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  • 51.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Jern
    Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The assessment of symptoms and functional limitations in low back pain patients: validity and reliability of a new questionnaire2007Ingår i: European spine journal, ISSN 0940-6719, E-ISSN 1432-0932, Vol. 16, nr 11, s. 1799-1811Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the existing low back pain (LBP) questionnaires of function and symptoms have a content of different domains of disability presented as a single sum score, making it difficult to derive changes within a specific domain. The present study describes the development of a clinically derived back-specific questionnaire incorporating both a functional limitation and a symptom scale, with a further subdivision of the symptom scale in separate indices for severity and temporal aspects. The aims of the study were to assess the overall reliability and validity of the new questionnaire, named the Profile Fitness Mapping questionnaire (PFM). A total of 193 chronic LBP patients answered the PFM together with five validated criterion questionnaires. For the internal consistency of the questionnaires, the three indices of the PFM had the highest Cronbach's alpha (0.90-0.95) and all items had item-total correlations above 0.2. The correlation coefficients between the PFM and the back-specific criterion questionnaires ranged between 0.61 and 0.83, indicating good concurrent criterion validity. The best discriminative ability between patients with different pain severities was demonstrated by the functional limitation scale of the PFM. Well centered score distribution with no patient's score at the floor or the ceiling level indicates that the PFM has the potential to detect the improvement or worsening of symptoms and functional limitations in chronic LBP patients. Classification according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and health (ICF) of WHO revealed a high degree of homogeneous item content of the symptom scale to the domain of impairments, and of the functional limitation scale to the domain of activity limitations. The present study suggests that the PFM has a high internal consistency and is a valid indicator of symptoms and functional limitations of LBP patients. It offers the combination of a composite total score and the possibility of evaluations within specific domains of disability. Complementary evaluation of test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change is warranted.

  • 52.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden,.
    Tronarp, Rebecca
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Granås, Marie
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Gunilla
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    McDonough, Suzanne
    University of Ulster, UK.
    Nyberg, André
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umea University, Dept of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation; Physiotherapy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Office-cycling while working: An innovative concept to prevent and reduce musculoskeletal pain in office workers - a controlled feasibility study2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: According to the World Health Organization, WHO, a sedentary lifestyle is the single largest health risk for a number of diseases including musculoskeletal disorders and metabolic diseases. The negative health effects of excessive sitting are not compensated for by shorter bouts of increased physical activity. However, evidence shows that increased physical activity reduces musculoskeletal pain, which is very prevalent in those who are inactive. About 50-70 % of those who work at a computer report musculoskeletal pain and spend on average about 5 hours/day with very low energy metabolism. Work places are therefore an important arena for prevention and intervention by means of reducing sedentary time and increasing physical activity both for general health benefits and effects on the musculoskeletal pain.

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of office-cycling in an office work place and explore its potential effects on musculoskeletal pain in office workers.

    Methods: Twenty office workers (ages 27-61, 5 males) with musculoskeletal pain participated in this three-week controlled pilot field study. The intervention group (n=10), had access to an innovative customized cycle ergometer (OfficeBiking®) at their regular office workstation whilst performing their usual work tasks. Offie-cycling was an alternative to sitting/standing by their height adjustable office desk; they were instructed to bike as often as comfortable. The control group (n=10) was instructed to continue to work as usual. The experiences of office-cycling and how it influenced work performance was studied with a questionnaire. Musculoskeletal pain was evaluated using pain drawings and pain ratings and participants' total pain was calculated by adding each individuals' self-reported pain from their three most painful areas (NRS 0-10).

    Results: Importantly, office-cycling did not reduce self-reported work performance; the majority (9/10) would like daily access; and made suggestions to improve the user-friendliness of the bike. Office-cycling was used regularly (median, 11/15 workdays; median active time 59 min/day IQR 39;91). There was no observed difference regarding either number of self-reported areas of pain (NSAP) or general musculoskeletal pain (GMP) between the intervention group and the control group at baseline. Self-reported GMP decreased in 8 persons in the intervention group which was one more than in the control group (n=7). NSAP decreased in the intervention group (n=7; md -1,0 IQR -2,3;0,0); and the control group (n=5; md -0,5 IQR -1,3;0,3). The difference in total pain (intervention end-baseline) revealed a clinically important change in the intervention group (NRS -2,5, IQR -8,8;4,0) but not in the control group (NRS 0,0 IQR -6,2;2,5).

    Conclusions: The results suggest that office-cycling is a feasible method for use in work place interventions with some promising results. Future research suggestions are: underlying mechanisms regarding effects of physical activity on pain in parallel with controlled studies in laboratory environments to investigate dose-effects for metabolic expenditure and optimal pain reduction whilst office-cycling.

    Implications: The results in this feasibility study indicate a promising potential of the innovative office-cycling concept to prevent and reduce musculoskeletal pain in sedentary office workers.

  • 53.
    Björn, Catrine
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rissén, Dag
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Prominent attractive qualities of nurses’ work in operating room departments: a questionnaire study2015Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 877-889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The shortage of nurses in operating room departments (ORs) in Sweden and other countries can lead to reduced capacity and quality in healthcare, as well as more intense work for those on the job. Little is known about what nurses in ORs perceive as crucial for their workplace to be attractive.

    OBJECTIVE: To capture attractive qualities of nurses work in ORs and to adapt the Attractive Work Questionnaire (AWQ).

    METHODS: The AWQ, rating attractive qualities of work, were completed by 147 (68%) nurses in four Swedish ORs. Principal Component Analyses were performed to determine the underlying structure of the data.

    RESULTS: The factors in the area Work conditions were: relations, leadership, equipment, salary, organisation, physical work environment, location, and working hours; in the area Work content: mental work, autonomy and work rate; and in the area Job satisfaction: status and acknowledgement. The Principal Component Analysis showed consistency with the original AWQ. Cronbach’s alpha varied between 0.57-0.90.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AWQ captured attractive qualities for nurses in ORs, some less discussed regarding nurse retention, i.e. equipment, physical work environment and location. The results suggest that the questionnaire is reliable and valid and can be a useful tool in identifying attractive work.

  • 54.
    Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Predictive models for short-term and long-term improvement in women under physiotherapy for chronic disabling neck pain: a longitudinal cohort study2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 4, artikel-id e024557Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To develop predictive models for short-term and long-term clinically important improvement in women with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain during the clinical course of physiotherapy. Design Longitudinal cohort study based on data from a randomised controlled trial evaluating short-term and long-term effects on sensorimotor function over 11 weeks of physiotherapy. Participants and settings Eighty-nine women aged 31-65 years with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain from Gavle, Sweden. Measures The outcome, clinically important improvement, was measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale (PGICS) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), assessed by self-administered questionnaires at 3, 9 and 15 months from the start of the interventions (baseline). Twelve baseline prognostic factors were considered in the analyses. The predictive models were built using random-effects logistic regression. The predictive ability of the models was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with cross-validation using the bootstrap resampling technique. Results Factors included in the final PGICS model were neck disability and age, and in the NDI model, neck disability, depression and catastrophising. In both models, the odds for short-term and long-term improvement increased with higher baseline neck disability, while the odds decreased with increasing age (PGICS model), and with increasing level of depression (NDI model). In the NDI model, higher baseline levels of catastrophising indicated increased odds for short-term improvement and decreased odds for long-term improvement. Both models showed acceptable predictive validity with an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.75), respectively. Conclusion Age, neck disability and psychological factors seem to be important predictors of improvement, and may inform clinical decisions about physiotherapy in women with chronic neck pain. Before using the developed predictive models in clinical practice, however, they should be validated in other populations and tested in clinical settings.

