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  • 551.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Aziz, Shniar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    En jämförelse mellan gröna-, metall- och gråa tak för ett oisolerat parkeringshus utifrån dess olika temperaturer och dagvattenhantering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since climate change increases and changes constantly, it contributes to higher average temperatures, ice melting and has a great impact on our ecosystem. This will then lead to a warmer climate, which means increased precipitation and milder winters. One of the reasons to climate change is urbanization, meaning people moving to the cities. To succeed in changing the climate, international cooperation and common goals are required. At the northern part of Brynäs, in the municipality of Gävle, work is currently in progress around the area where the factory of Läkerol was once standing. The area continues to be rebuilt and the outcome will eventually be called Godisfabriken. There, amongst other, a car park will be built for the newly built homes. The aim of this study is to compare metal roofs, grey concrete roofs and green roofs within the two aspects of stormwater management and temperature. Then analyse which alternative of these three roofs would be most advantageous for the car park of Godisfabriken.

     

    The focused roofs are green, metal and concrete. A green roof is when it's completely or partly covered by a layer of vegetation and metal roofs are different sheet roofs with steel and aluminium-zinc. Grey roofs are made of concrete which works as both floor and ceiling. A building's roof affects which air temperature the surroundings has with its slope, vegetation and surrounding buildings. Another problem with urbanization and a warmer climate is stormwater management, which means rain and melted snow from roofs, parking areas and other hard surfaces.

     

    The method includes a literature study and calculations. The literature study gave research on temperature for all roofs as well as stormwater management for green roofs. Calculations were made for stormwater management and temperature with its flow, absorption, reflectance and heat transfer.

     

    The literature study and the calculations showed that green roofs have a high SRI value of 80 while the remaining roof is at around 40. The higher SRI, the lower surface temperatures on the material. This is proven in both methods when green roofs according to the literature study received a maximum surface temperature of 38 °C and 48 °C. According to the literature study green roofs can preserve more than 50 % of the rainwater. They also had a water flow rate of 1.97 l/s, which is less than half of what the metal roof got in the calculations. Since green roofs had both low air and surface temperatures, as well as longer drainage times and most absorbed water, green roofs are a more suitable choice than metal and grey concrete.

  • 552.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Lagerbäck, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Effekter på smärta och hälsa av akupunkturbehandling hos personer med fibromyalgi: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I världen lever cirka 3-5 procent av befolkningen med det långvariga smärtsyndromet fibromyalgi. Det är svårt att finna behandlingar mot fibromyalgi då det inte finns någon vetenskap om vad som orsakar syndromet. Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva effekterna på smärta och hälsa av akupunkturbehandling hos personer med fibromyalgi samt beskriva kvaliteten av de valda artiklarnas metod. Studien utformades med en deskriptiv design där 11 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades och sammanställdes. Litteratursökningarna utfördes i databaserna Medline (PubMed) samt Cinahl. Resultatet visade att akupunktur gav positiva kortsiktiga effekter på smärta och hälsa i kombination med farmakologisk behandling hos personer med fibromyalgi. Däremot var långtidseffekten av akupunktur inte betydande effektiv. Placebo visade sig även ge en god effekt. Akupunktur gav betydande minskning av smärta genom en förhöjd aktivering av endogena opioidreceptorer samt genom ökat blodflöde i hud och muskler. Slutsatsen av studien var att akupunktur med fördel kan användas tillsammans med farmakologisk behandling till personer med fibromyalgi. För att kunna ge en god omvårdnad är det viktigt att få kunskap och förståelse om akupunktur som behandlingsmetod till denna population. För att dra några slutsatser om akupunktur kan ge några långsiktiga effekter behövs mer forskning inom området.

  • 553.
    Andersson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Rämgård, Linda
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Förskollärares förhållningssätt till genus i barnböcker2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I förskolan sker det hela tiden möten mellan barn och vuxna och dessa möten har en stor inverkan på barns utveckling. Vi valde att göra denna undersökning då syftet var att se vad förskollärare har för förhållningssätt till genus i barnböcker. Studien har genomförts genom intervjuer med tre förskollärare i två olika kommuner i Mellansverige. Intervjuernas resultat har varit grunden för underlag till vår analys och diskussion. I resultatet framgick det att förskollärares förhållningssätt till genus är viktigt för utvecklandet av barns värderingar och attityder kring könsroller och att barnböcker kan vara ett sätt att överföra dessa värderingar på. Resultatet visade även att barnböcker i samband med genus behövs uppmärksammas mer på vissa förskolor.

  • 554.
    Andersson, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Scott Pilgrims resa från serie till film och spel2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 555.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 556.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahrné, K.
    Department of Entomology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring social – ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 557.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, S.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, A.
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: Stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services2016In: Sustainable Cities: Urban Planning Challenges and Policy, CRC Press , 2016, p. 29-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 558.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Beijer Institute, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reconnecting Cities to the Biosphere: Stewardship of Green Infrastructure and Urban Ecosystem Services2014In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  • 559.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Understanding how built urban form influences biodiversity2014In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to contribute to a more complete understanding of how urban form influences biodiversity by investigating the effects of green area distribution and that of built form. We investigated breeding bird diversity in three types of housing development with approximately the same amount of tree cover. No significant differences in terms of bird communities were found between housing types in any of the survey periods. However, detached housing, especially with interspersed trees, had more neotropical insectivores and higher overall diversity of insectivores. Based on our results and theory we suggest a complementary approach to managing biodiversity in urban landscapes - instead of maximising the value and quality of individual patches efforts could go into enhancing over-all landscape quality at the neighbourhood scale by splitting up part of the green infrastructure. The relatively small differences in bird communities also suggest that different stakeholder groups may be engaged in management.

  • 560.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Fogelberg, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Varför stannar hon?: en kvalitativ studie om kvinnomisshandel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study was to create understanding why women stay in destructive relations. To succeed with this a qualitative method was chosen to execute the examination. Interviews were carried through with three women as well as with staff from the women´s crisis center and the police, then the text was analyzed and the result was shown. The result showed that women go through a process where they through adaptation gradually lose themselves. This is done by power and control from the men. The result shows that there is an evident pattern in the women´s experiences that can be referred to Lundgren´s (2004) Normaliseringsprocess (Normalizing process). An important conclusion appeared to be that it depends where in the process the woman is at the moment that determine if she manage to abandon the man. If the woman has not come to that turning-point but has got help from relatives or professionals to abandon the man there is a risk that she might return to the relation. Another conclusion showed that the turning-point is individual for every single woman.

