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  • 51.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    El discurso de la ultraderecha en el marco de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en España y Suecia2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [es]

     La Agenda 2030 para el Desarrollo Sostenible establece en su objetivo 4 el deber de todos los estados nacionales de garantizar el derecho de educación inclusiva y equitativa de calidad y promover oportunidades de aprendizaje permanente para todos.

    Al mismo tiempo que autoridades educativas de alto nivel se comprometen en la

    implementación de políticas educativas a nivel regional y nacional para alcanzar dicho objetivo, en la práctica, se aprecia que el resultado de elecciones en diferentes países europeos y americanos muestra un avance de la ultraderecha al poder político.

    Caracterizado por el nativismo, autoritarismo y populismo (Mude, 2013) el discurso político de la ultraderecha está basado en la xenofobia etno-nacionalista y el regreso a los valores más tradicionales, el fascismo y el nacionalismo (Akkerman, 2012; Rydgren & van der Meidenv, 2016; Rydgren 2018).  Además, como asevera Kováts & Põim (2015) estos movimientos políticos han comenzado abiertamente una misión casi religiosa de poner fin a la ideología de genero. A su vez los avances de la ultraderecha tienen efectos colaterales en los otros partidos tradicionales que tienden a seguir el discurso migratorio restrictivo para evitar perder los votos de sus electores potenciales.

     

    Con el fin de discutir las posibles implicaciones del avance del discurso de la ultraderecha en la formación de las políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa, esta ponencia analiza las estrategias educativas propuestas en programas políticos a nivel nacional y regional de dos partidos de ultraderecha emergentes en España y Suecia.

    Partiendo de la concepción teórica de política educativa como texto y discurso (Touraine, 2000, Ball et alt (2012), Rizvi & Lingard, 2013, Dubet, 2016) el estudio presentado en esta ponencia está basado en un análisis crítico de discurso (Fairclough, 1995, Wodak y Meyer, 2003, Pini, 2009, Van Dijk, 2000, 2009 y 2012. ) de programas electorales a nivel regional, nacional y europeo del partido español Vox y el partido sueco Sverigedemokraterna durante el periodo 2018-2019.

     

    Principales resultados

    En la formación de políticas públicas de educación la propuesta de la ultraderecha es el establecimiento de un currículo monocultural y monolingüista basado en la cultura de la mayoría, con un enfoque nacional.  A nivel de gestión su propuesta sigue las tendencias políticas internacionales neoliberales incentivando tanto la privatización como la libertad de elección de centro. Pero también estas políticas de la ultraderecha suponen una paradoja a los principios más elementales de educación inclusiva y equitativa. Supone la finalización de políticas comprehensivas que promueven la equidad. Se apuesta por políticas que refuercen el mérito y capacidad individual.

    En esta ponencia se discute también la posibilidad de extender este análisis al estudio de la formación de políticas públicas de educación inclusiva y equitativa en otros contextos nacionales europeos y americanos donde se registre un avance importante de la ultraderecha en el gobierno y el parlamento.

     

  • 52.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    The advance of Anti-gender agenda in Swedish media debate on higher education.2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservative and Far Right movements around the world have openly started a nearly religious mission to “put end to the gender ideology” in all areas in society. In Europe this anti-gender agenda was successively introduced and developed by different conservative and fair right parties BLOCK VI g 168 in Germany, Hungary, Poland, France, Slovakia since 2006 (Kováts & Põim 2015). With the purpose to develop a deeper understanding of the advance of this anti-gender agenda, this contribution analyses media and social media debates concerning the role and the position of gender studies in the Swedish higher education. The methodology used in this research is argument analysis of articles published in Swedish press (Svenska Dagbladet) and social media (Högskoleläckan) during the period November 2017 to December 2018. Paying attention to ethical issues in the analysis of social media data the names of the individuals concerned in the selected data has been removed. Preliminary findings of the study show that in this anti-gender agenda gender theories are considered as a dominant knowledge regime in Swedish higher education policy. This anti-gender agenda puts in question the role and the position of gender studies in higher education by criticizing its methodology and quality research as well as its existence as scientific field. However, this agenda is not only limited to criticize gender studies at higher education. It puts even in question research based on critical and postcolonial theories as well as current Swedish research in the Education field. 

  • 53.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    A Children's Rights Perspective on Traditional Schooling and Education for Sustainable Development2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In times of uncertainity when war conflicts, climate catastrophes, austerity and anti-migration policies in particularly affect children we need to develop sustainabiliby policies that pay attention to the best interests of the child.

    Consequently, a  successful accomplishment of the Agenda 2030 for sustainable development is strongly related to the success to put in practice the rights enshrined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child (Children’s Rights international Network, CRIN 2018).

    However, to pay attention to the intima relation between the sustainable development goals to the rights of the Child claims even to start from a holistic conception of Sustainability that involves ecological, economic and social dimensions of development. Furthermore, this holistic conception of development (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015; UNESCO 12; SWEDESD 2017) point out that justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate sustainable development in local contexts and the world in general. 

    At the same time,  the success to develop Sustainability are related to our competence to develop Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) at all levels. Furthermore, ESD needs to be understood in its broadest sense and includes “…  improving quality basic education, reorienting education to address sustainability, improving public awareness, and providing training to many sectors of society (UNESCO 2005:11). One of sector of society in which ESD training is central is higher education (UNESCO 2005, 2012, 2017, SWEDESD 2017). Furthermore, the development of ESD in higher education (Blanco-Portela, Benayas, Pertierra & Lozano 2017) needs both of external pressures as well as local actions backed up by national polices. 

    This contribution aims to discuss about the role of higher education to develop and disseminate research knowledge on the rights on the Child in and to Education in their work to promote Sustainable Development (SD) and Sustainable Development Education (SDE). With this purpose it introduces a thematic analysis of a national evaluation concerning the Swedish higher education institutions (HEI) work to promote  SD and SDE with focus on the convention of the Rights of the Child. The focuses on this analysis is not to evaluate the HEI:s work. It focuses instead on the analysis on which way the HEI:s work to promote SD and SDE involves the rights of the Child in education and to education.

     

     

     

     

    Method

    The Swedish Higher Education Authority (UKÄ) evaluated higher education institutions (HEI) university colleges work to promote sustainable development (SD) and sustainable development in education (SDE). Based on the Swedish institutions own self-evaluations concerning their work, an assessment panel made this evaluation that only led to recommendations for the development of SD and SDE at higher education. Thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006) of these of self-evaluation reports as well as the assessment panels evaluation are selected as methodology for this study. In this thematic analysis we identified themes (patterns) within the data stating from following research questions: *How are children’s rights to and in education treated in the universities self-evaluations concerning their work to promote sustainable development? *In which way is Agenda 2030 related to the Convention of the Rights of the Child? *In which disciplines are children’s rights to and in education related to Sustainable development? *Which kind of strategies are used by these disciplines to related children’s right to education in their work to promote sustainable development? *Which are the potential areas to development in the work to related children’s right to education in their work to promote sustainable development?

    Expected Outcomes

    This research is an ongoing study that shows the following preliminary result: Only 7 of the 22 self-evaluation reports include The Convention of the Right of the Child as education content related to SDE at higher education level. Furthermore, the analysis shows that only a reduced number of higher education programs/disciplines relates CRC with SDE in these 7 self-evaluation reports. These disciplines/programs are: education science, teacher education and arts studies for teachers. The thematic analysis shows that CRC is related to democracy education as well as knowledge about children's life conditions.Focusing on teacher education, SDE in these 7 universities aims to develop teacher students’ competence to: *to act at the school practice paying attention to CRC. *to reflect over children’s life conditions in relation to Agenda 2030 *to reflect over the relation of SDE, CRC and Democracy *to reflect over esthetics, social and scientific aspects of SDE paying attention to CRC The preliminary analysis of this research shows a limited number and forms of SDE teaching activities at higher education that pay attention to the CRC. This lack of interrelation between SDE and CRC risks the development of SDE from a holistic perspective at the higher education level. This study is based on an analysis of SDE in Sweden. However, the findings of this study can be relevant for other national contexts because it discusses about the role of higher education to develop and to disseminate research knowledge on Sustainable Development (SD) that pay attention to the best interests of the child. This discussion contributes even to develop scientific knowledge about the relation between the Agenda 2030 and the CRC in Higher education institutions' work to promote SD.

