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  • 851.
    Apicella Fernandez, Sergio
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Surface energy modification of metal oxide to enhance electron injection in light-emitting devices: charge balance in hybrid OLEDs and OLETs2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) present an electron mobility lower by several orders of magnitude than the hole mobility, giving rise to an electron-hole charge imbalance in organic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs). In this thesis project, I tried to achieve an efficient electron transport and injection properties in opto-electronic devices, using inorganic n-type metal oxides (MOs) instead of organic n-type materials and a polyethyleneimine ethoxylated (PEIE) thin layer as electron transport (ETLs) and injection layers (EILs), respectively. In the first part of this thesis, inverted OLEDs were fabricated in order to study the effect of the PEIE layer in-between ZnO and two different emissive layers (EMLs): poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) polymer (F8BT) and tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum small molecule (Alq3), based on a solution and thermal evaporation processes, respectively. Different concentrations (0.80 %, 0.40 %) of PEIE layers were used to further study electron injection capability in OLEDs. After a series of optimizations in the fabrication process, the opto-electrical characterization showed high-performance of devices. The inverted OLEDs reported a maximum luminance over 104 cd m-2 and a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) around 1.11 %. The results were attributed to the additional PEIE layer which provided a good electron injection from MOs into EMLs. In the last part of the thesis, OLETs were fabricated and discussed by directly transferring the energy modification layer from OLEDs to OLETs. As metal oxide layer, ZnO:N was employed for OLETs since ZnO:N-based thin film transistors (TFTs) showed better performance than ZnO-based TFTs. Finally, due to their short life-time, OLETs were characterized electrically but not optically.

  • 852.
    Apicella Fernández, Sergio
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    MEASUREMENT OF DIELECTRIC CONSTANT FOR WATER AND ITS TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE AT 0 AND 86ºC2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The dielectric properties determine the electrical characteristics of materials. These properties are important for understanding the behavior of materials and how they can interact with each other. Engineers and scientists need to measure these parameters as accurately as possible, and thus be able to integrate them in their designs in a reliably way.

     

    Examples of application are dielectrics used in capacitors that have the function of reducing the applied electric field and increase the capacitors´ capacitance. The later can be increased by using dielectrics with high permittivity (dielectric constant) as water which has a dielectric constant of 80 at room temperature (25ºC). Unfortunately water cannot be used alone as dielectric due its capacity to be conductive and has to be combined with other materials.

    However, this study will focus only on measuring the dielectric properties of water and its temperature dependence. Temperatures chosen for measurements are 0 and 86ºC.

     

    Several methods have been studied over the years to measure the dielectric properties of materials, but there are only three possible measurement methods for liquids: coaxial probe, parallel plates and free space method. Comparing the three methods, in our case the free-space method is better because it allows to perform measurements at high temperatures and in hostile environments. These two features are very important, since the water should be measured at 86 ºC and measurements are performed in a RF (Radio Frequency) lab, where interferences due to the electronic devices can affect accuracy in free-space measurements.

     

    Hence, the following thesis is based exclusively on analyzing the free-space measurement method for measuring the reflection parameters in dB by using two horn antennas. Both antennas are connected to the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA): one as transmitter and the other as receiver. Reflection parameters are also calculated by introducing the reflection formula for lossless material and a finite length in Matlab. Then, the dielectric constant is extracted by comparing both reflections in dB. 

  • 853.
    Appel, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kulturarvets mosaiklandskap i ny tappning för trädgårdar och balkonger: En litteraturstudie med designförslag som bidrag för bevarandet av mångfalden för solitära bins överlevnad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The purpose of this study is to find out what can be done in gardens and balconies for solitary bees survival, species have already been lost or are red-listed because of poor conditions in terms of habitat. What can design-proposals look like for gardens and balconies? What do suitable habitats contain and what do threats look like for solitary bees?The goal with this literature study was to find answers to my questions. Based on facts that emerged from the results, design proposals have been made for gardens and balconies. Increased biotope-surface from ancient times mosaic-landscape can in modern environments like gardens and balconies be designed as non-toxic and flower-rich meadows, flowering border zones, ditches and flower beds, potted plants, flowering trees and shrubs. Solitary bees need shelter, water to drink and food to eat as in nectar and pollen-rich plants. They need flowering plants from early spring to late autumn to survive. It´s important to spread knowledge and understanding how solitary bees live their lives, that people can cooperate to achieve long-term sustainable habitat solutions. Solitary bees need many flowering plant-surfaces that can act as dispersal corridors in to urban environments, where every single square meter flowering-surface is of importance. Solitary bees increase in number with increasing biotope-surfaces which are facts that design proposals are based on. Devastating threats for solitary bees are floral shortage in urban areas, spraying with various poisons, domestic bees spreading diseases, human fear of small insects and altered habitats.

  • 854. Appelqvist, Tomas
    Religion i svensk läroplanshistoria: utvecklingslinjer i uppfattningen om människan som etiskt och politiskt subjekt2015In: Det postsekulära klassrummet: mot ett vidgat religionskunskapsbegrepp / [ed] David Carlsson & Peder Thalén, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2015, p. 109-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 855.
    Aprili, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lindström, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Föräldrar med utvecklingsstörning -En kunskapsöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how selected parts of the research literature describe and discuss issues concerning parents with intellectual disability. We focused on the selected research literature based on three themes: Parental ability of parents with intellectual disability, risk factors for children growing up with parents with intellectual disability and support from the community of parents with intellectual disability. The method used was a literature overview which was interpreted hermeneutically. The results of this study show that most parents were willing to receive the support of either professional, family, or both, to cope with their parenting. Children of parents with intellectual disability can be a risk group but need not be. The result, concerning the support from the community, shows that it is important that parents are offered the right support and that they are treated in such a way that they accept the help offered. Study results were analyzed with the help of social constructionism and the development of ecological theory. This outcome is consistent with previous research.

  • 856.
    Aptowitzer, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av missfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missfall innebär att en graviditet avslutas ofrivilligt. Vilket förekommer i mer än hälften av alla kända graviditeter. Missfall har ofta en negativ påverkan på hälsa. Även om missfallet fysiskt drabbar kvinnan är det viktigt att den tillhörande partnern ej glöms bort. Kvinnor som genomgått missfall och inte bearbetat förlusten löper stor risk att drabbas av psykisk ohälsa. Därav är det som sjuksköterska viktigt att bemöta dessa patienter med en professionell och empatisk omvårdnad.

     

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva föräldrars upplevelser av missfall samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som beskrivs i studierna.

     

    Metod: En deskriptiv design av tio artiklar med kvalitativ ansats har använts i litteraturstudien.  

     

    Huvudresultat: Ett missfall kan medföra stor sorg med emotionell och fysisk påverkan hos föräldrarna. I denna utmanade sorgeprocess finns ofta behov av vägledning och stöd som innebär att sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsroll blir ovärderlig genom att erbjuda stöd och bekräftelse till dessa patienter. Den metodologiska aspekten i studierna var undersökningsgrupper där majoriteten av deltagarna var kvinnor. Åldersspannet på deltagarna var 22–47 år och samtliga missfall inträffade före graviditetsvecka 20.

     

    Slutsatser: Missfall upplevdes vanligtvis som en svår händelse, emotionellt påfrestande för föräldrarna där sorg ofta infann sig. Därav sågs ett stort behov av emotionellt stöd hos de drabbade. Föräldrar som i sorgeprocessen blev bekräftade och fick stöd upplevde att de hade en förmåga att kontrollera sin sorg på ett bättre sätt än de som inte blev bekräftade eller där stöd uteblev. Sjuksköterskor bör således besitta god kunskap i att bemöta dessa patienter med empati, bekräftelse och vägledning.