  • 561.
    Andersson, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Persson, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    De yngsta barnens delaktighet och inflytande: En studie på tre förskolor2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka de yngsta barnens demokratiska rättigheter och deras rätt till delaktighet och inflytande över sin vardag i förskolan. Syftet är även att studera vilka faktorer som kan inverka på detta. Forskningsfrågorna är ställda utifrån dessa syften och handlar även om lärarens syn på delaktigheten och hur kommunikation sker mellan lärare och barn utifrån delaktighet och inflytande.

  • 562.
    Andersson, Eva-Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Persson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Friskvårdsförmåner och förändringar i motionsvanor hos brevbärare2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to determine if wellness benefits led to any changes in exercise habits among employed postmen. The study was a cross-sectional study carried out by a quantitative method. The collection of data took the form of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 30 postmen employed at a post office in northern Sweden. The results show that of the postman who use health care benefits, there has been a relatively small change in exercise habits. The results also show that consistently for all respondents was health the main motivation factor for exercise. Time aspect was a factor for not using the wellness benefits. The study showed a state of health is the primary motivational factor to exercise both for those using health care benefits and for those who do not use them.

  • 563.
    Andersson, Filip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Fred, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Virtuell Kunskapsöverföring: En kvalitativ studie om hur intranätet möjliggör kunskapsöverföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Virtual Knowledge Transfer – A qualitative study on how the intranet enables knowledge transfer.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Filip Andersson och Marcus Fred

    Supervisor: Daniella Fjellström och Signe Jernberg

    Date: 2017 - August

    Aim: The aim of this study is to create an understanding of how employees use the intranet to obtain explicit knowledge 

    Method: This study is based on a hermeneutic perspective. The gathering of empirical material is based on a qualitative research method in form of semi-structured interviews. The theoretical framework is based on prior research within the Knowledge Management field. An interview guide has been formed based on the theoretical framework, the empirical result is therefor based on the interview guide. A thematic analyze is used where themes have been created out of the empirical results.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that employees mostly are using the intranet to obtain explicit knowledge in connection to recurrent problems and questions related to work.

    Suggestions for future research: Limitations of the study are based on the problems with the generalizability connected to the semi-structured interviews that are done within one company. More research in a bigger context needs to be done.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes with a more compelling theory when it comes to the usage of the intranet to obtain explicit knowledge. As well as a updated view on relevant models connected to the knowledge transfer research.

    Key words: Knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge transfer, intranet

  • 564.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Applikationsutveckling för Android2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt handlar om ett applikationsutvecklingsprojekt för Androidplattformen vilket innefattar Androids uppbyggnad, Javaprogrammering, design i XML miljö, grunder i Eclipse samt publicering på Google Play (före detta Android market). Projektet resulterar i en Androidapplikation i form av ett enkelt Pongspel med olika funktioner som highscorelista samt att uppsatsen beskriver det man behöver kunna för att utveckla applikationer för Android.

  • 565.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utveckling av GIS-applikation för effektivisering av planeringsarbeten för infrastruktur2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Planeringsarbeten för infrastruktur sker ofta med hjälp av speciella programvaror som CAD för att skapa ritningar på kartor över områden där tänkta infrastrukturer skall utvecklas. Som en effektivisering för dessa arbeten handlar denna studie om implementering av en GIS-applikation för att motivera fördelar med GIS och sättet för hantering samt visualisering av geografisk information. En webbapplikation som hanterar baskartor samt överliggande vektorlager för infrastruktur utvecklas, samt även att samma kartdata över infrastrukturen kopplas till en mobilapplikation för att effektivisera eventuella inventeringsarbeten av infrastrukur med hjälp av GPS för att kunna positionera infrastruktur på ett bra sätt. Tekniken bakom utvecklingen bygger på HTML, CSS och JavaScript samt molntjänstlagrin av infrastruktursdata i en geodatabas . GIS-applikationen sammanställer svar på frågor som bevisar hur GIS på ett tillfredställande sätt mycket väl skulle kunna implementeras och användas praktiskt i ett utvecklingsarbete för infrastruktur i dagens morderna samhälle. 

  • 566.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Christina, Lindberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans vårdande på akutmottagningen – ur ett patientperspektiv: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emergency department has a high patient inflow and this results in increased waiting times for patients with low priority injuries and diseases/conditions. The confidentiality in health care prevents the nurse from giving information on why other patients are prioritized over them. Nurses can with the knowledge of patients' experiences of care in the emergency department, get a better understanding and through this provide more individualized care and increased satisfaction of patients.

    Aim: To describe patients' experiences of care from nurses in the emergency department. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the data collection method of the included articles.

    Methods: A literature study with descriptive design. The twelve included scientific articles were sought out in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The approaches of these are quantitative, qualitative or mixed.

    Results: Many patients felt that the treatment they received by the nurse in the emergency department was good. The good hospitality, ability to listen and the high competence of the nurse brought a mutual respect between nurse and patient. During the waiting time, however, the patients sometimes felt as a burden on nurses and in some cases even felt ignored. The lack of contact with the nurses during the waiting time meant that the patients did not receive the information they deemed necessary. Patients described that the nurse communication was adequate and that they used an easy to understand language.

    Conclusion: Most patients were satisfied with the care they received by the nurse in the emergency department. They felt that the nurse had a high level of competence and communication was adequate. However, there were patients who felt that the information was inadequate.

  • 567.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende. Ett annat syfte var att undersöka vilka förebyggande åtgärder vårdpersonal kan använda sig av vid dessa situationer. Föreliggande studie är en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design.  Artiklar söktes i databasen Cinahl vilket resulterade i tolv inkluderande artiklar av kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Författarna har valt att granska artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp och bortfall. Resultatet visade att hot- och våldsituationer är vanligt på särskilt boende och ofta uppkommer i samband med hjälp vid personlig hygien, påklädning och toalettbesök. Vårdpersonalens upplevelse av våld beror på deras tidigare erfarenheter och attityder. Varje vårdpersonal har en egen tolkning av vad våld innebär samt att graden av tolerans skiljer sig mellan olika individer. Genom att ha ökad kunskap, förmåga att kommunicera samt en professionell attityd och viljan att konsultera med andra i vårdteamet kan personalen förebygga ett aggressivt beteende på sin arbetsplats. Vårdpersonalen antog flera olika strategier för att hantera hot- och våldsituationer hos personer med aggressivt och utåtagerande beteende, t.ex. distraktion, personcentrerat förhållningssätt och kommunikation. Läkemedelsbehandling ansågs inte vara en förstahandsåtgärd. Inom det kliniska arbetet kommer vårdpersonalen på särskilt boende att stöta på svåra situationer och utåtagerande beteenden hos äldre och äldre med demenssjukdomar. Därför är det viktigt att som vårdpersonal ha kunskap om bemötande samt kommunikation för att kunna hantera dessa situationer.

