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  • 701.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Teaching our children to sit or be active? Sedentary behavior, light activity and moderate/vigorous activity at and away from school2012In: 4th International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, National Sports Injury Prevention Conference Abstracts, 2012, p. S280-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sedentary behavior in children is associated with poor health whilst moderate/vigorous activity is associated with better health. The school setting may be an opportunity to reduce sedentariness and enhance physical activity, yet concerns have been raised that children may be more sedentary at school. This paper examined activity patterns, including both sedentary time and time in health enhancing physical activity, in children across their typical week.

    Methods: Sixty-six 10–12 year old children were recruited from 48 schools in the Perth metropolitan area as part of a randomized controlled study (Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12609000279224) investigating the effects of electronic games on physical activity. The data for this paper come from their baseline assessment, which all occurred during school term time. Children wore an Actical accelerometer on their hip for one week. Time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed. School day and weekend day activity patterns were examined along with activity patterns both in (school time) and out of school (non-school-time) on school days.

    Results: Valid (at least 4 days) accelerometer data were available on 53 children (28 girls). The average time of accelerometer recording per day was 822 ± 71 minutes (13.7 hours). Accumulated time in sedentary behavior was similar on school days and weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4%[5.3] vs 64.9%[9.0], p = 0.686). Children were more likely to reach physical activity guidelines on school days than at the weekend (47.7% v 22.2%, p < 0.001) and spend more time in brief–less than 5 minutes–bursts of activity of any intensity (35.3%[5.1] vs 32.6%[6.9], p = 0.002). However, children spent a higher proportion of time in sedentary behavior (66.8%[7.3] vs 62.4%[5.2], p < 0.001), and significantly more time in extended sedentariness–sedentary for more than thirty minutes or more (75.6mins[45.8] vs 45.0 mins[26.8], p < 0.002)–within school time compared to non-school time.

    Discussion: Children spent a considerable proportion of their school or non-school day in sedentary behavior, and routinely spent over two hours of each day in extended sedentary behavior. School should be a place where children learn healthful habits, and whilst it appears to be associated with better moderate/vigorous physical activity exposure it was associated with poorer extended sedentary exposure. Increasing moderate/vigorous physical activity and reducing time spent in sedentary behavior both in and out of school remains an important challenge.

  • 702.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Campbell, Amity
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Parry, Sharon
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Davey, Paul
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Capturing the pattern of activity: Exposure variation analysis of accelerometer data2012In: 4th International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, National Sports Injury Prevention Conference Abstracts, 2012, p. S94-S94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Physical activity, in particular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviour (SB) are known to impact on health. Less well established is how patterning of activity affects health. Capturing the complex time pattern of activity using accelerometry remains a challenge. Occupational health research suggests Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA) could provide a useful tool. The purpose of this paper is to 1) explain the application of EVA to accelerometer data, 2) demonstrate how EVA thresholds, derivatives could be chosen, used to examine adherence to MVPA, SB guidelines, 3) explore the validity of EVA outputs.

    Methods: EVA reduces a complex time-line of exposure into a two-dimensional matrix showing combinations of exposure level (in categories) and duration of uninterrupted sequences (in categories). Data from 4 individuals with different daily activity patterns were collected to demonstrate the applicability of EVA. EVA outputs were also compared for accelerometer data collected from 3 occupational groups with known different activity patterns: seated workstation office workers, standing workstation office workers and teachers. Standard accelerometer data collection procedures were used. Data processing by a custom LabVIEW program calculated EVA matrices and derivatives aligned to common guidelines.

    Results: Data from one individual is presented in a time-based line graph form in conjunction with the resultant EVA matrix and EVA graph. Line graphs and related EVA graphs for 3 further individuals highlight the use of EVA derivatives for examining compliance with MVPA and SB guidelines. For the seated office workers, standing office workers and teachers, analyses confirm no difference in bouts of MVPA but very clear differences as expected in extended bouts of SB and brief bursts of activity, thus providing evidence of construct validity of the EVA approach.

    Conclusion: The major advantage of EVA is its ability in a single analysis to simultaneously capture the time pattern of activity at various levels of intensity according to the choice of the researcher. Whilst presented here with four levels of intensity, sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous, EVA could be utilised with dichotomous data such as sitting vs standing, or adjusted to match future refinements of activity guidelines. EVA offers a unique and comprehensive generic method that is ideal for processing large quantities of accelerometer data. EVA is able, for the first time, to concisely capture the time pattern (both frequency and intensity) of activity, and can be tailored for both occupational and public health research.

  • 703.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Campbell, Amity
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Parry, Sharon
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Davey, Paul
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
    Capturing the pattern of physical activity and sedentary behavior: Exposure Variation Analysis of accelerometer data2014In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 614-625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Capturing the complex time pattern of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) using accelerometry remains a challenge. Research from occupational health suggests exposure variation analysis (EVA) could provide a meaningful tool. This paper (1) explains the application of EVA to accelerometer data, (2) demonstrates how EVA thresholds and derivatives could be chosen and used to examine adherence to PA and SB guidelines, and (3) explores the validity of EVA outputs.

    METHODS: EVA outputs are compared with accelerometer data from 4 individuals (Study 1a and1b) and 3 occupational groups (Study 2): seated workstation office workers (n = 8), standing workstation office workers (n = 8), and teachers (n = 8).

    RESULTS: Line graphs and related EVA graphs highlight the use of EVA derivatives for examining compliance with guidelines. EVA derivatives of occupational groups confirm no difference in bouts of activity but clear differences as expected in extended bouts of SB and brief bursts of activity, thus providing evidence of construct validity.

    CONCLUSIONS: EVA offers a unique and comprehensive generic method that is able, for the first time, to capture the time pattern (both frequency and intensity) of PA and SB, which can be tailored for both occupational and public health research.