  • 857.
    Arabi, Umran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Varför ansluter sig människor till sekter?: En jämförande studie av aktuell forskning kring sektbeteende.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka varför människor ansluter sig till sekter genom att studera vad aktuellforskning säger om ämnet. Detta har gjorts främst ur en psykologisk och sociologisk synvinkel. De vetenskapligaverk som har studerats är skrivna avforskarna Peter Åkerbäck, Håkan Järvå och Anton Geels. Dessaverkhar jämförts med teorier av Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman och Abraham Maslow. Resultatet blev att frågeställningarnainte går att besvara på ett simplifierat sätt, utan anledningen till att människor ansluter sig till sekter ligger på ett djupt sociologiskt och psykologiskt plan, som bottnar ien konsekvens av samhällets fragmentisering och individualisering. Studien efterlyser en kombination av olika perspektiv.

  • 858.
    Aras, Umit
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lundberg, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Icke värdeskapande aktiviteter i ren service: En fallstudie om identifiering och kategorisering av spill inom banker2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Icke värdeskapande aktiviteter i ren service – En fallstudie om identifiering och kategorisering av spill inom banker

    Nivå: C-Uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

     

    Författare: Umit Aras & Viktor Lundberg

     

    Handledare: Tomas Källquist

     

    Datum: 2018 - Januari

     

    Syfte: Syftet är att med utgångspunkt i lean skapa förståelse för icke värdeskapande aktiviteter inom rena serviceorganisationer genom att identifiera och kategorisera spill.

     

    Metod: Studien utgår från den hermeneutiska forskningstraditionen och utifrån aktörsperspektivet bygger studien på en världsbild från det socialkonstruktivistiska synsättet. Studien har antagit en abduktiv ansats eftersom förståelse har nåtts genom en växelverkan mellan empiri och teori. Studien bygger på ett kvalitativt förhållningssätt inom vilket tio semistrukturerade intervjuer hos fem olika banker har varit grunden till det material som analyserats tematiskt.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: Resultatet tyder på möjligheter att identifiera och kategorisera icke värdeskapande aktiviteter inom ren service. Studien konkretiserar aktiviteter inom de spillkategorier som överförts från tillverkning till service men visar samtidigt att dess applicerbarhet inom ren service är perspektivberoende. Med avseende på om styrverktyget betraktas som beroende eller oberoende av aktörer visar studien att kategorierna kan behöva modifieras.

     

    Förslag till vidare forskning: På grund av studiens subjektiva begränsningar, samt fokus på banker, föreslår vi liknande studier på andra organisationer inom ren service för att pröva resultatet. För att etablera lean inom ren service föreslår vi även forskning som söker konkreta tillvägagångssätt för att reducera icke värdeskapande aktiviteter, eller söker att identifiera och kategorisera spill ur ett externt perspektiv.

     

    Studiens bidrag: Till skillnad från tidigare forskning om lean inom ren service bidrar studien med insikter i spillkategorierna genom att konkretisera aktiviteter. Studien bidrar även med ett modifierat förhållningssätt till spill och skiljer sig på så vis från de kategorier som presenteras i tidigare forskning. Slutligen styrker studien den tidigare forskning som hävdar att rena serviceorganisationer kan effektiviseras genom att applicera lean som styrverktyg. 

  • 859.
    Arboleda, Ginna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Byrén, Emely
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Professionals`view on interventions offered for adult victims of sexual abuse2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 860.
    Arboleda, Yiseth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bekic, Kenan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The effect of fairness and job satisfaction in the Swedish public sector: Nursing homes in Tierp and Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to analyze how fairness and its´ components; the distributive, procedural and interactional influence job satisfaction in the Swedish Public Sector. Our examination places were nursing homes in two Mid-Swedish towns of Gävle and Tierp. 

    Method: The study is based on ten qualitative interviews with employees in the nursing homes within the Swedish Public Sector. We used a deductive study approach where we let the participants express themselves at the same time having specific questions derived from theory about fair HRM developed by Bowen, Gilliland and Folger (1999). We analyzed the answers question by question in order to reach to a conclusion and achieve the aim of the study. The data is reported through written text, tables, graphs and findings and implications. 

    Result & Conclusions: We obtained the following: that there are rules and procedures as well as communications that need to be improved, likewise the gender equality and stand-ins´ possibility to influence. The service quality and delivery is not compromised where the employees experience emotional rewards by final customers. Following issues need to be highlighted; the issue of gender equality, rules and procedures and communications. 

    Suggestions for future research: A study where a quantitative technique can be used to consider the direct impact between fairness and job satisfaction to check the results of qualitative study and generalize. Further research could also include the impact gender has in predominantly men or women- sectors on perceived fairness and job satisfaction as well as the views of stand-ins on topics as fairness and job satisfaction in public sectors. 

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to theoretical knowledge development about the notions of fairness and job satisfaction within the Swedish Public Sector. The topics of interest that we recommend managers to improve are: gender equality, rules and procedures and communications at the same time as that the entry- and working conditions should be made better and easier in order to attract younger workforce into the sector.

  • 861.
    Arcos Usero, Lucía
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Analysis and improvements of outdoor hot benches in Gävle2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five exterior hot benches have been installed in Gävle, in Kyrkogatan street by the company Gävle Energi with the aim of achieving the wellnes of people that sit on them. This system uses the residual heat from the district heating, representing consequently a non-polluting system. However, the temperature desired on the surface, 35°C is not always achieved before different exterior conditions. For this reason, Gävle Energi is interested in carrying out a study about enhancements that could be made in the system in order to take them into account for future projects of this kind of technology.

     

    The aim of this project is analysing if it would be possible to achieve the requirements established by Gävle Energi, changing with this objective all the necessary system parameters of the current system such as diameter of the pipes, materials, number of turns... These requirements consist of working with a supply temperature of 40, 45 and 50°C when the exterior conditions are 0, -5 and -10°C respectively, accomplishing always 35°C on the surface. Moreover, in case that it was not possible, providing the company with the characteristics of the system that would make the system as efficient as possible, specifying for different exterior temperatures the mass flow, pressure drop, velocity and needed power.

     

    The study has been developed by different simulations with the software COMSOL, whose use requires a high knowledge on heat transfer. After several simulations, it has been checked that it is not possible to accomplish the requirements established by the company. However, a new more efficient design has been designed because the supply temperatures of the system to accomplish an average temperature of around 35°C on the surface have been minimised. For that, several changes have been carried out. The number of pipes turns have been increased from 12 to 17, their total diameter from 20mm to 30mm and the distance between the centres of the pipes from 5.5cm to 4cm. The 2mm of outer plastic thickness of the pipes has been replaced by copper and the height of the pipes has been moved 2cm upwards.

     

    With all these changes, the final length of the pipes inner the stones has a value of 40.6m and the supply temperatures reach 46, 47 and 49°C for the 0,-5 and -10°C exterior conditions respectively. Apart from the supply temperatures for the study cases, the ones necessary to accomplish always the temperature desired on the surface for other exterior temperatures have been provided together with the amount of power necessary, velocity flow, volumetric flow and pressure drop for all the different cases. These values would allow the company to work always at the optimum point as well as to design the heat pump for the system.

  • 862.
    Ardavan, Mehdi
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Metamaterial: A field magnitude dependent and frequency independent model2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In all attempts to analyze and realize Left-Handed materials, so far, most researchers have used the same idea of extracting only some or certain behaviors of Metamaterials from a set of unit cells gathered together in a designed order. Nevertheless meeting all criteria in order to consider a media as real double-negative material has never come true.