  • 568.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Kvinnliga första linjens chefers uppfattning om sin ledarroll inom kommunal äldreomsorg2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     När en person blir utsedd till chef sker det inom en organisation. Ramverk med regler och rutiner finns inom varje organisation. I uppdraget att vara chef ligger att leda och styra verksamheten, med de resurser som finns. Chefen får auktoritets utrymme som ger rätten att fatta beslut och verkställa de med hjälp av sin formella makt. Chefen förväntas göra det som bidrar till fortsatt existens och utveckling och får lösa problem som uppstår i organisationen. Nya krav och behov leder till att en arbetsledare ska kunna agera såväl som ledare och chef. För att utöva ledarskap måste utövaren förstå skillnaden mellan att leda och utveckla nödvändiga möjligheter för att leda och att vara chef samt, utveckla möjligheterna att leda. Ledaren måste vara kreativa, kunna agera och lösa konflikter, värdera problem, lyssna och kommunicera. För att kunna besvara syftet i studien och beskriva kvinnliga första linjens chefers uppfattning av sin ledarroll inom kommunal äldreomsorg, kändes det naturligt att välja en kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design och 10 kvinnliga chefer intervjuades. Resultatet visade att första linjens chefer upplevde stor arbetsbelastning. Chefen skulle en vara närvarande chef för att kunna stödja personalen i deras arbete. Upplevelsen av krav från många håll och känslan av att inte alltid räcka till upplevdes frustrerande. Konflikter fanns på de flesta arbetsplatserna.

     

     

  • 569.
    Andersson, Gunilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Lingvall, Eva-Lotta
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Jehovas Vittnen: elever med en annan trosuppfattning1998Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts som en examinationsuppgift i termin sju på Grundskollärarutbildningen 1-7 vid Högskolan i Gävle.

    Examensarbetets huvudsyfte var att ta reda på hur man som blivande lärare på bästa sätt bemöter en elev som är ett Jehovas vittne med hänsyn till både elevens trosuppfattning och Lpo 94.

    Arbetet grundar sig på litteraturstudier och intervjuer med lärare som har kommit i kontakt med Jehovas vittnen. En intervju har utförts med en lärare som själv är ett vittne.

    Första delen av arbetet består av inledning, metod och en kortfattad historiebeskrivning runt Jehovas samt vad ett Jehovas vittne är och vad som skiljer dem från övriga samhällsmedlemmar.

    Nästa del tar upp hur Jehovas vittnen ser på skola och utbildning samt vad Lpo 94 föreskriver.

    I den sista och avslutande delen behandlas intervjuerna och därefter följer diskussionen.

  • 570.
    Andersson, Gunn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Bohlin, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Åtgärdsprogram mot mobbning: ett steg i rätt riktning?1997Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt skollagens första kapitel § 2 är varje skola skyldig att ha någon form av åtgärdsprogram mot mobbning. I den nya läroplanen, Lpo -94, anges att det är rektor som bär det särskilda ansvaret för att skolan verkligen utformar ett sådant åtgärdsprogram.

    Vi valde därför att inleda det här arbetet med att undersöka om skolorna i Gävle kommun, med inriktning på årskurs 1-6, var laglydiga eller inte. Med andra ord, hade de någon form av åtgärdsprogram mot mobbning eller inte?

    I och med Lpo -94, framhålls också skolans ansvar tydligt, när det gäller att ingripa mot alla slags trakasserier eller kränkande behandling. Vi är alltså som lärare, tillsammans med övrig skolpersonal, skyldiga att ingripa om vi misstänker ett fall av mobbning. Gör vi inte detta, begår vi följaktligen ett lagbrott! Till vår hjälp och till vårt stöd, ska vi då bland annat ha detta åtgärdsprogram.

    Vi intervjuade därför, sex lärare samt tre rektorer, på tre utvalda skolor även det inom Gävle kommun. Syftet med dessa intervjuer var att försöka få en uppfattning om hur pass väl åtgärdsprogrammen ute på skolorna är förankrade. Samtidigt försökte vi få svar på en rad andra frågor som vi hade angående dessa åtgärdsprogram. I arbetet presenterar vi också några, i åtgärdsprogrammen, vanligt förekommande metoder och modeller, exempelvis Farstamodellen och Österholmsmodellen. Vi gjorde också en intervju med en representant ur ett mobbningsteam. Mobbningsteamets arbete är ofta en viktig del av innehållet i ett åtgärdsprogram.

    • Vi kom fram till att av 28 tillfrågade skolor, hade bevisligen 27 stycken ett åtgärdsprogram av någon form.
    • Förankringen av åtgärdsprogrammen bland de intervjuade lärarna och rektorerna visade sig, tolkat utifrån våra intervjusvar, inte vara alltför god.
    • Vi fann också att de intervjuade på skolorna, hade väldigt olika uppfattningar om åtgärdsprogrammet och dess innehåll.
  • 571.
    Andersson, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ebbvik Neuman, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    CSR och Organisatorisk Identifiering: En kvantitativ studie om anställdas uppfattning av CSR och deras organisatoriska identifiering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to explain the relationships between employees' perception of different dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and their Organizational Identification (OID), as well as how employees job tenure affects the relationships.

     

    Method: A moderated hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the relationships between the variables. Data was collected via a survey and the sample consisted of 109 bank employees in Sweden.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The result shows that there exists a statistically significant relationship between employees' perception of internal and external CSR and OID. Furthermore, the job tenure is not a statistically significant moderator between these relationships. However, tenure acts as a predictor of OID.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis contributes to an increased knowledge of how CSR affects employees. Theoretically, the thesis supports previous research showing that employees' perception of CSR has a positive relationship with OID. Further theoretical advancements are that both internal and external CSR has a positive relationship with OID. We also clarify that employees’ tenure does not moderate the relationships between CSR dimensions and OID but rather that tenure is a predictor of OID. Practically, the thesis contributes with results that show that organizations should communicate both internal and external CSR to their employees, regardless of the tenure.