    References

    Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology, Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3:2, 77-101 Child Rights International Network, CRIN (2018) Protection of the rights of the child and the 2030 agenda for sustainable development https://www.crin.org/en/library/publications/protection-rights-child-and-2030-agenda-sustainable-development Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771. McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia Magill Portela B., Benayas J. Pertierra L.R. Lozano R. (2017) Towards the integration of sustainability in Higher Education Institutions: A review of drivers of and barriers to organizational change and their comparison against those found of companies. Journal Cleaner Production. Februari 2017 World Commission on Environment and Development,1987; UNESCO (2005) International Implementation Scheme (IIS) for the DESD.Paris, UNESCO. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000148654 UNESCO, (2012) Shaping the education of tomorrow: 2012 full length report on the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000216472 SWEDESD (Swedish International Centre of Education for Sustainable Development) (2017) Visby Recommendations for enhancing ESD in Teacher Education, THE CONFERENCE ‘BRIDGING THE GAP - EDUCATORS AND TRAINERS’ VISBY 21-24 AUG 2016 http://swedesd.uu.se/digitalAssets/611/c_611672-l_1-k_report_btg2017.pdf

  • 54.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Neoliberal policy paradigm in Teacher Education in Argentina and Sweden : Strategy for increase quality and teacher profession status?2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Unaccompanied Afghan minors’ rights when restrictive transnational migration policies are in force: The case of Sweden2019Inngår i: The International Journal of Children's Rights, ISSN 0927-5568, E-ISSN 1571-8182Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 57.
    Ghannam, Marwan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    IKT I fritidshem: möjligheter och svårigheter: En kvalitativ studie om fritidspedagogers uppfattningar om möjligheter och svårigheter med IKT i fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I fritidshemmets verksamhet arbetar fritidspedagoger med IKT och digitala verktyg på olika sätt och i olika grad, och har i uppdrag att ge barnen en meningsfull fritid där deras behov och intresse står i centrum. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur fritidspedagoger uppfattar olika möjligheter som IKT erbjuder dem i sin undervisning samt vilka svårigheter som de upplever i sitt arbete med IKT i fritidshem. Metoden i denna studie är av kvalitativ ansats, där insamling av data har skett med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem verksamma fritidspedagoger. Studiens resultat visar att IKT och digitala verktyg erbjuder många olika möjligheter för såväl lärarens undervisning som barnens lärande och utveckling. Dock framkommer det att det finns aktuella svårigheter som upplevs av respondenterna, vilket i sin tur begränsar användandet av IKT i fritidshem.

  • 58.
    Goerge, Jean
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Anpassning av undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar: En kvalitativ studie med fyra lågstadielärare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På 1990-talet började man tala om inkludering i skolan, vilket innebär att skolan anpassar undervisningen utifrån elevernas möjligheter och behov. Denna studie handlar om hur lågstadielärare anpassar undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur anpassningen av undervisningen ser ut i klassrummet och vilka resultat anpassningen ger.

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie med fenomenologisk ansats. Datainsamlingen skedde genom samtalsintervjuer med fyra lågstadielärare. Resultatet visar att samtliga lärare dagligen arbetar med anpassningen av undervisningen för att alla elever ska kunna nå utbildningsmålen och att de anser att detta arbetssätt är positivt. Dock har lärarna stödfunktioner i form av extra vuxna personer i klassrummet i varierande grad. De flesta av lärarna känner att det inte finns tillräckligt med resurser för att de ska kunna arbeta med inkludering på det sättet som de önskar. Lärarna anpassar undervisningen genom att variera den. Variationerna består av att förklara instruktioner på olika sätt eller att ha lektioner utomhus eller i en annan sal. Lärarna varierar även undervisningen med att sjunga, måla, rita och leka, vilket de tycker ger goda resultat.

  • 59.
    Gran, Lillian
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Molstad, Christina Elde
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Digital Bildung: Norwegian Students' Understanding of Teaching and Learning with ICT2019Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 14, nr 1-2, s. 23-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to elaborate on how students perceive their own learning and democratic development in relation to their digital interactions and competencies. This paper seeks an understanding of students' perspectives on digital Bildung. We investigate these issues by comparing different notions of Bildung perspectives among young students from four Norwegian schools. The study consists of interviews with 12 focus groups of 3 students in each. The results indicate that the students experienced unwanted interference by the teachers during the school day, and that they felt a lack of democratic involvement in social conflicts, digital usages and other daily forms of decision-making. Further, the interviews indicated that students perceived their teachers as biased when it came to helping students in situations of bullying or other relationship challenges. In investigating digital interactions and competencies among Norwegian students, we identified a visible gap in the notion of Bildung and identity development between the students and the teachers. This finding suggests a need to further discuss the role of students in creating a better school system based on democratic ideals.

  • 60.
    Gustafsson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Wow!! Kunde man göra så?: En observationsstudie om Minecraft education edition i fritidshem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 61.
    Gustavsson Lock, Elin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Flodin, Jessie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Lär med kroppen, det fastnar i knoppen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om förskollärares förhållningssätt till utomhuspedagogik2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka förskollärares definition, erfarenheter och tankar om utomhuspedagogik. Vilka möjligheter och hinder anser lärarna att det finns med pedagogiken och vilken påverkan deras syn kan ha för barns meningsskapande. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med fem förskollärare från tre förskolor och dokumenteras med ljudinspelning. Studien utgår från ett postmodernistiskt perspektiv med John Deweys teori om learning by doing. Resultatet analyseras för att tydliggöra vilken betydelse utomhuspedagogikens aspekter kan ha för barns meningsskapande. Studien visar att förskollärarna har en bredare syn på utomhuspedagogik i jämförelse med hur de definierar begreppet. En möjlig slutsats är att lärarna kan bidra till ett bredare meningsskapande hos barnen om de arbetar med pedagogiken på det sätt som resultatet visar om möjligheter och hinder. Studien visar att lärarna anser att det finns både möjligheter och hinder med utomhuspedagogik och en möjlig slutsats är att lärarnas förhållningssätt till utomhuspedagogik har stor betydelse för hur pedagogiken används och vilket meningsskapande det blir för barnen. En övergripande slutsats av studien är att om barn får kunskap och möjlighet att reflektera om de positiva effekterna av utevistelse kan de ha relevans för barnens förhållningssätt i framtiden.

  • 62.
    Hallqvist, Susann
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Larsson, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Syften med bild i fritidshem: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem lärare i fritidshem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att bildskapande kan användas på många olika sätt. I fritidshemmet är

    det vanligt att man utgår ifrån läroplanen när man planerar aktiviteter som rör bild.

    Även elevers intressen och behov ligger till grund för hur man arbetar. Utifrån de syften

    pedagoger har med en bildaktivitet formas aktiviteten. Med hjälp av denna studie ville

    vi få en djupare förståelse för varför fritidslärare arbetar med bild. Ämnet har

    undersökts genom intervjuer med fem lärare i fritidshem. Resultatet visar att

    bildaktiviteter i fritidshemmet kan användas för att ge elever utvecklad förståelse för

    människors olika förutsättningar och att elevernas intresse ofta ligger till grund för vilka

    aktiviteter som genomförs. Även pedagogens utbildning i och intresse av bild påverkar

    arbetet.

  • 63.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Johansson, Björn
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Analysis of Links Between Bullying Victimization and Psychosomatic Maladjustment in Swedish Schoolchildren2018Inngår i: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 86-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional studies of bullying mask variability in categories of and persistence of bullying victimization. Longitudinal, individual-level data offers a greater insight into schoolchildren’s psychosomatic maladjustment as a consequence of bullying. Swedish schoolchildren (n = 3,349), with unique identifiers, in 44 schools (4th–9th grade), answered a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Longitudinal trends for nonvictims (88%), ceased victims (4.7%), new victims (5.7%), and continuing victims (1.6%) revealed that new victims had the largest decrease in well-being; continuing victims had a smaller though not significant decrease; while ceased victims showed a small, (nonsignificant) increase in well-being over the measurement period. It was also discovered that children not bullied at baseline but bullied subsequently, differed, at baseline, from their never-bullied peers through lower levels of overall well-being. It is argued that this finding has implications for prevention strategies.

  • 64.
    Ilstad, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Genuspedagogiskt förhållningssätt i förskolan: En intervju- och observationsstudie om arbete, bemötande och miljö2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur genuspedagogisk verksamhet bedrivits inom förskolan tidigare och om arbetet fortgår samt utvecklas. Studien har sin bakgrund i ett jämställdhetsprojekt inom förskolan och utgår från intervjuer och observationer inom sex förskolor i Mellansverige. Studiens syfte är att undersöka om arbetet med genuspedagogik har fortskridit inom förskolan, hur arbetet ser ut i dag, i vilken utsträckning en arbetar med genuspedagogik samt vilken kunskap som finns inom verksamheten. Det som framträder är att majoriteten av de förskolor som undersöks i studien inte arbetar med genuspedagogisk verksamhet trots att kravet för detta finns i läroplanen för förskolan. Det framgår också att kunskapen om genuspedagogik inte är utbredd hos personalen på de förskolor som undersöks i studien och att det finns få resurser insatta i arbetet om genus. Studien visar också att de som arbetar med genuspedagogiskt arbete utför arbetet ingående och aktivt. Deras arbete utvecklas fortlöpande och tas upp vid planering av verksamheten samt täcker alla områden inom verksamheten med ett genusperspektiv.