    Starting with criticizing and arguing the validity of calling any set of unit cells as a medium of propagation, the work at hand will go further demonstrating analogies between a medium which could be assigned permittivity or permeability factors and the medium consisting a set of unit cells.

    After presenting the critical analysis on previous studies in the field, here it is shown that it is impossible to build Metamaterials using any number of passive unit cells. A deep insight into the concept of phase and group velocities as well as Poynting’s vector will reveal weakness of the public perception of their relation with each other. Unlike the past and current trend in analyzing these two velocities in meta-materials, they will be proven to possess the same direction.

    Moreover, in this work, a solid proof over violation of energy conservation in the intersection plane between a normal material and a Left Handed material is presented which requires us to believe and accept generation of energy at this plane. This view will consequently leave meaningless all attempts to build meta-materials by passive elements.

    In present work a method is proposed at which a material with positive permittivity and permeability can behave like and yield all characteristics of Metamaterials only if the foregoing parameters, while remaining positive, can vary and be governed by the magnitude of the electromagnetic field. Independence of this method from frequency broadens the range of its application and also the interest it may attract.

  • 863.
    Ardesjö Olsen-Lie, Fanny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Melin, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovativ tjänsteutveckling för fastighetsföretag: Metoder för att skapa nya tjänster som matchar interna och externa krav2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From a business perspective, there is a considerable interest in developing innovative services, as research shows that it creates sustainable competitive advantage. Real estate companies are working with service development to fill their properties and work closely with their customers where demand determines the development process. The present study tests the Wang & Tsai (2012) service development model where the methods service mapping, service blueprint and axiomatic design provides tools for real estate companies. With these methods, the company shall identify customer needs and deliver a new service that meets both internal and external requirements. Through innovative service development process, the gap between customers’ expectations of what services the company can offer and the real estate companies’ perceptions of what needs the customers have decreases.

    On this basis, the research questions of the study were designed;

    -          What services can property companies offer to match the demand made by newly established entrepreneurs?

    -          How can the real estate company through service blueprinting, in a close cooperation with the customer, create innovative service with a long-term plan for local contracts?

    -          How do real estate companies work with axiomatic design methodology, to construct the services demanded by newly established entrepreneurs, and thus create sustainable competitive advantage?

  • 864.
    Ardevik, Anton
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Billstein, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Sitcom - lika rolig i undertexten?: En studie om undertextöversättning i tre amerikanska sitcomserier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Översättningsforskning är ett relativt nytt forskningsområde (Stålhammar 2015:7–8). Amerikanska sitcomsserier är ett vanligt förekommande audiovisuellt medium i det svenska samhället. Till sitcomsserierna följer därmed undertextöversättning för att innehållet ska vara tillgängligt för den svenska publiken.

    Genom en kvalitativ undersökning kan vi urskilja de problem som kan uppstå vid översättning och vilka strategier som används för att genomföra översättningen. Materialet som används i den här uppsatsen består av tre olika sitcomsserier – How I Met Your Mother, Vänner (Friends) och Skål (Cheers) – och analysen utgår från fem godtyckligt valda avsnitt från varje serie.

    Resultatet visar exempel ur serierna där översättningsproblem förekommer. Vi har kategoriserat översättningsproblemen i åtta kategorier. I resultatet redovisas även olika översättningsstrategier som använts för att kringgå överssättningsproblemen. Slutsatsen är att alla tre serier innehåller Jan Pedersens översättningsstrategier (2007:127) och Rune Ingos tre kategorier av textkomprimering (Ingo 2007:284–294). Slutsatsen är även att det finns överssättningsproblem som kan lösas med strategierna men även några problem där semantik, struktur, stilistik eller innehåll försvinner i översättningen.

  • 865.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Sexualitet och parrelation vid hjärtsjukdom2012In: Kardiologisk omvårdnad / [ed] Bengt Fridlund, Dan Malm, Jan Mårtensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 403-416Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 866.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Cardiology.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Malm, Dan
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; County Hospital Ryhov, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Örebro University.
    The male partners' experiences of the intimate relationships after a first myocardial infarction2011In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stress in the intimate relationship is found to worsen the prognosis in women suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Little is known about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship.

    Aim: This study aimed to explore and describe the experience of men’s intimate relationships in connection to and after their female partner’s first MI.

    Methods: An explorative and qualitative design was used. Interviews were conducted with 16 men having a partner who the year before had suffered a first MI. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes emerged: masculine image challenged; life takes another direction; and life remains unchanged. The men were forced to deal with an altered image of themselves as men, and as sexual beings. They were hesitant to approach their spouse in the same way as before the MI because they viewed her to be more fragile. The event also caused them to consider their own lifestyle, changing towards healthier dietary and exercise habits.

    Conclusions: After their spouse’s MI, men experienced a challenge to their masculine image. They viewed their spouse as being more fragile, which led the men to be gentler in sexual intimacy and more hesitant to invite sexual activity. This knowledge about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship could be helpful for health personnel in hospitals and primary care when they interact with couples where the woman suffers from cardiac disease or other chronic disorders.

  • 867.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Hälsohögskolan Jönköping.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro universitet.
    The female partners' experiences of intimate relationship after a first myocardial infarction2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 11-12, p. 1677-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    This study aimed to explore and describe women’s experience of intimate relationships in connection to and after their partner’s first myocardial infarction.

     

    Background.

    Support from partners is important for recovery, but little is known about partners’ experience of intimate relationships after myocardial infarction.

     

    Design.

    The study used an explorative, qualitative design.

     

    Methods.

    The first author interviewed 20 women having a partner who had suffered a first myocardial infarction during the preceding year. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

     

    Findings.

    Three themes emerged: ‘limited life space’, ‘sense of life lost’ and ‘another dimension of life’. The women described how their self-assumed responsibility led to a more stifling and limited life. Their sense of life lost was described in terms of deficits and feeling the loss. The women also described experiencing another dimension of life characterised by three subthemes: ‘uncertainty of life’, ‘certain of relationship’ and ‘share life more’.

     

    Conclusions.

    The partners’ myocardial infarction had an impact on the interviewees’ intimate relationships; they suffered a major loss and missed their ‘former’ partner, both emotionally and sexually. They struggled with the new asymmetry in their intimate relationship and felt compelled to adapt to their partners’ lack of sexual desire or function. Also, their partner controlled them, which lead towards a stifling, more limited life space.

     

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    Caregivers in hospital and primary care settings could apply the findings in their efforts to help couples recover or maintain intimate relationships following myocardial infarction.

  • 868.
    Ares Gondra, Zaloa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Study of factors influcencing the quality and yield of biodiesel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are a developing kind of fuel whose origin is biomass. Among them, many different kind of fuels can be found: bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel, vegetable oils, biomethanol, pyrolysis oils, biogas, and biohydrogen. This thesis work is focused on the production of biodiesel, which can be used in diesel engines as a substitute for mineral diesel. Biodiesel is obtained from different kinds of oils, both from vegetable and animal sources. However, vegetable oils are preferred because they tend to be liquid at room temperature.

    The process to obtain biodiesel implies first a reaction between the oil and an alcohol, using a catalyst and then a sedimentation, where the biodiesel and the glycerol, the two products that are obtained, can be separated because of their difference in density. After the separation, raw biodiesel is obtained and a treatment with either water bubbling or dry cleaning products is needed to obtain the product which will be ready to use.

    Many methods are available for the production of biodiesel, most of them require heat for the transesterification reaction, which converts the oil into biodiesel. Apart from that, in many cases biodiesel is produced by big companies or by individuals but using complicated and expensive installations.