     

    Suggestions for future research: The results of the thesis partly confirm previous research, but also show conflicting results, which suggests that further research is needed in the field. This involves including other moderator/mediator variables and also other independent variables. Further research should also use a probability sample where the respondents have the same chance of being selected and should also include other industries and sectors.

  • 572.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Eriksson, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Motivation på arbetet, en fråga om personlighet?: En kvantitativ studie mellan motivation och personlighet.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work motivation has shown positive effects on job satisfaction and well-being. Research reports that personality explained some part of what motivates employees. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the same results could be see on the Swedish labor market. The study measured background factors, motivation through the work values ​​questionnaire (WWQ) and personality through the ten item personality inventory (TIPI). 128 full-time employees answered the survey. The results showed significant correlations for security and conditions (MF1) with personality, gender and education level. Personal development and stimulation (MF3) significantly correlated with personality and employment. A multiple regression analysis showed that agreeableness, gender, age and education level contributed to the explained variance in MF1. Extraversion contributed to the explained variance of MF3. The same results were found in this study as in earlier research, personality traits and background factors stands for a part of the explained variance in motivation.

  • 573.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Malmén, Catharina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Vikten av att vara en grupp: en intervjustudie om gruppens betydelse i viktminskningsgrupper2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om och i så fall hur personer som har genomgått viktminskning i grupp upplever att de har påverkats av själva gruppen samt söka få förståelse för själva grupprocessen. Metoden som användes var intervju, där fem personer i åldrarna 32- 48 år ingick, en man och fyra kvinnor. Resultatet som framkom var att gruppen har påverkat personerna på olika sätt, till exempel genom bidragandet av motivation och socialt stöd som för många har underlättat deras resa mot en sundare livsstil. Gruppen hade en större inverkan i de fallen där personerna kände varandra och där det öppnades upp för diskussion och reflektion gruppmedlemmarna sinsemellan, något som också bidrog till lärande. Slutsatsen är alltså; Ja, gruppen har en påverkan, men hur pass stor den påverkan är skiljer sig mellan olika grupper och individerna som befinner sig i dem.

  • 574.
    Andersson, Harald
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Numerical and experimental study of confluent jets supply device with variable airflow2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, application of confluent jets for design of ventilation supply devices has been studied. Similarly, numerus studies have been made on the potential and application of variable air volume (VAV) in order to reduce the energy demand of ventilation systems. This study investigates the combination of supply devices based on confluent jets and VAV, both in terms of the nearfield flow behavior of the device and the impact on thermal comfort, indoor air quality and energy efficiency on a classroom-level space when the airflow rate is varied.

    The method used in this study is an experimental field study where the confluent jets-based supply devices were compared to the previously installed displacement ventilation. The field study evaluated the energy efficiency, thermal comfort and indoor air quality of the two systems. In the case of the confluent jets supply devices, airflow rate was varied in order to see what impact the variation had on the performance of the system for each airflow rate. Furthermore, the confluent jets supply devices were investigated both experimentally and numerically in a well insulated test room to get high resolution data on the particular flow characteristics for this type of supply device when the airflow rate is varied. The results from the field study show nearly uniform distribution of the local mean age of air in the occupied zone, even in the cases of relatively low airflow rates. The airflow rates have no significant effect on the degree of mixing. The thermal comfort in the classroom was increased when the airflow rate was adapted to the heat load compared to the displacement system. The results lead to the conclusion that the combination of supply devices based on confluent jets can reduce energy usage in the school while maintaining indoor air quality and increasing the thermal comfort in the occupied zone.

    The results from the experimental and numerical study show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for different airflow rates.

    The results from both studies show that the airflow rate does not affect the distribution of the airflow on both near-field and room level. The distribution of air is nearly uniform in the case of the near-field results and the room-level measurement shows a completely uniform degree of mixing and air quality in the occupied zone for each airflow rate. This means that there is potential for combining these two schemes for designing air distribution systems with high energy efficiency and high thermal comfort and indoor air quality.

  • 575.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy-Saving Measures in a Classroom Using Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device: A Field Study2016In: 2016 ASHRAE Winter Conference Papers, ASHRAE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1990 and 2006 the energy use by ventilation systems in Swedish schools doubled. This is explained by high airflows in schools because of the high occupant density. Studies show that 87% of Swedish schools use constant air volume (CAV), and it is estimated that a change to variable air volume (VAV) could save 0.12-0.33 TWh (4.1*10(12) - 1.1*10(13) Btu) per year. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to replace displacement ventilation (DV) with mixing ventilation (MV) to create a comfortable indoor climate in a typical classroom and at the same time decrease the energy use by using VAV and Low Pressure Drop Ceiling Supply Device (LPDCSD). The study used two LPDCSDs which consist of circular channels with 190/228 round jets placed in an interlocking pattern, with a horizontal one/two-way-direction. The field study was carried out in a school which is intended to be extensively renovated. The school currently has DV and CAV. The study was carried out by installing MV with LPDCSD in one of the typical classrooms. Several different air-flow rates were investigated using tracer-gas technology to measure the local mean age of the air in the occupied zone. Simultaneously, thermal comfort and vertical temperature gradients were measured in the room. The results show nearly uniform distribution of the local mean age of air in the occupied zone, even in the cases of relatively low air-flow rates. Since the mixing of air is more or less the same in the entire occupied zone VAV can be used to reduce air-flow rate based on the desired CO2-level. Because of the number of students in each classroom and the fact that changes in air-flow rates have no significant effect on the degree of mixing, it is possible to reduce the air-flow rates for extended periods of time. Finally, since the LPDCSD has a lower pressure-drop than the currently used supply devices and it is possible to use VAV to lower the airflows in cases with reduced heat loads, it is possible to significantly reduce the energy usage in the school while maintaining the IAQ, increasing the thermal comfort and the available floor area of the occupied zone.