  • 55.
    Bombardi, C.
    et al.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Grandis, A.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Chiocchetti, R.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolami, R.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lucchi, M. L.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Immunohistochemical localization of alpha(1a)-adrenoreceptors in muscle spindles of rabbit masseter muscle2006Ingår i: Tissue & Cell, ISSN 0040-8166, E-ISSN 1532-3072, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 121-125Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of alpha(1a)-adrenoreceptors (alpha(1a)-ARs) within the muscle spindles of rabbit masseter muscle was investigated. The alpha(1a)-ARs were detected by immunohistochemical fluorescent method and examined along the entire length of 109 cross serially sectioned spindles. The sympathetic fibers were visualized by the immunofluorescent labeling of the noradrenaline synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). In order to recognize the intrafusal muscle fiber types, antibodies for different myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHCI) were used. TH and DBH immunolabeled nerve fibers have been observed within the capsule lamellar layers, in the periaxial fluid space and close to intrafusal muscle fibers. The alpha(1a)-ARs were detected on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels coursing in the muscle and in the capsule lamellar layers or within the periaxial fluid space of the spindles. Moreover, at the polar regions of a high percentage (88.1%) of muscle spindles a strong alpha(1a)-ARs immunoreactivity was present on the intrafusal muscle fibers. In double immunostained sections for alpha(1a)-ARs and MyHCI it was evidenced that both bag, and nuclear chain fibers express alpha(1a)-ARs. The receptors that we have detected by immunofluorescence may support a direct control by adrenergic fibers on muscle spindle.

  • 56.
    Bond, Lisa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Effekt av höj- och sänkbara skrivbord efter arbetstid: Påverkas fysisk aktivitet samt skattning av fysiska besvär efter arbetstid hos kontorsanställda som använt ett höj och sänkbart skrivbord2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: De senaste åren har det kommit ett flertal studier som visar att stillasittande är skadligt för människan. Trots detta ökar graden av stillasittande och 75 % av den totala tiden av stillasittande sker på arbetsplatsen där kontorsarbetare är de som rapporterar högst andel stillasittande. Mot bakgrund av detta är därför arbetsplatsen ett bra forum att arbeta med hälsofrämjande insatser för att minska tiden av stillasittande. Ett vanligt sätt för att minska stillasittandet är att införa höj- och sänkbara skrivbord. Flertal studier visar att detta ger goda effekter under arbetstid. Ett område som dock är mindre forskat på är vad möjligheten att kunna variera sin arbetsposition med ett höj- och sänkbart bord har för effekter för individen efter arbetstid. Syfte: Att studera kontorsanställda för att se om det föreligger en skillnad i frekvens och duration av fysisk aktivitet samt skattning av fysiska besvär efter en arbetsdag. Detta beroende på om de varierat sin arbetsposition regelbundet genom användning av ett höj-och sänkbart skrivbord jämfört med om de intagit en sittande arbetsposition. Metod: Kvasiexperimentell studie med inompersonsdesign. 20 kontorsanställda fick mäta frekvens och duration av fysisk aktivitet samt skatta fysisk besvärsförekomst via dagbok och enkätformulär efter arbetsdagen. Resultat: Resultatet visar att det inte förelåg några signifikanta skillnader mellan om försökspersonen suttit eller varierat arbetsposition. De tendenser som kunnat påvisas är små men tyder på en något minskad frekvens och ökad duration av fysisk aktivitet efter att ha varierat arbetsposition. Skattning av fysisk besvärsförekomst var oförändrad. Slutsatser: Det går inte att dra några generella slutsatser av denna studie då urvalet är litet och mätmetoderna endast subjektiva. Fler studier behövs där man tittar på vad som händer efter arbetstid för att i framtiden kunna säkerställa för- och nackdelar med höj- och sänkbara skrivbord.

  • 57.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO Work & Employment.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Visser, Bart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam.
    Fatigue, timing strategy and performance during prolonged repetitive work with interposed breaks2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 58.
    Bosch, Tim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    De Looze, Michiel
    TNO, Work& Employment, the Netherlands.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Visser, Bart
    Amsterdam School of Health Professions, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU Amsterdam, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, the Netherlands.
    Temporal strategy and performance during a fatiguing short-cycle repetitive task2012Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, s. 863-873Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated temporal changes in movement strategy and performance during fatiguing short-cycle work. Eighteen participants performed six 7-minutes work blocks with repetitive reaching movements at 0.5 Hz, each followed by a 5.5-minute rest break for a total duration of one hour. Electromyography (EMG) was collected continuously from the upper trapezius muscle, the temporal movement strategy and timing errors were obtained on a cycle-to-cycle basis, and perceived fatigue was rated before and after each work block. Clear signs of fatigue according to subjective ratings and EMG manifestations developed within each work block, as well as during the entire hour. For most participants, timing errors gradually increased, as did the waiting time at the near target. Changes in temporal movement strategy were negatively correlated with changes in the level and variability of EMG, suggesting that an adaptive temporal strategy offset the development of unstable motor solutions in this fatiguing, short-cycle work

  • 59.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Asta
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Markus
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds2008Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, nr 5, s. 603-611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations.

    Methods The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min.

    Results For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration.

    Conclusion When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 60.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Asta
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Markus
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds2006Ingår i: Diagnosis of injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration - 2nd International workshop, Göteborg, 2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations.

    Methods The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min.

    Results For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration.

    Conclusion When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 61.
    Carlsson, Amelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Reproducerbarhet i öga-nacke/skuldra besvär hos yrkesverksamma mikroskoparbetare: Självskattade besvär inom och mellan måndagar och fredagar under två separata arbetsveckor2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Mikroskopering som arbetsuppgift medför en kombination flera aspekter av extern exponering som innebär ökad risk för muskuloskeletala besvär och besvär från ögonen; synkrävande närarbete med krav på öga-hand koordination, låsta arbetsställningar som medför långvarigt lågintensivt muskelarbete i nacke och axel/skuldra, samt repetitiva arbetsmönster. Trots det har mycket få studier publicerats inom området sedan början av 1980-talet.

    Syfte: Att undersöka variationer av muskuloskeletala besvär i nacke-axel/skuldra och besvär från ögonen under arbetsdagen och arbetsveckan, samt att undersöka upprepbarheten av variationer under arbetsdagen och arbetsveckan för personer som mikroskoperar i arbetet.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med en webbaserad enkät. Datainsamling skedde vid 8 tillfällen; måndag förmiddag och eftermiddag samt fredag förmiddag och eftermiddag, under två separata arbetsveckor. Studiedeltagarna kom från en elektronisk industri (n=11) och en laboratoriemedicinsk enhet (n=6). Studien hade ett bortfall (n=1).

    Resultat: Muskuloskeletala besvär i nacke-axel/skuldra och värk/överansträngning i ögon ökade signifikant (∆Muskuloskeletala besvär; p<0,01, ∆Värk/överansträngning i ögon p<0,05) under arbetsveckan. De högsta nivåerna av besvär kunde inte relateras till deltagarnas skattade tid i mikroskopering under arbetsveckan. Samma trend av ökning i besvär kunde ses för både arbetsvecka 1 och 2. Enbart för muskuloskeletala besvär i nacke-axel/skuldra så korrelerade ökningar under arbetsvecka 1 signifikant med ökningar under arbetsvecka 2 (p<0,05).

    Slutsats: Resultaten indikerar att mikroskoparbete är en riskfaktor, primärt för ökade muskuloskeletala besvär i nacke-axel/skuldra. Fler studier behövs inom området, bl.a. för att undersöka förekomst av kausalitet mellan mikroskopering som arbetsuppgift och utvecklandet av muskuloskeletala besvär i nacke-axel/skuldra samt besvär i ögon.