    This work is an attempt to develop a way of producing biodiesel without any use of external heat, using a simple procedure which could be used by people with a low knowledge of chemistry or chemical processes. It also seeks to set an example on how biodiesel can be easily made by oneself without the use of any industrial systems, with a low budget and limited need of supervision over the process.

    In order to achieve that, many trials were undertaken, introducing changes in the different parameters that are responsible for the changes in the final product. Among them, changes in the amount and type of catalyst, the way the catalyst is added, the type of oil used, the time of reaction and the temperature were made. Apart from that, different types of cleaning were tried, starting by water cleaning and then using powder type products, Magnesol, D-Sol and Aerogel. A centrifuge was also tried to test its utility when separating impurities from liquids or different liquid phases. The results of the different trials were analysed using various tests, the most important being the 3:27 test, the solubility test, the soap titration and pH measurements.

    To sum up, it could be said that the investigation was a success, since it was proved that biodiesel can be made without the use of any external heat with both alkali and acid catalysts, as well as with different ways of adding the catalyst. As for the cleaning, good results were obtained with both dry products and water cleaning, since the soap content of the biodiesel was reduced in both cases. Apart from that, the centrifuge proved to be valid to eliminate impurities from raw oil.

  • 869.
    Areskoug, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Literature science. Uppsala universitet, Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Den svenske mannens gränsland: Manlighet, nation och modernitet i Sven Lidmans Silfverstååhlsvit2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the nationalistic imaginary in the novels of Sven Lidman, published 1910–1913. The novels hold forth a conservative point-of-view that embraces the bourgeois ideal of masculinity and the idea of the healthy, Swedish rural way of life as opposed to the destructive metropolis. This dualism is part of a dichotomy that structures the novels. It also entails continuity/fragmentation, the Swedish/the foreign, men/women, activity/ passivity as well as masculinity/femininity and unmanliness.

    In the Silfverstååhl-cycle the protagonists are young men of a noble, Swedish family. They progress from lost and introspective youths to grown men who are deeply concerned with and engaged in society. They are different representatives of the Swedish man – the farmer, the business man, the explorer and the clergy man. What unites them is how their “coming of age” develops, how through trial and struggle they become stronger and prove worthy of the manly role they finally take on. This is a major principle of the bourgeois masculinity that is also closely connected to the national identity of the men.

    There is also an ambiguity concerning modernity. Throughout the novels a critique of modern society is formulated, that acknowledges the modern age but simultaneously takes on a prudent attitude towards modern society. There is no going back for the Swedish nation; the modern times have to be confronted. The present is very important since it is the time for scrutiny. The handling of the modern era takes place in the developing processes of the young men, who have to be careful not to get trapped in the modern whirlpool that threatens to shatter the human being. The past, the familiar and the rural anchorage that the family relation entitles, is a defense against the destructive forces of modernity. But the past is not completely beneficial. Even though the past is of major importance to the national identity of the protagonists, they have to be very careful not to delve too much into the past because of the risk of paralysis and effeminization. In the nationalistic narrative the present encapsulates the past and the future. The Swedish man has to navigate in the borderland of modernity.

  • 870.
    Areteg, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Utvärdering av postoperativ noninvasiv ventilationmed Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure av obesapatienter som genomgår elektiv gastric bypasskirurgi2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obese patients have a higher risk for respiratory complications after general anesthesia related toreduced vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC).Earlier studies have shown that postoperative treatment with Bi-level Positive Airway Pressureimproved forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) andsaturation (SpO2) after elective gastric bypass surgery. Present study evaluates whether or not thesame postoperative treatment also shows differences in arterial blood gases, if compared with usualpostoperative treatment with nasal administered oxygen. A second aim was to describe how patientsexperienced the BIPAP treatment. Arterial blood gases from 18 patients were analyzed withanalytical statistics. The study showed that postoperative treatment whit BIPAP during 3 hoursresults in higher SpO2 and lower paCO2 than traditional postoperative treatment after electivegastric bypass surgery. Both treatments results in lower paO2 and unchanged pH. Several patientsexperienced discomfort during the BIPAP treatment.

  • 871.
    Arevian, Narine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Marki, Nancy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Miljökostnad: Rapportering och definition av miljökostnad i svenska börsnoterade bolags årsredovisningar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad som rapporteras som miljökostnader i svenska börsnoterade företags rapporter samt ta reda på om storlek och bransch har en påverkan på rapporteringen. Utifrån detta ska studien vidare ge ett utarbetat förslag för hur miljökostnader kan definieras.

    Studien har utgått från ett positivistiskt och objektivt synsätt. För att lyckas besvara studiens syfte har en kvantitativ dokumentstudie genomförts, där års-och miljöredovisningar från svenska börsbolag för räkenskapsår 2014 och 2015 har granskats. Studiens empiriska resultat har sedan ställts mot tidigare forskning och teorier i en analys

    Studiens resultat indikerar på att en övergripande del av företag på Stockholmsbörsen rapporterar miljökostnader i kvalitativa termer i form av löpande text. Studien har även funnit att i de fall bolagen lyckats kvantifiera kostnaderna rapporteras de i andra enheter än monetära. Vidare har studien funnit att både bransch och storlek har en påverkan på rapportering av miljökostnader men att storleksfaktorn endast påverkar små företag.

    Då studien har genomfört en dokumentstudie skulle det vara intressant att vidareutveckla studiens syfte och studera hur företag definierar miljökostnader ur ett kvalitativt perspektiv. Vidare skulle det även vara intressant att ta reda på varför mer än hälften av företagen på svenska börsen inte miljökostnadsrapporterar

  • 872.
    Arfan, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. 202100-2890.
    Biogas Value Chain in Gävleborg: Feedstock, Production and Use2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to identify the current status and future opportunities for biogas as an alternative fuel for road transport in the Gävleborg region. The regional actors along the value chain are mapped by their role in feedstock supply, production and use of the biogas. Mapping and analysis of biogas development generally in Sweden and particularly in the Gävleborg region has been conducted primarily through literature, national and regional statistics and through interviews with the regional actors. About 15 companies were reached through emails and phone calls during the interview process.

    In 2017, about 3.5-4.0 million Nm3 of raw biogas (50-65% CH4) was produced in the region of which 3.6 GWh was upgraded. The region has two plants with upgrading facilities, one in Forsbacka, which produces gas mainly from food waste and Duvbacken, the wastewater treatment plant in Gävle. The gas produced at these two big facilities is upgraded and mostly used as transport fuel in the region, and for the industry. Gas produced from other sources is either used for heat and electricity production or flared to avoid methane emissions to the environment. The region has 14 buses and more than 500 other vehicles running on biogas. The gas infrastructure is not well developed in the region except for two filling stations situated in Gävle and Forsbacka. However, some developments on building biogas infrastructure for transport are in process.

    Analysis of interviews with actors and literature studies revealed that the region has much more feedstock for biogas production than used in the currently installed capacity of biogas technologies. Many actors showed great interest in its use as transport fuel but had very serious concerns about its future scope. Lack of supporting infrastructure such as filling stations, very low market demand and regional long-term strategies on biogas as transport fuel are considered barriers in the sector´s further development in the region. The value chain actors need to work more closely to get the most out of this valuable resource. Additionally, future planning on biogas should also consider its other uses such as an energy source for manufacturing industry, shipping and as raw material for chemicals or intermediate products.