  • 65.
    Jansson, Sanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Avbrott från lärarutbildningen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om studenters orsaker till avbrott från lärarutbildningar vid Mittuniversitetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 66.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Once upon a threshold: A narrative study of three men in their twenties and their experiences of violating the norms of a heteronormative school environment2016Inngår i: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, s. 98-98Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The school takes part in reproducing societal norms and values, something that is seen as a natural part of its culture-transferring mission. Some of these norms and values ​​can be explained by the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity, which aims to elucidate the norms and structures that emphasize heterosexuality as normal, making other sexual orientations deviant. Discrimination of non-heterosexual people in school as a place has slowly decreased in recent years (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2014). However, that does not mean that the discrimination has been reduced in school as an environment, yet instead it has found expression through new ways such as through the Internet and through telephone/texting. This study aims to elucidate the experiences of students who commit norm violations of heteronormativity and thus exposed to the risk of discrimination due to non-heterosexuality, this is to increase the understanding of students’ experiences of a heteronormative school environment.

    The study was conducted through a narrative approach and narratives as method (Johansson, 2006). Three interviews were conducted with males identifying as non-heterosexuals. The theoretical framework that built the analysis consisted of the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity as part of the environment and as an influencing factor in students ' socialization (Ambjörnsson, 2006). The students’ produces and reproduces norms about gender identity through socialization, making certain kinds of masculinity normal thus leads other masculinities to become deviant. The narratives have also been analyzed through Connell's (2008) concept of hegemonic masculinity, which intends to describe the power structures nature and function within and between different masculinities.

    The result shows that discrimination does not need to depend on actual homosexuality but also even suspected, or materialized, homosexuality. The results also indicates something that I have chosen to call homo-hatred, where hatred is displayed by non- heterosexuals towards others who identify as or are suspected of being non-heterosexual, despite the own sexual orientation.It has been interpreted as them kicking sideways instead of kicking upwards within the power structures of masculinities, which may be a natural reaction for the students ‘survival’. Sports seem to function as a marker of heterosexuality, where the distinctions between masculinities are made visible and the violations of heteronormativity becomes tense. Conclusions drawn from these interpretations were that the consequences or meaning of norm violations may shift over time and doesn’t necessarily need to be negative for the student, even if they were perceived as negative when they occurred.

  • 67.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Queer/ed or Questioning Refugee Youth’s Negotiations of Safe Spaces and Places in the Nordics.2019Inngår i: NERA 2019 - 47th Congress: Education in a Globalized World, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topicDuring the last couple of years, Sweden, the other Nordics countries as well as many others have welcomed refugees due to a global refugee crisis (The UN Refugee Agency, 2018). Many of these refugees flee due to war but some of them flee due to e.g. persecution, oppression and violence. This pilot study is a part of an international project which focuses on how to better understand queer/ed or questioning refugee youth and how they negotiate their communities. It is a community-oriented examination of the spaces and places that these youth value and feel as though they are valued. The purpose of the pilot study is to more deeply understand how marginalized youth positively negotiate everyday oppressions and vulnerabilities in their communities in Sweden.

    Theoretical frameworkThe theoretical framework stems from scholars on space and place, where these concepts are understood not only as physical characteristics and markers but also the inherently messy sets of ideas, ideals, histories, peoples, practices, and contexts that combine to characterize their particularities (Cresswell, 2004; Massey, 1995). The framework also includes queer geography theory which is the theorization on of how space and sexuality has been studied with reference to what sexualities and what activities are accepted in which places (e.g. Brown, 2000). This theorization also includes concepts of heteronormativity, homonormativity, queer spaces and queering places.

    Methodological designThe multimodal approach of this pilot study consists of both focus group interviews and visual ethnographies. Interviews offer an insight on participants’ perceptions, experiences, narratives or interpretations on the issues stressed in this paper. Visual ethnography draws upon audiovisual media’s unique ability to share insights about people and places on multiple registers –discursive, embodied, spatial etc. (e.g. Pink, 2013). The visual ethnographies where the participants will use available technologies (mobile devices) to create video recordings of the spaces and places they value in their communities. These recordings together with the interviews will thus help us in how to better understand refugee youth and queer/ed or questioning refugee youth and how they negotiate their communities within Nordic contexts.

    Expected findingsAnalyses are still in the initial phase, but some preliminary findings point to the significance that the 262informants assign to visual markers such as rainbow-colored flags. Another finding made were complexities of “being out” in Sweden versus in their native country, where although they faced more discrimination there they experience themselves as more closeted in their new communities compared to their former ones.

    ReferencesBrown, M.P. (2000). Closet Space: Geographies of Metaphor from the Body to the Globe. London: Routledge.

    Cresswell, T. (2004). Place: A Short Introduction. Malden, MA: Blackwell.Massey, D. (1995). Imagining the World. In: Allen, J. & Massey, D. (ed.), The Shape of the Worl: Explorations in Human Geography. Vol. 1, Geographical Worlds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Pink, S. (2013). Doing Visual Ethnography. Washington DC: SAGE Publication.

    The UN Refugee Agency (2018). Overview Northern Europe. From: https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/

  • 68.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik. Pedagogik .
    The risk of nonperformativity of LGBT-certifications of Swedish schools2016Inngår i: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, s. 99-100Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different regulating documents that are supposed to control Swedish schools in an anti-discriminating way, such as the Discrimination Act and policies for Equal Opportunities and Fair treatment, but discrimination of LGBTQ-students is still a part of school environments (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2015). There has been a lot of research done that has tried to draw upon the daily struggles of these students within school environments in Sweden, my master thesis included (Johansson, 2015). In the middle of November 2015, Sweden obtained its first LGTBQ-certified upper secondary school, a kind of certification that has become more and more popular during the last decade in other types of organizations. It’s a 16 hour education spread throughout 1 year to withhold the certification, where the entire school staff is educated in anti-oppressive methods both through the organization of the school and the interaction with students (RFSL, 2015). Since this certification is a relatively new part of the discourse of anti-discrimination within school, I find it interesting to examine. I ask myself why we need this. Shouldn’t the current regulating documents be enough? Why do the schools feel the need to do it? What may the motif behind the certification be? Why now? The issue has been a school issue for a long time, the certification of other organizations has been done the last decade. The aim of this study is to elucidate and analyze the speech of LBGTQ-certifications of Swedish schools and also investigate its possible consequences. To attempt in straightening my question marks, I want to try to answer another set of questions, namely; i) How is the LGBTQ-certification expressed? ii) What meaning is given these certifications? and iii) What may the consequences be?

    The approach to these questions will be a critical discourse analysis. Critical discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse that views language as a form of social practice. Linguistic practice and social practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use. The study object will be the anti-discriminating discourse with a focus on the speech of the LGBTQ-certifications, both the documents from the certifiers and the speech of the certified schools. Using Faircloughs (1992) model of critical discourse analysis, I want to elucidate and analyze the texts creating the certifications, the anti-discriminating discourse practices used through the certification and also try to problematize and discuss their possible consequences in the social practices within Swedish schools. The analysis will be conducted through concepts of performativity and nonperformativity which is aimed to show how repetition and a practice within discourses do or do not produce what they’re actually speaking of. When speech of for example anti-discrimination circulates within an institution it can create an illusion that the speech follows or is followed by action. Sometimes these speech acts may hide the fact that the speech, in this case “we are LGBT-certified”, doesn’t necessarily result in any action what so ever.

    The discourse of LGBT-certification, as a part of the anti-discriminating discourse, is written and expressed through the framework of social justice and equality and equity for all. To be LGBT-certified is something that schools of Sweden is supposed to be proud over. The institutional speech act of “We’re LGBT-certified” though is something that could be suspected becoming a non-performative, expressed but not followed by action and therefore not handling the issues constituting the very existence of these certifications. However, it is fair to say that the certification will lead to some sort of action, since its’ supposed to give the staff of the school a new approach. If so, the action due to the certification is also interesting to explore. What possible consequences could this new approach lead to?