  • 62.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    et al.
    Swedish Work Environment Authority.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Physical variation at work – a scientific review2016Ingår i: NES2016 - Ergonomics in theory and practice: Proceedings of 48th Annual Conference of Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society / [ed] Järvelin-Pasanen, S, 2016, s. 156-159Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical variation is generally considered to be an important factor influencing the risk for musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work, but a comprehensive scientific basis for this assumption has not been available. Thus, the Swedish Work Environment Authority requested the Centre for Musculoskeletal Research at the University of Gävle to review scientific standings regarding physical variation and its effects.  In total, 56 articles were included in the review. The results showed that occupationally relevant studies of the effects of physical variation are few, and that the effectiveness of initiatives promoting variation has also been studied to a limited extent. Thus, current research cannot provide a clear answer to what an effective combination would be of work tasks in a job in the context of physical variation, let alone the optimal time distribution of tasks in a short (hours, days) and long (weeks, months, years) perspective. Also, gender aspects of physical variation were considered to a very limited extent. There is a need for more studies of relevant initiatives aiming at creating increased physical variation by changing the contents of work or its temporal structure; including studies placing this issue in a gender perspective.

  • 63.
    Carrwik, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Murakami, Hideki
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.
    Willander, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Robinson, Yohan
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Potential harms of interventions for spinal metastatic disease2017Ingår i: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, ISSN 1469-493X, E-ISSN 1469-493X, Vol. -, nr 7, artikel-id CD012724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: The primary objective of this review is to compare the potential harms of treatment for spinal metastatic disease for the following treatments: 1. Surgical intervention. 2. Surgical intervention with radiation therapy. 3. Radiation therapy alone. Our secondary objectives are: 1. comparing the harms of different surgical methods; 2. comparing the harms between different radiation protocols.

  • 64.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pollock, Clare
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Posture variation among office workers when using different information and communication technologies at work and away from work2014Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, nr 11, s. 1678-1686Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Office workers perform tasks using different information and communication technologies (ICT) involving various postures. Adequate variation in postures and muscle activity is generally believed to protect against musculoskeletal complaints, but insufficient information exists regarding the effect on postural variation of using different ICT. Thus, this study among office workers aimed to determine and compare postures and postural variation associated with using distinct types of ICT. Upper arm, head and trunk postures of 24 office workers were measured with the Physiometer® over a whole day in their natural work and away-from-work environments. Postural variation was quantified using two indices; APDF(90-10) and EVA(sd).Various ICT had different postural means and variation. Paper-based tasks had more non-neutral, yet also more variable postures. Electronics-based tasks had more neutral postures, with less postural variability. Tasks simultaneously using paper- and electronics-based ICT had least neutral and least variable postures. Tasks without ICT usually had the most posture variability. Interspersing tasks involving different ICT could increase overall exposure variation among office workers and may thus contribute to musculoskeletal risk reduction.

  • 65.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Variation in Muscle Activity Among Office Workers When Using Different Information Technologies at Work and Away From Work2013Ingår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 911-923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine differences in muscle activity amplitudes and variation of amplitudes, when using different Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

    Background: Office workers use different ICT to perform tasks. Upper body musculoskeletal complaints are frequently reported by this occupational group. Increased muscle activity and insufficient muscle activity variation are potential risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints.

    Method: Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and right wrist extensor muscle bundle (extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis) of 24 office workers (performing their usual tasks requiring different ICT at work and away-from-work) were measured continuously over 10-12 hours. Muscle activity variation was quantified using two indices, APDF(90-10) and EVAsd.

    Results: There was a trend for electronics-based New ICT tasks to involve less electromyography (EMG) variation than paper-based Old ICT tasks. Performing Combined ICT tasks (i.e. using paper- and electronics-based ICT simultaneously) resulted in the highest muscle activity levels and least variation; however, these Combined ICT tasks were rarely performed. Tasks involving no ICT (Non-ICT) had the greatest muscle activity variation.

    Conclusion: Office workers in this study used various ICT during tasks at work and away-from-work. The high EMG amplitudes and low variation observed when using Combined ICT may present the greatest risk for musculoskeletal complaints, and use of Combined ICT by workers should be kept low in office work. Breaking up Combined, New and Old ICT tasks; for example, by interspersing highly variable Non-ICT tasks into office workers’ daily tasks, could increase overall muscle activity variation and reduce risk for musculoskeletal complaints.

  • 66.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oakman, J.
    Department of Public Health, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activities in blue collar jobs: do psychosocial resources matter?2017Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, nr 2SArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Occupational physical activity (OPA), and particularly static postures and physically exerting activities, is known to impact worker health and to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal problems, sickness absence and premature retirement. The exploration of structural preventive measures at the workplace against the adverse health effects of excessive OPA is needed. The psychosocial work environment is hypothesised to buffer the adverse effects of OPA, and as such psychosocial resources might directly influence the performance of OPA. However, this has not been previously investigated with detailed objective measurements. The aim of this study is to describe OPA within blue-collar workers, and to examine the role of psychosocial job resources in the performance of OPA.

    Methods: Results are based on a sample of 198 blue-collar workers from the NOMAD (New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living) study, recruited from seven workplaces in Denmark. The sample included 112 men (56.6%) and 86 women (43.4%); the mean age was 44.9 years (SD 9.9). Data were collected with two Actigraph devices placed on the thigh and trunk, during four consecutive days. The accelerometer data were processed and analysed using the Acti4 software, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire, and measured with a four-item scale. Analysis of (co-)variance and (multiple) linear regression models were conducted. All analyses were stratified by gender predominance of occupation.

    Results: The different types of OPA significantly varied by particular job type. Within male predominant occupations, job type accounted for 50–70% of explained variance, depending on the type of OPA. Manufacturing workers showed the highest average proportions of working time standing (33%) and on feet (79%), while garbage collectors had the highest proportion of working time in MVPA (33%). Mobile plant operators and construction workers had the lowest average working time spent walking and in MVPA. Differences in OPA between job types in female predominant occupations were less pronounced, but healthcare workers and cleaners had higher average proportions of time spent walking and in MVPA compared to assembly workers. The addition of age and psychosocial resources to the models did not contribute to a larger explained variance in OPA and the relations with job type remained significant. Social support at work showed an independent positive relation with working on feet, and with standing in female predominant jobs only. Influence at work was not related to OPA.

    Conclusion: The positive relation of social support with working on feet and standing is likely to be explained by the nature of the work tasks, as jobs that require these activities probably comprise more close interactions and as such create more intensified levels of cooperation at the work floor. Overall, our hypothesis that psychosocial job resources would affect the performance of OPA within blue-collar workers was not confirmed. These findings suggest that the performance of OPA within blue-collarjobs – and particularly within male predominant occupations – is mostly affected by work organisational factors related to specific job type, and not by psychosocial job resources.

  • 67.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oakman, Jodi
    Department of Public Health, Centre for Ergonomics and Human Factors, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activity in blue-collar workers: What is the role of job type, gender and psychosocial resources?2020Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 82, artikel-id 102948Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe occupational physical activity (OPA) and examine the role of psychosocial job resources among blue-collar workers. In a sample of 198 workers (57% male; mean age 44.9 (SD 9.9) year) from 7 companies in Denmark, two accelerometers (Actigraph) were placed on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 consecutive days, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire. The exposure to OPA significantly varied by particular job type, especially in male predominant occupations. Overall, psychosocial job resources did not affect the exposure to OPA. These findings suggest that workplace interventions aiming to prevent adverse outcomes of OPA among blue-collars workers ought to focus on task redesign and target work organizational factors related to specific job type.

  • 68.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David M.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon M
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers2018Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, s. 45-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.