  • 873.
    Arfwedson, Gerhard
    Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm.
    Lek, musik, könsroller och centrala begrepp: fyra exempel på sociala konstruktioner2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 874.
    Arfwedson, Gerhard
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Mellan praktik och teori: tio didaktiska berättelser om undervisning2002Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 875.
    Arfwidsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Warg, Alicia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Traditionella och nya upplåtelseformer av bostadslägenheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essays main focus is to further develop the understanding and describe six different types of tenure. The essay investigate similarities and differences between the types of tenure on the Stockholm housing market. The most common types of leaseholds, ownership apartments, and rental apartments will be described but and also new types of leases will be described. Such as cooperative rental apartments, condominiums, low purchase price apartments and rental purchases. The latter two are new forms of types of ownership and have emerged as an attempt by developers to bring young adults and low-wage earners into the housing market.

    Firstly, The qQuestion formulations in this essay are constructed to investigate similarities and differences which exist between the different forms of submission. Secondly, the questions target what kind of current costs for housing and the non-recurrent costs for purchasing. Finally, the purposes for the introduction of the new forms of leasing.

    The study has been conducted through literature studies and also interviews with market developers. Therefore, based on the study questions, respondents have answered the basis for our presentation and discussion of a descriptive analysis of the various forms of submission.

    Based on the results of the study, it can be clarified that the rental apartments can be the most advantageous in terms of the cost. But then it is taken into account that the queue is about 10 years for getting an apartment. Further, the results indicate that individuals that has a capital and the opportunity to purchase a ownership apart, the queue isn’t a matter and the individual has an opportunity to make a profit or loss on a later sale of the residence. Taking account to amortization of loans, an ownership apartment can be most advantageous from an economic perspective. Condominiums has been found to have a relatively low fee but the monthly cost become relatively high depending on the high purchase price.

    The results of this study shows that co-operative rental apartments have been found to have a low monthly cost. But the problem is that they are bothered by a long queue and also that the individual is dependent of a input gains. The two new types of low purchase price apartments and rental purchases on the market are so newly established which makes it difficult to make an accurately interpret of their impact on the housing market today.

  • 876.
    Arghand, Taha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Human subjective response to combined radiant and convective cooling by chilled ceiling combined with localized chilled beam2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research is to identify human subjective response (health and comfort) to the micro-thermal environment established by integration of individually controlled localized chilled beam and chilled ceiling (LCBCC) system and to compare its performance with the performance of mixing ventilation combined with chilled ceiling (CCMV).Experiments were carried out in mock-up of an office (4.1 m × 4.0 m × 3.1 m, L× W× H) with one person under two summer temperature conditions (26 °C and 28 °C). To mimic direct solar radiation in the room, five radiative panels on the wall together with electrical sheets on the half of the floor were used. The test room was set-up with two desks, as two workstations, and one laptop on each table. The main workstation (WS1) was located close to the simulated window. The second work station (WS2) was placed in the opposite side of the room. The room was equipped with two types of ventilating and cooling systems.  The first system consisted of a localized active chilled beam (LCB) unit together with chilled ceiling (CC) panels. The LCB was installed above the WS1 to create micro-environment around the occupant sitting at the desk. The supply flow rate from the LCB could be adjusted by the occupant within the range of 10 L/s to 13 L/s by means of a desk-mounted knob. The integration of mixing ventilation (MV) system and chilled ceiling panels was the second ventilating and cooling strategy. Twenty- four subjects (12 female and 12 male) were exposed to different indoor environment established by two cooling systems. Each experiment session lasted 120 min and consisted of 30 min acclimatization period and 90 min exposure period. The performance of the systems was identified and compared by physical measurements of the generated environment and the response of the human subjects.

    The study showed that perceived air quality (PAQ), overall thermal sensation (OTS) acceptability and local thermal sensation (LTS) acceptability clearly improved inside the micro-environment by using LCBCC system. Moreover, at the main workstation, OTS and LTS votes were close to “neutral” thermal sensation (ASHRAE seven point scale) when LCBCC system was used. However, OTS and LTS votes increased to the “slightly warm” side of the scale by applying CCMV system which implied the better cooling performance of the LCBCC system. Acceptability of work environment apparently increased under the room condition generated by LCBCC system.

    In agreement with human subjective study, the results from physical measurements and thermal manikin study showed that uniform thermal condition was generated all over the room. Air and operative temperature distribution was almost uniform with no difference higher than 1 °C between the measured locations in the room. Thus, both LCBCC and CCMV systems performed equally well outside of the micro-environment region. The use of the chilled ceiling had impact on the airflow interaction in the room and changed the airflow pattern. It can be concluded that the combination of convective and radiative systems can be considered as an efficient strategy to generate acceptable thermal condition in rooms.

  • 877.
    Arghand, Taha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Awbi, Hazim
    School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Linden, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, BMG laboratory.
    An experimental investigation of the flow and comfort parameters for under-floor, confluent jets and mixing ventilation systems in an open-plan office2015In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 92, p. 48-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a new trend to convert the workplaces from individual office rooms to open offices for motivating money saving and better communication. With such a shift the ability of existing ventilation systems in meeting the new requirements is a challenging question for researchers. The available options could have an impact on workers' health in terms of providing acceptable levels of thermalcomfort and indoor air quality. Thus, this experimental investigation focuses on the performances of three different air distribution systems in an open-plan office space. The investigated systems were: mixing ventilation with ceiling-mounted inlets, confluent jets ventilation and underfloor air distribution with straight and curved vanes. Although this represents a small part of our more extensiveexperimental investigation, the results show that all the purposed stratified ventilation systems (CJV and UFAD) were more or less behaving as mixing systems with some tendency for displacement effects. Nevertheless, it is known that the mixing systems have a stable flow pattern but has the disadvantage of mixing contaminated air with the fresh supplied air which may produce lower performance and in worst cases occupants' illness. For the open-plan office we studied here, it will be shown that the new systems are capable of performing better than the conventional mixing systems. As expected, the higher air exchange efficiency in combination with lower local mean age of air for corner-mounted CJV and floor-mounted UFAD grills systems indicates that these systems are suitable for open-plan offices and are to be favored over conventional mixing systems.

  • 878.
    Arif, Mehrunnessa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Bergström, Thérése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Faktorer som påverkar mödrars beslut gällande valet att amma/inte amma sitt spädbarn: En litteraturstudie.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fördelarna med amning är många, trots detta tar allt fler mödrar beslutet att delvis amma/ inte amma sina barn. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att erhålla mer kunskap om samt undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar mödrars beslut att amma/ inte amma. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en deskriptiv litteraturstudie, där 12 vetenskapliga artiklar granskades. Resultat: Faktorer som påverkar mödrars beslut till att amma var: bröstmjölk anses vara den ultimata födan för spädbarnet, föräldrar har god kunskap gällande amning, bra stöd från närstående och vårdpersonal, högutbildade mödrar, tidigare erfarenhet av amning, partnern föredrar amning, amning är praktiskt och ger lycka till både modern och barnet. Faktorer som påverkar mödrars beslut till att inte amma var: okunskap hos modern, fadern och sjukvårdspersonal, amning känns genant, fysiskt smärtsamt och obehagligt, stressad personal, föräldrarna får otillräckligt med stöd och information från vårdpersonal, tidig återgång till arbete, spädbarnet är otillfredsställt av endast bröstmjölk, oroligheter över bröstmjölkens näring samt rädsla för viktuppgång och hängiga bröst. Slutsats: Bristande kunskap, information och stöd är faktorer som kan påverka moderns beslut till att amma/ inte amma. Föräldrar behöver mer information och stöd gällande amning både innan och efter förlossningen, så de kan grunda sitt beslut på relevant fakta.