  • 69.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University, Elverum, Norway.
    School certification: marketing schools by appearance2019Inngår i: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] Elde Mølstad, C. & Pettersson, D., London & New York: Routledge, 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explains an activity that can be classed as a technology of appearance in Sweden – namely different kinds of certification. It demonstrates that the activity of certification has been established as a way for schools to become visible in a competitive field of free school choice. The chapter describes the process of LGBTQ certification and examines how it is used in the larger Swedish educational discourse. Acquiring LGBTQ certification is a one-year process that is divided into different steps and has two parallel parts: education in LGBTQ issues and anti-oppressive education and change management. The purpose of certification often seems to be to visualise the school as modern and keeping up with what is perceived as the most important social areas of development. The process of obtaining certification is followed by means of data obtained from websites, social media accounts and interviews with school actors published in local and national newspapers.

  • 70.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Mølstad, Christina Elde
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences - INN University, Norway.
    School Certification: Marketing Schools by their Appearance2018Inngår i: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress : Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, s. 110-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-1990’s the Swedish School system, as well as others, has developed a closer connection between education, economy and the market as a consequence of neoliberal reforms (Fernández, 2012; Dahlstedt, 2007). Coming with neoliberal reforms is a movement of decentralisation of school systems making marketing and concurrence a natural part of the educational landscape which can be seen in most OECD countries. However, Sweden as a case makes an especially interesting example because of the intensity of this development. Today in Sweden, this can even be seen in discussing education in terms of a ‘local school market’ (Lundahl, 2002; 2010). In this new educational logic students’ have been given the role of customers enabling them to choose between schools, at the same time forcing schools to compete against each other to attract students’ (Lund, 2006; Norén, 2003). To do so, schools has developed different marketing technologies to illuminate themselves as the best option on the market or to ‘sell themselves by appearance’. These technologies are manifold such as websites, specific bonuses if choosing a school e.g. computers or summer camps, promises of a successful future due to grade rate at the schools, but also a practice of selling the schools by various certifications has appeared. Certifications are constructed in different ways and highlight different aspects with an outspoken purpose of attracting the youths of today. ‘Green certifications’ have been around for a while and the latest observed are certifications saying that the school and all the personnel are certified for knowing e.g. gender- and gay-rights. The purpose of certifications is often marketed as a way for illustrating that the school is modern and keeping up with societal developments. In order to analyse the new technology of certification as part of a new educational logic the paper historicise on institutional speech acts and different ‘styles of reasoning’ (Hacking, 1992) evident in the school contexts of today. Even though the case is Sweden with its specific characteristics, the analysis show that a lot of the trajectories have importance on a global scale. What is especially elaborated on is how appearance as a market logic with its specific technologies is directed towards individuals and as such come to play a part of educational governance. By elaborating on the phenomenon of appearance, in terms of certifications, some changes in the educational landscape can be highlighted, where marketing for individuals is more emphasized than marketing for groups and by that changes traditional historical reasoning on schooling.

  • 71.
    Järdeholm, Johanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Gavlén, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Planerad fysisk aktivitet i förskolan och förskoleklassen: En komparativ studie mellan förskola och förskoleklass2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet är fundamentalt för barns motoriska utveckling. Enligt WHO har barns fysiska aktivitet minskat. Eftersom barn spenderar stora delar av sin vardag i förskola, förskoleklass och skola spelar tillgängligheten för fysisk aktivitet i respektive institution alltså en stor roll i barns hälsa, både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra arbetet med planerad fysisk aktivitet mellan förskola och förskoleklass. Genomförande av studien har gjort via enkäter där legitimerade förskollärare i tio förskolor och tio skolor har deltagit. Resultatet visar att de medverkande förskoleklasserna har mer planerad fysisk aktivitet än de medverkande förskolorna. Det gäller antal gånger i veckan, hur många timmar samt längden på utförda fysiska aktiviteter. De påvisade sambanden i resultatet visar både på signifikanta och ickesignifikanta samband. Då studien omfattat både signifikanta och ickesignifikanta samband kan därför inga generella slutsatser kring vilken institution som utövar mest planerade fysiska aktiviteter analyseras fullt ut. Utifrån resultatet av denna studie framgår det att både förskollärarna i de medverkande förskolorna och förskoleklasserna planerar och utför planerade fysiska aktiviteter varje vecka men att frekvens och aktivitetstyp varierar i de båda institutionerna.

  • 72.
    Kahn Zeidan, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Bildskapande och konstmöten i förskolan.: En kvalitativ studie av fem förskollärares inställning och roll till bildskapande och konstmöten, och dess plats i förskolan.2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka några förskollärares inställningar till barns bildaktiviteter och konstmöten i förskolan,och söka samband till hur ämnet enligt dem tar plats i verksamheten.Genom studien söks också inblick i deras egen syn på vald roll när bildaktiviteter utförs och konstmöten skapas i den pedagogiska verksamheten.Metoden för studien är kvalitativ och fem intervjuer har utförts.Resultatet visar att samtliga intervjuade förskollärare ser bildskapande och konstmöten som betydelsefullt och viktigt för barns utveckling.Resultatet visade att ämnet ofta fungerar som estetisk lärprocess för matematik,musik och biologi.Rollerna som förskollärarna väljer i samband med ämnet är varierande och en osäkerhet verkar finnas om vad som är pedagogiskt.Under studiens gång framkommer att konstmöten är svårare att berätta om och relatera till.Konstmöten utanför verksamheten uteblir även på fyra av de fem förskolorna.

  • 73.
    Kalinnikova, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Different roads to the same target: inclusion through exclusion?2019Inngår i: Conference book, 2019, artikkel-id 249858Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies were undertaken in former Soviet republics: Ukraine and Moldova. The first study in 2012-2015 was investigating how families with impaired children experience their lives in societies with transition economies, meeting conditions of poverty. As a result of this study, crucial factors, constituting poverty in these families were analysed and identified as a multi-dimensional issue ‘for understanding the holistic picture of disaster and hardship leading families with ChildrenwithDisabilities (ChDis) to poverty'(4). The research study has shown that special education as an area of social exclusion and segregation of ChDis and their families, rooted in the principle of socialist humanism and ‘DefectologicalEducationalModel (DEM)' (2), played a significant role in the reproduction of poverty in these families. Historical dominance of social exclusion through DEM segregation for disabled learners in the Soviet ideological context, currently is recognised as ‘unrealized utopia' (2). Inclusive movement is met as a meaningful challenge in education, generating resistance from families. The second study started in 2019, investigating inclusion in the same countries, adding Sweden as EU country (1, 3). All the data will be analysed corresponding to contextual circumstances, contributing to further illumination of the research question - if social inclusion in life could be reached through segregation in school?

    References:

    • Berhanu G. (2014). Special education today in Sweden. Special Education International Perspectives: Practice Across the Glob. Advances in Special Education.V.28:209-241.
    • Kalinnikova L., Trygged S. (2014). Retrospect on Care and Denial of Children with Disabilities in Russia. Scandinavian journal on disability research. V.16(3):229-248.
    • Rosenqvist, J. (1986). Psychisch geschädigte Personen und ihre Arbeitsmöglichkeiten in der DDR, in der Bundesrepublik und in Schweden. Eine komparative Studie. Didakometrie und Soziometrie (Malmö, Schweden: Lehrerhochschule), Nr29.
    • Kalinnikova Magnusson, L. (2016). Scientific Report Project title: «Human resources in poverty and disability: family perspective (Moldova and Ukraine)»: Popular description of the project. http://hig.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A931679&dswid=7622
  • 74.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    AAC: meeting Event in life span longitude2017Inngår i: / [ed] Professor Doru VIad Popovici, PhD, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Development of AAC theory and practice has contributed to a powerful change of professional consciousness among AAC experts, bringing new requests and requirements to more complex issues among which ethics has been lifted up and mainstreamed. The aim of the present research is to enter the analysis of the core issues of fundamental professional ethical codes in the light of alternative and augmentative communication; to bring contribution into the “normative” integrated interdisciplinary fundamental ethical principles from the perspective of “meeting with unique AAC-user context”. The research methodology is built upon the study of scientific sources, systematized by international electronic data bases and includes an interdisciplinary approach to its collection. Phenomenology and hermeneutics are the basic research methodology to collect and analyze data. A case study of the family context, where deaf parents are upbringing blind child, is taken as a representative part for the discussion. The primary determinant for the intervention strategy was defined as family-centered, based on conceptual principles of Enabling and Empowering Families and Effective help-giving in the early intervention program. Badiou’s theory of ethics and its dimensions of ‘truth’ as a ‘truth’ of the Event were used for the interpretation of ethics of a unique AAC context. The structure of the values forms a meaningful basis for mutual understanding between professionals, family members and professional community in a wider perspective. The success of the AAC implementation as a new discipline is dependent on how all together researchers, professionals and the AAC-users could act ethically developing common understandings, beliefs and values meeting Event in life span longitude.