  • 704.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Huijsmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Blue‐collar worker sedentary exposure at work and non‐work: systematic review of studies using objective measurement2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Publicerat abstract
  • 705.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    The Goldilocks Principle: Innovative work design for improved health2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Publicerat abstract
  • 706.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University of Technology, Perth Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Increased physical work loads in modern work - a necessity for better health and performance?2009In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 1215-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting workforce proportions to sedentary occupations and technology developments in traditionally physically demanding occupations have resulted in low physical workloads for many workers. Insufficient physical stress is known to have detrimental short- and long-term effects on health and physical capacity. It is argued herein that many modern workers are at risk of insufficient physical workload. Further, it is argued that the traditional physical ergonomics paradigm of reducing risk by reducing physical loads ('less is better') is not appropriate for many modern occupations. It is proposed that a new paradigm is required, where 'more can be better'. The potential for work to be seen as an arena for improving physical health and capability is discussed and the types of changes to work that may be required are outlined. The paper also discusses challenges and responsibilities presented by this new paradigm for ergonomists, employers, health and safety authorities and the community. The majority of workers in affluent communities now face the significant threat to health of insufficient physical workload. Ergonomics can design work to a prescription that can not only reduce injury risk but enhance health and capacity. However, this will require a change in paradigm.

  • 707.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The ‘Goldilocks Principle’: designing physical activity at work to be ‘just right’ for promoting health2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 13, p. 818-819Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 708.
    Stratimirovic, Dj.
    et al.
    Faculty of Stomatology, Department of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Milosevic, S.
    Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Blesic, S.
    Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Ljubisavljevic, M.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wavelet transform analysis of time series generated by the stimulated neuronal activity2007In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 374, no 2, p. 699-706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the stimulated discharge dynamics of fusimotor neurons by applying the wavelet transform technique and by adopting that the neuronal discharge dynamics is manifested by the random time series of interspike intervals. We found two different power-law type behaviors along interspike intervals (ISI) time scale (which implies existence of two different types of neuronal noise), which are separated by a crossover region. Our results reveal that complex neuronal dynamics, in the presence of external stimulation, is manifested with long-range correlated noise in the region before the crossover, on the ISI time scale.

  • 709.
    Strömberg, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    First-line managers dealing with different management approaches2019In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 543-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute new knowledge about how first line managers (FLMs) in elderly care perceive their situation, with a focus on differences in management approaches at the intersection of the central and local parts of the organization.

    Design/methodology/approach – The present study has a qualitative approach and is part of a larger project on FLMs in elderly care. The results presented here are based on a secondary analysis of 15 of the totalof 28 interviews carried out in the project.

    Findings – Themain results are twofold: the majority of FLMs perceived differences in management approaches between local and central management; the differences caused some struggle because FLMs perceived that the management system did not support the differences. The two main aspects that caused the FLMs to struggle were differences in the foci of the management levels and difficulties in influencing the conditions ofmanagement.

    Originality/value – The results contribute to the debate on what aspects are important to sustainable management of elderly care. It is common knowledge that FLMs have a complex position, intermediate to the central, upper level management and their subordinates at the local level – levels with different foci and interests. The study contributes new knowledge about what these differences consist of and the dilemmas they cause and offers suggestions as to what can be done to reduce both energy waste and the risk of low job satisfaction.

  • 710.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Division of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence2018In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, no 8, p. 1051-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • 711.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impact of Workplace Exposure and Stress on Neck Pain and Disabilities in Women: A Longitudinal Follow-up After a Rehabilitation Intervention2018In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7316, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim was to evaluate if pain, disability, and work productivity are influenced by physical and psychosocial work exposures as well as by stress, up to 1 year after a randomized controlled trial treatment intervention, and to determine whether any such association differed between treatment and control groups.

    Methods: Ninety-seven working women suffering non-specific neck pain (n = 67 treatment group, n = 30 control group) were followed from end of treatment intervention and at 9- and 15-month follow-ups, respectively. Physical and psychosocial exposures, as well as perceived stress, were assessed after the treatment intervention. Pain, neck disability, and work productivity were assessed at baseline, after intervention 3 months later and at 9- and 15-month follow-ups. Longitudinal assessment was conducted using the exposure level at 3 months as predictor of pain, disability, and work productivity at 3, 9, and 15 months, respectively. Mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal associations, accounting for within-individual correlation of repeated outcome measures by incorporation of a random intercept. Age and duration of neck pain were adjusted for in all models. To evaluate group differences, interactions between exposures and treatment groups were estimated.

    Results: High perceived stress was associated with more neck pain, more neck disability, and decreased work productivity in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. High 'control of decision' was associated with less neck pain, less neck disability, and higher work productivity in cross-sectional analyses but only to less disability and higher productivity in longitudinal analyses. Shoulder/arm load was the only physical exposure variable that was significantly associated with work productivity in the univariate analyses. Only small differences were observed between treatment and control groups.

    Conclusion: High perceived stress and low 'control of decision' were associated with more neck pain, increased neck disability, and decreased work productivity. Treatment interventions for individuals with neck pain should take into account psychosocial workplace exposures and stress to improve intermediate and long-term results.

  • 712.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi. Umeå universitet.
    Sommar, Johan
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Impact of physical and psychosocial workplace exposure and stress on neck pain rehabilitation in women: - a longitudinal study2017In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 713.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, enheten för fysioterapi, Umeå universitet, Umeå.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, enheten för fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Jull, Gwendolen
    Centre of Clinical Research Excellence in Spinal Pain, Injury and Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, enheten för fysioterapi, Umeå universitet, Umeå.
    Is tailored treatment superior to non-tailored treatment for pain and disability in women with non-specific neck pain?: a randomized controlled trial2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The evidence for the effect of treatments of neck pain is modest. In the absence of causal treatments, a possibility is to tailor the treatment to the individuals' functional limitations and symptoms. The aim was to evaluate treatment effects of a tailored treatment versus a non-tailored treatment. Our hypothesis was that tailored treatment (TT) would have better effect on pain intensity and disability than either non-tailored treatment (NTT) (same treatment components but applied quasi-randomly) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (no treatment from the study, no restrictions). We further hypothesized that TT and NTT would both have better effect than TAU.