  • 879.
    Aringskog, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Staff, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Vilken syn har lärarna på barns språkutveckling och hur tas denna kunskap tillvara vid övergången mellan förskola och förskoleklass?2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om barns språkutveckling inom förskola och förskoleklass. Hur arbetar lärare med barns språkutveckling i de olika verksamheterna och vilken information delges vid övergången mellan dessa verksamheter? För att samla in underlag till denna studie har sju intervjuer genomförts med två förskollärare verksamma i förskoleklass och fem förskollärare verksamma inom förskolan. Utifrån tidigare forskning och kontinuitet tolkades det insamlande materialet och i studiens resultat framkom det att lärare generellt har samma syn på språkutveckling. Beroende på i vilken verksamhet lärare arbetar så såg arbetssättet lite olika ut eftersom äldre barn hade andra utmaningar. Däremot visade studiens resultat att samarbetet mellan de olika verksamheterna kan förbättras. Alla de intervjuade var eniga om att det vore önskvärt att lärare från verksamheterna borde träffas tillsammans för att få en bättre inblick i hur respektive arbetsplats arbetar med språkutveckling för att kunna planera det fortsatta arbetet utifrån var barnet befinner sig. Eftersom läroplanerna poängterar kontinuitet och samarbete mellan förskola och förskoleklass är detta ett mål som lärare aktivt borde arbeta mot.

  • 880.
    Arizcun Zúñiga, Paula María
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ram pump hydraulic air test. Pressure conditions and flow measurements: Experimental research and case study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study consists of the development of a ram pump, which will allow the pumping of water without the need of external energy sources. It is considered an analysis of interest since, once it is finished; it can be applied in reality improving and facilitating different activities related to agriculture and health.

    Previous studies have been made related to the ram pump; however, in this case, it is intended to understand the system that has been built in the laboratory in order to find the best combination of parameters that will lead to obtain the highest possible efficiency. 

    The study will be carried out by studying scientific literature and by experimenting in the laboratory. Encompassing the experimental and literary field, it is expected to understand perfectly the advantages and disadvantages of the ram pump in order to determine if it is worth it to install in certain places.

    After the study, the most favourable parameters for the operation of the Bruzaholms Bruk pump have been obtained. It has been found that the use of a longer drive pipe favours the operation of the system, as it is possible to obtain a higher efficiency, although it must be taken into account that the mentioned length needs to be controlled, as it could reduce the working rhythm of the pump. It has also been seen that the pump gives better results if the impulse valve is completely opened. Finally, it has been proven that, as long as the height difference between the two tanks is enough, increasing the height of the water source will favour the operation of the system.

  • 881.
    Arleving, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans hanteringsstrategier i mötet med anhöriga inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emergency care is an eventful area. Emergency clinics have stressful meetings and emergency situations. Patients who come to emergency rooms often have a relative with them. Relatives are often described as someone who should be involved in the care. Coping has a central role in this environment for both patients, relatives but also the staff.

    Aim: To describe nurses' experiences of meetings with relatives in emergency care. The methodological aspect was to examine the selection method of the selected articles.

    Method: Literature study with 9 articles examined.

    Results: Nurses' experiences of meetings with relatives in emergency care have proved to have several dimensions of a problem. Emergency clinics are described as a place that is hectic, the staff assess and help patients in a first stage. Emergency clinics are often built for a lower patient pressure than reality. The staff have poorer conditions for coping. The staff are exposed to threats and anger from relatives. Recent research indicates that relatives are also involved in the emergency rooms. The picture that was painted was that nurses often do not want to allow relatives to take the place they need. In the study, the good example of how an emergency department meets relatives and lets them participate is revealed. The emergency department shows what should be done. Coping needs more space.

    Conclusion: The nurse's ability for using their coping strategies are worse at emergency departments. The author sees that processing processes cannot be managed properly before the next difficult-to-handle situation comes. The work environment is thus an important factor that affects the nurse's coping and also affects the meeting with relatives in emergency care. Relatives can give the nurse increased and reduced stress at work. At the same time, relatives can support the nursing and provide information to the nurse, which is a great resource.

  • 882. Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Hagerman, Björn
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Landström, Ulf
    Poulsen, Torben
    Musik och höga ljudnivåer: praktiska riktlinjer för musik- och underhållningsbranschen2009Report (Other academic)
  • 883. Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kähäri, Kim
    Hagerman, Björn
    Poulsen, Torben
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    Musik, musiker och hörsel: en kunskapssammanställning om höga ljudnivåer och hörselskaderisker i musik- och underhållningssektorn2007Report (Other academic)
  • 884.
    Arlmark, Maria
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Fyra revisorers upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 885.
    Armblad, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Stamning: Några pedagogers erfarenheter av barn med stamning2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien intervjuades sex stycken olika pedagoger från olika förskolor. De intervjuade var förskollärare och barnskötare. Syftet var att få reda på vad pedagogerna i verksamheten gör för att hjälpa stammande barn samt ta reda på hur viktigt pedagogerna anser att barnens språkutveckling är. I intervjun fick pedagogerna bland annat frågan om vad de har för erfarenhet av stammande barn, hur dem arbetar med barns språkutveckling och om de har träffat på stammande barn under deras tid i förskolan.

    Intervjuerna skedde på pedagogernas arbetsplatser på en bestämd tid som passade pedagogerna som skulle bli intervjuade. Resultatet blev att de flesta av dem intervjuade pedagogerna inte hade stött på några barn som stammade och pedagogerna som hade gjort det lät bara barnet vara utan att göra några speciella åtgärder. Alla pedagogerna belyste vikten av att arbeta med barns språkutveckling och gav exempel på vad de gör för att arbeta med språkutveckling.

  • 886.
    Arnaiz Remiro, Lierni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Modelling and assessment of energy performance with IDA ICE for a 1960's Mid-Sweden multi-family apartment block house2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis has been carried out during the spring of 2017 on behalf of Gavlegårdarna AB. This is a public housing company in Gävle (Sweden) which is a large energy consumer, over 200 million SEK per year, and has the ambitious goal of reduce its energy consumption by 20 % between 2009 and 2020. Many multi-family apartment blocks were built during the "million programme" in the 60’s and 70’s when thermal comfort was the priority and not the energy saving. Nevertheless, this perspective has changed and old buildings from that time have been retrofitted lately, but there are many left still. In fact, one of these buildings will be retrofitted in the near future so a valid model is needed to study the energy saving measures to be taken. The aim of this thesis is to get through a calibration process to obtain a reliable and valid model in the building simulation program IDA ICE 4.7.1. Once this has been achieved it will be possible to carry out the building’s energy performance assessment. IDA ICE has shown some limitations in terms of thermal bridges which has accounted for almost 15 % of total transmission heat losses. For this reason, it is important to make a detailed evaluation of certain joints between elements for which heat losses are abundant. COMSOL Multiphysics® finite element software has been used to calculate these transmittances and then use them as input to IDA ICE to carry out the simulation.