  • 75.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Challenges Arising From the "Red" and the "White" Special Education Legacy2017Inngår i: 15th Biennial International Association of Special Education (IASE) Conference: Addressing the Exceptional Needs of the Whole Child and Young Adult: Embracing the Future, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soviet Russia and Apartheid South Africa implemented special education under conditions of strong state control. These regimes left a legacy of challenges to current governments in developing inclusive education. We explore these challenges by studying the "red" and the "white" legacy to better understand contextual influences on special and inclusive education.

  • 76.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Costs of AAC: methodology of time, space, tools and values2017Inngår i: 11th ECER AAC Conference Program / [ed] Professor Doru VIad Popovici, PhD, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite AAC being many-faced/interdisciplinary scientifically and practically with its own about 40 years history, it is dominantly seen through the methodology of communication as a central phenomenon and, specifically, the development/implementation of “communicative instruments” for those who have special communicative needs.

    At the same time methodology of ACC has its cost dimension, which has its fundamental presence in each AAC case in the forms of time, space, individual tools and values. Special needs require support/help and demand for external resources. Environmental response, hopefully provided by a welfare system, becomes a natural and important substitutional societal effort for those with special needs (children and adults). The AAC-effort in its cost dimension has its multilevel structure, where macro-, mezo- and micro- levels are representing specific “life world contexts”, and are often leading families of AAC users to social and economic impoverishment. Such issues of support as service accessibility, quality, regularity, etc. are key aspects of this support and are costly for many societies internationally. AAC, as a communicative tool (low or high technology), comes with a price even though its form might be unclear.     

    All the ECER AAC networking countries have ratified main international documents regarding the rights of children and people with disabilities, professional ethics for establishing national platforms of values toward those who need extra societal resources for human being existence etc, stressing AAC needs. What solutions could be found to diminish the gap between the “declaration” and its “implementation”?   The presentation is aiming to focus on the discussion around this question.

  • 77.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Differences as a source of development. Some lessons from Vygotsky for culturally diverse learning milieu2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 78.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Experience of Inclusion in Higher Education in One of the Swedish Industrial Cities in the North (the University of Gävle)2019Inngår i: Promoting the Social Inclusion of Youth and Access to Labour Markets: Experiences in Finland, Sweden, and Russia / [ed] Riekkinen M., Kalinnikova Magnusson L., Miuller N., Varlamov G., Antipov A., Kirillova K., Prokopchik M., Gorokhova I., Åbo: Åbo Akademi University, Institute for Human Rights , 2019, 1, s. 16-26Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on understanding the Nordic, Bologna-based platform for inclusive higher education of students with SEN and the implementation of this platform according to the Swedish program of NAIS on national and local (University of Gävle) operational levels. The analysis of Bologna documents shows that expansion of inclusive processes in European HE represents a ‘social dimension in education’ and is essential to the implementation of the Bologna Declaration.

    Inclusion of students with SEN has approximately a 50-year history, and the foundation of the University of Gävle is the result of the diversification of Swedish HE in the 1960–70s. A systematic special education support service for students with SEN in Sweden has developed during the last two decades. During this period, educational support for students’ service of the University of Gävle has become an integral part of the well-functioning network among several Swedish national actors: special education services of HEIs, UHR, SPSM27 and Stockholm University. Remaining autonomous in carrying out their functions, coordinators of the educational support service at the University of Gävle cooperate with other Swedish universities and develop their high-quality professionalism.

    Examining the theoretical foundation engendered conceptual approaches to understanding inclusion in HEIs from both individual and institutional perspectives. Responding to the expansion and belief in the fundamental value of inclusion for European HE, the Swedish Council for Higher Education (UHR) initiated the development of a new program for standardizing different aspects of the inclusion of students with SEN in HEIs, creating NAIS and started its cross-country university functional network implementation in 2017, linking it with 32 HEIs all over Sweden. Introduction to this study data, collected by the NAIS program, is of great interest for the further development of university and societal knowledge about the inclusion of young people with special educational needs in HEIs. The questions discussed and formulated in this paper reveal that understanding inclusion in HE requires further investigation.

  • 79.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Power influence in disability: gender aspect: Ideas from Sweden as applied on present situation in Russia2017Inngår i: : , 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 80.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik. UCRS, Uppsala University, Uppsala ; Center of Excellence “Choices of Modernisation”, University of Helsinki, Helsinkii, Finland.
    Presentation of the idea to contribute to the project, based on the case of Archangelsk region (Russia)2016Inngår i: : , 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 81.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Promoting social inclusion of youth in the northern industrial towns: xperiences in Finland, Sweden and Russia2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The summary of the project:

    This project targets youth and youth associations, academicians,and public authorities by focusing on youth social inclusion in thecontext of Northern industrial towns (in Finland, Sweden, andRussia). The aim is to raise awareness in Russia of implementingyouth rights, taking into account the best Nordic inclusivepractices. We aim to establish multistakeholder collaboration onyouth rights in Northwest Russia and to elaborate a deliberativeyouth coping strategy as well as drafts of legislation andprogramme documents to be oered for public authorities. We relyon multistakeholder initiative by bringing to the dialogue all thementioned stakeholders. The project will also promote sustainableacademic collaboration between the University of Gavle (Sweden),Abo Akademi University (Finland), Immanuel Kant Baltic FederalUniversity (BFU, Kaliningrad, Russia), the University of Pskov(Russia), and the Saint Petersburg State University of Economics(UNECON, Russia). The implementing body consists ofinterdisciplinary team calling together lawyers, specialists inpedagogics and education, as well as social scientists all of whichapproach the said topic from the angle of human rights. We willutilize the techniques of information distribution and sharing viasocial and local media as well as dialogue interaction in the mode ofmultistakeholder meetings. We plan a series of internationaleducational workshops, joint funding applications, training forRussian researchers in Nordic partner universities, as well as the 5ECTS course for the M.A. level students at BFU. Public authorities(regional child ombudsmen) and youth public associations (regionalyouth public chambers) will be involved in discussions during theseevents. Our project will reveal the urgency of updating Russianlegislation and practices in order to circumscribe traditionalpaternalistic approach towards governing youth. This project willstrengthen co-operation between our institutions; communicationbetween regional child ombudsmen and regional youth chambers;provide exchange of information and awareness- raising amongyouth and general public; foster the establishment of strongernetworks and transfer of experiences.

  • 82.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Scientific Report   Project title: «Human resources in poverty and disability: family perspective (Moldova and Ukraine)»: Popular description of the project2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project was investigating how families with impaired children experience their lives in societies with transition economies, meeting conditions of poverty [2012-2014, Moldova, Ukraine].

  • 83.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Segregation for inclusion?: Special education and child disability in the Soviet special education history2019Inngår i: Book of abstracts, 2019, artikkel-id 108Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Special education development internationally is lifting up several issues for better understanding the roots of inclusive education as a theory and a practice. Ratification and acceptance of international documents in different aspects of disability, forces countries to pay attention to national particularities for further implementation of inclusion in education. National special education systems have their unique socio-cultural patterns, developed out of research ideas and societal traditions. To understand inclusive education as a theory and a practice means to understand the socio-cultural nature of special education and the role of it as ‘a cultural mediator’ between children with disabilities and society. Formation of the soviet system of special education was reinforced by an extreme ideological belief in pedagogical methods of forming/correcting/re-upbringing future citizens, ideas of which were embedded in the fundamentals of defectology as an integrative science. Officially, defectology was never recognized as a science among social and humanitarian sciences in the national classifier of sciences, but played one of the key roles, studying ‘child disability’ and ‘special education’ for them. Presentation will be focused on some issues of ‘child disability’ and special education, which were central for soviet defectology, interpreting them by the history of ideas methodology

  • 84.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Special Education: Traditions and Transitions (experience from neighboring non EU countries)2016Inngår i: Engineering, Education and Psychology, Conference Program Guide, Engineering Information Institute, 2016, s. 18-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Moldavian and Ukrainian societies are deconstructing traditional (inherited) welfare institutions, being under extremely complicated transformative challenges, struggling with economical burdens, polarization and poverty affection.  Deconstruction of the “old” system of special education towards inclusion is one challenge. A process of constituting “new” systems of education, making attempts to embed special education in mainstream education, is acknowledging deinstitutionalization as an inevitable stage of this process. When poverty affects this process, different types of resistance from families of children with disabilities appear. Historically and ideologically the Soviet system of special education was constructed based upon the earliest social projects where the state took full responsibility for children with special needs, satisfying their basic needs, accommodating them in special institutions. It means that families of children with disabilities were treated by the state as those who need permanent social-economical support. Critically reflecting upon the inherited system of special education it is evident that several generations of children grown out of becoming parents themselves, accepted this system as extra resources. In the current situation of market liberalization and economical polarization, these parents, protecting their children from family economic burdens are turning to the “old” system, resisting against a process of inclusion. They “intentionally put” their children in these special education institutions, because of the importance of the extra resources of special educational institutions for their children. These families are risking of reproducing a family poverty circle. The other negative effect of this process is a rather big number of special needs children who have not reached mainstream inclusive schools because of the lack of family resources (when special institutions get closed). My research is focusing on what ways could be worked out to overcome traditional assistance of special education (closed institutions) for children with special needs as a system which reproduces unfreedoms in poverty and disability.