  • 69.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve during occupational and leisure time physical activity in Danish blue-collar workers2017Ingår i: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, nr 2S, s. 33-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Physical activity (PA) is considered to be an important factor in the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies suggest that while leisure time PA promotes cardiovascular health, occupational PA might impair cardiovascular health. An explanation for this PA health paradox may be a difference in the intensity and associated physical demands between occupational and leisure time PA. Occupational PA often consists of low-intensity, long-lasting physically demanding tasks, such as repetitive work and prolonged static working postures, which are presumed to cause sustained elevated heart rate that may stress the cardiovascular system. Despite this notion, the differences in physiological responses between occupational and leisure time PA are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed: (a) to study the difference in intensity of occupational and leisure time PA (expressed in percentage heart rate reserve; % HRR); and b) to assess whether this potential difference varies by gender and cardiorespiratory fitness level.

    Methods: We used data from the NOMAD study, in which Danish blue-collar workers from seven different workplaces took part in a four-day protocol of objective measurements of PA (using hip and thigh-worn accelerometers) and heart rate (using an ambulatory heart rate monitor). During occupational and leisure time, activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking and stair climbing were identified, and %HRR in each of these activities was determined. Differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA were tested using generalised estimating equations (expressed in regression coefficient – beta with 95% confidence interval (CI)) adjusted for personal, health,work and lifestyle confounders.

    Result: In 124 workers with data on PA and heart rate, %HRR was higher for occupational PA compared to leisure time PA (beta1.9, 95% CI2.4,1.4,P<0.001). Differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA were more pronounced in men than in women, and in those with high cardiorespiratory fitness compared to those with low cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Conclusion: This study is the first to assess differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA, using objectiv emeasurements in blue-collarworkers. Cardiovascular intensity was higher in occupational activities (possibly due to additional physical and/or mental workloads) compared to the same activities during leisure time. The increase in cardiovascular intensity at work maybe a contributing factor to the health paradox of occupational and leisure time PA, suggesting negative cardiovascular health consequences for engagement in occupational PA (see Figure 1).

  • 70.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia; VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kingma, Idsart
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; King Abdulaziz University,Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Bias and power in group-based epidemiologic studies of low-back pain exposure and outcome: effects of study size and exposure measurement efforts2015Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 59, nr 4, s. 439-454Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Exposure-outcome studies, for instance on work-related low-back pain (LBP), often classify workers into groups for which exposures are estimated from measurements on a sample of workers within or outside the specific study. The present study investigated the influence on bias and power in exposure-outcome associations of the sizes of the total study population and the sample used to estimate exposures.

    Methods: At baseline, lifting, trunk flexion, and trunk rotation were observed for 371 of 1131 workers allocated to 19 a-priori defined occupational groups. LBP (dichotomous) was reported by all workers during three years of follow-up. All three exposures were associated with LBP in this parent study (p<0.01).

    All 21 combinations of n=10,20,30 workers per group with an outcome, and k=1,2,3,5,10,15,20 workers actually being observed were investigated using bootstrapping, repeating each combination 10,000 times. Odds ratios (OR) with p-values were determined for each of these virtual studies. Average OR and statistical power (p<0.05 and p<0.01) was determined from the bootstrap distributions at each (n,k) combination.

    Results: For lifting and flexed trunk, studies including n≥20 workers, with k≥5 observed, led to an almost unbiased OR and a power >0.80 (p-level 0.05). A similar performance required n≥30 workers for rotated trunk. Small numbers of observed workers (k) resulted in biased OR, while power was, in general, more sensitive to the total number of workers (n).

    Conclusions: In epidemiologic studies using a group-based exposure assessment strategy, statistical performance may be sufficient if outcome is obtained from a reasonably large number of workers, even if exposure is estimated from only few workers per group.

  • 71.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Group-based exposuremeasurement strategies and their effects on trunk rotation and low-back pain exposure-outcome associations2013Ingår i: Occupational & Environmental Medicine: 23rd Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2013: Improving the Impact June 18–21, 2013, Utrecht, The Netherlands, BMJ Journals , 2013, s. A101-A102Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives In epidemiological studies of occupational exposures (e.g. lifting) and low-back pain (LBP), group-based exposure measurement strategies are common. Workers are classified into exposure groups; exposure is measured only in a selection of workers in each group, and their mean exposure is assigned to all workers in the group. Exposure-outcome relationships are then determined by regression, relating exposure estimates with individual LBP data from all subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different group-based measurement strategies on exposure-outcome associations.

    Methods 1122 workers, classified into 19 groups on the basis of job-related exposure, participated in this study. In each group, videos were collected from ~25% of the workers (in total, 370 workers), and percentage of the work day spent in trunk rotation was estimated by observation of the videos. This estimate of trunk rotation was significantly associated with self-reported LBP during three years of follow-up (OR:1.43 (1.06–1.93)).

    Using a bootstrap simulation, workers per group (n = 10, 20, 30, 40) and percentage of observed workers (k = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) were varied. For each combination, (nk) workers were selected with replacement in each job group among those observed, and n (100-k) workers among those not observed. The mean exposure of the observed workers was assigned to all group members which was related to individual LBP data. ORs and accompanying p-level was estimated using logistic-regression.

    Results A group-based measurement protocol led to significant (p < 0.05) ORs when the total number of workers was larger than n = 30 in each job group, and ≥20% was actually observed.

    Conclusions The proportion of observed workers did have an effect on p-values, but it appeared weaker than that of changing the total group size. These results suggest that it may be sufficient to observe only a minor proportion of workers if the overall size of the population is reasonably large.

  • 72.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of group-based exposure measurement strategies on the statistical significance of an association between lifting and low-back pain2013Ingår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 175-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 73.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Bongers, Paulien
    TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of the presence and characteristics of an outlying group on exposure-outcome associations2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 65-74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Physical exposures (e.g., lifting or bending) are believed to be risk factors for low-back pain (LBP), but the literature is inconsistent. Exposure and LBP prevalence differ considerably between occupations, and so exposure-outcome associations could be severely modified by the presence of particular occupational groups. We aimed at investigating the influence of such outlying groups on the properties of associations between exposure and LBP.

    Methods: Lifting and trunk flexion were observed for 371 of 1131 workers within 19 groups. LBP was obtained from all workers during three follow-up years. Both exposure variables were associated with LBP (p<0.01) in this parent dataset.

    By removing the 19 groups one-by-one and performing logistic regressions analysis on the 18 remaining groups, we demonstrated that one group, mainly road workers, with outlying exposures and LBP prevalence substantially affected the exposure-outcome association in the total population. In order to further examine this phenomenon, we assessed, by simulation, the influence of realistic sizes (n=4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128), mean exposures (e=2000, 3000, 4000 lifts and e=30, 40, 50% trunk flexion time) and LBP prevalences (p=70, 80, 90, 100%) of the outlying group on the strength and certainty of the eventual relationship between exposure and LBP. For each combination of n, e and p, 3000 virtual studies were constructed, including the simulated group together with the other 18 original groups from the parent data-set. Average OR, OR confidence limits, and power (p<0.05) were calculated across these 3,000 studies as measures of the properties of each virtual study design.

    Results: ORs were attenuated more towards 1 and power decreased with smaller values of n, e and p in the outlying group. Changes in group size and prevalence had a larger influence on OR and power than changes in mean exposure.

    Conclusions: The size and characteristics of a single group with high exposure and outcome prevalence can strongly influence both the OR point estimate and the likelihood of obtaining significant exposure-outcome associations in studies of large populations. These findings can guide interpretations of prior epidemiological studies and support informed design of future studies.

  • 74.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Correction of bias in self-reported sitting time among office workers – a study based on compositional data analysis2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that excessive sitting has negative health effects. However, this evidence largely relies on research using self-reported sitting time, which is known to be biased. To correct this bias, we aimed at developing a calibration model estimating "true" sitting from self-reported sitting.