    Through an evidence-based methodology, although with some sources of uncertainty, such as, occupants’ behaviour and air infiltration, a valid model has been obtained getting almost the same energy use for space heating than actual consumption with an error of 4% (Once the standard value of 4 kWh/m2 for the estimation of energy use in apartments' airing has been added). The following two values have been introduced to IDA ICE: household electricity and the energy required for heating the measured volume of tap water from 5 °C to 55 °C. Assuming a 16 % of heat losses in the domestic hot water circuit, which means that part of the heat coming from hot water heats up the building. This results in a lower energy supply for heating than the demanded value from IDA ICE. Main heat losses have been through transmission and infiltration or openings. Windows account 11.4 % of the building's envelope, thus the losses through the windows has supposed more than 50 % of the total transmission losses. Regarding thermal comfort, the simulation shows an average Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) of 12 % in the worst apartment. However, the actual value could be considerably lower since the act of airing the apartments has not been taken into account in the simulation as well as the strong sun's irradiation in summer which can be avoided by windows shading. So, it could be considered an acceptable level of discomfort. To meet the National Board of Housing Building and Planning, (Boverket) requirements for new or rehabilitated buildings, several measures should be taken to improve the average thermal transmittance and reduce the specific energy use. Among the energy saving measures it might be interesting replace the windows to 3 pane glazing, improve the ventilation system to heat recovery unit, seal the joints and intersections where thermal bridges might be or add more insulation in the building’s envelope.

  • 887.
    Arnautovic, Sead
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Religionsundervisning i kommunal skola respektive friskola2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this paper is to examine how the religious education is implemented in junior and grammar school. As a base for my examination I used two private schools and two municipal schools. My main goal was to get a better view of the content of the education, the treatment of the students and the conditions for the students to get a greater understanding and respect for others’ religious beliefs and opinions through education. To reach this goal I did interviews and field studies which means that the paper has a qualitative approach.

    The examination showed clearly that the private schools spend a lot more education time on their respective religions while the municipal schools have a more comprehensive education. Regarding the treatment of the students I could not find any differences since all of the

    schools gave the students space to express their opinions and thoughts. However there are clear differences when it comes to understand others’ opinions and respect other people’s religious views, since the students in the private schools only meet students with the same religion and views; they do not meet other students who do not share their thoughts.

  • 888.
    Arnell, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish and Gender studies.
    Inkluderande skrivundervisning: En studie med utgångspunkt i genrepedagogiken2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien används Sydneyskolans genrepedagogik och processkrivning som utgångspunkt och underlag. Syftet med studien är att undersöka svensklärares tankar och upplevelser om skrivundervisning i relation till genrepedagogiken och processkrivning samt att analysera elevtexter och hur väl elevtexterna förhåller sig till valda genrer. I studien används två olika metoder för resultatet. Resultatet består av intervjuer med två svensklärare och analyser av sex elevtexter, tre insändare och tre debattartiklar, från svensklärarnas klasser som de undervisar. Studien och resultatdelen kommer rikta in sig på diskursiva texter. I resultatdelen framkommer svensklärarnas tankar och upplevelser kring skrivundervisningen samt analyser av de textaktiviteter som finns i elevtexterna. Båda lärarna anser att genrepedagogiken är väl fungerande, inkluderande och förtydligar samt stärker den individuella textproduktionen. I studien framkommer det att svensklärarna som deltar i studien lägger mycket fokus på processkrivandet och inte lika mycket fokus på den färdiga produkten. En avgörande faktor för att kunna arbeta genrepedagogiskt menar de båda lärarna är tiden, då arbete utifrån genrepedagogiken upplevs som tidskrävande. Eleverna som skrev insändare lyckades till viss del förhålla sig till genre då samtliga argumenten ej gav skäl för åsikt. De elever som skrev debattartiklar lyckades relativt väl att förhålla sig till genre, det som två av tre texter saknade var motargument. Det är svårt att dra några slutsatser eller att jämföra undervisningsmetoderna kopplat till elevproduktionerna då det är två olika genrer som undersöksi studien.

  • 889.
    Arnell Målman, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Barns kamratrelationer i förskolan: En intervjustudie om förskollärares erfarenheter kring barns kamratrelationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att öka kunskapen om förskollärares arbete med barns kamratrelationer i förskolan. Studien genomfördes i form av intervjuer med fem förskollärare för att ta del av deras erfarenheter. Svaren analyserades med grund i ett sociokulturellt perspektiv samt Corsaros (1985) tillträdesstrategier. Resultatet visar att samtliga förskollärare säger sig arbeta aktivt med barns kamratrelationer på förskolan. Flera olika arbetssätt används, som till exempel vänskapssol, lekträning och rollspel. Det arbetssätten har gemensamt är att det till stor del handlar om att finnas där för barnen ideras lek, att ge det stöd de behöver samt delge barnen vilka verktyg som krävs för att kunna utveckla sina kamratrelationer på egen hand. Vidare framkommer av resultatet att reflektion i arbetslaget blir ett viktigt inslag för förskollärarna i arbetet med barnens kamratrelationer och att det finns en del hinder för att förskollärarna ska kunna stödja barnen i deras kamratrelationer, som till exempel tidsbrist och brist på resurser.

  • 890.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center (UFC), Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Participation in physical activities: a multilevel challenge for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders2017In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 59, no S2, p. 8-8Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the biggest current public health problems. Few adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) achieve the recommendation of daily physical activity (PA). The reasons for not being physically active depend on several complex factors, yet not comprehensively described from the adolescents’point of view. The absence of their perspective means that intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activity may not encompass the experiences of the adolescents themselves. Therefore the purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the perceptions, experiences and reflections of adolescents with ASDs’participation in PA.

    Participants and methods: Twenty-four adolescents, diagnosed with ASD without a co-occurring intellectual disability, aged 12-16 years, participated in the study.Data was collected using qualitative interviews and inductively analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Adolescents with ASD were a heterogeneous group in regard to their current PA habits and preferences. Their willingness to participate in PA was conditioned regarding; what, where, when and with whom. They described challenges in the activity and the social context during PA, especially during the mandatory physical education. Perceived demands, freedom of choice, physical ability and sense of control affected their PA participation.

    Conclusion: Findings indicate that the adolescents’willingness to participate was associated with interacting and individual-related conditions, which can be misinterpreted as unwillingness to participate in PA. Thus aspects of autonomy and knowledge about individual conditions and needs have to be recognized when intervention strategies for health enhancing physical activities are planned for this population.

  • 891.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Perceptions of Physical Acitivty Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1792-1802, article id 29236210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent’s perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12–16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variety of reasons determining their willingness to participate, which were conceptualized as: Conditional participation in physical activities. The present study presents an alternative perspective on participation in physical activity, with impact on intervention design.

  • 892.
    Arnell, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyman, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Unga vuxnas upplevelse och hantering av att leva med Multipel Skleros: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune chronic disease which about 15.000 to 18.000 persons in Sweden suffer from. Common symptoms early in the disease may be numbness, walking and balance problems, fatigue, and visual disturbances.

    Purpose: The aim of the current study is to describe young adults experiences and management of living with multiple sclerosis. The aim is also to describe the method of the study group in the articles forming the result of this study.

    Methods: The present study used two databases, Cinahl and PubMed. The result is based on 11 scientific articles. With careful processing, the result has been shaped by three main headings and 10 subheadings.

    Main results: The result showed young adults reactions to and experiences of being diagnosed with MS. How different symptoms affect their physical and mental health, as well as the different strategies the MS-affected individuals use to manage the disease. The result also showed that the studygroup in the articles consisted 66,5% women and 33,5% men. The average age of participants was 44,8 years. The loss had been reported in eight of the 11 selected articles.

    Conclusion: With greater knowledge about MS and affected peoples experience of living with the diagnosis, nurses can get better in their profession and guide the injured people in their quest to find strategies to aid in everyday life. Adequate information from health care, support from family, friends and others affected with MS is of great importance to the affected individuals, giving them the opportunity to live a normal life. More research on MS in Children and men would be significant as the research available in the current situation in these areas is minimal.