  • 576.
    Andersson, Harald
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Experimental and numerical investigations of a new ventilation supply device based on confluent jets2018In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 137, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In developed countries, heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for more than 10% of national energy use. The primary function of a HVAC system is to create proper indoor environment. A number of ventilation strategies have been developed to minimize HVAC systems’ energy use whilst still maintaining a good indoor environment. Among these strategies are confluent jet ventilation and variable air volume. In this study, an air supply device with a novel nozzle design that uses both of the above-mentioned strategies was investigated both experimentally and numerically at three different airflow rates. The results from the numerical investigation using the SST k - ω turbulence model regarding velocities and flow patterns are validated by experimental data carried out by Laser Doppler Anemometry. The results from both studies show that the flow pattern and velocity in each nozzle is directly dependent on the total airflow rate. However, the flow pattern does not vary between the three different airflow rates. The numerical investigation shows that velocity profiles for each nozzle have the same pattern regardless of the airflow rate, but the magnitude of the velocity profile increases as the airflow increases. Thus, a supply device of this kind could be used for variable air volume and produce confluent jets for the airflow rates investigated.

  • 577.
    Andersson Hedström, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Spinord, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Kamratrespons i svenskämnet: En jämförande studie om kamratresponsens och lärarresponsens effekter på skrivutvecklingen i årskurs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 578.
    Andersson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Äldre motionärers upplevelser av motionsträning: en beskrivande intervjuundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Older people's experiences of exercise training: a survey based on a descriptive design.

    Course: Public Health: Theory and method of application and degree, 30 credits. University of Gävle, health education program.

    Author: Helena Andersson

    Purpose: According to earlier research the western population is aging. This may affect, the older peoples`s physical disability in one form or another. The consequences may be that the need off care can increase. However elderly can prevent a variety of age-related diseases by being physically active. The study will examine how older people view physical activity and participation of other social activities. This is to improve understanding of older people's health and what can be done in the future.

    Method: The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, in which four semi-structured interviews were conducted with older adults who exercise regularly. The interviews were based on a thematic interview guide with specific themes that gave informants space to talk freely about the issues raised. The sample consisted of three women and one man where the youngest was 63 and the oldest 74 years old.

    Results: Exercise was the highest priority of this group of people. It was in the connection with social interaction that the exercise became complete according to the informants. The place for exercise was found to be important; to train with others, seemed to generate joy, power, energy and motivation. This meant that all informants were rarely sick, which also was something that was pointed out. They exercise to obtain more healthy years.

  • 579.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Lundberg, Izabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Livet i Bokstavslandet: Tre läseböcker för årskurs 1–3 analyserade ur ett genusperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har i denna studie undersökt hur män och kvinnor samt pojkar och flickor gestaltas i läromedel riktat till barn i förskoleklass och årskurs 1–3. De utvalda läromedlen är läseböcker i läromedelsserien Livet i Bokstavslandet, som är utgivna mellan år 2015 och 2017. Vi har även undersökt hur materialet svarar mot den samtida läroplanens krav om jämställdhet. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ text- och bildanalys med kvantitativa inslag. I analysen av de aktuella läromedlen har vi utgått från Hirdmans genussystem och Connells maskulinitetsteori.

    Resultatet visar att gestaltningen av könen i de analyserade läromedlen i vissa aspekter är i enlighet med rådande styrdokument medan de ur andra hänseenden motsäger dessa. 

  • 580.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Åhsberg, Mela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Debiteringsmodell för interna transporter: Hur en debiteringsmodell kan förändra beställningsbeteende och sänka kostnader2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer pricing is the price of goods or services supplied between units within a larger company. It turns out that transfer prices can make it possible for a company to be more effective and direct the company towards the common targets. A payment model can be used to connect internal charging for a completed delivery, where a written request is sent electronically to the customer with information about the amount and in which account the money should be placed. The specified price is based either on the basis of a price list that is updated continuously, or calculated immediately after a completed delivery. By using the service levels in a payment model the ordering behavior in the internal logistics can be changed if a manager makes the workers aware of how their choices affect the production unit's finances.

     

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a payment model for internal transport can change ordering behaviors and reduce costs for internal logistics. The purpose has been filled by performing a literature review on the subject which has been conducted on a case company where the internal ordering behavior and the current payment model have been studied. After examining and documenting of the current situation on the case company, a new payment model has been developed. The new payment model consists of hard and soft factors, where the factors are strongly linked with each other and are important to change unwanted behaviors.

     

    The result of the survey shows that a payment model alone cannot change unwanted ordering behavior. Unwanted ordering behavior can only be changed with the combination of service levels and strong leadership.  The target is to make workers aware that the choice of service level affects the final price of an order. It can only happen if managers motivate the workers to choose a service level that can reduce production unit ordering costs. It is however important to note that the payment model itself must be supported by a strong leadership that promotes a change and that workers receive training in how the payment model works and knowledge of what management's view of the model is.

     

    With this background, this study aims to solve both the case company’s practical problems with internal transport costs and increasing knowledge about payment models and how these can be used to change unwanted behaviors.

  • 581.
    Andersson, I.
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rössner, Stefan
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men - the "Gustaf" study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 582.
    Andersson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    "Ett slit och släng jobb": en studie om gymnasieelevers uppfattningar av arbetet inom äldreomsorgen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om attityder och uppfattningar av äldreomsorgen, statustrappan, immanent pedagogik samt skolverkets läroplan. Syftet var att undersöka elever på vård- och omsorgsprogrammets uppfattningar av arbetet inom äldreomsorgen. Studien genomfördes genom en fokusgrupp där fyra elever från vård- och omsorgsprogrammets sista läsår utgjorde studiens respondenter. Fenomenografin som ansats fungerade som en stöttepelare genom de centrala delarna, så som syfte, frågeställning, metod och analys. Fokusgruppens samtal varade under två timmar där två fallbeskrivningar utgjorde underlag för diskussion, datamaterialet transkriberades och analyserades sedan. Resultatet innebar att sju olika uppfattningar hittades, de presenteras i varsin beskrivningskategori där uppfattningen beskrivs. Dessa sju är; ”En plats där livet slutat”, ”att visa respekt skapar värdighet”, ”ett enkelt arbete”, ”inget framtidsyrke”, ”förebilder och positiva erfarenheter stärker vårdyrket”, ”status bidrar till (o)intresse” och ”gymnasieutbildningen har betydelse för yrkesutövandet”. Respondenterna uppfattade inte äldreomsorgen som ett attraktivt framtidsyrke, de menade att vem som helst kunde utföra arbetsuppgifterna och att det var en stor anledning till att de hade andra framtidsplaner.