    Methods: Occupational sitting time was estimated by self-reports (the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and objective measurements (thigh-worn accelerometer) among 99 Swedish office workers at a governmental agency, at baseline and 3 and 12 months afterwards. Following compositional data analysis procedures, both sitting estimates were transformed into isometric log-ratios (ILR). This effectively addresses that times spent in various activities are inherently dependent and can be presented as values of only 0−100%. Linear regression was used to develop a simple calibration model estimating objectively measured "true" sitting ILR (dependent variable) from self-reported sitting ILR (independent variable). Additional self-reported variables were then added to construct a full calibration model. Performance of the models was assessed by root-mean-square (RMS) differences between estimated and objectively measured values. Models developed on baseline data were validated using the follow-up datasets.

    Results: Uncalibrated self-reported sitting ILR showed an RMS error of 0.767. Simple and full calibration models (incorporating body mass index, office type, and gender) reduced this error to 0.422 (55%) and 0.398 (52%), respectively. In the validations, model performance decreased to 57%/62% (simple models) and 57%/62% (full models) for the two follow-up data sets, respectively.

    Conclusions: Calibration adjusting for errors in self-reported sitting led to substantially more correct estimates of "true" sitting than uncalibrated self-reports. Validation indicated that model performance would change somewhat in new datasets and that full models perform no better than simple models, but calibration remained effective.

  • 75.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Calibration of self-reported physical behaviours among office workers: A compositional data analysis2019Ingår i: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, artikel-id O.11.2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate calibration models to predict objectively measured time spent sitting, standing and walking during office work from self-reported time-use compositions using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. Ninety-nine office workers (49 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated in an intervention study on relocation to activity-based offices. At baseline and at a 3-months follow-up, physical behaviours (sitting, standing and walking) at work were assessed for five days using a thigh-mounted accelerometer (Actigraph) and by self-report (IPAQ). The time-use composition of the three behaviours was expressed in terms of isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting accelerometry-based time-use from self-reported compositions were constructed using linear regression on baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. The accelerometer data showed that, on average, workers spent 69.9% of their day sitting, 23.7% standing, and 6.4% walking. The corresponding percentages for self-reports were 71.7%, 21.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. Non-calibrated self-reports were biased: the RMS errors obtained from the ILRs expressing sitting, standing and walking were 0.73, 1.09 and 1.05, respectively. Calibration models reduced these errors by 45% (sitting), 56% (standing), and 76% (walking). Validation of the calibration models using follow-up data from the same workers showed calibration remained equally effective; RMS errors were reduced by 55% (sitting), 58% (standing), and 75% (walking). In conclusion, calibration models for compositional time-use data were effective in reducing bias in self-reported physical behaviours at work, and the models remained effective when used on new data from the same workers. Calibrated self-reports may represent a cost-effective method for obtaining physical behaviour data with a satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 76.
    Commissaris, Dianne A. C. M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Departments of Sustainable Productivity & Employability; Work, Health & Care; and Expertise Centre Lifestyle, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Koppes, Lando L.J.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands..
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work : a systematic review2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 181-191Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Many current jobs are characterized by sedentary behaviour (SB) and lack of physical activity (PA). Interventions addressing SB and PA at the workplace may benefit workers’ health. The present review is the first to focus on the effectiveness of interventions implemented during productive work with the intention to change workers’ SB and/or PA while working.

    Methods: Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best-evidence synthesis.

    Results: 40 studies describing 41 interventions were included and organized into three categories: alternative workstations (20), interventions promoting stair use (11) and personalized behavioural interventions (10). Strong evidence was found for alternative workstations leading to positive effects on overall SB, while evidence was conflicting for effects on SB and PA at work, overall PA, and work performance. Evidence was moderate for alternative workstations to have no effect on hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness. Stair use promotion interventions were found to increase PA at work, while personalized behavioural interventions increased overall PA; both with moderate evidence. Personalized behavioural interventions were found to have no effect on anthropometric measures (moderate evidence). Regarding work performance and lipid and metabolic profiles, evidence was either conflicting or insufficient.

    Conclusions: Current evidence supports that introduction of alternative workstations may have positive effects on overall PA and SB, likely without reducing work performance, while the long-term health effects of all three reviewed categories of interventions remain to be established.

  • 77.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bronee, Lars
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krag, Ida
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jensen, Bente R.
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis muscle during submaximal isometric knee extension2010Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 1057-1064Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle oxygenation responses are reportedly greater in the distal muscle region than in the proximal muscle region. We combined near infrared spectroscopy and electromyography (EMG) to determine whether regional differences in oxygenation are associated with differences in (1) muscle activation and/or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables for oxygen saturation (StO2%) were initial slope at contraction onset, peak drop, and recovery slope at contraction end. Electromyography produced the root mean square to indicate muscle activation and mean power frequency changes over time (decreasing slope) to indicate fatigue development. For StO2%, significantly greater peak drop and steeper recovery slope were found for the distal muscle region than for the proximal muscle region. Root mean square, however, was not different between locations. Mean power frequency decreased throughout the contractions but changes were not different between locations. Our results indicate that for modest submaximal contractions, regional differences in oxygenation are not associated with differences in muscle activation or with fatigue development (as interpreted by changes in mean power frequency over time).

  • 78.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Svedmark, Å
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oxygenation, EMG and position sense during computer mouse work: impact of active versus passive pauses2006Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, nr 1, s. 59-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of active versus passive pauses implemented during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and EMG of the forearm extensor carpi radialis muscle, and on wrist position sense. Fifteen healthy female subjects (age: 19-24 years) performed a 60-min mouse-operated computer task, divided into three 20 min periods, on two occasions separated by 3-6 days. On one occasion a passive pause (subjects resting) was implemented at the end of each 20-min period, and on another occasion an active pause (subjects performed a number of high intensity extensions of the forearm) was implemented. Also at the end of each 20-min period, test contractions were conducted and subjective ratings of fatigue and stress were obtained. Another parameter of interest was total haemoglobin calculated as the summation of oxy-and deoxy-haemoglobin, since it reflects blood volume changes. The most interesting findings were an overall increasing trend in total haemoglobin throughout the mouse work (P<0.001), and that this trend was greater for the active pause as compared to the passive pause (P<0.01). These data were accompanied by an overall increase in oxygen saturation (P<0.001), with a tendency, albeit not significant, toward a higher increase for the active pause (P=0.13). EMG amplitude and median frequency tended to decrease (P=0.08 and 0.05, respectively) during the mouse work but was not different between pause types. Borg ratings of forearm fatigue showed an overall increase during the activity (P<0.001), but the perceptions of stress did not change. Position sense did not change due to the mouse work for either pause type. While increasing trends were found for both pause types, the present study lends support to the hypothesis of an enhancement in oxygenation and blood volume for computer mouse work implemented with active pauses. However, a presumption of an association between this enhancement and attenuated fatigue during the mouse work was not supported.

  • 79.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Komandur, S.
    Dep of Industrial Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Johnson, P. W.
    Dep of Environmental and occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Finger flexor contractile properties and hemodynamics following a sustained submaximal contraction: A study using electrical stimulation and near-infrared spectroscopy2010Ingår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 153-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effect of a low-level sustained contraction on the muscle contractile properties, hemodynamics and oxygenation of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (FDS) of the finger. We tested the hypothesis that hemodynamics and oxygenation, reflecting the muscle metabolic characteristics, would recovery more quickly than the muscle contractile properties. Eleven subjects (26 ± 4 yrs) were equipped with electrodes for electrical stimulation and a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) probe on the forearm over the FDS. The experimental protocol consisted of three baselines measurements (-60 min, -30 min, pre-exercise), immediately after a sustained 15-min contraction of the FDS at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (post-exercise), and after 30 min, 60 min and 120 min of recovery. For each time point, participants were subjected to a battery of test that included upper arm venous occlusion (at rest), a computer-mouse point and click task (standardized voluntary task), and electrical stimulation. For venous occlusion (50 mmHg, 1 min), slopes were calculated for NIRS-derived total hemoglobin (HbTslope) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHbslope) as estimates of blood flow and oxygen consumption, respectively. The computer-mouse task entailed using the mouse to point and click on targets presented on the screen during which NIRS signals were monitored for determination of change in total hemoglobin (ΔHbT) and oxygen saturation (ΔStO2%). Electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 5 trains of 15 twitches) provided twitch force (Tw-force), contraction time (CT) and one-half relaxation time (½RT) data. Statistical analysis revealed significant changes over time for all contractile parameters as well as for HHbslope (P < 0.05 for each). Post-hoc testing demonstrated significant decreases for Tw-force post-exercise and at 60 min; for CT at post-exercise, 30 min and 60 min; and for ½RT at post-exercise and at 30 min. HHbslope was significantly higher post-exercise as compared to pre-exercise. During the computer-mouse point and click task, no significant differences were detected forΔHbT, however,ΔStO2% showed a tendency to decrease, albeit not significant (P = 0.11). Further testing showedΔStO2% was significantly lower post-exercise and at 30 min as compared to pre-exercise. The present study shows that NIRS provides insight into muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation for low-level sustained activity to fatigue. The overall quick recovery of hemodynamic and oxygenation responses, and a more prolonged recovery of contractile responses confirms our hypothesis, and this may fit well with the classical definition of low frequency fatigue.

  • 80.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Flodgren, Gerd
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Umeå universitet.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Impact of time pressure and pauses on physiological responses to standardized computer mouse use: a review of three papers with focusing on mechanisms behind computer-related disorders2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, nr 3, s. 68-75Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews three computer mouse studies in our laboratory where our emphasis was on mechanisms behind computer related disorders. Our approach was sequentially (i) to determine validity of a laboratory model of computer mouse use (painting rectangles) for studying musculoskeletal disorders; to use this model (ii) to study time pressure and precision demands on position sense and muscular oxygenation; and (iii) to determine the effect of pauses (active vs passive) on these parameters. (i) Kinematic data for the painting model showed constrained movements of the wrist similar to CAD work; a support for its validity for a real life situation. (ii) Changes in forearm oxygenation were associated with time pressure and precision demands; a potential for insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. (iii) Increasing trends in oxygenation and blood volume were associated with pauses, especially active; possible explanation for the alleviating effect of discomfort experienced in real life situations when a pause is implemented.

  • 81.
    Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Department of Dermato-Allergology, The National Allergy Research Center, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gene expression profiling in MCS before and upon a controlled symptom eliciting n-butanol exposure: a pilot study2017Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 2, artikel-id e01387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.

    The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure.

    Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure

  • 82.
    Dempsey, Patrick G
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    On the evolution of task-based analysis of manual materials handling, and its applicability in contemporary ergonomics2006Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 33-43Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial revolution significantly changed the way work was organized and analyzed by the introduction and widespread implementation of the division of labor philosophy. This philosophy has continued to dominate work design, and has evolved beyond the factory to include many facets of service industries, and even professional occupations. The analysis of manual work, particularly materials handling tasks, remains an active domain of ergonomics research and practice. Many of the task-analytic tools used for workplace analysis are rooted in the philosophy of dividing work into elements, analyzing the individual elements, and synthesizing the results into conclusions about the entire job, including the risk of contracting musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The authors discuss the notion that the nature of modern work, which is characterized by multiple tasks in a complex time pattern, and the complex nature of MSDs, which are influenced by biomechanical as well as psychological, political, and economic factors, may limit the effectiveness of classical task analytic techniques in preventing MSDs.

  • 83.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Massachusetts, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    O'Brien, Niall V
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Influence of three principles of pacing on the temporal organisation of work during cyclic assembly and disassembly tasks2010Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, nr 11, s. 1347-1358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of different approaches to arranging the pace and temporal organisation of repetitive assembly and disassembly tasks on both average performance and its variability and to compare assembly and disassembly times derived with psychophysical methods to a more traditional methods-time measurement (MTM) approach. The conditions studied were a traditional assembly line arrangement, where assemblies were started at a pace of 110 MTM (repeated on two occasions), a batch condition, where subjects were required to complete 36 assemblies within the total amount of time allowed at 110, MTM and a psychophysical condition, where subjects were allowed to choose their pace (repeated on two occasions). Overall, the results suggest that the mean time spent working in each cycle (the 'on-time') remained fairly constant across conditions, while the idle 'off-time' in between on-times was shorter and of less varied duration in the more autonomous batch and psychophysical conditions. During the second psychophysical (self-paced) condition, subjects completed a significantly higher number of assemblies than during the 110 MTM line condition. The higher pace was achieved through reduction in mean off-times and the potential implications for musculoskeletal risk are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Higher levels of autonomy over work pace, which intuitively would be beneficial from an ergonomics standpoint, actually led to subjects selecting to organise work such that off-times (idle times) were reduced. In contrast, active 'on' times were not affected much by autonomy. These results point to a reason that piecework would be associated with increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 84.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a moving visual target2016Ingår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 28, s. 193-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown an association of visual demands during near work and increased activity of the trapezius muscle. Those studies were conducted under stationary postural conditions with fixed gaze and artificial visual load. The present study investigated the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity across individuals during performance of a natural dynamic motor task under free gaze conditions. Participants (N = 11) tracked a moving visual target with a digital pen on a computer screen. Tracking performance, eye refraction and trapezius muscle activity were continuously measured. Ciliary muscle contraction force was computed from eye accommodative response. There was a significant Pearson correlation between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity on the tracking side (0.78, p < 0.01) and passive side (0.64, p < 0.05). The study supports the hypothesis that high visual demands, leading to an increased ciliary muscle contraction during continuous eye–hand coordination, may increase trapezius muscle tension and thus contribute to the development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck–shoulder area. Further experimental studies are required to clarify whether the relationship is valid within each individual or may represent a general personal trait, when individuals with higher eye accommodative response tend to have higher trapezius muscle activity.

  • 85.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Relationship between eye-lens accomodative response and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a visual target2014Ingår i: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management (ODAM 2014)and 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society, Technical University of Denmark , 2014, s. 1073-1074Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 86.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 389-397Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, result in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personal trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 87.
    Dropkin, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Moline, Jacqueline
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Kim, Hyun
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Gold, Judith
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Blended work as a bridge between traditional workplace employment and retirement: a conceptual review2016Ingår i: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 373-383Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of population aging, the consensus among policy makers is that employment in older workers must increase. However, methods for attaining this are uncertain. Blended work, which consists of working anywhere and any-time with information and communication technology, may help achieve this goal. The article focuses on 4 top-ics related to older workers and blended work: the benefits, risks, individual- and organizational-level barriers, and organizational and government interventions and policies designed to remove these risks and barriers. Legislation to protect against age discrimination and disability associated with age is also reviewed. The objectives are to dis-cuss the literature on blended work and the older worker and highlight some consequences the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and American with Disabilities Act may have on blended work. Delaying retirement through blended work could promote older workers’ health and well-being, but risks and barriers at individual- and organi-zational-levels are not inconsequential. At the individual level, these include social isolation, and managements’ loss of control over employees at the organizational level. Potential interventions include developing blended work as an employee benefit to replace long distance travel. Federal policies include providing subsidies to state and local gov-ernments to reduce costs of upgrading broadband fiber-optic cables. Specific subgroups of workers are more likely to benefit from blended work. Older white collar professionals with good technological and computer skills and who can work independently are one subgroup that might fit a blended worker personality.

  • 88.
    Elfving, Britt
    et al.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Åsell, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bergsten, Charlotte Luning
    Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Karolinska Inst, Div Insurance Med, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring activity limitations and sick leave among patients with spinal pain participating in multidisciplinary rehabilitation2010Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 292-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To describe limitations in 12 activities at baseline, after multidisciplinary rehabilitation and at a 6-month follow-up for patients with spinal pain and, further, to investigate whether low limitation in any of the activities or in the mean score at baseline might predict increased working time at follow-up. Method. A prospective cohort study of 302 patients, 22- to 63-years old, who participated in multidisciplinary rehabilitation because of chronic neck, thoracic and/or lumbar pain. Data from the Disability Rating Index questionnaire were obtained at baseline, after the 4-week rehabilitation programme, and at the 6-month follow-up. Two subgroups are described: patients who at baseline (1) worked full-time or (2) were on part- or full-time sick leave. Results. The degree of limitation in the 12 activities (items) showed large variations in median scores (7-91). Both subgroups showed significant improvements in most activities after rehabilitation, which remained at the follow-up. Nevertheless, in the sick-leave group, patients who had increased their working time at follow-up (62%) were still very limited in running, heavy work, and lifting heavy objects. In logistic regressions, low limitation in standing bent over a sink at baseline was the only single activity that predicted increased working time at the follow-up: odds ratio (OR) 1.93 (95% CI 1.1-3.5). OR for the mean score was 1.8 (1.0-3.3). Conclusion. A profile of the separate activities demonstrates the large variation in the degree of limitation, which is concealed in a mean score. The single items can be useful when evaluabing interventions. However, to predict increased working time after rehabilitation, the mean score, as well as the activity standing bent over a sink, proved useful.

  • 89.
    Elfving, Britt
    et al.
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Åsell, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ropponen, Annina
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology/Ergonomics, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    What factors predict full or partial return to work among sickness absentees with spinal pain participating in rehabilitation?2009Ingår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, nr 16, s. 1318-1327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To identify the factors that predict full or partial return to work among long-term (>= 90 days) sickness absentees due to spinal pain who begin a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme. Method. In a prospective cohort study, 312 patients with neck, thoracic and/or lumbar pain, aged 20-64, participated in a 4-week multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme in Sweden. Questionnaire data at inclusion were used. Factors included in logistic regressions were as follows: age, gender, type of work, pain location, pain intensity (visual analogue scale), activity limitations [Disability Rating Index (DRI)], health-related quality of life (SF-36), pain-related fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia), motivation (Self Motivation Inventory), sickness absence at baseline and number of sick-leave days during the previous 2 years. Outcome factor was increased versus not increased working time at follow-up 6 months later. Results. Most patients (68%) reported two or three pain locations. At baseline, 56% were full-time sickness absent and 23% at follow-up; 61% had increased their working time. Predictors for increased working time were age below 40 years, low activity limitation (DRI < 50), low SF-36 bodily pain (>30) and high SF-36 social functioning (>60). Number of sick-leave days during the previous 2 years (md 360; range 90-730) had no influence. Conclusions. Even patients with long previous sick leave can increase working time after a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme, especially if they are younger, have lower levels of activity limitations and pain and better social functioning. To include information on part-time work is useful when evaluating work ability following rehabilitation programmes.

  • 90.
    Ericsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oudin, Anna
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Wahlström, Jens
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Reliability testing of two ergonomic risk assessment tools2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Quick Exposure Check (QEC¹) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA²) are two ergonomic risk assessment tools that have been designed to be useful for ergonomists assessing musculoskeletal risk factors in upper extremities at workplaces.

    AIM

    The aim was to describe the variation between and within ergonomists assessments using QEC and RULA, and to compare the two tools regarding within-observer agreement.

    SUBJECTS & METHODS

    Twenty ergonomists observed five different work tasks twice with three weeks in between, watching video clips. They made ergonomic risk assessments using both QEC and RULA.

    The observed work tasks were: Window replacement, nailing a wooden pallet, toilet cleaning, instrumentation in an operating theatre, and sorting post.

    For the statistical analyses, percent agreement and kappa value was used.

    RESULTS

    There was a variation in assessments between the ergonomists in all positions and movements both when using QEC and RULA, except from assessing armposition when observing window replacement using QEC, where all ergonomists assessed the same position (figure 1).

    The ergonomists had higher percent agreement between observation one and two using QEC compared with RULA (table 1).

    CONCLUSION

    There was a variation when assessing positions and movements in different worktasks both between ergonomists and within the same ergonomist using both QEC and RULA. However the agreement between two observations within observers was higher for QEC.

  • 91.
    Evstigneeva, Maria
    et al.
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Aleksandrov, Alexander
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Concurrent cognitive task may improve motor work performance and reduce muscle fatigue2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 92.
    Fahlström, M.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fahlström, P. G.
    School of Education, Sport Science, Växjö University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Lorentzon, R.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Henriksson-Larsen, K.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Positive short-term subjective effect of sports drink supplementation during recovery2006Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 578-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a naturally composed sports drink containing proteins and carbohydrates used during recovery in competitive badminton players. The hypothesis was that the use of a recovery drink would lead to positive subjective effects, enhanced physical performance and less signs of overtraining. Methods. During an in-door season 18 badminton players were instructed to drink at least 250 mL of a given sports drink immediately after each training or playing session. The study design was prospective double blind crossover with one active drink and one placebo. The active drink was based on natural products containing whey and orange juice, and the placebo was made of diluted apple juice. Evaluation of effects was done with laboratory tests, self-registered values and field tests. Results. The players perceived statistically significant short-term subjective positive effects after using the active drink, compared with after using placebo. The blood hemoglobin concentration was also higher after the period with active drink. There were no other differences concerning other laboratory tests (leg strength, endurance, body fat percent, lean arm and leg masses), self-registered values (body weight, pulse, training amount and intensity) or field tests (speed, explosive effort, grip strength, endurance and POMS) between the periods with the different sports drinks. Conclusions. Supplementation with a sports drink during recovery showed a significant short-term subjective positive effect compared with placebo. However, no effects were seen on physical performance or signs of overtraining.

  • 93.
    Fahlström, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Yeap, Joo Seng
    International Medical University, Jalan Rasah, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Söderman, Kerstin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Shoulder pain - a common problem in world-class badminton players2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 168-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Badminton is a sport that requires a lot of over-shoulder motion, with the shoulder in abduction/external rotation. This questionnaire study on 188 international top-level badminton players during the World Mixed Team Championships showed that previous or present shoulder pain on the dominant side was reported by 52% of the players. Previous shoulder pain was reported by 37% of the players and on-going shoulder pain by 20% of the players. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of shoulder pain between men and women. The majority of the shoulder pain had started gradually. The pain was usually associated with shoulder activity, and stiffness was a common, associated symptom. Furthermore, the shoulder pain was associated with consequences such as sleeping disturbances, changes in training and competition habits, and it also affected activities of daily living. The majority of the players had sought medical advice and had been given different kinds of treatment. The study showed that shoulder pain is a common and significant problem in world-class badminton players, and the consequences are most likely of importance for their training and playing capacity.

  • 94.
    Flodgren, Gerd
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University .
    Combining microdialysis and near infrared spectroscopy for studying effects of low-load repetitive work on the intramuscular chemistry in trapezius myalgia2010Ingår i: Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, ISSN 1110-7243, E-ISSN 1110-7251, Vol. 2010, artikel-id 513803Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological research provides strong evidence for a link between repetitive work (RW) and the development of chronic trapezius myalgia (TM). The aims were to further elucidate if an accumulation of sensitising substances or impaired oxygenation is evident in painful muscles during RW. Females with TM (n=14) were studied during rest, 30 min RW and 60 min recovery. Microdialysate samples were obtained to determine changes in [glutamate], [PGE2], [lactate], and [pyruvate] relative to work. Muscle oxygenation (%StO2) was assessed using near-infrared spectroscopy. During work all investigated substances, except PGE2, increased significantly: [glutamate] (54%, P<0.0001), [lactate] (26%, P<0.005), [pyruvate] (19%, P<0.0001), while the %StO2 decreased (P<0.05). During recovery [PGE2] decreased (P<0.005), [lactate] remained increased (P<0.001), [pyruvate] increased progressively (P<0.0001), and %StO2 had returned to baseline. Changes in substance concentrations and oxygenation in response to work indicate normal increase in metabolism but no ongoing inflammation in subjects withTM.

  • 95.
    Flodgren, Gerd
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Characterization of a laboratory model of computer mouse use: applications for studying risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders2007Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 213-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we assessed the wrist kinetics (range of motion, mean position, velocity and mean power frequency in radial/ulnar deviation, flexion/extension, and pronation/supination) associated with performing a mouse-operated computerized task involving painting rectangles on a computer screen. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the painting task on subjective perception of fatigue and wrist position sense. The results showed that the painting task required constrained wrist movements, and repetitive movements of about the same magnitude as those performed in mouse-operated design tasks. In addition, the painting task induced a perception of muscle fatigue in the upper extremity (Borg CR-scale: 3.5, p<0.001) and caused a reduction in the position sense accuracy of the wrist (error before: 4.6 degrees , error after: 5.6 degrees , p<0.05). This standardized painting task appears suitable for studying relevant risk factors, and therefore it offers a potential for investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms behind musculoskeletal disorders related to computer mouse use.

  • 96.
    Flodgren, Gerd
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine Unit, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of 30 versus 60 min of low-load work on intramuscular lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, prostaglandin E(2) and oxygenation in the trapezius muscle of healthy females2006Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, nr 5, s. 557-565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of duration of low-load repetitive work on intramuscular lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and oxygen saturation in the trapezius muscle. Twenty healthy females were studied during baseline rest, during low-load repetitive work for either 30 (REP 30) or 60 (REP 60) minutes, and 60 minutes recovery. Intramuscular microdialysate (IMMD) samples were obtained, and local muscle tissue oxygenation (StO2 %) assessed with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Subjects rated their perceived exertion (Borg CR-10 scale) and capillary blood was sampled for lactate analysis. The results showed a significant increase in IMMD lactate in response to both REP 30 and REP 60 (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively) and glutamate (P<0.0001), but no progressive increase with increasing work duration. Both IMMD pyruvate and lactate tended to be significantly increased during the recovery period. No corresponding increase in blood-lactate was found. Local muscle StO2 % did not change significantly in response to work and was not correlated to the IMMD lactate concentration. The ratings of perceived exertion increased in response to work, and remained increased after recovery for REP 60.

    In conclusion, the results of this study show significantly increased IMMD lactate and, glutamate concentrations in the trapezius muscle of healthy females in response to low-load work, but no progressive increase with increased work duration. Further, they do not indicate that the increased IMMD lactate concentration was caused by a locally decreased or insufficient muscle tissue oxygenation.

  • 97.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Barkstedt, Vanda
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Can Borg’s RPE‐scale be used as an estimate of workday energy consumption in physicallydemanding work?2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 98.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bernmark, Eva
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Nilsson, Birgitta
    Innventia AB.
    Pousette, Sandra
    Innventia AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry – evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, s. 1751-1755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizations generally have a negative effect on health and known risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders. These effects may be reduced by paying attention to modifiers as worker participation and a resonant management style. In this study a participatory approach was used in the food industry in order to improve ergonomics and productivity. The food industry shows a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, and repetitive manual work occurs extensively. Prototypes of new packaging solutions were developed in three cases, and compared in a simulated production to the existing production system through direct measurements of working postures and muscle activity, ratings of physical load, and general productivity data. Measured and rated ergonomic exposures showed that workload was significantly lower for the prototypes, in all three cases. In two cases, the number of handling operations included in the packaging operations were greatly reduced with the prototype package, as were production costs. The impact on disorders of the obtained load reductions is difficult to assess, but we believe that in “critical” situations like this, even small improvements may have an effect. This study shows that workloads during manual handling of packages as well as production costs can be reduced by applying participative development of packages.

  • 99.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council .
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Nyman, Teresia
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge .
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Balliu, Natalja
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Inter-ergonomist Reliability in Rating Risk Level - without any Specific Method - in Ten Video Recorded Work Tasks2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    Recently, 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated through a literature review (Takala et al., 2010). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. In only in a few cases have estimates of the components of the methods been validated against technical measurements. Also comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently increased the demands on ergonomic risk assessments. These assessments are usually made by ergonomists in occupational health services (OHS).

    This study is included in a larger on-going project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability, as well as provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The methods' resulting risk levels are compared not only to each other, but also to ergonomists’ “own” risk estimates (i.e., done without any specific method). The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the inter-observer reliability of ergonomists’ own risk estimates.

    2.  Methods

    Nine OHS-ergonomists, all with more than 5 years of experience of general ergonomic risk assessments, made risk assessments of 10 different video-recorded (2-6 minutes) work-tasks (supermarket work, meat cutting and packing, engine assembly, cleaning, post sorting and hairdressing). Video sequences of two or three camera angles were synchronized and showed together. For each work-task, the ergonomists were given data of the work task length (see Table 1), pause- and rests schedules, weights of handled goods, physical factors, and the employees own ratings of discomfort, work demands and own control.

    The ergonomist could pause the playback as needed, the maximum allocated time per work-task assessment was 20 minutes. The risk of musculoskeletal disorders and need for improvements was rated into green (no risk), yellow (investigate further), and red (immediate risk) categories. Ratings were done for 8 specific body regions: neck, lower back, right and left shoulders, -arms/elbows, and -wrists/hands), and for one over-all risk level.

    The agreement of the ratings (in percent), and Light’s multi-observer kappa (i.e. Cohen’s pairwise kappa averaged over all pairs; Light, 1971; Cohen, 1960) were calculated per body region and for the over-all risk assessment.

    3.  Results

    For the 720 (9 ergonomists, 8 body regions, 10 work tasks) risk assessments of the separate body regions, 37% were green, 44% yellow and 19% red. For over-all risk assessments (Table 1), 14% were green, 50% yellow and 36% red.

    Table 1. Work tasks, hours per work task per work day, and the ergonomists ratings of over risk            

    As seen in Table 1, the consistency between the observers differed markedly.  For three of the work tasks all three categories were represented, only in one task all ergonomists rated the over-all risk equally. The average agreement of the ratings were 48% regarding the body regions, and 57% regarding the over-all risk assessments, Light’s kappa was 0.18 and 0.30, respectively.

    4.  Discussion

    The results showed fair inter-observer reliability according to Altman’s table for interpretation of kappa (kappa between 0.21 and 0.40; Altman, 1991). These kappa values will, in the major project, be compared to those of six systematic observation methods.

    5.  References

    Altman DG (1991) Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.

    Cohen J. A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1960;20(1):37–46.

    Light RJ. Measures of response agreement for qualitative data: Some generalizations and alternatives. Psychological Bulletin. 1971;76(5):365–377.

    Takala EP et al. 2010. Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work. Scand J Work E

  • 100.
    Forsman, Mikael
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Nyman, Teresia
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reliability in twelve ergonomists’ three-category risk ratings in ten video recorded work tasks.2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently increased the demands on ergonomic risk assessments. These assessments are usually made by ergonomists in occupational health services (OHS). Although they are many observational methods that may be used (Takala, Pehkonen et al. 2010), the ergonomists often do risk assessment by sole observation, based on his/her own knowledge and experience, without the use of any specific method.

    This study is included in a larger on-going OBS project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability, as well as provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The methods' resulting risk levels will be compared not only to each other, but also to the ergonomists’ “own” assessments (without any specific method) of the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders.

    The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the inter-observer reliability of ergonomists’ own risk assessments without any specific method

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