    METHOD:

    One hundred twenty working women with subacute and chronic non-specific neck pain were allocated to 11 weeks of either TT, NTT or TAU in a randomized controlled trial with follow-ups at 3, 9 and 15 months. The TT was designed from a decision model based on assessment of function and symptoms with defined cut-off levels for the following categories: reduced cervical mobility, impaired neck-shoulder strength and motor control, impaired eye-head-neck control, trapezius myalgia and cervicogenic headache. Primary outcomes were pain and disability. Secondary outcomes were symptoms, general improvement, work productivity, and pressure pain threshold of m. trapezius.

    RESULTS:

    Linear mixed models analysis showed no differences between TT and NTT besides work productivity favoring TT at 9- and 15-months follow-ups. TT and NTT improved significantly more than TAU on pain, disability and symptoms at 3-month follow-up. General improvement also favored TT and NTT over TAU at all follow-ups.

    CONCLUSION:

    Tailored treatment according to our proposed decision model was not more effective than non-tailored treatment in women with subacute and chronic neck pain. Both tailored and non-tailored treatments had better short-term effects than treatment-as-usual, supporting active and specific exercise therapy, although therapist-patient interaction was not controlled for. Better understanding of the importance of functional impairments for pain and disability, in combination with a more precise tailoring of specific treatment components, is needed to progress.

  • 714.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå universitet.
    Associations between symptoms and physical test outcomes in women with non-specific neck pain: cross-sectinal and longitudinal analyses2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Non-specific neck pain has a multifaceted symptom picture and the relationship is obscure between individual improvement on physical function and the neck patient's self-rated status.Purpose: The present aim was to determine the associations between physical test outcomes involving the neck and shoulder region, and self-reported neck symptoms before and after a treatment intervention in women with non-specific neck pain.Methods: Data were obtained for 120 women (aged 20-65) who had participated in a previous randomized controlled trial. Data were used from all participants at baseline for cross-sectional analysis and from 69 women for longitudinal analysis (Change-scores). Associations between self-reported neck problems (pain, disability and symptoms from the neck) and physical test outcomes (Neck-Strength, Cervical Axial-Range of Motion and Peak-Speed of cervical rotation) were estimated with linear regression analyses.Results: Self-rated neck pain was only significantly associated to the physical outcome measure Peak-Speed of cervical rotation, i.e., increased pain related to lower speed. This was true at baseline and for Change-scores at 9 months. Increased neck disability and frequency of symptoms were associated to lower Neck Strength and reduced Peak-Speed at baseline, and to reduced Peak-Speed and Cervical Axial-Range of Motion at 3 and 9 months, respectively. Peak-Speed and Cervical Axial-ROM were thus the physical test outcomes with associations to self-rated changes in neck symptoms. At the 9-month follow-up, 26% of the variance of frequency of symptom changes was explained by changes in Cervical Axial-ROM and Peak-Speed, which were also inter-correlated (r=0.55).Conclusion(s): The results indicate that changes in physical functioning, tested as cervical mobility and strength, have only a modest relation to the course of self-rated condition in neck disorders.Implications: The present study calls for reconsideration regarding acting mechanisms behind the apparent effect of, e.g., strength training on neck pain disorders. The specificity and usefulness of various assessments for decision-making, treatment and evaluation might be questioned.Key-Words: Neck pain, Neck strength, Range of motionFunding acknowledgements: Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (2009-1403), AFA Insurance (090288), The Centre for Environmental Research (1152383).Ethics approval: Did this work require ethics approval?:YesInstitution: Regional ethical review board in Uppsala SwedenEthics Committee: Regional ethical review board in Uppsala SwedenEthics number: No 2011/081

  • 715.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet, Umeå, Svergie.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sverige.
    Self-estimated general improvement in function and health after tailored and non-tailored neck-shoulder pain treatment in women : A randomized controlled trial2015In: World Confederation for Physical Therapy Congress 2015, Singapore, 1-4 May, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 716.
    Svensson, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Mittuniversitetet, Sweden.
    Organizational Trust: How to include the division of labour?2018In: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 72-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to study the relevance of the division of labour to the formation of organizational trust. Trust is defined as a phenomenon related to the resources available to a person in a given social position, a social position which in turn is related to the division of labour. It is argued that work externalization constitutes a division of labour, and that differing access to resources for internal and external workers explains variations in trust. The theoretical propositions are tested in a quantitative analysis of 711 external workers and internal employees in a Swedish organization. The results lend partial support to the theory. External employees are found to be less likely have strong trust in their co-workers. The relationship is mediated by perceptions of shared norms in the organization.

  • 717.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Temporary employment, working conditions, labour market regulation and health: a cross-country multi-level study2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of temporary employment has been on the rise in OECD countries since the late 1980’s. It’s been argued that temporary work set individuals in economic insecurity and poor working conditions. Therefore, temporary work is thought to be negative for health. However, findings are inconclusive. Whereas some studies do report worse health among temporary than non-temporary workers others report the opposite. Differences in findings might be explained by the fact that some studies considers socioeconomic position and job characteristics whereas others don’t. It’s also been argued that a key explanation for inconsistent findings might be differences in welfare policy across countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between temporary work, working conditions, welfare policy and self-rated health and well-being. This is done in a cross-sectional multi-level analysis of the 5th wave of European Working Conditions Survey including 22 European countries with control for proportion of GDP spent on active (ALMP) and passive (PLMP) labour market policy respectively.

    The results show no significant association between type of employment, ALMP, PLMP and self-rated health. Working conditions and socioeconomic position are significantly associated with self-rated health. There is a significant negative association between type of employment and well-being such that those in temporary employment report lower well-being than non-temporary employees. A positive interaction between PLMP and temporary employment means that PLMP is positively associated with well-being for those who have a temporary contract. The strength of the association between temporary work and well-being decreases after adjustment for working conditions and socioeconomic position. ALMP is not significantly associated with well-being.

