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  • 951.
    Asami - Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Applying problem solving oriented lesson structure in Swedish lower secondary school: With a viewpoint of the anthropological theory of didactics (ATD)2011In: Proceedings of the 44th congress of Japanese mathematical education / [ed] Japanese society for research in mathematics education, Tokyo: Japanese society for research in mathematics education , 2011, p. 1051-1052Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 952.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Conditions and constraints for transferring Japanese structured problem solving to Swedish mathematics classroom2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 953.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics. Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen.
    Designing Mathematics Lessons Using Japanese Problem Solving Oriented Lesson Structure: A Swedish case study2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is concerned with applying the Japanese problem solving oriented (PSO) teaching approach to Swedish mathematics classrooms. The overall aim of my research project is to describe and investigate the viability of PSO as design tool for teaching mathematics. The PSO approach is a variation of a more general Japanese teaching paradigm referred to as “structured problem solving”. These teaching methods aim to stimulate the process of students’ mathematical thinking and have their focus on enhancing the students’ attitudes towards engaging in mathematical activities. The empirical data are collected using interviews, observations and video recordings over a period of nine months, following two Swedish lower secondary school classes. Chevallard’s anthropological framework is used to analyse which mathematical knowledge is exposed in the original Japanese lesson plans and in the lessons observed in the classrooms. In addition, Brousseau’s framework of learning mathematics is applied to analyse the perception of individual students and particular situations in the classroom.

    The results show that the PSO based lesson plans induce a complex body of mathematical knowledge, where different areas of mathematics are linked. It is found that the discrepancy between the Japanese and Swedish curriculum cause some limitations for the adaptation of the lesson plans, especially in the area of Geometry. Four distinct aspects of the PSO approach supporting the teaching of mathematics are presented.

  • 954.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Japanese Mathematics Teachers’ Professional Knowledge: International case studies based on praxeological analysis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes and studies the Japanese mathematics teachers’ professional knowledge and its dissemination. This theme is investigated in several concrete situations: the knowledge of teaching practice of school mathematics taught in the teacher education, the relation between the educational goals described in the national curriculum and concrete teaching methods discussed among the Japanese lower secondary teachers in service. The thesis investigates also critical phenomena, which arise in an attempt to transfer the Japanese teaching practice in a different teaching context.

  • 955.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The Didactic Notion of “Mathematical Activity” in Japanese Teachers’ Professional Scholarship: A case study of an open lesson2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 956.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Japanese and Swedish Mathematics Teacher Educators’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge: An Institutional Perspective2019In: Educaçao Matemática Pesquissa, ISSN 1983-3156, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 157-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate which kind of conditions and constraints affect Japanese and Swedish teacher educators’ pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). We analyse the praxeologies of the lessons in which the educators teach area determination. Our study shows that the Japanese teacher educators’ PCK are more explicitly shared by the community of the teacher educators compared to the Swedish counterpart. Also, the detailed Japanese curriculum and the structured problem solving approach promote to illustrate how to construct rich mathematical and didactical organisations for prospective teachers.

  • 957.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Laine, Anu
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Comparing the practices of primary school mathematics teacher education Case studies from Japan, Finland and Sweden2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TENTH CONGRESS OF THE EUROPEAN SOCIETY FOR RESEARCH IN MATHEMATICS EDUCATION (CERME10) / [ed] Dooley, T.; Gueudet, G., Dublin, 2017, p. 1602-1609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we have observed three different teacher educators’ lessons, concerning area determination of polygons in primary school teacher training courses in Japan, Finland and Sweden. The aim of this paper is to investigate the main elements of the lessons and to compare the differences between the countries. We focus on how the teacher educators relate the didactic construction of the lessons for prospective teachers to the school mathematical and didactical organisations by applying Chevallard’s anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD). The analysis shows how the curricula and the different traditions of teaching practice in each country influence the mathematical and didactical construction of the lessons.

  • 958.
    Asami-Johansson, Yukiko
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics. Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Winsløw, C.
    Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Comparing mathematics education lessons for primary school teachers: case studies from Japan, Finland and Sweden2019In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, E-ISSN 1464-5211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate and compare lessons given in primary school teacher education in Japan, Finland and Sweden. We analyse one lesson from each country and compare them using a common framework. Chevallard’s anthropological theory of the didactic (ATD) is used to frame this analysis and in particular to model teacher educators' didactic organization of the lessons. The focus is on how the didactic organizations of the teacher educators relate to the mathematical and didactic organizations of primary school. Based on official documents and viewpoints of the teacher educators, we also discuss how the contents and descriptions of the national curricula, and the different traditions of the teaching practices in each country, influence the didactic organizations found in the lessons. 

  • 959.
    Asare, Irene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hansson, Yvonne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Beslutsfattande och copingstrategier kring graviditet och föräldraskap hos personer med Multipel Skleros: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors and coping strategies that influence/impact on people with MS in decision making about pregnancy and parenthood. Also, to describe which quality the studies had. The authors used a method of descriptive design where the search of articles was made in PubMed (Medline). The search resulted in 13 scientific articles from five countries by both qualitative and quantitative approach, published between the years 1999-2010. The results showed that the critical factors that influence decision-making process was inconsistent information, concerns and fears about how pregnancy affects MS, the need for support from others, children's and women's wellbeing and society's attitudes. Coping strategies used in decision-making process included prayer and positive thinking. For moms with MS, the family was a strong reason to struggle in their daily lives and they expressed a need for understanding and confirmation of medical personnel. Mothers often had to plan and organize their daily life in order to spare energy, and they often used child-focused activities to entertain or distract the child. Studies in these fields were of relatively high quality. The conclusion is that women with MS who are planning pregnancy need support and clear information to facilitate the difficult decision and reduce their anxiety.