  • 583.
    Andersson, Inger
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Hofsten, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Case seminars open new doors to understanding – students’ experiences of learning2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 584.
    Andersson, Izabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Är Instagram en pådrivande faktor till utvecklande av Ortorexi?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur flödet av bilder på Instagram påverkar unga kvinnors kroppsuppfattning, fysiska aktivitet och matvanor i relation till fenomenet ortorexi.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore if young women aged 18-20 years experienced that Instagram affected their body image, their physical activity and their eating habits in relation to the phenomenon orthorexia. The method for the study was a qualitative content analysis based on semi-structured interviews with four young women with the age of 18-20 years old. The results showed that Instagram affected young women's body image, their physical activity and their eating habits. Primarily body image and physical activity were most affected, eating habits were less affected. The results showed that there were both a positive and a negative impact, but by far a negative impact. Respondents experienced feelings like anxiety and guilt when, for example, a training session did not go as planned or after they had eaten an unhealthy meal. Their mindset and emotions that came forward in the results were partly linked to the phenomenon of orthorexia. The young women were adversely affected by the pictures and videos on Instagram and also by other social media. They exposed themselves to develop mental and physical ill health. Society should consider prioritizing the young women to prevent them from falling into the mindset that is similar to the phenomenon of orthorexia. 

  • 585.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Norbäck, Markus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lokalisering av nya bostadsområden i översiktlig planering: En rumslig multikriterieanalys över Gävle2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization combined with toxic emissions from motor traffic calls forhigher demands when house planning in cities. The purpose of this study is toincrease understanding about how to apply multi criteria analyses whenmaster planning to contribute to a more sustainable society. A more effectivehouse planning connected to existing societal functions might add to the usageof more sustainable transportation alternatives rather than that of cars.

    Using the input from interviews with representatives from both the privateand the public sector, a number of criterias have been developed for theanalysis. Considering existing societal functions, this study was intended toidentify new areas for housing development using a multi criterial analysis.This might contribute to more sustainable transportation because of thedistance to the societal functions. In addition to this, the intention extended tothe investigation of how political interests differs from one another, using aranking system based on the developed criterias.

    The results show that representatives from the two largest political parties in asmall town in Sweden rank the criterias different when it comes to whatsocietal functions a new housing area should have in close proximity. On theother hand, the end results show that the areas chosen for housingdevelopment have similar qualities, in spite of varying housing politics amongthe politicians. This study might contribute to a more effective politicalhandling of business, since political differences does not ultimately showdifferences in where activities or objects should be placed.

  • 586.
    Andersson, Jan-Eric
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    En undersökning om perspektivet på Islam i tre nyhetsprogram2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utgångspunkten för min studie har varit att se på ur vilket perspektiv Islam behandlas i tre västerländska nyhetskanaler eller nyhetsprogram. De tre undersökta nyhetskanalerna har varit Euronews, Aktuellt och TV4s nyheter. Undersökningen har gjorts under mars månad år 2000. Ett nyhetsprogram från var och en av de tre kanalerna spelades in varje dag.

    För att en korrekt tolkning skall ha varit möjlig har jag vidare studerat en mängd litteratur. En del har behandlat vad Islam är, medan annan litteratur behandlat hur media använder olika stereotyper och schablonsbilder när de skall beskriva ett nyhetsfenomen. När det gäller mediabilden så förekommer det i arbetet en separat punkt som just behandlar media och dess bilder av verkligheten. En annan kompletterande litteratur har rört ämnet "orientalism" vilket kan beskrivas som ett specifikt sätt att beskriva Orienten på. Detta har föranlett att en separat punkt med ämnet "orientalism" finns i mitt arbete.

    Vidare innehåller arbetet en enkätundersökning utförd på Högskolan i Gävle 000828. I enkäten frågas om olika ords värdeladdning. Nästan samtliga ord som förekom i enkäten har en anknytning till ett islamiskt sammanhang.

  • 587.
    Andersson, Jan-Eric
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Ithna Ashery – en del av islam: en fenomenografisk jämförande studie av Ithna Ashery i Iran och Sverige2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mina slutsatser i mitt arbete är att rollen som finns inom Ithna Ashery inte är homogeniserad när man jämför olika individers subjektiva upplevelse av fenomenet. Däremot om man tittar på en metanivå så kan deras roll se tämligen lika ut. Men på individnivå, som detta arbete försökt behandla, så är den subjektiva upplevelsen av rollerna olika. Det som till stor grad påverkar den subjektiva upplevelse av rollen är sådana saker som den omgivande kontexten i samhället. Men även de mål den enskilda individen har med sin roll när det gäller framtiden för individen. Det kan till exempel vara att skapa sig en dräglig tillvaro i en kommande framtid. Det religiösa motivet kan således vara sekundärt när det gäller individens val av det religiösa yrket.

    En annan slutsats är att det i viss mån krävs mer av en religiös ledare inom Ithna Ashery i Sverige för att följa den utstakade teologiska vägen än för en religiös representant i Iran. Detta kan även gälla för den enskilda församlingsmedlemmen, då samhället i Sverige är sekulariserat. Konsekvensen blir att den religiösa ledaren i Sverige får uppta tid med att förklara vad som är exempelvis tillåten mat (halal) utifrån de religiösa föreskrifter som finns i koranen. Arbetet med att förklara för en församlingsmedlem vad som är tillåtet respektive förbjudet behöver inte en representant för Ithna Ashery i Iran lägga så mycket tid på. Det är för att hela den omgivande kontexten för religionsutövaren i Iran redan är anpassad och styrd av vad som är det rätta livet enligt Islam.

  • 588.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kvällspigg eller morgonpigg? Mat-, sömn- och motionsvanor hos gymnasieelever år 1 i förhållande till dygnstyp: En tvärsnittsstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Andersson. J (2015). Morningness or Eveningness? Food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to Chronotype. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public Health science. Academy of health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to morning- or evening type (Chronotype). Methods: In a cross-sectional study data were collected by use of a questionnaire comprising 24 questions concerning the participants´ food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits. The questionnaire was distributed to 77 students. A total of 77 (100%) individuals, 41 males and 36 females, participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative chi-square test. Results: Students were divided into two groups; morningtypes (n= 23) and evening types (n= 54). Morningness was associated with sufficient sleep and sleep of good quality during weekdays compared with eveningness. Morning types also tend to eat breakfast more often before school than evening types. Evening types showed a higher physical activity level. Conclusions: Chronotype was associated lifestyle among students in vocational secondary school year one. Early school start does not benefit adolescents that are evening types and it has a negative impact on sleep- and food habits. 