    Conclusion: Temporary work is negatively associated with well-being, but not with health. PLMP buffer the possible negative impact from temporary employment whereas ALMP do not seem to have the same importance. However, the cross-sectional design calls for further studies

  • 718.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stubbs, Jonathan
    Nordic Occupational Safety and Rehabilitation Institute.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The association between subordinate perception of task and relation oriented leadership behaviors and sense of coherence among a sample of Swedish white-collar workers2018In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that leadership behaviours and sense of coherence influences subordinate health. The influence of leadership behaviours on subordinate sense of coherence has not been investigated in any detail. This cross-sectional quantitative study of managers and subordinates in a large governmental organisation focus on this potential association. The study used two common and empirically tested leadership styles: task oriented leadership and relations oriented leadership. In a logistic regression analysis, the association between types of leadership behaviour and SOC were analysed while controlling for age, gender, income, type of employment and organisational tenure. It was hypothesized that both task and relation oriented leadership behaviours would be positively associated with SOC, whereas a laissez faire leadership would be negatively associated with SOC. The hypotheses were not supported. Several implications for further research are discussed including capturing data about both subordinates’ preferred and perceived leadership behaviours.

  • 719.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    External workers' perception of leadership behavior - a study of Swedish temporary agency workers and contractors2015In: Human Resource Management Journal, ISSN 0954-5395, E-ISSN 1748-8583, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 250-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing prevalence of externalized work arrangements in industrialized countries has brought with it ever greater managerial complexityin the workplace. This article explores how leadership behavior is perceived byinternal and external workers within a public authority in Sweden. Questionnaire data from 505 temporary agency workers (TAWs), contractors, andinternal employees have been analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression analysesindicate that external workers such as TAWs and contractors are more likelythan internal employees to notice leadership profiles, including pronounced,task-oriented leadership behavior. These results hold true when controlled fordemographic and socio-economic variables and organizational tenure. A practicalimplication is that explicit attention should be paid to the need forleadership training in developing HRM strategies with regards to externalemployees.

  • 720.
    Söderfjell, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Molander, Bo
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain complaints and performance on cognitive tasks over the adult life span2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 349-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed at comparing participants with and without self reported musculoskeletal pain in a normal population with regard to performance on a range of tests for episodic memory, semantic memory, and other cognitive functions and to see if expected differences interacted with age. The results showed that participants with pain performed worse on a range of tasks as compared to participants without pain, and that these differences occurred regardless of age. The most robust effects of pain were displayed on tests for vocabulary and construction ability as these were the only effects that remained significant after controlling for years of education and reported depression in separate analyses. When depression and education were controlled for in the same analysis, even these effects were eliminated, suggesting interplay between pain, depressive status, and educational level in the negative effects on cognitive functioning.

  • 721. Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Forsman, Mikael
    Hansson, G. Å.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Neuman, P.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    Veiersted, K. B.
    Westgaard, R.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2009In: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, Beijing, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 722.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland,.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Neumann, W Patrick
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Westgaard, Rolf H
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users.

    Methods: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965 to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity, repeatability, and aspects related to utility. At least two evaluators independently carried out this evaluation.

    Results: We identified 30 eligible observational methods. Of these, 19 had been compared with some other method(s), varying from expert evaluation to data obtained from video recordings or through the use of technical instruments. Generally, the observations showed moderate-to-good agreement with the corresponding assessments made from video recordings; agreement was the best for large-scale body postures and work actions. Postures of wrist and hand as well as trunk rotation seemed to be more difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be moderate or good.

    Conclusions: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational tools exist, but none evaluated in this study appeared to be generally superior. When selecting a method, users should define their needs and assess how results will influence decision-making

  • 723. Tapper, G
    et al.
    Hägg, Göran M
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Reversing mouse buttons reduces finger extensor muscle static load2007In: Proceedings of 39th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an evaluation of an alternative way to use an ordinary computer mouse. The function of the two mouse buttons were switched and the index finger operated the right button for normal clicking while the middle finger rested on the table directly to the right of the mouse. An electromyographic /EMG) evaluation of this alternative hand position in 29 subjects showed that the EMG activity in the extensor digitorum superficialis muscle was lower compared to a normal hand position both when the hand was resting on the mouse as well as during repeated clicking. All subjects showed a lower average EMG level during repeated clicking and 27 subjects reduced their activity when resting the hand on the mouse compared to a normal hand osition on the mouse.

  • 724.
    Tham, Pia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The Iron Cage of Leadership: The Role of First-line Managers in Child Welfare2020In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 369-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the social services in general and particularly in child welfare, high staff turnover and recruitment difficulties have been reported for many years. Previous studies have shown that giving social workers adequate social support is important in getting them to maintain their job commitment and remain at the workplace. The aim of the present study was to investigate how child welfare managers perceive and respond to the content and demands of their professional role. Interviews were conducted with forty-two first-line managers. The results indicate that the expectations of the social workers and the demands of the organisation are in conflict. The overall picture is one of challenges and dilemmas in a changing managerial role, where the focus is increasingly on control, administration and budget responsibilities. While the managers highlight what can be regarded as transformative ideals and prioritise offering support and guidance to the social workers under them, the organisation seems to be pushing managers towards a leadership role characterised by control and authority, where quantitative measuring, monitoring and control processes are expected––a leadership style associated with transactional leadership. The influence of New Public Management on the conditions for, and the contents of, leadership in social services is discussed.

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  • 725.
    Toebes, Marcel
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dekker, Joost
    Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Measurement strategy and statistical power in studies assessing gait stability and variability in older adults2016In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gait variability and stability measures might be useful to assess gait quality changes after fall prevention programs. However, reliability of these measures appears limited.

    Aims: The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of measurement strategy in terms of numbers of subjects, measurement days and measurements per day on the power to detect relevant changes in gait variability and stability between conditions among healthy elderly.