    What transformative models of special education could be developed out of traditional forms?

    How to transform special education resources in mainstream education, keeping care of those children with special needs, whose families have stable economical burdens?

  • 85.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Substitution of shortage services: Habilitation resources in low income families with hearing impaired children2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 86.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Universal design for learning and AAC: didactics of inclusiveteaching/learning settings2019Inngår i: Abstracts: 12th ECER-AAC Conference "AAC All Day", 1-3 July, 2019, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2019, s. 6-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Universal design for learning (UDL) is a well known theoretical platform, which isresponding to the issues of how to implement inclusion in everyday classroom based onteaching/learning settings regardless of learners’ age, whether small children or adults. UDLtries to unite the idea of reaching all students/learners and using a broad spectrum of didacticalmethods among teachers. Several basic dimensions will be introduced and discussed:1. Provision of multiple means of representation (what alternatives of the instruction to learnerscould be performed, and what is the role of the AAC means, etc.).2. Multiple means of action and expression (how students could ‘deliver’ their learning outputsand their AAC aids, etc.).3. Optimisation of multiple means of engagement (meanings of values, autonomy, demandsand interaction among learners, etc.).4. Importance of translation and interpretation (how do learners and teacher understand eachother).AAC is perfectly suited to demonstrate the effectiveness of Universal design for learning andteaching. The presentation will give increate examples of this by video materials.

  • 87.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Bodorin, Cornelia
    PSU named after I. Creange (Republic of Moldova).
    Habilitation resources in families with hearing impaired children: substitution and complementation of shortage services (Republic of Moldova)2017Inngår i: TILTAI, ISSN 1392-3137, Vol. 77, nr 2, s. 11-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Habilitation of children with hearing impairment is becoming an integral part of the education system in Republic of Moldova, which remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. The research data presented in this article show that accessibility to education for children with disabilities is full of contradictions. The research focuses on the ongoing reform of special education and assesses the adaptation of democratic values in education from the perspective of habilitation. The families involved in this research were low income full families who had a school age children with hearing impairment, lived in an urban environment of the big city and experienced shortage of services for their children. The assumption was taken, that in search for solution these families tend to compensate for the lack of services by self-creating the resources of habilitation. Results of the qualitative research highlighted two problems: social and economic. The essence of these problems – management of social stigmatization through realization of habilitation resources as a mean to compensate and replenish the lack of services. Research data also revealed the necessity of further construction and conceptualisation of habilitation resources.

  • 88.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Risenqvist, Jeremias
    Development of special education in Moldova: paradoxes as to inclusion2020Inngår i: Dialogues between Northern and Eastern Europe on the Development of Inclusion : Theoretical and practical perspectives / [ed] Natallia B Hanssen, Kristina Ström, Sven-Erik Hansèn & Vera Khitruk, England: Routledge, 2020Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries of Central Eastern Europe despite their common colonial, nazi racism and communist ideological pressure background have experienced a nexus of local challenges toward inclusion. In the 1990s the ‘trail to inclusion’ was fully “…riddled with uncertainness, disputes and contradictions”. The overall trend of a response to the development of inclusion in these countries gained its certainty “within the context of general educational provision” and reforms under the influence and adoption of the Salamanca Statements and Framework of Actions in 1994. The latest generalization of research findings, investigated under the overall purpose of ‘what is known about inclusive education in Eastern Europe’ carried out by Stepaniuk in 2018, introduced inclusive education (within the time frame between 2005-2016) through the identification of a number of ‘barriers for inclusive education’ and ‘a policy-practice gap and responsibilities within systems’ in these countries. The investigation stressed that even though Eastern European and former Soviet states have filled their trails to inclusive education through a number of educational reforms, responding to Salamanca and other global statements in disability and education, the long-held beliefs, coloured by the inherited ideology of discrimination and exclusionary proprieties towards difference and disability – even though this is the fact, they have one of the strongest entrenched practice in this region.  

    However, diversification in current trails to inclusive education is a refraction of a broader spectrum of interconnections among political, economic and social circumstances in each country. The research investigation in the present article, will be focusing on Moldova’ context of social-cultural historical origins and political choices and practice, discussing educational arrangements towards inclusion.

    This is a qualitative study, with relevant peer review resources connected to the research question and national documents of educational reforms towards inclusion retrospectively and contemporary, analysed by a content analysis approach. This study utilises long term statistics completed by the respective international agencies as a result of regular monitoring of an implementation of educational reforms and the National Bureau of Statistics. Main findings were composed in three big themes: adaptation of the Soviet pattern of special education; ‘endemic stress’ of breaking the pattern and paradoxes of resolution

  • 89.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Walton, Elizabeth
    Wits school of education, Johanneburg University, South Africa.
    Challenges Arising From the Special Education Legacies in South Africa and Soviet Russia2017Inngår i: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 90.
    Kirsten, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Education.
    Wermke, Wieland
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik. Uppsala University, Department of Education.
    Governing teachers by professional development: state programmes for continuing professional development in Sweden since 19912017Inngår i: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 391-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article was to analyse how teachers's€™ continuing professional development (CPD) contributes to the government of the teaching profession. This is done by examining the CPD initiatives organized by two Swedish national educational agencies since 1991 involving the school subjects of Swedish (standard language education) and mathematics. Four programmes of professional development are identified in the investigated material, each motivated by specific conceptions of teachers and professional development. One important trend is that agency engagement in teachers’ CPD and school development has increased over time and that CPD programmes have become more prescriptive and elaborate in their use of evaluations. While this may result in a more standardized and centrally governed teaching profession, centrally governed initiatives could also provide teachers with professional arenas for developing ideas without being influenced by local school management.

  • 91.
    Larsson, Paula
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Bullying Prevention in a Swedish Municipality: Supported Decentralised Reasoning2018Inngår i: Forskning og Forandring, ISSN 2535-5279, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 66-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The national context of Sweden is particularly illustrative for international research, in that bullying and degrading treatment have been a central aspect of policy-making for some time. In Sweden, schools and municipalities are obliged to produce detailed action plans to counteract bullying. The aim of this study is to describe and analyse how practitioners in schools, during implementation of the Municipality Bullying Prevention Model (MBPM), change the way they work and apply decentralised reasoning to prevent bullying. This study makes use of an action-research approach. In the project, bullying prevention is addressed by the participating schools. The findings indicate that practitioners introduced various measures in different places and at different levels during implementation of the MBPM. It also became apparent that bullying prevention work needs to build on a school’s contextual knowledge and have a whole-school approach.

  • 92.
    Larsson, Paula
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Vardagsvåld, mobbning och mobbningsförebyggande arbete i svensk skolkontext2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two related phenomena - everyday violence and school bullying - are the subject of this thesis. The thesis's aim was to develop knowledge about everyday violence and bullying in school. The aim was also to develop knowledge about planning and bullying intervention in a local context. Three research questions were formulated that correspond to the aim of the thesis: How can everyday violence be conceptualized and understood? (Articles I and II), what changes can be seen in the school's internal work when a locally adapted anti-bullying model is initiated? (Article III) and what changes in the incidence of bullying can be seen in the schools in a municipality where a locally adapted anti-bullying model is implemented to prevent bullying? (Article VI). In the thesis exercises, a synthesis has been used to merge the results from the articles into an understanding of everyday violence and bullying from a social ecological perspective. The articles use different methods to get answers to the research questions because one method would probably not be enough to achieve the purpose of the thesis. This procedure is called mixed methods, which uses the combination of qualitative and quantitative data to get a better understanding of what is being studied. Thus, I have used mixed methods in the thesis exercises to get answers to the research questions of the thesis. The articles are used to gain knowledge of the phenomenon of everyday violence and bullying from a social ecological perspective. The articles were also used to gain knowledge about the school's bullying prevention work in a municipality and how bullying is understood in relation to everyday violence. Thus, a synthesis of the articles were made to gain additional knowledge, in addition to the research questions of the thesis that are answered in the articles.