  • 589.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arnestad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Samverkan behövs för ett gott socialt arbete: En studie om hur socialarbetare upplever samverkan och samarbete kring klienter med missbruksproblematik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased specialization of human-welfare organizations put higher demands on collaboration. People with substance abuse often have a complex set of problems that requires collaboration. The purpose of our study was to increase knowledge about the meaning and perception of collaboration around clients with addiction problems. We used a qualitative research method, with data based on interviews with four social workers. Themes were identified in the data and then analysed in relation to the social constructionism, system theory and previous research. We found that collaboration depends largely on the individual social worker’s willingness and persistence to lead the case, for the client’s entire needs. Collaboration was mainly perceived as something important and essential. Organizational barriers and shortcomings were mentioned, but aspects such as working culture, approaches, relationships and respect were considered to be of greater importance. The main conclusion in our study was that collaboration is seen as highly relevant and something positive.

  • 590.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hiller, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Mobile Learning för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna utredning visar att förekomsten av mobilapplikationer specifikt riktade till dyslektiker är i det närmaste obefintlig. Dessutom är forskningen på området M-Learning mest inriktad på integrerade M-Learning-system och inte på enskilda applikationer. M-Learning (mobilt lärande) är ett forskningsområde som kan sägas vara en vidareutveckling av E-Learning. Detta är ett växande forskningsområde och med explosionen av smarta telefoner och surfplattor bör för- och nackdelarna med  M-Learning kunna utnyttjas i större utsträckning. På uppdrag av Gävle kommun och med handledning av Sogeti har en prototyp mobilapplikation för elever med dyslexi utvecklats för Android-plattformen. Prototypen som framtagits visar att en mobilapplikation för elever med dyslexi med fördel kan utnyttja mobila enheters multimodalitet.

  • 591.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Lindström, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Skriv ihop ihop men skriv inte isär isär: En uppsats om fenomenet sammanskrivningar: vad gäller och vilka rättar sig efter det?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen undersöks förekomsten av sammanskrivningar i blogg-respektive nättidningstexter. En sammanskrivning innebär att två eller fler ord som bör separeras från varandra skrivs ihop utan mellanrum. Med hjälp av i huvudsak Språkrådets lista över fasta uttryck i Svenska skrivregler har vi manuellt genomsökt fyra av de mest besökta bloggarna i Sverige samt krönikor/kolumner och recensioner från tre välkända nättidningar efter sammanskrivningar som strider mot språkvårdens rekommendationer.Den kvantitativa studien gör gällande att sammanskrivningar är drygt åtta gånger mer frekventa i bloggar jämfört med i tidningstexter. I diskussionen konstateras att problemet med sammanskrivningar är av den mildare graden eftersom en normstridande (i förhållande till de rekommendationer som språkvården ger) sådan sällan påverkar kontexten i någon större utsträckning. Vidare når vi slutsatsen att de rekommendationer som språkvården ger trots allt är för vaga, med alldeles för många undantagsfall.

  • 592.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Att arbeta som jourtjej: krav och rekrytering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 593.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Modersmålsundervisningens styrdokument för grundskolan - en jämförelse mellan tre kommuners tolkning av skollagen, skolförordningen och läroplanen.2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 594.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Några elevers sätt att beskriva motivation2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen var att undersöka några elevers sätt att beskriva motivation. Hur de själva formulerar, definierar och uppfattar motivation. Skolan har i uppgift att förmedla kunskap samt skapa förutsättningar så att eleverna kan tillägna sig och utvecklar kunskap (Lpf 94). Till detta krävs att miljön är lärande och motiverande, men vad innebär egentligen det? Går det att påverka motivationen och hur gör man det i så fall? Motivation har blivit definierat och hanterat på många olika sätt genom åren och beskrivs av Giota (2002) som en av de svåraste uppgifter inom pedagogiken. För att få en förståelse om hur unga människor resonerar kring begreppet motivation genomfördes halvstrukturerade intervjuer med sex stycken elever på gymnasiet. Uppsatsen har inspirerats av en hermeneutisk ansats. Resultatet har diskuterats utifrån bakgrundslitteraturen, egna tankar och upplevelser. Deltagarna i undersökningen menar på att motivation är en positiv känsla och att den är någonting starkt. Motivationen går enligt deltagarna att påverka och det är lärarna som på olika sätt kan göra det i den dagliga verksamheten. En av deltagarna skiljer i sin syn på motivation från de övriga och menar att motivation inte alls går att påverka utan hänger samman med intresse.

  • 595.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Skoglöf, Simone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Ta vara på tecknen: En semiotisk analys över IKEAs marknads- och varumärkeskommunikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur IKEA framställer mänskliga- och sociala relationer i sin marknadsföring. Samt, genom analysen, undersöka hur IKEA skapar bilden av företaget, varumärket, reklambudskapet och deras image genom att framställa vissa mänskliga relationer. Enda sedan den första IKEA-katalogen utgavs åt 1951 har katalogen varit den viktigaste marknadsföringskanalen för företaget. Därför har vi valt att undersöka just katalogen från år 2016 med hjälp av en semiotisk analys. Även tre reklamfilmer med titlarna Laga mat med barn, Leva utan dörr och Grannar tillsammans kommer analyseras med hjälp av semiotik som metod och teori. Vi har endast fokuserat på bilderna och ej på texter som framkommer i reklamen.

     

    I och med uppsatsens syfte har vi valt att utgå ifrån följande frågeställning:

    • Hur framställs mänskliga relationer i IKEA-katalogen från 2016?
    • Kan vi urskilja stereotyper i de sociala sammanhangen?
    • Vilka konnotationer respektive denotationer går att urskilja och vilka semiotiska myter skapas?

     

    Resultatet av studien påvisar hur IKEA som, enligt eget uttalande, ett värderingstyrt företag arbetar med marknadsföring genom att exponera det kulturella värdet ”gemenskap”. De fokuserar inte främst på varornas priser utan ger oss istället idéer om hur vi på bästa sätt kan få en effektiv vardag genom att köpa deras produkter. Deras varor öppnar upp för att vi som konsumenter ska kunna hitta den gemenskap IKEA presenterar.

