decision support system cannot replace telenurses'knowledge and competence, and that it should be considered as complementary.

  • 92.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap och Tehran Heart Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och Karolinska institutet.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för psykologi.
    Khankeh, Hamid Reza
    Karolinska Institutet; University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim J.F.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap och Karolinska Institutet.
    Quality of life and life satisfaction among adults with and without congenital heart disease in a developing country2015Inngår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 169-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Life-expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved world-wide, but there are limited data on these patients' experiences of quality of life (QoL), life satisfaction (LS), and their determinants (e.g. social support), particularly among patients from developing countries.

    Design Cross-sectional case-control.

    Methods A total of 347 CHD patients (18-64 years, 52.2% women) and 353 non-CHD participants, matched by sex/age, were recruited from two heart hospitals in Tehran, Iran. LS and QoL served as dependent variables, and demographic/socioeconomic status, mental-somatic symptoms, social support, and clinical factors (e.g. defect category) served as independent variables in multiple regression analyses once among all participants, and once only among CHD patients.

    Results The CHD patients had significantly lower scores in LS and all domains of QoL than the control group. However, having CHD was independently negatively associated only with overall QoL, physical health, and life and health satisfaction. Additionally, multivariate analyses among the CHD patients revealed that female sex, younger age, being employed, less emotional distress, and higher social support were significantly associated with higher perceived QoL in most domains, while LS was associated with female sex, being employed, less emotional distress, and better social support. Neither QoL nor LS was associated with cardiac defect severity.

    Conclusions The adults with CHD had poorer QoL and LS than their non-CHD peers in our developing country. Socio-demographics, emotional health, and social support were important 'determinants' of QoL and LS among the CHD patients. Longitudinal studies are warranted to establish causal links.

  • 93.
    Estander, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Arbetsmåltider och arbetsmåltiden som en möjlighet till återhämtning: En intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how nurses describe their meals at work, and how meals at work was described as a possibility to recover.

    The method had a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. Five nurses participate and were recruited through a snowball sampling. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed. To analyze the data a manifest content analysis was used.

    The result showed that the four categories content and meaning for meals at work, environment for the meal at work, time to eat and social relations at the dining table summarized the nurses' descriptions of meals at work. The meal at work was described as one way to recover, but many other things also helped recovering.

    The conclusion was that nurses in this study described that meals at work can improve through enough length of the break, lower noise level, less stress while eating, enough room for eating and preparing food as well as nutritional food shall be available. The result of the study shows that meals are described as a chance to recover but also that the nurses associate recovery with night sleep, socialize with the family, perform physical activity or just gather your thoughts.

     

  • 94.
    Forslund, Ida
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
     Tryggheten på Brynäs - en uppföljning av Gävle kommuns trygghetsvandring2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien var en uppföljning av en trygghetsvandring i stadsdelen Brynäs i Gävle som gjordes 2008 med medverkan av boende i stadsdelen och tjänstemän från kommunen. Syftet med denna undersökning var att ta reda på hur de boende uppfattar trygghet i stadsmiljö utifrån sig själva och med avseende på vissa i förväg formulerade punkter. Syftet var också att utvärdera hur boende i stadsdelen Brynäs uppfattar tryggheten i området efter de förändringar som Gävle kommun gjort i den byggda miljön. Resultaten visade att det viktigaste för tryggheten var generellt att ha kontroll på och överblick över vad som händer runtomkring en. Denna känsla kunde minska eller öka genom olika faktorer i den byggda miljön. Med tanke på detta kändes öppna platser tryggare än trånga och belysning ökade tryggheten till viss del. Det var också viktigt är att området kändes välskött och att det fanns mycket folk runtomkring en. Trafiksituationen på Brynäs uppfattades som väldigt otrygg. Angående oskötta miljöer kom diskussionerna ofta in på socialt utsatta miljöer och människor i sådana miljöer, som upplevdes som brottsbenägna. Människor som vistades i stadsmiljö var minst lika viktiga som miljöerna – miljöerna var ett medel för att dölja eller avslöja dessa människor.Resultaten visade också att informanterna till största delen inte märkt de förändringar som Gävle kommun genomfört.

  • 95.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    How can sport clubs for non-disabled youth include children and adolescents with disabilities?2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe obesity and a sedentary leisure-time are more common among young people and adults with disabilities than in the rest of the population. Young people with disabilities participate in sports to a lesser extent than other adolescents. That physical activity has positive effects on children and adolescents, such as reduced risk of diabetes, overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression are understood. The positive effects of participation in organized sport and physical activity are at least as great for children and young people with disabilities as children and young people without disabilities. One of the most important tasks of various actors is to find ways to increase physical activity and the health of children and youth with disabilities. Sports clubs are identified as potential and attractive environments for physical activity, but also for social and mental health. The reasons why children and young people with disabilities participate to a lower extent in organized sport is complex and barriers can be deriving from many different levels. However, barriers have been studied more than what can facilitate participation in organized sport. Therefor the aim of this study is to present the first results from a systematic international and scientific literature review of how sport clubs for non-disabled youth can include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities.

    Articles (with inclusion criteria of studies focusing on children and adolescents, disability, physical activity, engagement in organized sports, inclusive sport settings) from a 20 years period were selected. Studies with topics that concerned physical education, medical, physical activity without an organized sport agenda, elite sport or equipment issues were excluded. 

    The results will focus on which type of sport, target group and countries the examples are from, but foremost on how sport clubs for non-disabled youth actually do to include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities.