    Methods: Sixteen healthy older participants (65.6 (SD 5.9) years), performed two walking trials on each of two days. Required numbers of subjects to obtain sufficient statistical power for comparisons between conditions within subjects (paired, repeated-measures designs) were calculated (with confidence intervals) for several gait measures and for different numbers of trials per day and for different numbers of measurement days.

    Results: The numbers of subjects required to obtain sufficient statistical power in studies collecting data from one trial on one day in each of the two compared conditions ranged from 7-13 for large differences but highly correlated data between conditions, up to 78-192 for data with a small effect and low correlation.

    Discussion: Low correlations between gait parameters in different conditions can be assumed and relatively small effects appear clinically meaningful. This implies that large numbers of subjects are generally needed.

    Conclusion: This study provides the analysis tools and underlying data for power analyses in studies using gait parameters as an outcome of interventions aiming to reduce fall risk.

  • 726.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A good working life for everyone2012In: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Toomingas A, Mathiassen SE, Wigaeus Tornqvist E, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012, p. 271-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 727.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ett gott arbetsliv för alla2008In: Arbetslivsfysiologi / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, p. 347-361Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 728.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, p. 154-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess variation in gross body posture amongst male and female call centre operators using whole-day registrations of seated and standing/walking periods, analyzed and described by a number of novel variables.

    Methods: Body postures, identified as either seated or standing/walking, were recorded using inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analyzed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of postures, switches between postures, posture similarities across the day, and compliance with posture recommendations.

    Results: The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture. The average number of switches between seated and standing/walking or vice versa was 10.4 per hour. Female operators spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; male operators only 4.6% of the day (p=0.013). Only 38% of the operators followed current standard recommendations of having an uninterrupted break from seated work, lasting a minimum of 5minutes within a one hour of work and only 11% of operators had a 10 minute (or longer) uninterrupted break. Substantial variation between operators was observed in many variables. Since work tasks were essentially similar across operators and were expected to be similar across days, this indicates individual differences in working technique.

    Conclusions: The dominance of seated work for extended periods indicates that efforts should be made at call centres to introduce more gross physical variation during the work day. Appropriate and effective initiatives for realizing this intervention need to be identified

  • 729.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3560-3562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

  • 730.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Westergren, Karl-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Jönköping University, School of Health Sciences.
    Risk factors, incidence and persistence of symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 291-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Symptoms from the eyes are common among computer users. Knowledge is scarce about these problems, however.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The aim was to study risk-factors, incidence and persistence of eye-symptoms among professionally active computer users.

    METHODS:

    This was a questionnaire based prospective study where 1283 males and females from different professions and companies answered a baseline questionnaire about individual factors and working conditions, e.g. duration of daily computer work, comfort of screen work, psychosocial factors. Subjects were at baseline and 10 follow-ups asked about the number of days with eye-symptoms during the preceding month.

    RESULTS:

    The incidence-rate of symptoms persisting minimum three days was 0.38/person-year. A multivariate Hazard-ratio model showed significant associations with extended continuous computer work, tasks with high demands on eye-hand coordination, low level of control, visual discomfort, female sex and nicotine use. Eye-symptoms at baseline was a strong risk factor for new symptoms.

    CONCLUSION:

    The incidence of eye-symptoms among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors. The organization of computer work should secure frequent breaks from near-work at the computer screen. The severity of vision-related problems could in field studies be quantified by asking for the persistence of symptoms.

  • 731. Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Variation in gross body posture during call centre work2009In: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, Beijing, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 732.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Skolan för teknik och Hälsa, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Arbete, arbetsliv, arbetslivsfysiologi2008In: Arbetslivsfysiologi / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, p. 17-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 733.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikUniversity of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.Wigaeus Tornqvist, EwaKungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Skolan för teknik och hälsa.
    Arbetslivsfysiologi2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 734.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.Wigaeus Tornqvist, EwaSchool of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Occupational Physiology2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working life. Exploring major public health problems such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress, this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessments and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.

    The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions in work life. Reviewing bodily demands and reactions in eight selected common but contrasting job types, the book explains relevant physiology in a novel way. Rather than being structured according to organs in the body, the book accepts the complex physiology of typical jobs and uses this as an entry. In addition to physiological facts, the book discusses risk factors for disorders and gives ideas on how to organize and design work and tasks so as to optimize health, work ability, and productivity.

    Although many books cover physiology, they are based on a traditional anatomical structure (e.g., addressing the physiology of the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system, and so forth) and require readers to synthesize this knowledge into real-life complex applications. Occupational Physiology is, instead, structured around a number of typical jobs and explains their physiology, as complex as they may be. This approach, while still presenting the physiology needed to understand occupational life, demonstrates how to use this information in situations encountered in practice.

  • 735.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Work, Working Life, Occupational Physiology2012In: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Toomingas A, Mathiassen SE, Wigaeus Tornqvist E, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 736.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Saskatchewan, College of Medicine, Centre for Health & Safety in Agriculture, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umea University, Department of Public Health & Clinical Medical Occupational & Environmental Medicine, SE-90185 UmeåSweden.
    Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods2013In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 124-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Data processing contributes a non-trivial proportion to total research costs, but documentation of these costs is rare. This paper employed a priori cost tracking for three posture assessment methods (self-report, observation of video, and inclinometry), developed a model describing the fixed and variable cost components, and simulated additional study scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model. 

    Methods. Trunk and shoulder postures of aircraft baggage handlers were assessed for 80 working days using all three methods. A model was developed to estimate data processing phase costs, including fixed and variable components related to study planning and administration, custom software development, training of analysts, and processing time.   