  • 596.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hedlund, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Undersökning om handhållna laserskannrar vid detaljmätning: En jämförelse mellan multistationen Leica Nova MS50 och den handhållna laserskannern FARO Freestyle X2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have been common in geodetic measurements for over 10 years. The technology is developing rapidly and specialized instruments are launched constantly. One type of these specialized TLS instruments are hand-held laser scanners. They are designed primarily to generate point clouds of spaces and small objects where the traditional tripod mounted laser scanner has difficulties to scan. When the hand-held laser scanners are relatively new, the research on the instruments is limited, and the lack of standardized control methods. With that in mind it is important to study the instruments. In this thesis the hand-held laser scanner FARO Freestyle X was investigated on how well the handheld laser scanning technology really is and what limitations the instruments have. This was done by comparing point clouds from FARO Freestyle X with reference point cloud generated by Leica's multi-station MS50. To study the instrument a number of parameters was investigated such as scanning distance, ease of use, time and performance. These parameters were considered to be sufficient basis for conclusions about the instrument's advantages/disadvantages and limitations.

    The result of the point cloud comparison from the short distance showed deviations around 10 mm and then increase to few centimeters at longer distances. Volume limitation control showed no differences compared to the scanning from short distance. This means that moving the instrument does not affect the results significantly. The instrument's Achilles' heel is the noise that occurs when scanning from longer distances, about 30 mm deviations. Even the type of object affects the noise. The noise on the wall showed the greatest deviation while the noise on the table indicated the lowest results. The repeatability showed good results visually and had similar deviations. The instrument has a good ability to recreate objects when the resolution test demonstrates good performance. Main advantage of the instrument is its effective documentation of smaller objects, but also some larger areas where the uncertainty of centimeter-level is required. The ease of use can be described as good and the colored point clouds takes visualization to a new level. The results of the study show that the hand-held laser scanners can, potentially, challenge the traditional laser scanner.

  • 597.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosén, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att vårda en närstående med demenssjukdom: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, approximately 160,000 people live with dementia in Sweden and globally, the number of affected people is approximately 50 million. Dementia is a collective name for a variety of brain diseases that occur from brain damage. As dementia often materializes gradually overtime, it tends to lead to a family member becoming the caregiver of the person who is sick.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to illustrate the experience of those caring for a relative with dementia as well as to describe the study groups in the included studies.

    Method: This study is a literature review with descriptive design consisting of twelve scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: Becoming a caregiver to a relative with dementia was rarely a choice but it was a role in which the family member grows into. Many people experienced the role as a caregiver as complex and it was common to experience feelings of insecurity, isolation, fatigue and frustration. The approach and method for managing the disease differed significantly for each caregiver analyzed during this study, however humor, acceptance and religion were often employed as coping mechanisms. The result was compiled with seven subheadings: From family to family caregiver, Support in care, Insecurity, ignorance and difficult situations, More than a full time job, Loss and fear of the future, Coping strategies, and Methodological aspect – study groups.

    Conclusion: Being a family caregiver was a challenge to most people. Many have expressed the gravity of receiving both societal support and help from other family members to obtain relief within their role, but in spite of this, the caregiver often took the greater responsibility. Therefore, a critical change in the support is necessary to enable them to want, and be able, to continue to fulfill the important work they do. 

  • 598.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Jonsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Föräldrars åsikter om kläders färg: Om heterosexuella föräldrars syn på färg och homosexualitet påverkar söners färgval.2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Omgivningen har stor påverkan till hur ett barn skapar könstillhörighet. Färg är ett huvudsakligt fenomen till hur barn formar och anpassar sig i samhället. Föräldrars åsikter om färg och samhälle är starkt förknippade med barns uppväxt och framtida sexuella läggning. Vilka erfarenheter ett barn får baseras främst på dess närmaste omvärlds åsikter där barnet ständigt befinner sig. Studiens syfte var att undersöka om dessa åsikter från föräldrarar påverkar deras söners färgval i klädsel. Genomförandet har utförts utifrån kvalitativt semistrukturerade intervjuer med föräldrar till söner i förskoleåldern. Studien har inspirerats av ett fenomenografiskt synsätt, där forskaren betraktar människors delade föreställningar om fenomen. Studien innefattade fyra föräldrapar och varje föräldrapar intervjuades enskilt i deras hem. Informanternas olika uppfattningar och synsätt om färg som symbol för homosexualitet och kön synliggjordes i resultatet. Av resultatet framkom hur föräldrar hade personlig inverkan på sönernas färger på klädseln, då föräldrarna inhandlade dem. Sönerna tilläts bära valfria färger på kläderna dock menade föräldrarna hur samhällets förutbestämda könssterotypiska färgkoder hade den främsta effekten, på vilka färger som befanns i deras söners klädsel. Föräldrarna tydliggjorde hur färger under tidigare årtionden kan ha symboliserat homosexualitet, men inte lika markant i dagens samhälle.

  • 599.
    Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Somvall, Elvira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Varför köper män sex?: En kvalitativ studie om mäns sexköp av kvinnor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine why men purchase sex from women. The study includes internet as an arena for these purchases. The study material was collected through four telephone-interviews and one email-interview with men that have purchased sex on the internet. The study material has been analyzed with previous studies on the subject, radical feminism theory, self-control theory, routine activity theory and techniques of neutralization. The results showed that sex was purchased mainly because it was easier from an emotional perspective than to establish a sexual relationship. Sexual dissatisfaction with a partner and personal characteristics were described to have an effect on the men’s ability to have sex. The purchase then seemed to be the only way to satisfy their sexual needs. The internet enables several advantages. The purchase becomes practically easier at the same time as it offers anonymity.

    Keywords:

    sexbuyers, Sweden, internet, prostitution.

  • 600.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress samt stressens konsekvenser: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe newly graduated nurses' experiences of work-related stress and to describe their experiences of what consequences stress can lead to. A descriptive interview study with qualitative approach was used. Data collection was performed by eight semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative manifest content analysis. The main result demonstrates that newly graduated nurses experienced stress in the beginning of their profession, partly because it is a time of uncertainty. Newly graduated nurses have described a decreased experience of stress with increased knowledge and experience, and reduced demands on herself in the professional role. Nursing is described to be stressful due to a variety of causes but there are measures that can be used to reduce stress. Stress has been described to cause consequences both for the nurse as an individual and for the care of patients, which has been described to result in feelings such as frustration and inadequacy. In line with Benner's theory it can be stated that newly graduated nurses undergo a professional development which lead to a experience of decreased stress. Stress in the nursing profession is a complex problem that must be dealt with on several fronts. For the newly graduated nurse it is very important that she is gentle with herself in the professional role by not having too high demands on herself to be able to practice her profession, that is carry out optimal patient-focused nursing.

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