     

  • 960.
    Ask, Elinor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löberg, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta preventivt med att förhindra övervikt och fetma hos barn: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem bland barn och år 2016 var över381 miljoner barn överviktiga världen över. Övervikt och fetma kan ge stora konsekvenser och det är viktigt att sätta in preventiva åtgärder i tid. Sjuksköterskan möter överviktiga barn på många platser inom vården och har där en chans att sätta inpreventioner. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta preventivt med att förhindra övervikt och fetma hos barn samtatt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna. Metod: Studien är endeskriptiv litteraturstudie som inkluderar artiklar som sökts fram i databaserna Cinahl och Medline via Pubmed. Tolv stycken, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa, artiklar valdes ut och analyserades. Huvudresultat: Resultatet redovisar ett flertal preventiva åtgärder som sjuksköterskor har erfarenhet av i sitt arbete med att förhindra överviktoch fetma hos barn. Det visar på både svårigheter och möjligheter som förekommer idet preventiva arbetet. Undersökningsgruppen indikerar att en majoritet av deltagarna är kvinnor samt att medelåldern är relativt hög. Slutsats: De bristande preventiva åtgärder och riktlinjer som finns gällande övervikt och fetma hos barn, utgör en svårighet i sjuksköterskors möte med dessa. Ett samarbete med både familj och andra vårdinstanser kan leda till en god kommunikation och därigenom en möjlighet för sjuksköterskor attmotivera familjen. Övervikt och fetma hos barn är ett växande problem världen över och utbildning likväl som ytterligare kunskap krävs för att sjuksköterskors preventiva åtgärder i framtiden ska bli mer effektiva.

  • 961.
    Ask, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar transformellt ledarskap hos klienten kvaliteten på revisionen?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: It´s essential that the auditor retains its independence in accounting. Previous research has shown that different factors may affect the auditor's objectivity and thus contribute to the auditor commits quality reduced actions, so called RAQ acts. The stakeholders need to be confident that the information in the audit is correct to make informative decisions, that‟s why it is important to identify the factors that may affect the auditor's objectivity and thus prevent the auditor from committing RAQ acts. The aim then is to examine the factors that affect the auditor's objectivity, primarily if transformational leadership from the client has an effect on the auditor's propensity to commit RAQ acts.

    Method: The data for the study comes from a survey we performed to collect raw data. The survey was conducted on authorized and certified accountants in Sweden. We then used the statistical program SPSS Statistics to analyze the responses and the data and reported the results in table form.

    Result & Conclusions: The study results show that the time pressure is a factor affecting accountant to commit RAQ acts. However, we find no statistical correlation showing that a transformational leadership from the client affects the auditor's propensity to commit RAQ acts.

    Suggestions for future research: The study could usefully be carried out again when the results would be different at a higher response rate. Suggestions for further research could also be examining other factors that may affect the auditor's objectivity and his/hers propensity to commit RAQ acts.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study helps to draw attention to the need to identify factors that affect the auditor's objectivity.

  • 962.
    Ask, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Malmqvist, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Synen på Män i förskolan: En genusstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att forska kring hur synen är på männen i förskolan, ett ämne som fortfarande kan kännas spänt och olustigt att prata om då folk både vill få in fler män i förskolan men samtidigt är rädda för att något otäckt, exempelvis pedofili ska drabba barnen. Tidigare forskningar i ämnet har gjorts kring manlighet och kvinnlighet medan denna studie fokuserar mer på själva mannen som person. Det råder stor brist på material i ämnet från föräldrarnas perspektiv och därför kommer vår forskning att fokuseras mest kring detta. Genom enkäter och intervjuer har vi samlat in materialet och analyserat dem med genusperspektiv för att lättare se skillnader och likheter till tidigare forskning. Resultatet pekar på att trots ett jämställdhetstänk, där kvinnor och män har lika mycket att bidra med, lever vissa könsstereotypiska mönster och roller vidare i vår vardag.

  • 963.
    Askefjord, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklind, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Humor i omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans verktyg och patientens upplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor har en multipel inverkan på människan både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt. Över 80 procent av observerade möten i sjukhusmiljö visades innehålla någon form av humor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva humor som ett verktyg i omvårdnaden, ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv. Syftet var också att utforska hur patienter upplever humor. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den metodologisk aspekten, undersökningsgruppen.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor använde humor som ett verktyg att bygga relationer, skapa band och framkalla en känsla av gemenskap. Enkel vardaglig humor användes mest inom omvårdnad. Mottaglighet för humor hos patienter var individuellt och sjuksköterskan bör tillämpa, baserat på intuition och erfarenhet, rätt humor till rätt patient. Oerfarna sjuksköterskor kunde bära på en rädsla att framstå som oprofessionella vid användning av humor i vårdsituationer. Sjuksköterskor ansåg att stress hade en god inverkan på kvantiteten av humoranvändningen, dock blev de mindre mottagliga för humor från andra. Patienters upplevelse av humor var välvillig och de önskade humor i vårdrelationer.