    Results. Observation of video was the most costly data processing method with total cost of 31,433, and was 1.2-fold more costly than inclinometry (€ 26,255), and 2.5-fold more costly than self-reported data (€ 12,491). Simulated scenarios showed altering design strategy could substantially impact processing costs. This was shown for both fixed parameters, such as software development and training costs, and variable parameters, such as the number of work-shift files processed, as well as the sampling frequency for video observation.  When data collection and data processing costs were combined, the cost difference between video and inclinometer methods was reduced to 7%; simulated data showed this difference could be diminished and, even, reversed at larger study sample sizes. Self-report remained substantially less costly under all design strategies, but produced alternate exposure metrics. 

    Conclusions. These findings build on the previously published data collection phase cost model by reporting costs for post-collection data processing of the same data set.  Together, these models permit empirically based study planning and identification of cost-efficient study designs.

  • 737.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Partly visible periods in posture observation from video: prevalence and effect on summary estimates of postures in the job2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 49, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the extent to which observers rate clearly visible postures on video differently from postures that are only partly visible, and whether this would have an effect on full-shift posture summaries. Trunk and upper arm postures were observed from 10,413 video frames representing 80 shifts of baggage handling; observers reported whether postures were fully or only partly visible.  Postures were summarized for each shift into several standard metrics using all available data, only fully visible frames, or only partly visible frames. 78% of trunk and 71% of upper arm postural observations were inferred.  When based on all data, mean and 90th percentile trunk postures were 1.3° and 5.4° lower, respectively, than when based only on fully visible situations.  For the arm; differences in mean and 90thpercentile were 2.5° and 8.1°.  Daily posture summaries can, thus, be significantly influenced by whether partly visible postures are included or not

  • 738.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    Collaborative Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Observer variability in posture assessment from video recordings: the effect of partly visible periods2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 60, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observers rank partly visible postures on video frames differently than fully visible postures, but it’s not clear if this is due to differences in observer perception. This study investigated the effect of posture visibility on between-observer variability in assessments of trunk and arm posture.  Trained observers assessed trunk and arm postures from video recordings of 84 pulp mill shifts using a work sampling approach; postures were also categorized as ‘fully’ or ‘partly’ visible.  Between-worker, between-day, and between-observer variance components and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Although no consistent gradient was seen for the right upper arm, trunk posture showed smaller between-observer variance when all observers rated a posture as fully visible. This suggests that, partly- visible data, especially when observers disagree as to the level of visibility, introduces more between-observer variability when compared to fully visible data.  Some previously-identified differences in daily posture summaries may be related to this phenomenon.

  • 739.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    Collaborative Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variance components of observed postural exposure - the effect of partly visible periods2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Previous studies have shown that video-based observation of postures that are only partly visible leads to different daily summary values than when postures are fully visible. However, the source of these differences is unclear. The purpose of this study was to estimate the between-observer variance of trunk and arm posture estimates (relative to within- and between-worker variance), and to investigate the effect of visibility on this observer variability of trunk and arm postural exposure estimates.

    Methods. Video recordings were made of 28 pulp mill workers for three full shifts each. Trunk and arm postures were then estimated by trained observers using a work sampling approach; posture images were also assessed as being “fully” or “partly” visible. REML techniques were used to estimate the between-worker, between-day and betweenobserver components of variance at different visibility levels; Wald-based confidence intervals and p-values were used to determine sources of variation.

    Results. Estimates of partly visible postures (as agreed upon by all observers) were lower than fully visible postures. However, more than 90% of trunk observations and 85% of arm observations did not have full agreement on visibility between observers. Right upper arm posture showed smaller between-observer variance when all observers rated a posture to be fully visible, as compared to all observers agreeing it was only partly visible. This suggests partly visible data introduces more methodological (i.e. between-observer) variability when compared to fully visible data. However, no significant differences in between-observer variability were found for the trunk, suggesting that other factors explain the reported differences in estimated postures between fully and partly visible data in this case.

    Discussion. Future studies involving concurrent direct measurement would determine whether there is a true difference in posture between partly visible and fully visible periods, or whether the difference between fully and partly visible periods are related to observer performance.

  • 740.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Teschke, K
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Koehoorn, M W
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Price versus precision cost efficiency in trunk posture observation (Poster)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims There is a long-acknowledged tradeoff between precision and cost of exposure assessment strategies (Winkel and Mathiassen, 1994), but a dearth of literature quantifying this tradeoff. This study compares different sampling strategies for trunk posture observation with respect to monetary costs and statistical efficiency. Methods Experts observed 126 workers in heavy industry during full work shifts, with repeated measures on 76% of workers. The observed percentage of time spent with trunk flexed more than 60 degrees was recorded and summarized for each work day using the Back-EST sampling method (Village et al 2009). A model of costs associated with the data sampling strategy was developed using previously published data (Trask et al 2007), accounting for the costs of recruiting companies and workers, and of observing full work shifts. Statistical performance was described as standard error of the mean (SEM). Post hoc, a selection of sampling strategies were simulated to demonstrate the empirical trade-off between cost and efficiency for different sampling strategies. Results: Figure 1 shows the family of curves resulting when 1 to 10 workers are measured 1 to 4 times within a single company. The SEM declines steeply for the first few additional subjects, while further subjects increase costs considerably with no substantial improvements in precision. Adding repeated measures generally increased costs with smaller gains in precision. Discussion/conclusions: This study informs design of posture observation sampling campaigns; the ‘mesh’ of sampling strategies in the figure demonstrates the maximum precision level that can be achieved for a given cost, as well as the minimum cost for a given level of precision. This allows researchers to make informed decisions on the use of limited resources when designing ergonomic studies