    It is essential to establish a knowledge base for effective interventions towards the target group at hand. If more children and youth with disabilities participate in organized sports several positive health benefits can be achieved.

  • 96.
    Gistrand, Christian
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Utforskning av ungdomar med problematisk bakgrund och deras syn på möjligheter och hinder för att förbättra sin hälsa: Samhällsinsatser riktade mot ungdomar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Gistrand, C. has studied “Explore young people's problematic backgrounds and their views on the opportunities and obstacles in order to improve their health”, University of Gävle in the course theory and method of application and thesis work.

    The object of the study was to give young people space to make their voices heard. Further on to make unemployed youths perceptions of perceived opportunities and obstacles in their way to get a job, internship or study, visible. The object of the study was also to show youths’ views of health and what they thought about the contributions to society.

    The method was qualitative, with three semi-structured interviews with men between 20-24 years old (and problematic childhoods, for instance alcohol and drug use) was conducted..

    The result shows that unemployment increases the risk of illness and unhealthy habits. Addicts, criminal behaviors, economy and social exclusion also impacts health and they interact with each other, so it’s very complex for the society to know which effort they should prioritize. The selection group thought that the society should develop a number of alternative activites for young people to engage in on their spare time.

    The conclusion is that unemployed youth tend to suffer from social exclusion, poor economy and that leads to bad health and can develop an addict or a criminal behavior. It’s important for the public health that the society support every individual.

  • 97.
    Graaf, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    CybeReaction: Ungas reaktioner på nätmobbning och deras psykiska hälsa : en enkätstudie bland 18-19 åringar som går tredje året på gymnasiet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomsten av nätmobbning, reaktioner och psykisk hälsa i samband med detta nya fenomen. Metoden som användes var en tvärsnittsstudie med en webbaserad enkät som genomfördes på 18–19-åringar i gymnasiet. Sammanlagt 75 ungdomar deltog i undersökningen. Resultatet visade att det var vanligare att drabbas av nätmobbning än av traditionell mobbning. Offren för nätmobbning rapporterade sämre hälsa än icke drabbade och led av självskadebeteende. Den vanligaste reaktionen i samband med nätmobbning var att bli ledsen och att drabbas av ångest. Nätmobbning var också vanligare på det studieförberedande gymnasieprogrammet. Slutsatsen som kan dras är att nätmobbning är ett utbrett fenomen bland unga vuxna och nätmobbningsoffer mår sämre än icke-drabbade samt att de drabbade led av självmordstankar. Skolan bör skapa tydliga riktlinjer som kontinuerligt kontrolleras och kommuniceras till personal och elever. Det behövs mer forskning på detta område för att undersöka orsakerna och beteende både hos offer och förövare för att kunna skapa åtgärder för att förebygga och hantera fall av nätmobbning. 

  • 98.
    Gramer, Sandra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Utmaningar i arbetet med flyktingbarn: En undersökning i en mellansvensk kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the actual problems and available resourses a Swedish municipality are faced in the process of receiving refugee children. The method was a cross-sectional study with a content analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four informants who worked with refugee children. The results showed that school activities play a central role in the work with refugee children. The school collaborated with health care for asylum seekers as well as with the sports projects included in this study. Within the school was one of the challenges of finding qualified staff and in health care, was it the burden of the large number of children coming which was difficult to handle. Thanks to the accumulated experience, this Swedish municipality was able to formulate a good criteria for supporting these children. One of the problems that they had not managed to solve the recruitment of competent staff for language and study in school. The municipality had drawn attention to the problems and therefore had a good chance to improve on this.

  • 99.
    Haglund, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    "En gång är ingen gång, två gånger är en vana": Träningsaktiva kvinnors motivation till fysisk aktivitet. En enkätundersökning.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine what motivates physically active women to maintain their active lifestyle through exercise.

    Design: Cross sectional study.

    Methods: Physically active women (N=70) between the age of 19 and 84 were recruited at fitness centers and they completed the survey regarding their motives to maintain an active life style. The survey contained questions with several response options, and an open ended question where the women were asked to share their experiences and encouraging words for physically inactive women. The total number of distributed surveys was 90, of which 70 were complete.

    Results: The findings showed an association between a physically active life and good health. The majority of the participants claimed positive health benefits from training. The women who had a high exercise frequency also graded the exercise to be fun more often than women who were not training as frequently. The women also shared their own experiences of being active, and claimed that the physical, psychological and social benefits were great motivational factors to keep being active.

    Conclusions: The positive health benefits constituted the greatest motivation for maintaining a physically active life style.  The physically active women in this study showed that exercise has benefits; physical benefits such as pain relief or psychological benefits such as feeling good and happy, but also the social benefits of meeting new people.

  • 100.
    Haglund, Stina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hälsosamtalet i skolan; en hälsointervention att räkna med: Gymnasieelevers självskattade hälsa vid skolor som haft och inte haft motiverande samtal. En enkätundersökning med elever från Gästrikland och Västernorrland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this study was to compare and evaluate potential differences in self-assessed health between students where the school had worked systematically with MI and students where the school had not. To evaluate this a quantitative method through poll forms was used. 40 poll forms was sent to a school that did not use MI and compared the answers with existing poll forms from a school that used MI systematically. Theresults showed that boys from the school using MI had 10 times bigger chance of answering that they felt good than the boys that not have MI. The results for the girls did not indicate the same importance of the intervention. Instead the results showed that other factors, such as feeling sad, sleep quality and alcohol usage influenced their self-rated health. The conclusion from this is that the MI does have an effect on the self-assessed health for particularly boys.

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