    The social-ecological perspective was used in the thesis as a framework for studying both everyday violence and bullying. The perspective was used to describe everyday violence and bullying which in different ways affect the school. In order to achieve the aim of the thesis, two sub-studies were carried out, which are presented in four articles.

    The result in article I shows that the most common definition category of violence is hit. Although it is the most common definition, it is at the same time the least used among adults. The result also shows that there is a difference in how different groups, depending on age, define violence. The result in Article II shows that there is a gender difference between individuals' memories of violent events and that the place where most individuals remember violent events is in the schoolyard and the school environment. Article IV also shows that despite the schools implementing a model, it is difficult to prevent bullying. The result shows that the municipality model has not succeeded in reduce bullying in all participating schools. Based on the result, we can assume that the fact that the municipality launched a model does not mean that bullying in schools has decreased.

    The result is based on the understanding of everyday violence and bullying as an aspect of everyday violence. The school's internal work linked to bullying intervention is problematized. The articles and the thesis are discussed on the basis of a social-ecological framework.

  • 93.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Child- and subject orientation in Swedish preschool teachers’ practical reasoning2018Inngår i: ECER 2018, book of abstracts, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy for the Swedish preschool has successively adapted its goals in order to prepare for the school system. Åsén & Roth (2012) finds support for a change in Swedish preschool policy and practice towards the culture of school. Support for this change is also found in studies about Swedish preschool teachers increasingly highlighting learning as a basic activity in their work (e.g. Alatalo et al 2016; Alvestad & Berge 2009; Westman & Bergmark 2013; Löfdahl & Perez 2009). Such transformations of early childhood education is not unique for Sweden; tensions between child centered- and subject focused goals, has for a long time been a characteristic in early childhood curricula in Europe. This contribution intends to shed light on this curricular relationship through scrutinizing the professional talk of preschool teachers.

    Since 2011 “Teaching” has been established as a new mission in the preschool and since 2010 subjects like math, science and Swedish language has been added to the national syllabus. By adding these goals, Swedish preschool now shares some general goals with the preschool class – the latter in which most of six year old children participate – and the comprehensive school. However, the Swedish preschool still has to conduct the tradition of being child- and play centered, according to its national syllabus; thus being kept within boundaries as more or less distinct from the school system. Simultaneously, the current approaching to the school system has become more accentuated ever since the national syllabus was introduced 1998 (Folke Fichtelius 2008). Swedish preschool teachers attempts to include children’s interests while paying attention to the national goals is studied by Thörner (2016) focusing (mainly) on recorded everyday situations. An important issue is how these policy changes are approached by the professionals by highlighting on their professional reasoning, regarding the purpose of the preschool in their everyday work.

    In this paper, professional reasoning is approached from the perspective of teachers as social actors in everyday life, shaped by but also re-shaping, the policy context(s) of the preschool. An important dimension of the curriculum is constituted by teachers as curriculum makers (cf. Cuban 1992), in that every curriculum is dependent on how teachers interpret policy in relation to their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to investigate preschool teachers’ professional talk focusing on the relationship between child- and subject orientation. Discourse analysis will be used an analytic tool focusing on how everyday discourse people borrows from cultural repertoires stemming from a culture’s common-sense way of talking (Potter & Wetherell 1987). The reasoning of the preschool teachers will further analyzed in relation to the policy context foremost formulated on state- and municipal level during the conversation with the preschool teachers. 

    Method

    In order to address complexities of professional reasoning, qualitative interviews performed in the environment of the preschools was done (Potter & Wetherell 1987). 10 preschool teachers participated addressing their specific socio-geographic environment (approximately 50 minutes each). The volume of this sample has been judged as sufficient for the analytic purpose of discerning patterns of complex dilemmatic reasoning across both within individual interviews, and through comparison (of dilemmatic reasoning) between the teacher interviews.  In order to approach teachers’ everyday reasoning the interviews were designed as semi-structured conversations between the preschool teachers and me as a teacher educator, explicitly asking for access with the professional field. An interview guide was sent beforehand and read by all (except for one) preschool teachers before the interview was performed. The preschool teachers were informed about the project including their rights regarding participation, anonymization and proper storing of the data. Data was collected in a variety of social-cultural environments such as middle class areas with high amount cultural and economic capital (n=4/10); multi-ethnical areas with low(er) amount cultural and economic capital (n=5/10) and one mixed area regarding amount cultural and economic capital (n=1/10). 7 preschools was visited, whereof 3 preschools including 1 teacher responsible for educational development and 1 teacher without such a responsibility. However, no typical features characterized the preschool teachers with responsibility for educational development. The interviews were all transcribed verbatim. The interview guide addressed the preschool as preparing for school vs representing a tradition within its own right; experiences of the children vs focus on subject goals; how the preschool teacher was working with the school-like goals and how goals were documented; the latter addressing teacher everyday work (Sheridan et al 2011).  The interview transcript was read systematically, paying notice to relations regarding child, subject- and teacher orientations, i.e. themes where the teachers were focusing on basic values for preschool education. In the preliminary analysis of each interview, dilemmas on the (i) global level, i.e. through the whole transcript, and on (ii) local level within utterance and/or interaction sequence level, was focused.  In line with Potter & Wetherell (1987), discernment of characteristic linguistic repertoires recognizable from established pedagogical traditions has also been highlighted. Examples of linking the two dimensions were also noted.

    Expected Outcomes

    Regarding the purpose of the preschool, when the “child” and comparisons with school was topicalized, the preschool teacher´s draws on child-centered repertoires. Boundaries of child- respective subject centeredness are manifested when comparing preschool with school.  However, when school-like ”goals” in the syllabus is focused, teacher-centered repertoires were instead prominent, in which boundaries distinguishing preschool from school was dissolved. These opposing themes (cf. Wetherell et al. 2001) are mostly located in different contexts (within the individual interview) appearing as two different and parallel logics, rather than as one coherent logic. Thus, to address relations between preschool and school implied boundary talk, while addressing subject knowledge in the syllabus – sometimes related to future participation in school – did not. Dilemmatic tensions are also manifested locally i.e. within many sequences and utterances. Talk addressing the general purposes of preschool could be interpreted as local answers to top-down state policy due to its proper affirmations of different directives in the policy texts (cf. Biesta et al 2017).  However, connections between children’s experiences and school-like subjects were also formulated in the language of everyday work, such as listening for children’s initiatives and developing themes, more or less corresponding to content knowledge in the syllabus with interests within the group of children. This professional talk is expressed in temporal modes, like “first… and then” and focused on both children and the goals in the syllabus. Thus, the child- and subject foci do not appear only as separated but also as co-present and related to teacher judgement (Author 2014) when everyday professional work is addressed; i.e. themes of content knowledge and being continually sensitive to interests of the children. Such professional reasoning could be interpreted as creative ways of handling tensions implicitly present in the national syllabus, regarding the general purpose(s) of the preschool.

    References

    Alatalo, T, Meier, J & Frank, E (2016) Transition between preschool and preschool class: A question about interweaving care and Knowledge. Early Childhood Educational Journal, 44: 155.

    Alvestad, M & Berge, A (2009) Svenske førskolelærere om læring i planlegging og praksis relatert til den nasjonale læreplanen. [Swedish preschool teachers on planning and praxis in relation to the national syllabus]. Nordisk barnehageforskning [Nordic early childhood education research] (2), 57–68.

    Author (2014) ---------------

    Biesta, G, Priestley, M & Robinson, S (2017) Talking about education: exploring the significance of teacher´s talk for teacher agency. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 49:1, 38-54.

    Cuban, L (1992) Curriculum stability and change. In Jackson, Philip (ed.) Handbook of Research on Curriculum. American Educational Research Association, 216-247.

    Folke-Fichtelius, M (2008). Förskolans formande: statlig reglering 1944-2008. [The shaping of preschool. State regulation 1944-2008] Diss. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet.

    Löfdahl, A & Pérez, H (2009) Between control and resistance: planning and evaluation texts in the Swedish preschool. Journal of Education Policy, 24, 4, 393-408.

    Potter, J & Wetherell, M (1987) Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage.

    Sheridan, S, Williams, P Sandberg, A & Vourinen (2011) Preschool teaching in Sweden – a profession in change. Educational Research, 53: 4, 415-437.