  • 741.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Teschke, K
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Koehoorn, M.W
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    More for the Money: Cost Efficiency in Trunk Posture Observation2010In: Canadian Association for Research in Work and Health, Toronto, Canada, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:In a climate of scarce research funds, cost-effective exposure assessment becomes more critical. There is a long-acknowledged tradeoff between precision and cost of exposure assessment methods (Winkel and Mathiassen, 1994) that is seldom quantified.The purpose of this study was to compare different sampling strategies for observed trunk posture and determinewhich is the most cost-effective.Knowing the price-performance tradeoffs of observational exposure assessment can help researchers make the most of limited funds.Methods(maximum 150 words)Trunk posture data was observed by trained experts during full work shifts on 126 workers in heavy industry, with repeated measures on 76% of workers. The observed percentage of time spent with trunk flexed more than 60 degrees was recorded and summarized for each work day using the Back-EST sampling method (Village et al 2009). A cost model was developed using previously published cost data (Trask et al 2007) to account for the costs of recruiting companies, workers, and making a full-shift observation of trunk posture. Precision was described in terms of the standard error of the group mean (SEM), using equations from Samuels (1985) that account for multiple measures within companies and workers. Changes in cost efficiency were calculated for sampling strategies employing different combinations of the following: 1-4 companies, 1-12 workers, and 1-4 measures per worker. The case of one recruited company is highlighted here as an example.Results:(maximum 100 words)The SEM declines steeply for the first few additional subjects, while further subjects increase costs considerably with no substantial improvements in precision. Adding repeated measures generally increased costs with smaller gains in precision. In a single-company example, measuring 6 subjects twice (12 measurements total) yields SEM = 0.76 and costs $3929. The same number of measurements can cost up to $4505 with 12 subjects and no repeats, improving the SEM to 0.75. However, increased cost does not always deliver gains in precision; an SEM of 0.76 can cost up to $5545 when 5 subjects are measured 4 times.Conclusions(maximum 100 words)The total number of measurements has been used as a metric for cost optimization in previous investigations (Lemasters et al 1996). However, an equal number of measurements can have different costs depending on how they are allocated due to recruitment costs. Such cost-efficiency information allows researchers to make informed decisions on the use of limited resources when designing ergonomic studies; either determining the maximum precision level that can be achieved for a given cost, or the minimum cost for a given level of precision.

  • 742.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Getting what we pay for: comparing the cost efficiency of direct and observed trunk posture methods2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; abstracts, 2013, p. 177-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 743.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Cost-efficient assessment of biomechanical exposure in occupational groups, exemplified by posture observation and inclinometry2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 252-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study compared the cost-efficiency of observation and inclinometer assessment of trunk and upper arm inclination in a population of flight baggage handlers, as an illustration of a general procedure for addressing the trade-off between resource consumption and statistical performance in occupational epidemiology.

    Methods:  Trunk and upper arm inclination with respect to the line of gravity were assessed for 3 days on each of 27 airport baggage handlers using simultaneous recordings by inclinometers and video.  Labour and equipment costs associated with data collection and data processing were tracked throughout.  Statistical performance, in terms of the inverse of the standard deviation and root mean squared error of the group mean exposure, was computed from the variance components within and between workers, and bias (with inclinometer assumed to produce ‘correct’ inclination angles).  The behavior of the trade-off between cost and efficiency with changed sample size, as well as with changed logistics for data collection and processing, was investigated using simulations.

    Results:  At similar total costs, time spent at trunk and arm inclination angles greater than 60 degrees as well as 90th percentile arm inclination were estimated at higher precision using inclinometers, while median inclination and 90th percentile trunk inclination was determined more precisely using observation.  This hierarchy persisted in a scenario where the study was immediately reproduced in another population, while inclinometry was more cost-efficient than observation for all three posture variables in a scenario where data were already collected and only needed to be processed. Observations showed to be biased relative to the –assumed to be correct – inclinometer data, and so inclinometry became the most cost-efficient option for all posture variables and irrespective of scenario when statistical performance was measured by bias and precision combined.

    Conclusions: Inclinometers were more cost-efficient in use than observation for two out of three posture metrics investigated when statistical performance was measured only in terms of precision. Since observations were biased, inclinometers consistently outperformed observation when both bias and precision were included in statistical performance. The presented general model for assessing cost-efficiency may be used for designing exposure assessment strategies with considerations not only to statistical criteria, but even to costs. The empirical data provide a specific basis for planning assessments of working postures in occupational groups.

  • 744.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Data collection costs in industrial environments for three occupational posture exposure assessment methods2012In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, p. 89-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Documentation of posture measurement costs is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for biomechanical exposure assessment in occupational studies, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods for different stakeholders in data collection, and uses simulations to evaluate the relative importance of cost components.  Trunk and shoulder posture variables were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomic studies: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration.  The cost model accounted for expenses related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection.  Sensitivity analyses were conducted using simulated study parameters and cost components to investigate the impact on total study cost.

    Results. Inclinometery was the most expensive method (with a total study cost of € 66,657), followed by observation (€ 55,369) and then self report (€ 36,865). The majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers.  Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wide-ranging impacts on costs. 

    Conclusions. This study provided a general cost modelling approach that can facilitate decision making and planning of data collection in future studies, as well as investigation into cost efficiency and cost efficient study design. Empirical cost data from a large field study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed models.

  • 745.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Modeling costs of exposure assessment methods in industrial environments2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 6079-6086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of posture measurement cost is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for ergonomic research, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods (inclinometry, video observation, and self-report), and discusses cost components. Trunk and shoulder posture were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomics: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The model accounted for costs related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Findings show that inclinometer was the most expensive method, followed by observation and then self report; the majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wideranging impacts on costs. This study provided empirical cost data for use in cost models that can facilitate decision making and planning of future studies, and can be used to investigate cost efficiency in future studies

  • 746.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Teschke, Kay
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Johnson, Pete
    University of Washington, USA.
    Village, Judy
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    EMG estimated mean, peak, and cumulative spinal compression of workers  in five heavy industries2010In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 448-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to explore the use of compression-normalized electromyography (CNEMG) to estimate mean, peak, and cumulative loading of the low back in workers of five heavy industries using and to compare the estimates to the NIOSH guidelines. Full-shift (5.5 to 10.3 hours) EMG measurements were collected from 105 workers and transformed into units of low back compressive force (Newtons). The mean, peak, and cumulative CNEMG as well as the percentage of work time spent above 3400 N and 6800 N thresholds were calculated. Mean CNEMG (sd) was 1564 N (796), peak was 2721 (1545), and cumulative was 38 MN.sec (22). Mean time spent above the NIOSH threshold of 3400 N was on average 6.3% of shift, while mean time spent above the 6400 N threshold was around 1%. CNEMG allowed the feasible investigation of tasks and jobs that would be virtually impossible with more advanced biomechanical methods and represents a more objective measure of exposure than observation or self-report. CNEMG is a relatively new method with methodological limitations, however, CNEMG's strength may be as an objective, relative measure of exposure in studies where low back EMG is collected in a relatively systematic and structured manner.