    Slutsatser: Humor är en viktig del av omvårdnad. Humor kan bidra till ett bättre samspel, skapa lugn och ge ljus åt de mörkaste situationer. Missförstånd kan uppstå i användandet av humor mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter. Sjuksköterskor måste därför vara lyhörda i sin roll och kunna identifiera när och hur humor bör tillämpas. Sjuksköterskor, både nyutexaminerade och mer erfarna bör få mer kunskap om humorfenomenets för- och nackdelar. Detta för att sjuksköterskor ska lita på sin intuition och använda mer humor.

  • 964.
    Askenbäck, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sverin, Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sambandet mellan intellektuellt kapital och finansiell prestation: En kvantitativ studie på svenska börsnoterade företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate whether there is a relation between intellectual capital and corporate performance or not. Another aim of the study is to investigate if there is any difference in the portion of intellectual capital between companies belonging to knowledge based industries and companies belonging to non knowledge based industries.

    Method: This is a quantitative study on companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm. Data from 307 companies were used in this study, and the data were collected from the companies annual reports from 2017 using Thomson Reuters Datastream. This study applies a correlation analysis, multiple regression analysis and an independent t-test.

    Result and conclusion: The study shows a weak positive relationship between intellectual capital and corporate performance which is not significant which means it could depend on coincidences. The result also shows that companies in non knowledge based industries possess more intellectual capital than companies in knowledge based industries.

    Suggestions for further research: Our suggestion for further research is to use a different classification of knowledge based and non knowledge based industries. Due to the difficulties of measuring intellectual capital a different measure of intellectual capital can be used in further research.

    Contribution of the thesis: The contribution of the study is that there is a weak positive relation between intellectual capital and corporate performance which is not significant. Furthermore, companies in non knowledge based industries possess more intellectual capital than companies in knowledge based industries.

  • 965.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal medicine for vasomotor symptoms during menopause. The questions posed were which herbs that were used, what parts of the herbs that were used, and how the plant parts were prepared and utilized. The last question covered how much the plants alleviated the vasomotor symptoms.

    A review of the scientific literature was carried out. In the articles, 20 herbs and plants were used, but only five of them were said to relieve the vasomotor symptoms. The five plants were Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. and Pimpinella anisum.  The most commonly used parts of the herbs were the roots, often through extracts that were processed in order to increase the concentration and to transform the plant parts into powder. The powder was then for the most part transformed to tablets and capsules. Sometimes, information was missing, such as the scientific names of the plants, what parts of the plants that were used and how the herbs were prepared and utilized.

    On average, the herbs alleviated the vasomotor symptoms by 60 %. Most of the herbs appeared to relieve mild symptoms more than they alleviated strong symptoms. An exception was P. anisum, which decreased both the amount of and the strength of the flushes by 74 %.

    This literature study shows that there are plants that influence the vasomotor symptoms in a positive direction. At the same time, it shows that the information in the articles is sometimes incomplete and that the scientists do not always study if the herbs can give side effects.

    Herbal medicine could be an alternative for women who, for different reasons, cannot or do not want to take synthetic hormones or other pharmacological medicines. However, in order to make herbal medicine part of the treatment offered by public health care, longitudinal studies that also investigate possible side effects or risks are needed for securing the effect of the herbs on the human body.

  • 966.
    Aslan, Pinar
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    How Do They Make It?: perspectives on labour market participation among descendants of immigrants in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a compilation dissertation based on a comprehensive summary and four empirical articles. The overarching aim of the dissertation is to study influences on the occupational aspirations and attainments of employed descendants of non-European, non-Western immigrants in Sweden, from their own perspectives. The results are based on qualitative interviews with 9 men and 12 women, all born in Sweden with two immigrant parents. At the time of the interviews, the respondents were aged 25–35 years and had been employed for a minimum of six months, most of them for at least three years.

    Article I analyses and discusses family influences on the occupational aspirations of the descendants of immigrants. It employs a theoretical framework of cultural capital to demonstrate that descendants’ interpretations of their parents’ experiences and living conditions before, during, and after migration shape and positively influence their own occupational aspirations. The article also shows that siblings may function as important transferrers of knowledge and information.

    Article II examines how the descendants of immigrants perceive that interactions with public officials have benefitted their occupational aspirations and attainments. Using the concept of social capital as an analytical tool, the article draws three conclusions. First, public officials who establish a sense of connectedness in interacting with descendants of immigrants may transmit substantial symbolic resources to them. Second, it is important for public officials to support their clients’ personally meaningful goals and to focus on possibilities for achieving those goals. The article also shows that public officials may help descendants of immigrants to form and fulfil occupational aspirations by transmitting important knowledge and information to them.

    Article III explores how descendants of immigrants understand labour market conditions, and how these conditions influence their occupational pathways and strategies. The article employs the concept of habitus to analyse approaches and strategies on the labour market in relation to objective conditions. Three themes are presented in the article. The first theme, being in the “right” field, covers respondents working in branches with labour shortages and/or a high demand for employees with an immigrant background. These respondents used their personal backgrounds as “selling points”, turning the general disadvantage of having an immigrant background into an advantage. The second theme covers respondents who could learn through failing in entering and participating on the labour market, indicating a trial-and-error approach. The third theme deals with respondents who had actively searched for jobs in branches which value their particular skill set. The article highlights the important relationship between active individual agency and external, objective opportunities and constraints.

    Article IV explores perceptions of labour market participation in relation to gender norms and parenting ideals among men and women of migrant descent. Starting from the literature on work, family, and gender in a context of migration, and in relation to the Swedish social and political context, four themes are presented in the results. The male and female respondents viewed labour market participation from different, gendered, perspectives. The women saw labour market participation as a source of emancipation, whereas the men perceived it as a means for providing for a current/future family. Thus, while they depicted themselves as dedicated to norms of gender equality, they also expressed gender- biased views on work and family arrangements. These gender-biased views largely reflect those of Swedish people in general, as demonstrated in earlier studies. Nonetheless, the results reveal that the immigrant heritage of the descendants of immigrants influences their views on labour market participation, perceptions of gender norms, and parenting ideals. The article shows how these descendants interpret and actively challenge gender inequalities in the immigrant generation in ways that support intergenerational changes in work-family arrangements.

  • 967.
    Aslan, Pinar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    The Swedish Agency for Work Environment Expertise, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Wikström, Eva
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    What Works? Family Influences on Occupational Aspirations among Descendants of Middle Eastern Immigrants on the Swedish Labour Market2019In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, ISSN 1892-2783, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 9, p. 134-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we examine family influences on occupational aspirations among employed descendants of Middle Eastern immigrants. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with native-born descendants of Middle Eastern immigrants. We present and analyse their interpretations of their parents’ experiences and living conditions before, during and after migration and demonstrate how these interpretations shaped their own occupational aspirations. We discuss parents’ high expectations of their children in relation to ethnic-community valuations of educational and occupational achievements. These high expectations may increase the chances of social mobility but can also become a negative pressure, especially if parents set high standards but cannot help their children to meet those expectations. In these cases, older siblings who possess valuable knowledge of the educational system and labour market can function as important transferrers of resources.

  • 968. Aslan, Pinar
    et al.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap.
    Wikström, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Choice from Non-Choice? Occupational Pathways and Strategies of Immigrants' Descendants in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 969.
    Aslan, Pinar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Wikström, Eva
    Department of Social Work, Umeå University.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap.
    Door Openers? Public Officials as Supportive Actors in the Labour Market Participation of Descendants of Immigrants in Sweden2019In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how employed descendants of immigrants in Sweden perceive that interactions with public officials have benefitted their occupational aspirations and attainments. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with twelve female and nine male descendants of immigrants, followed by an abductive thematic analysis. Applying a theoretical framework of social capital, we found three main influences of public officials from respondents’ perspectives: 1) connectedness, 2) supporting personal goals and focusing on possibilities, and 3) mediation of knowledge and information. We discuss and analyse the symbolic resources deriving from these influences, e.g. increased motivation and self-belief, and conceptualize these resources as social capital contributing to the occupational aspirations and attainments of immigrants’ descendants.

  • 970. Aslan, Pinar
    et al.
    Wikström, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Myndigheten för arbetsmiljökunskap.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    'Kids in Between?' Views on work, gender, and family arrangements among men and women of migrant descent in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 971.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Mesgari, Mohammad Saadi
    Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Wiering, Marco
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Developing adaptive traffic signal control by actor-critic and direct exploration methods2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Transport, ISSN 0965-092X, E-ISSN 1751-7710, Vol. 172, no 5, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing efficient traffic signal controllers has always been an important concern in traffic engineering. This is owing to the complex and uncertain nature of traffic environments. Within such a context, reinforcement learning has been one of the most successful methods owing to its adaptability and its online learning ability. Reinforcement learning provides traffic signals with the ability automatically to determine the ideal behaviour for achieving their objective (alleviating traffic congestion). In fact, traffic signals based on reinforcement learning are able to learn and react flexibly to different traffic situations without the need of a predefined model of the environment. In this research, the actor-critic method is used for adaptive traffic signal control (ATSC-AC). Actor-critic has the advantages of both actor-only and critic-only methods. One of the most important issues in reinforcement learning is the trade-off between exploration of the traffic environment and exploitation of the knowledge already obtained. In order to tackle this challenge, two direct exploration methods are adapted to traffic signal control and compared with two indirect exploration methods. The results reveal that ATSC-ACs based on direct exploration methods have the best performance and they consistently outperform a fixed-time controller, reducing average travel time by 21%.

  • 972.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Faculty of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammad Saadi, Mesgari
    Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiering, Marco A.
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Traffic signal optimization through discrete and continuous reinforcement learning with robustness analysis in downtown Tehran2018In: Advanced Engineering Informatics, ISSN 1474-0346, E-ISSN 1873-5320, Vol. 38, p. 639-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic signal control plays a pivotal role in reducing traffic congestion. Traffic signals cannot be adequately controlled with conventional methods due to the high variations and complexity in traffic environments. In recent years, reinforcement learning (RL) has shown great potential for traffic signal control because of its high adaptability, flexibility, and scalability. However, designing RL-embedded traffic signal controllers (RLTSCs) for traffic systems with a high degree of realism is faced with several challenges, among others system disturbances and large state-action spaces are considered in this research.

    The contribution of the present work is founded on three features: (a) evaluating the robustness of different RLTSCs against system disturbances including incidents, jaywalking, and sensor noise, (b) handling a high-dimensional state-action space by both employing different continuous state RL algorithms and reducing the state-action space in order to improve the performance and learning speed of the system, and (c) presenting a detailed empirical study of traffic signals control of downtown Tehran through seven RL algorithms: discrete state Q-learning(λ" role="presentation">), SARSA(λ" role="presentation">), actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">), continuous state Q-learning(λ" role="presentation">), SARSA(λ" role="presentation">), actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">), and residual actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">).

    In this research, first a real-world microscopic traffic simulation of downtown Tehran is carried out, then four experiments are performed in order to find the best RLTSC with convincing robustness and strong performance. The results reveal that the RLTSC based on continuous state actor-critic(λ" role="presentation">) has the best performance. In addition, it is found that the best RLTSC leads to saving average travel time by 22% (at the presence of high system disturbances) when it is compared with an optimized fixed-time controller.

  • 973.
    Aslani, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Seipel, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science. Division of Visual Information and Interaction, Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiering, Marco
    Institute of Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Engineering, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.
    Continuous residual reinforcement learning for traffic signal control optimization2018In: Canadian journal of civil engineering (Print), ISSN 0315-1468, E-ISSN 1208-6029, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 690-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic signal control can be naturally regarded as a reinforcement learning problem. Unfortunately, it is one of the most difficult classes of reinforcement learning problems owing to its large state space. A straightforward approach to address this challenge is to control traffic signals based on continuous reinforcement learning. Although they have been successful in traffic signal control, they may become unstable and fail to converge to near-optimal solutions. We develop adaptive traffic signal controllers based on continuous residual reinforcement learning (CRL-TSC) that is more stable. The effect of three feature functions is empirically investigated in a microscopic traffic simulation. Furthermore, the effects of departing streets, more actions, and the use of the spatial distribution of the vehicles on the performance of CRL-TSCs are assessed. The results show that the best setup of the CRL-TSC leads to saving average travel time by 15% in comparison to an optimized fixed-time controller.

  • 974.
    Asp, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Karlsson, Måns Karlsson
    "Kom igen nu, Rebecca!": En innehållsanalys om genus inom idrott med fokus på Discoverys bevakning av Olympiska spelens ishockey 20182018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was in World Economic Forums yearly world ranking found as fifth in terms of equality between the genders. This makes it clear and legitimate to say that Sweden is a country, that undeniably prioritizes the topic very highly. But it is also clear that the progress in terms of equality is developing very slowly and that political visions do not have all the power over the the movement. This assignment will illustrate the equality between men and women in the olympic games of Pyongchang 2018 with a focus on ice hockey. Ice hockey, a sport that is dominated by men, will with a high probability illustrate the diffrences between the genders. Not only the diffrences in terms of economic conditions, but also in terms of medial coverage. The vision for this assignment is therefore to illusrate the current discourse within Ice hockey and to create a better understand of the things that needs to be done, in order to create a more equal arena.

  • 975.
    Asp, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Arbete i glädje och sorg: En kvalitativ studie om arbetsglädje för personal på ett äldreboende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Behovet av personal inom vård- och omsorg beräknas öka. Personal som arbetar i denna sektor står bakom de flesta av anmälningarna av arbetsskada. Det är betydelsefullt att arbeta förebyggande med arbetsmiljö både för att främja anställdas hälsa och utveckla verksamheter. Personal inom äldreomsorg utför ett viktigt arbete för de äldre som är i behov av vård. Syftet i denna uppsats är att genom kvalitativa intervjuer beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetsklimatet och ha Aaron Antonovskys teori om känsla av sammanhang - KASAM som teoretisk modell för att se vad som kan göras för att verka för ett gott arbetsklimat.

    Resultatet visar att den uppskattning personalen får av de boende gör att arbetet upplevs som meningsfullt. Det finns resursbrist i form av personalbrist men även ekonomiska enligt personalens utsagor vilket påverkar hanterbarheten. Personalen upplever att det finns få möjligheter att få utbildning i arbetet och att vidareutbildning i yrket inte lönar sig.

  • 976.
    Asp, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Idrottslärarstudenters syn på friluftsliv i grundskolan: -En jämförelse mellan idrottslärarstudenter och kursplanen för idrott och hälsa2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att ta reda på lärarstudenter inom idrott och hälsas uppfattningar på begreppet friluftsliv ur ett skolperspektiv, samt se hur det överens stämmer med vad kursplanen i ämnet idrott och hälsa nämner om friluftsliv. Metoderna som använts i studien är en enkätundersökning och en kvalitativ intervjuundersökning. Resultatet av dessa två metoder har sedan jämförts med vad som står i kursplanen för idrott och hälsa. Resultatet i studien är att studenternas uppfattning på friluftsliv skiljer sig åt, men att i ett skolperspektiv har studenterna en likartad uppfattning. Studenternas svar stämmer relativt bra överens med vad som står i kursplanen.

  • 977.
    Aspelin, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Employment status, gender and self-reported health2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 978.
    Aspenfelt, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Westelius, Therese
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Estetik i förskolan: en jämförelse mellan förskolor med olika pedagogiska inriktningar2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns olika pedagogiska inriktningar inom pedagogisk verksamhet för förskolebarn, som t.ex. traditionell förskola, Montessori och Reggio Emilia inspirerad förskola. Oavsett förskolans inriktning handlar det om att göra lärandet lustfyllt för barnen, vilket kan göras genom att pedagoger använder sig av t.ex. drama, musik, rörelse och bild i verksamheten. I läroplanen för förskolan (Lpfö98) står det att barn genom uttrycksformerna drama, musik, rörelse, bild, lek och sång ska utveckla sin förmåga att förmedla upplevelser, tankar och erfarenheter samt sin skapande förmåga.

     

    Syftet med undersökningen var att studera hur förskolor med olika pedagogiska inriktningar arbetar med de estetiska ämnena, om det finns några likheter och skillnader beroende på inriktning. Syftet med undersökningen har även varit att utröna om pedagoger arbetar med estetik medvetet t.ex. genom att planera in de olika estetiska ämnena i verksamheten.

     

    Undersökningen har genomförts med hjälp av intervjuer. En semistrukturerad intervjumetod har använts för att lättare kunna styra intervjun och ställa följdfrågor. Intervjufrågorna har ställts till tre pedagoger på en traditionell förskola, tre pedagoger på två Montessori förskolor och fyra pedagoger på två Reggio Emilia inspirerade förskolor. Under bearbetningen av det insamlade materialet uppstod olika teman i resultatet.

     

    Resultatet visar att det finns både likheter och skillnader mellan olika förskolor i hur de arbetar med de estetiska ämnena och hur mycket de används i förskolorna. I de Reggio Emilia inspirerade förskolorna är det t.ex. bild som hamnar i fokus medan inom den traditionella förskolan och Montessori förskolorna arbetar de mer varierat med ämnena. Man kan även se att de är medvetna om estetikens betydelse men det behöver inte alltid innebära att de prioriterar ämnena i verksamheten. I resultatet framkommer även att pedagogerna vill arbeta efter barnens intressen men ändå sätts vissa ämnen i skymundan då pedagogerna anser att deras kunskap om ämnet inte är tillräckligt.

     

  • 979.
    Aspenfelt, Zebastian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Game art workflow: Open-source and comercial programs2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For years, game companies have been using different programs for the creation of the newest most inspiring games. A short presentation about different programs used for game art is provided with key aspects in developing art for games in character production. One aim is to showcase the potential of open-source programs. Two projects with two different characters were created for games testing the workflow between open-source, free application and also commercial programs. The results of the projects are discussed and then the document focuses on explaining what the negative side of open-source programs is and why they should not be used. After the discussion, a conclusion is made explaining the similarities and differences between open-source and commercial programs.

  • 980.
    Aspevind, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Liedbergius, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    En facebookares gyllene regler: Småbarnsmödrars och gymnasietjejers upplevelser av facebooks normer och dess påverkan på välbefinnandet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 981.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Nordland, Bodø, Norway.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    A metasynthesis of research on mentor education: three emerging dimensions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this meta-synthesis is to deepen the understanding and knowledge of research focusing on education for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). Altogether, 10 studies met the criteria for full inclusion and were synthesised. Three overarching dimensions were found as a final synthesis guiding the further development of mentor education: 1) Contextual dimensions, 2) Theoretical-analytical dimensions, and 3) Relational dimensions. The synthesis stresses the importance of a systematic, long-term and research-based mentor education that develops mentors’ (self-)understanding of teaching and mentoring, i.e. is well integrated in the educational context, has a balance of theoretical and practical components, includes rich possibilities for interaction and reflection and prepares for an evidence-informed mentoring.

    A REVISED AND EXTENDED VERSION OF THIS PAPER HAS LATER BEEN PUBLISHED AS OPEN ACCESS, SEE:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X1500030X

     

  • 982.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att kvalificera sig till mentor – perspektiv på kompetensbehov och utbildning av mentorer för nya lärare2015In: Psykologi i kommunen, ISSN 1892-3364, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har allt mer fokus och resurser riktats mot lärares kompetensutveckling. Ett område för satsningar har bl.a. varit mentorskap. Mycket har skrivits om mentorskap generellt och om nya lärare och deras behov speciellt, men vad vet vi om mentorers kompetensutveckling och lärande? Vilka kompetenser behövs och hur påverkar det utbildning av veiledere/mentorer?

    I denna artikel sätter vi fokus på kvalificering av mentorer för nya lärare och på den kompetens de kan behöva för att på ett medvetet och framgångsrikt sätt vara mentor för nya lärare. Vi kommer att diskuter vilka kompetenser mentorer kan behöva och hur det i sin tur kan påverka utbildning av veileder/mentorer – såväl till innehåll som till form. Vi kommer inte att gå närmare in på frågan i vilken mån mentorskap är positivt eller inte för nya lärare, eftersom vår bedömning är att det finns mycket forskning som på ett övertygande sätt visar på dess positiva effekter (se t.ex. Bjerkholt, 2012; Dahl et al., 2006; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Waterman & He, 2011), även om vissa frågetecken kan resas kring dess räckvidd, exempelvis för skolutveckling (Dahl et al., 2006). Vi tar utgångspunkt i den internationella forskningen på området men ger också konkreta exempel från ett nordiskt perspektiv, i synnerhet från Sverige och Finland. Vi inleder med en bakgrundsteckning kring vad tidigare forskning på området lyfter fram om mentorers professionella utveckling och lärande till att bli mentor.

  • 983.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Forskning om mentorsutbildningar: en meta-syntes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 984.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Research on mentor education for mentors of newly qualified teachers: A qualitative meta-synthesis2015In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 48, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this meta-synthesis is to deepen the understanding and knowledge of qualitative research focusing on education for mentors of newly qualified teachers. Altogether, 10 studies were included and synthesised. Four common themes emerged in the initial analysis: School and mentoring context, Theory and practice, Reflection and critical thinking and Relationships. Furthermore, three overarching dimensions were found as a final synthesis guiding the further development of mentor education: 1) Contextual dimensions, 2) Theoretical-analytical dimensions, and 3) Relational dimensions. The synthesis stresses the importance of a systematic, long-term and research-informed mentor education that develops mentors' (self-)understanding of teaching and mentoring.

  • 985.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Collaboration or assessment? Some perspectives on mentoring in Finland and Sweden.2010In: The conference Promoting Learning and Well-Being of Students and teacher at University of Jyväskylä, Finland, 7-9 June 2010.: Paper Presented 7 June, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration or assessment? Some perspectives on mentoring in Finland and Sweden

    JESSICA ASPFORS, Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Finland

    GÖRAN FRANSON, Faculty of Education and Business Studie, University of Gävle, Sweden

    HANNU L. T. HEIKKINEN, Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

    In this presentation, some tensional trends within mentoring, which we call a contradiction between collaboration and assessment, will be addressed. The aim is threefold: firstly to describe and compare the development of mentoring programs in Finland and Sweden at a system level, secondly to illustrate how the various mentoring systems have been experienced by the persons involved and thirdly to discuss the political and ideological circumstances and the possible effects of these solutions. The study is based on empirical data from the Finnish and Swedish contexts, both on the level of mentors’ and NQTs’ experiences, based on interviews and/or focus group discussions and on the national policy level, based on policy documents on teacher education and, in the Swedish part, the responses of teacher educators to them.

    The tentative result indicates profound differences between the two national initiatives of mentoring in Finland and Sweden. The mentoring process in Finland, peer group mentoring, is clearly based on social constructivist assumptions on knowledge and learning. The integration of formal, informal and nonformal learning as well as the equality and professional autonomy as persons and professionals is central. The proposed system of a mandatory induction system in Sweden is, however, very different with mentoring, probation year, registration of teachers and possible assessment of NQTs as central components. In the presentation these issues will be discussed upon in terms of teachers’ continuing professional learning and development.

  • 986.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Mentoring as Dialogue, Collaboration and/or Assessment?2012In: Transitions and Transformations in Learning and Education / [ed] P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström & M. Saarnivaara, Dordrecht: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 271-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, some tensional trends within mentoring, which we call a contradiction between collaboration and assessment, are addressed. The aim is threefold: First, to describe and compare the development of mentoring programmes in Finland and Sweden at the system level; second, to illustrate how the various mentoring systems have been experienced by the persons involved; and third, to discuss the political and ideological circumstances and the possible effects of these solutions. The study is based on empirical data gathered in Finland and Sweden and examines the experiences of mentors and newly qualified teachers (NQTs) as well as the relevant national policies. The findings indicate profound differences between the two national initiatives of mentoring in Finland and Sweden. The mentoring process in Finland, using peer group mentoring, is based on social constructivistic assumptions regarding knowledge and learning. The integration of formal, informal and non-formal learning, as well as the equality and professional autonomy as a person and as a professional, is central. The system of mandatory induction in Sweden is very different, with mentoring, a probation year and the registration of teachers being central components. In such a system, the mentors' role of avoiding direct or indirect involvement in the assessment may become more challenging.

  • 987.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Kemmis, Stephen
    Charles Sturt University, Australia.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Edward-Grove, Cristine
    Charles Sturt University, Australia.
    Contested Architectures of Mentoring: Support, Supervision or Collective Self-Development2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe contested practices of mentoring within and between Australia, Finland and Sweden. Our study is based on national policy documents and empirical data from participants involved in mentoring. The theoretical framework will build on practice theory (Kemmis & Grootenboer, 2008; Kemmis & Heikkinen 2012). The aim is to demonstrate three archetypes persisting in literature and practices: mentoring as supervision, support and collective self-development. In Australia, we find the three kinds of mentoring jostling with one another. In Finland, the perspective of collective self-development is emphasized. In Sweden, the traditional model of mentoring (support) has been typical since 1995, with a current reform of teacher induction which turns mentoring more into supervision.

    Our paper will show (1) that the meanings of 'mentoring' are contested within and between the countries involved; (2) that the three forms of mentoring identified represent three different projects: (a) assisting newly qualified teachers (NQTs) to pass through probation or (b) traditional mentoring of NQTs by more experienced teachers or (c) peer-group mentoring (PGM); and (3) that these three projects, that could be simultaneously present, also involve and imply quite different practice architectures in the form of different materialeconomic, social-political and cultural-discursive arrangements.

  • 988.
    Aspgren, Emma
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som ett arbetsverktyg2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som arbetsverktyg. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design. Nio distriktssköterskor från fyra hälsocentraler i ett landsting i Mellansverige deltog. Data samlades in med semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tre huvudkategorier framkom (användningsområde, arbetsverktyg, och förändrat arbetssätt) och dessa bildade temat

    "Att förändra fokus i mötet och aktivera patienten". Huvudkategorin Användningsområde visade att motiverande samtal oftast användes i mottagningsarbetet. Vidare ansåg distriktssköterskorna att motiverande samtal fungerade bra inom barn – och skolhälsovården men att motiverande samtal var svårt att använda i palliativ vård. Huvudkategorin Arbetsverktyg visade hur distriktssköterskorna använde sig av motiverande samtal samt vilka delar de ansåg var viktiga för att utöva motiverande samtal. Viktigast var ett respektfullt bemötande av patienten och distriktssköterskorna visade detta genom att ställa öppna frågor. Distriktssköterskorna frågade patienterna om lov för att ge information och identifierade vart i förändringsprocessen som patienterna befann sig. En annan viktig del var att tydliggöra patientens egenansvar. I huvudkategorin Förändrat arbetssätt beskrev distriktssköterskorna hur arbetet hade förändrats sedan utbildningen i motiverande samtal. Den största skillnaden var att patienterna hade ett utökat ansvar nu jämfört med tidigare och att distriktssköterskorna nu fungerade som coach.

  • 989.
    Aspgren, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Svenssons vilja att söka kunskap: En studie om ABF-Sandviken mellan 1939-19682012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att skapa en bild om hur folkbildningsarbetet har pågått i Sandviken samt hur kvinnorna tar större plats i samhället. Det är ABF-Sandviken som folkbildare som står i centrum för undersökningen under perioden 1939-1968. Källmaterialet är studieprogram tryckta av ABF-Sandviken samt deras avrapporteringskort under tidsperioden.

    Frågeställningar som besvaras i uppsatsen är:

    • Vilket folkbildningsarbete gjorde ABF-Sandviken?

      • Fanns det någon ökning i antalet studiecirklar mellan åren 1939-1968?

        • Hur står sig resultatet i förhållande till den skedda invånarökning i Sandviken vid samma tidsperiod?

      • Hur såg könsfördelningen ut vid val av studiecirklar?

        • Vid ett eventuellt överslag åt ett av könen, är det då nya studiecirkelämnen som har gjort överslaget möjligt?

      • Hade studiecirklarna vid ABF-Sandviken någon koppling till samtiden?

    För att besvara dessa frågeställningar har jag använt mig av samtliga studieprogram och närvarolistor från ABF-Sandviken mellan 1939-1968. Jag har genom detta kommit fram till resultatet att det skedde en ökning av antalet studerande vid ABF-Sandviken på slutet av 1940-talet. Med ökningen av studerande så är en logisk förklaring att det även ökade antalet studiecirklar kopplade till ABF-Sandviken. Fördelningen mellan de olika könens val av studieämnen skiftar även under tidsperioden 1939-1968. Det börjar med ett överslag åt det manliga könet för att sedan under 1950- och 1960-talet göra en växling mot ett mer jämställt sökande.

    Dessa resultat har en grund i folkbildningsreformen år 1947 samt en jämställdhetsdebatt som blossade upp på 1950-talet. Folkbildningsreformen gjorde det möjligt att lättare få bidrag för studiecirklar och det gjorde en ökning in på 1950-talet och toppar på 1960-talet möjliga. Sedan med att fler kvinnor tog sig från den fasta positionen i hemmet och deltog mer i samhället blev deltagandet mellan könen mer jämställt.

    Studiecirkelämnen var påverkade av händelser i samtiden. Till exempel diskuterades andra världskriget och på en mer lokalnivå hur kommunen fungerade, och vart skulle man vända sig?

  • 990.
    Aspgren, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Hedlund, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Historiskt möte mellan lärare och elev i modern stil: En studie om två undervisningsformer för att ge eleverna bättre förutsättningar att lyckas2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka skillnaden mellan två undervisningsformer, dessa undervisningsformer är lärstilsanpassad undervisning och traditionell undervisning. Undervisningsformerna ställs mot varandra i form av verktyg och hur eleverna upplever att någon av formerna är mer givande för dem samt om någon av undervisningsformerna ger en ökad elevaktivitet. För att följa läroplanen för individanpassning så belyser vi även denna fråga. Våra frågeställningar är:

     

    1. Ger någon av undervisningsformerna, lärstilsanpassad respektive traditionell undervisning i historia 1b ett bättre resultat?
    2. Anser eleverna att det är någon skillnad mellan de olika undervisningsformerna lärstilsanpassad respektive traditionell undervisning?
      1. Upplever eleverna att verktygen och informationen varit mer givande i någon av undervisningsformerna?
      2. Upplever eleverna att de har fått tillfälle att visa sina kunskaper samt tagit eget ansvar för att uppnå betygsmålen?
      3. Är det någon undervisningsform som eleverna föredrar för att kunna ta till sig kunskapen som förmedlats?
      4. Leder någon av undervisningsmetoderna till mer elevaktivitet?
      5. Är någon av undervisningsmetoderna mer individanpassad?

     

    För att få svar på dessa frågeställningar vände vi oss till CVL-Sandviken och fick tillfälle att utföra studien där. Eftersom CVL-Sandviken profilerar sig med lärstilar och lärstilsteori skapad av Rita Dunn och Kenneth Dunn samt Lena Boström föll det naturligt att vi använde oss av samma teori för att skapa vårt lärstilsmoment. