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  • 51.
    Richter, Hans O
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Franzén, O.,
    Reduction of visual discomfort (asthenopia) and phoria following modulation of VDU nearwork-induced hysteresis in the visual system2002Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Optometry, ISSN 1045-8395, Vol. 13, s. 1-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Superior short-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during reflexive readjustments of ocular accommodation2007Ingår i: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 361-372Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS) under short-wavelength illumination in 20 symptom-free subjects and eight asthenopics: all had normal unaided or corrected visual acuity and no sign of oculomotor disease. Threshold CS was assessed using the von Bekesy tracking method from a viewing distance of 2.4 m (0.40 D). Three counterbalanced tasks required central fixation of black-and-white square-wave gratings (1, 5, 10, 14 and 17 c/deg) presented through a low-pass filter blue lens and (1) a +1.50 D lens; (2) a -1.50 D lens and (3) a 0 D lens, while attempting accommodation to minimize blur. Baseline increases in eye strain, which approached high levels at the end of the experiment, did not differentiate between the two groups of volunteers. All the subjects made evident appropriate accommodation during the low blur condition (0 D); the CS curve exhibited the expected characteristics. When the minus lens was placed before the eyes of the observers the distant square-wave gratings were still seen clearly, the eyes presumably had accommodated by an amount equal to the power of the negative lens. Compared with symptom-free subjects, asthenopics exhibited greater CS at the intermediate spatial frequencies both during the low blur and the minus blur conditions. Asthenopics may exhibit an individualized sensory tendency to react more strongly to shorter wavelengths of light and may therefore reflexively 'drive' their accommodative system harder than symptom-free subjects. This would explain the presence of their asthenopia in the first place. Blue light may, in addition, induce more arousal and higher alertness in this category of participants. This would boost the oculomotor aspects of their performance. These findings add to the current understanding of individual variability in the level of oculomotor loads following strenuous near work.

  • 53.
    Soares, Sandra C.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Psychology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Esteves, Francisco
    ISCTE, Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Fear, but not fear-relevance, modulates reaction times in visual search with animal distractors2009Ingår i: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 136-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The research aimed at examining attentional selectivity in a visual search paradigm using pictures of animals that have provided a recurrent threat in an evolutionary perspective (i.e., snakes and spiders) and pictures of animals that have supposedly posed no such threat (i.e., cats and fish). Experiment 1 showed no advantage of fear-relevant stimuli over non-fear-relevant animal stimuli. However, an attentional capture seemed to emerge as a delay in the disengagement of attention, specifically when there was a massive presentation of fear-relevant stimuli in the array. The results from Experiment 2, where participants were selected based specifically on their fear of either snakes or spiders (but not both), showed a preferential processing of the congruent feared stimulus, when compared with non fearful participants, which strengthens the notion that fear significance may be an important factor drawing attention to a particular spatial location.

  • 54.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Ned i bråddjupet: Några kvinnors upplevelser av utbrändhet, coping och förändring2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [ar]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka kvinnors upplevelser av utbrändhet ur ett somatiskt, psy¬kiskt och socialt perspektiv. Vidare var syftet att belysa de copingstrategier som kvinnorna använt sig av för att kunna återgå till arbetet. Ett ytterligare syfte var att belysa hur ovanstående aspekter förändrats enligt kvinnorna efter utbrändheten och vilka copingstrategier de använt sig av för att förhindra ny utbrändhet. Fem kvinnor intervjuades och materialet analyserades med hjälp av teoristyrd och induktiv tematisk analys. Resultatet kopplades sedan till teo¬rin om kognitiv värdering, self-efficacy teorin och teorier om naturens och den fysiska aktivitetens betydelse för välmåendet. Resultatet visade att samtliga kvinnor upplevt somatiska, psykiska och sociala problem vid tiden innan, under och i viss mån efter utbrändheten. Kvinnorna använde sig inledningsvis av problemfokuserad coping (ex. samtalsterapi) i kombination med emotionsfokuserad coping (ex. socialt stöd) för att i slutskedet inbegripa enbart emo¬tionsfokuserad coping (socialt stöd, yoga, naturen) . Vidare var ett resultat att samtliga kvinnor upplevde högre grad av självtro och självmedvetenhet efter tiden som utbrända.

  • 55.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Vården beskriven ur några patienters perspektiv1996Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Effects of training on age estimation2007Ingår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 131-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the possibility to improve accuracy of age estimates through training. Thirty-four participants were divided into an experimental and a control group. The sessions included a pre-test before training, six feedback or no-feedback training tests and a post-test after training. The experimental group performed the feedback tests and the control group the no-feedback tests. Training was found to improve age estimation accuracy, particularly estimations of old stimuli, and training with feedback seemed to be superior to training without feedback. No difference was found between the groups at pre-test, but at post-test the experimental group exhibited greater accuracy in age estimation. Moreover, the experimental group increased its accuracy between the pre- and post-tests.

  • 57.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Halin, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Disruption of reading comprehension by irrelevant speech: the role of updating in working memory2008Ingår i: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008: the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise: Noise as a Public Health Problem: Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, s. 410-417Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation examined the relationship between updating in working memory and the effect of irrelevant speech on reading comprehension. In updating tasks, participants can make two types of errors labelled delayed intrusions and immediate intrusions. Delayed intrusions measures people’s ability to suppress active information in working memory, while immediate intrusions measure people’s ability to inhibit information from becoming too active. In our study, a negative relationship between reading comprehension and delayed intrusions was found, and reading comprehension was disrupted by irrelevant speech. This disruption was larger for participants with poor updating ability, specifically for those who made a lot of immediate intrusion errors. The results suggest that people with poor updating ability are not only less able to comprehend what they read, but also more susceptible to the disruptive effects from background speech while reading.

  • 58. Thorsson, S.
    et al.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptuel evaluations of outdoor spaces2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 59.
    Thurfjell, B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Mona
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Swenne, I.
    Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Knorring, A.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, I.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Perceptions of Gender Ideals Predict Outcome of Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls2006Ingår i: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 287-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical features have low predictive value for the outcome of eating disorders. This study focuses on the possible predictive value of gender ideals. Data was from adolescent girls thoroughly assessed both at presentation and at a three-year follow up. Few variables differed between the outcome groups. However, perceptions of gender ideals, as measured by the Three Questions of Ideals, were found to contribute to the prediction of outcome. A discriminant analysis showed that gender ideals, maturity fears, sexual debut, and vomiting were significant discriminators in a set of factors, which correctly classified the outcome for 75.3% of the sample.

  • 60. Thurfjell, Barbro
    et al.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Eliasson, Mona
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Engström, Ingemar
    Perceived and Individual Ideals of Gender in Swedish Adolescents with and without an Eating Disorder2006Ingår i: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 55-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three open-ended questions based on Steiner-Adair (1986) were used to study gender concepts in relation to ideals in adolescent boys and girls and eating-disordered girls. The answers were coded according to themes emanating from the collected data and not predetermined. Dichotomous differences were found between the genders regarding perceived ideals of body size, but clinical and nonclinical girls perceived ideals of society and media similarly. Individual gender concepts differed substantially from the perceived ideals, and were most often focused on lifestyle and life conditions. However, the clinical girls were somewhat more likely to emphasize appearance and loving relationships.

  • 61.
    Thörnström, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.
    Unga tjejers våldsbenägenhet vid konsumtion av alkohol2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose on this study is to determine the extent of possible connections between tendencies to increased violent behavior and increased alcohol consumption among a total cohort of girls in the 9th grade compulsory school and 2nd grade upper secondary school in a Swedish county. In 2004 the Epidemiological Department carried out a health-status survey, using a self-report questionnaire, with students from both private and public schools in a specific county in Sweden. All respondents (N= ca 4000), attending all compulsory (at 9th grade) and upper secondary schools (second tier) on the survey date completed the questionnaire. For this particular study, 9 questions from the questionnaire, all concerning self-reported violent behavior and alcohol consumption habits were used either individually or combined in index variables. The result showed that while violence experience is low among these 4000 girls, it increased in relation to a corresponding increase in alcohol consumption. Self-reported violent behavior is higher for girls in the 9th grade, while the alcohol experience is higher for girls in the 2nd grade of the upper secondary school. Violence in relation to alcohol is a significant phenomenon that is more distinct for girls in the 9th grade compared to girls in the 2nd grade of the upper secondary school.

  • 62.
    Vestlund, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Langeborg, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Experts on age estimation: Cognition and neurosciences2009Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 301-307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this investigation was to study the biases and accuracy in age estimation of persons selling alcohol. Two experiments are reported, both suggesting that the accuracy in age estimation of Swedish alcohol salespersons is higher than that of control persons. This expertise in age estimation is probably the result of the extensive training Swedish alcohol salespersons go through as a natural part of their profession. Nonetheless, their estimates were not free from bias. Salespersons overestimated the age of target persons below 20 years of age and thus too young to buy alcohol. The results also revealed that controls, in contrast to salespersons, assimilated their estimates towards their own age (i.e. an own-anchor effect). Furthermore, female participants were shown to estimate the age of old target persons (56-65 years) more accurately than male participants. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings on training in age estimation and present jurisdiction.

  • 63.
    Wallin, Ulrica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Motivation vid avslut av droganvändning2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Studiens syfte var att, med intervjuer, undersöka missbrukares upplevda motivationskällor (motiverande faktorer) för drogfrihet samt skillnader i motivationskällor för drogfrihet hos missbrukare som avslutat missbruket själva jämfört med dem som genomgått behandling. Resultatet visade att motivationskällan önskan av en förändring till ett bättre liv och tron på egna möjligheter att förändras var viktig för samtliga respondenter. Motivationskällan tron på den egna förmågan att kunna lyckas med ett avslut var särskilt viktig för dem som själva avslutade sitt missbruk och motivationskällan saknaden av och önskan att sluta såra människor i deras närhet för dem som slutade efter behandling. Studien visade också att missbrukarens tro på sin förmåga att lyckas avsluta ett missbruk samt nivån i personens upplevda motivation vid lyckade försök att avsluta ett drogberoende är viktiga faktorer för drogfriheten.

  • 64.
    Westerlund, M.
    et al.
    Central Unit of Child Health Care, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, E.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Can severely language delayed 3-year-olds be identified at 18 months?: Evaluation of a screening version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories2006Ingår i: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 237-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's component yielded the best prediction, (b) compared the productivity figures of the SCS18 with those of the traditional method of identification, and (c) tried different cutoff criteria of the SCS18.

    Method: Half of the child health care (CHC) centers in a Swedish county were randomly selected to use the SCS18 (e.g., a checklist supporting parents in assessing their child's word production, word comprehension, and communicative gestures). Remaining CHC centers used an informal assessment. Expressive and receptive language was subsequently judged with an observation for 3-year-olds that is routine in the county. An unselected population of 2,080 children participated at 18 months of age and again at 3 years of age.

    Result: Number of spoken words yielded the best prediction, and SCS18 was superior to the traditional method. A sensitivity of 50%, however, was not enough, and a stricter criterion resulted in too many false positives to be acceptable as routine.

    Conclusion: Although the SCS18 has strength, the age of 18 months seems to be too early for identification of severe language disability.

  • 65. Westerlund, M.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Berglund, E.
    A short-term follow-up of children with poor word production at the age of 18 months2004Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 93, nr 5, s. 702-706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: (a) To study the stability of poor language development assessed by a new screening instrument based on parents' recognition of words their 18-mo-old children use; (b) to evaluate the predictability of the less-than-eight-words cut-off used by Child Health Centres (CHCs) in Sweden at the present 18-mo check-up--an assessment based on parents' recall of their children's vocabulary. Methods: All failures of the less-than-eight-words criterion, corresponding to about 10% of 1000 children from a community-based study, were followed up within half a year after the first assessment. The follow-up instrument was an extensive, internationally well-known and structured parent questionnaire, standardized for Swedish children. Results: Almost half of the followed-ups performed below the 10th percentile and more than two-thirds were found below the 20th percentile. Thus, after a few months about one-third of the children had caught up to a fairly normal level of performance. Two of the children who had recovered performed above median. More relaxed cut-off criteria were applied ad hoc , reducing the proportion of children with a fast recovery.

  • 66. Wisksell, Rikard
    et al.
    Dahl, JoAnne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Evaluation of a behavior analysis and treatment of progressive Myoclonus epilepsy, type Unverricht-Lundborg: a Case Study2003Ingår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 38-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study of a 14-yr-old boy evaluates the clinical effectiveness of a psychological treatment within a behaviour medicine approach to epilepsy of a subject with progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The pattern of seizure behaviour was identified in the behaviour analysis. Self-management skills were taught to the client and in vivo exposure was subsequently used in a desensitization process. The main findings in this study were that the debilitating effects of the myoclonic jerks can be reduced and functioning level improved when fear of seizures is reduced. These results indicate that psychological treatment can increase the level of functioning in clients with progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

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