  • 893.
    Arnells, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östergrens, Nancy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsproblem i samband med polyfarmaci hos äldre personer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the nursing problems that may arise in connection withpolypharmacy in the elderly. The literature review was done with descriptive design. Datacollection through PubMed and Cinahl. The result was based on 12 quantitative articles. Theresults showed that there was a correlation between polypharmacy and several specificnursing problems among older people. The nursing problems that occurred most among thestudied articles were falls and fractures. It was revealed that the number of used medicinescould be identified as a risk factor for falls and fractures, but also drug type could influence.The results also showed that dizziness and balance problems could be associated withpolypharmacy. Other nursing problems that could connect with polypharmacy was impairednutritional status, such as weight loss and malnutrition. There were also a connection betweengastrointestinal problems and usage of many drugs. The conclusion was that a correlationbetween polypharmacy and several nursing problems among older people were found. A totalof four categories of nursing problems were identified in the studied articles: falls andfractures, impaired nutritional status and malnutrition, gastrointestinal problems, dizzinessand balance problems.

  • 894. Arnemo, Ulf
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Karlsson, Mats
    Larsson, Bengt
    Rencrantz, Daniel
    Sigfridsson, Erik
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Wiehong
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: Challenges and opportunities for Swedish firms2016Report (Other academic)
  • 895.
    Arnestål, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Åberg, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Kommunikationen som lätt glöms bort men säger mer än ord: Pedagogers erfarenheter och resonemang om barns kroppsspråk i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det dagliga samspelet med andra människor sker kommunikation på olika sätt. Gester, miner, kroppsuttryck och den verbala förmågan att kommunicera blir synlig även i förskolan. Tidigare forskning visar att kroppsspråket är viktigt för att kunna förstå en annan individ när ord inte säger hela sanningen i en dialog. Vikten av att skapa goda relationer mellan barn och pedagoger bidrar till förmågan att förstå varandras budskap. Den verbala kommunikationen är oftast mer uppmärksammad än den tysta och kroppsspråket glöms bort. Studien grundar sig i att intervjua pedagoger för att skapa en bild av vilket resonemang och vilka erfarenheter som finns på förskolan gällande barns kroppsspråk. Med syfte att granska och analysera pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns kroppsspråk visar denna studie på för vem och hur kroppsspråket spelar en viktig roll. Resultatet visar att det finns förståelse för vad kroppsspråk är även om det inte uppmärksammas i samma utsträckning när det verbala språket finns. Att bli sedd och förstådd är viktigt för alla, stora som små, och kroppen utstrålar mer än orden som sägs. Studien har bidragit till att uppmärksamma pedagogers erfarenheter och resonemang om barns användande av kroppsspråket på förskolan.

  • 896.
    Arnfelt, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    En byggnads energiprestanda: En utredande och jämförande studie av Boverkets författningssamling BEN12017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an exploratory and comparative study of Boverkets constitution BEN1. In this study the constitution BEN1 is examined, why the constitution was established, when is it applicable and what advantages and disadvantages will come with it. Today the housing and service sector is using a major part of Europe’s final energy use, in addition to this, these sectors also represents a major part of the total carbon dioxide emissions. The EU-commission aims to reduce the housing and service sectors energy use and emissions. In 2002 the European parliament established directives and demands for buildings energy performance. These directives were changed in 2009-2010, which led to an inspection of the already existing Swedish constitution, this was found to be inadequate by the EU-commission. Sweden decided to create a new constitution in order to satisfy EU’s new directives and demands. The focus is on a normal usage of the building in a normal year in the new constitution, BEN1. 

    The reader should receive an idea and understanding about BEN1 and why it was established in this report. Beyond this, the study will show the changes that happen to a buildings energy performance after the constitution is applied and what advantages and disadvantages this could bring. 

    This study was performed by simulating the buildings energy use with the input from BEN1 in a simulation tool, IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. 

    The study shows that the energy performance will change but it also shows that further studies should be made in order to obtain a more carefully drawn and common conclusion.

  • 897.
    Arnkvist, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vitasp Persson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bolånetaket: -och dess påverkan på bolånemarknaden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The mortgage limitation and its impact on the mortgage market

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Mattias Arnkvist and Magnus Vitasp Persson

    Supervisor: Lars Steiner

    Date: 2011 – May

    Aim: We have conducted this report to find out what effect the mortgage limitation has had on the mortgage market since its introduction in autumn 2010. The mortgage limitation has both before and after the introduction been a topic of discussion as it affects many and above all makes it diffucult for certain customer groups.

    Method: This report was written by a qualitative method. The report uses qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative data we have in the report are printed literature in books, articles and journals as well as data taken from Internet. Our qualitative part is based on the interviews with four of the largest banks in Sweden and the Financial Supervisory Authority, which is the state administrative authority that took the decision to introduce the mortgage limitation.

    Conclusions: The results of the collected data are that the mortgage limitation from a statistical point has resulted in the form of a breaking trend in which mortgage levels are now falling. The targets that the Financial Supervisory Authority had with the regulation were to reduce the mortgage levels and create a healthier credit market. According to our own personal opinions, the opinions of the banks we interviewed and the Financial Supervisory Authority, the mortgage limitation have been helpful to the market and all parties believe the regulation will stand firm.

    Suggestions for future research: When our report i based on a bank's perspective, it would be interesting to see a study on the subject with a different approach, for example with a consumer view.

    Contribution of the thesis: The contribution of this report is our unique way to present and discuss the data, through a unifying discussion method of a category analysis. This report is valued for both operators and consumers in the mortgage market.

    Key words: Mortgage limitation, mortgage market, Financial Supervisory Authority, banks, amortization. 

  • 898.
    Arnqvist, Malin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Strömmingsspelet: Ett pedagogiskt spel om närmiljön i Hudiksvall2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 899.
    Arola, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Den skötselextensiva trädgården: Åtgärdsförslag för en lättskött trädgård i samband med en nybyggd villa2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med ett bygge av en privatvilla ställs man inför många val. Det är inte ovanligt att trädgården hamnar i skymundan i förhållande till alla interiöra beslut som ska fattas.

    Min utgångspunkt i den här uppsatsen är att det finns en efterfrågan på lättskötta trädgårdar bland ägare till nybyggda villor i Gävle. Genom intervjuer med tio familjer som nyligen ”blivit med trädgård” och genom intervjuer med människor med erfarenhet i byggbranschen har jag tagit fram åtgärdsförslag för den skötselextensiva trädgården.

  • 900.
    Aronsson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Al-Kaebi, Jafar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    IAS 40 Förvaltningsfastigheter: En studie om hur noterade fastighetsbolag redovisar sina värdeförändringar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Uppsatsen syftar till att redovisa hur fastighetsföretagen som tillämpar IAS 40 redovisar sina värdeförändringar och hur de fastställer förvaltningsfastigheternas verkliga värde. Syftet är även att belysa de olikheter som finns i fastighetsföretagens resultaträkning.

     

    Metod: Uppsatsen består av en kvalitativ undersökningsmetod. Vår studie började med att göra en kvalitativ undersökning genom att granska 10 börsnoterade koncerners årsredovisningar från år 2005-2012.

     

    Resultat och slutsatser: De undersökta fastighetsföretagen använder sig av antingen kassaflödesmetoden eller ortprismetoden för att fastställa sina förvaltningsfastigheters verkliga värde. De bedömningar och antaganden som görs skiljer sig åt mellan företagen. Vi har sett att företagen väljer att placera de värdeförändringar lite på olika sätt i resultaträkningen. Det eftersom att lagen inte ger några klara direktiv om hur och var dessa värdeförändringar skall placeras i resultaträkningen, vilket gör att det blir svårt att jämföra dessa företag med varandra.

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