  • 747.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Teschke, Kay
    School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University School of Kinesiology, Burnaby, Canada.
    Johnson, Peter
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Optimising sampling strategies: components of low-back EMG variability in five heavy industries2010In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 67, no 12, p. 853-860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Direct/ measurement of work activities iscostly, so researchers need to distribute resourcesefficiently to elucidate the relationships betweenexposures and back injury.

    Methods This study used data from full-shiftelectromyography (EMG; N¼133) to develop threeexposure metrics: mean, 90th percentile and cumulativeEMG. For each metric, the components of variance werecalculated between- and within-subject, and betweengroupfor four different grouping schemes: grouping byindustry (construction, forestry, transportation,warehousing and wood products), by company, by job andby quintiles based on exposures ranked by jobs withinindustries. Attenuation and precision of simulatedexposureeresponse relationships were calculated for eachgrouping scheme to determine efficient sampling strategies.

    Results As expected, grouping based on exposurequintiles had the highest between-group variances andlowest attenuation, demonstrating the lowest possibleattenuation with this data.

    Conclusion There is potential for grouping schemes toreduce attenuation, but precision losses should beconsidered and whenever possible empirical data shouldbe employed to select potential exposure groupingschemes.

  • 748.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of British Columbia School of Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Teschke, Kay
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada .
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University School of Kinesiology, Burnaby, Canada.
    Village, Judy
    University of British Columbia School of Environmental Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Johnson, Peter
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Canada .
    Using observation and self-report to predict mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity in heavy industry workers2010In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 595-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational injury research depends on the ability to accurately assess workplace exposures for large numbers of workers. This study used mixed modeling to identify observed and self-reported predictors of mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity to help researchers efficiently assess physical exposures in epidemiological studies. Full-shift low back electromyography (EMG) was measured for 133 worker-days in heavy industry. Additionally, full-shift, 1-min interval work-sampling observations and post-shift interviews assessed exposure to work tasks, trunk postures, and manual materials handling. Data were also collected on demographic and job variables. Regression models using observed variables predicted 31-47% of the variability in the EMG activity measures, while self-reported variables predicted 21-36%. Observation-based models performed better than self-report-based models and may provide an alternative to direct measurement of back injury risk factors.

  • 749.
    Tronarp, Rebecca
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, André
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    McDonough, Suzanne
    Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, Jordanstown, UK.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Office-cycling: a promising way to raise pain thresholds and increase metabolism with minimal compromising of work performance2018In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2018, article id 5427201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviour constitutes a risk for lifestyle related diseases and musculoskeletal pain which does not seem to be compensated for by shorter bouts of high intensity physical activity. A way of tackling this may be long term light intensity physical activity while performing office work.

    Aim: Establish the effects of low intensity cycling (LC), moderate intensity cycling (MC) and standing at a simulated office workstation on pain modulation, metabolic expenditure and work performance.

    Methods: 36 healthy adults (21 females), mean age 26.8 (SD 7.6) years, partook in this randomized 3x3 cross-over trial with 75 minutes of LC on 20% of maximum aerobic power output (MAP), 30 minutes of MC on 50% of MAP and standing 30 minutes with 48 hours wash-out periods. Outcome measures were pain modulation (pressure- and thermal pain thresholds, (PPT and TPT)), work performance (transcription, mouse pointing and cognitive performance) and metabolic expenditure.

    Results: PPTs increased in all conditions. Median increase in PPT trapezius was highest after LC; 39.3 kilopascal (kPa) (15.6;78.6) compared to MC; 17.0 kPa (2.8;49.9) and standing; 16.8 kPa (-5.6;39.4), p=0.015. TPT showed no change. Work performance; compared to standing, transcription was reduced during LC and MC, mouse pointing was faster in LC but had more errors while slower with more errors in MC. Performance in the cognitive task did not differ between conditions. Metabolic expenditure rates differed between all conditions (p<0.001) and were 1.4 (1.3;1.7), 3.3 (2.3;3.7) and 7.5 (5.8;8.7) kilocalories per minute during standing, LC and MC, respectively.

    Conclusions: LC seem to be the preferred option since it raised PPTs, more than doubled metabolic expenditure, while minimally influencing work performance when compared to standing. Thus, LC is promising but requires corroboration in field studies.

  • 750.
    van der Beek, Allard
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Dennerlein, Jack T.
    Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam.
    van Mechelen, Willem
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Frings-Dresen, Monique
    Academic Medical Center, Department Coronel Institute of Occupational Health and Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases, Amsterdam.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Janwantanakul, Prawit
    Work-related Musculoskeletal Injury Research Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.
    van der Molen, Henk
    Academic Medical Center, Department Coronel Institute of Occupational Health and Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases, Amsterdam.
    Rempel, David
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Perth.
    Walker-Bone, Karen
    Arthritis Research UK/MRC centre for Musculoskeletal Health and Work, University of Southampton.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 526-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on the (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as on manual lifting and awkward postures), but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention.

    Methods: We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (i.e., sports injury prevention and public health).

    Results: The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of 1) incidence and severity of MSD, 2) risk factors for MSD, and 3) underlying mechanisms; and the 4) development, 5) evaluation, and 6) implementation of preventive intervention(s).

    Conclusions: In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.

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