    Thörner, A (2016) ”Vi kan inte bara utgå från barnens intresse”. Pedagogers guidning av barns intresse i förhållande till förskolans målstyrning. [”We cannot only base it on the children's interest” - Educators guidance of children's interest in relation to goals and guidelines.] Högskolan i Borås.

    Westman, S & Bergmark, U (2014) A stengthened teaching mission in preschool: teachers´experiences, beliefs and strategies. International journal of early years education. Vol. 22, No. 1, 73-88. 

    Wetherell, M,Taylor, S & Yates,S (2001) Discourse as Data: A Guide for Analysis. London, UK: Sage.

    Åsén, Gunnar & Vallberg Roth, Ann-Christine (2012) Utvärdering i förskolan: en forskningsöversikt. [Evaluation in preschool: reveiw of research ] Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

  • 94.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    How Interreligious Buildings Influence Interreligious Neighbourhood Relations: The Case of the God's House Project in a Stockholm Suburb2018Inngår i: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, s. 159-180Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 95.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Religion and Swedishness: Swedish students' attitudes to religion and nationality2018Inngår i: Religion and Dialogue in the City: Case Studies on Interreligious Encounter in Urban Community and Education / [ed] J. Ipgrave, T. Knauth, A. Körs, D. Vieregge, M. von der Lippe, Münster/New York: Waxmann Verlag, 2018, s. 263-274Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Social capital and education in interreligious NGO encounters2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 97.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Structures of religious thinking – Dialogue project members in Stockholm (Urban strand)2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 98.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    The place and conditions for democratic education in interreligious encounters2018Inngår i: Religious education, ISSN 0034-4087, E-ISSN 1547-3201, Vol. 113, nr 1, s. 38-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the spatial and environmental conditions for democratic education in an interreligious project. The interreligious project provides a case for applying Dewey´s concepts of experience and environment. Four kinds of experiences are presented: invited places - being a guest, common meeting points - shaping an interreligious "we", nomadic places - sharing everyday life and school as a secular public place - acting in public. It is concluded that educational experience is shaped by acting in a variety of environments. However, dimensions of power are also present in the context of civil life and should be taken into consideration.

  • 99.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Edling, Silvia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    The political controversies of teacher education: a Swedish Case2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish teacher education has been subject for public discussion and critique for several years, particularly in national media. Its recurrent occurrence in media discourse should not be seen only as a public phenomenon, separated from everyday thinking. As Fairclough (2000) points out medialization of society is also characterized by the way it colors individuals own meaning making. A general background for the political controversy of teacher education is the historic hallmark of being a young discipline in the academy and its “constrained relationship with the state” (Maguire 2014, p. 782), contributing to political issues of what characterizes a good school and good society. Earlier studies of Swedish prominent media discourse (e.g. Wiklund 2006) regarding school and teacher education reveals a negative and even stereotype image (Edling 2014, 2016) when it comes to deliver successful results on international tests, foremost PISA , indirectly framing teacher education as a means for achieving international economic success on the international market.  

    In this paper, we claim that public discussion of school and of teacher education is necessary. However, we need to discuss the conditions for such a conversation in the public sphere. We will approach this issue by looking deeper into the Swedish debate about teacher education in three prominent national newspapers, focusing on 2016-2017. In this period many issues were highlighted and condensed, such as the (low) academic status of educational research (cf. Condliffe Lagemann 2000), the possibilities for teacher education to equip teachers with skills to improve in the international competition of school knowledge and whether teacher education should be an academic type of education at all (cf. Maguire 2014).

    We will approach our data from one main purpose with three interrelated focus points. The purpose of our paper is to contribute to research about medias’ role when it comes to naming and framing the debate about teacher education in Sweden by analyzing how four major newspapers in-between 2016-2017 define a) challenges/strengths with current TE, b) solutions for change/improvement of current TE, and c) who the actors for promoting this change/improvement might be. The last point highlights the possibilities (and limitations) for dialogue between different actors and groups in society.    

    We have limited our search to the period of November 2016-November 2017 in order to handle a plausible volume of data and from the criteria that many different issues were brought up during this period, compared with other periods. The database Retriver was used for capturing debates in the three most prominent national newspapers (Dagens nyheter, Svenska dagbladet and Expressen). The analysis of media texts is conducted using critical discourse analysis. This involves a careful examination of words and semiotics to study whether and how language patterns occur and to discuss their plausible consequences for social life (van Dijk, 1995). The articles are thematised using an analytic table highlighting the focus points mentioned above. The results from this Swedish case could contribute with insights regarding potentialities for public discussion of a common teacher education in a democratic society.    

     

    References

    Condliffe Lagemann, E (2000) An Elusive Science. The Troubling History of Educational Research. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

    Edling, S (2014) Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 47: 3, 399-415.  

    Edling, S (2016) “Who” is Teacher Education? Approaching the Negative Stereotypes of Teacher Education. In J.M. Paraskeva & S. Steinberg eds. Curriculum. Decanonizing the Field. NY: Peter Lang

    Fairclough, N (2000) New Labour, new language? London: Routledge.

    Maguire, M (2014) Reforming teacher education in England: ‘an economy of discourses of truth’. Journal of Education Policy, 29:6, 774-784.  

    Van Dijk, T (1995) Aims of Critical Discourse Analysis. Japanese Discourse, Vol. 1, 17-27.

    Wiklund, M (2006) Kunskapens fanbärare. Den gode läraren som diskursiv konstruktion på en mediearena. [The flag-bearer of knowledge. The good teacher as a discoursive construction on the media arena] Örebro, Sweden: Universitetsbiblioteket.

  • 100.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Elm, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Didaktik.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap, Pedagogik.
    Introducing and exploring student teachers use of digital tools – preliminary results from a development project2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as well as in other countries, the digital revolution has impacted society profoundly (Brynjolfsson & MacAffe, 2015). The digital evolution, or revolution, has created a need of new digital competences for both teachers in preschools, elementary school, secondary school, upper secondary school and higher education (Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation, 2017). These digital competences both include technological and pedagogical knowledge in order to teach successfully in the digital society (e.g. Davies et al 1997; Granberg 2010; Instefjord & Munthe 2016).

    There is a need to develop TE in order to meet this challenge. The aim of our development project, running during one semester (autumn 2018) was to contribute to innovation in teacher education through a conscious use of digital technology. The concept of TPACK is employed as a tool to explore the ways in which technology impacts on what is learned in TE. The following research questions are formulated: In what ways does the use of ICT contribute to student teachers planning and reflecting regarding their teaching in school? What added pedagogical values in teacher education practice can be discerned from the perspective of the student teachers in this project?   

    Our theoretical framework is based on Koehler & Mishra’s (2009) concept of technological content knowledge, TPACK. The notion of TPACK is bringing together 1) content knowledge and 2) pedagogical content knowledge with the impact of technology on these two dimensions. Furthermore, TPACK-analysis involves consideration about the contextual conditions contributing to how these three key dimensions interacts.

    The students were introduced to the project. Research ethical considerations were made in accordance with The Swedish Research Council’s guidelines. Data comprises anonymized course materials without any information about the students; course evaluations and course assignments, the former anonymized by origin and the latter anonymized in retrospect. In the surveys, data is collected through open-question, individual surveys distributed to student teachers in three different courses at different levels in the TE-program for primary school. The open questions are highlighting possible new experiences of using digital resources as a resource in teacher education and for teaching in school. We have also analysed TE-students course assignments in which students describe their lesson plans, including the digital design, involved in their teaching design. Both the course assignments and the course evaluations has been coded according to qualitative content analysis focussing on the dimension of TPACK. The written documents was read several times in order to discern recurrent themes. After this stage of qualitative analysis, overall patterns of frequencies will be taking into account in order to relate to earlier comparable studies.

    Our preliminary results (further results will be presented in August 2019) shows that student teachers tend to focus on the tools themselves and their inherent qualities. However, there are also indications of how the digital technology enables representations that highlight spatial dimensions of teaching content such as the movement of animal bodies, or three-dimensional representations of planets. One contextual setting shaping these student approaches is related to the structure and progression of the TE-program, with both possibilities and limitations for digital learning.

    Our results are pointing to the need of focussing on critical aspects, i.e. the framing of teaching content and added pedagogical values, through introducing the work with digital tools and their implications for teaching content, systematically and early in the TE-programme.  The TPACK-concept involves challenges but also provides an important resource for this purpose. Our exploration intend to shed light on how this could be done in TE as earlier research also seem to confirm this challenge (Voogt & McKenney 2017).   

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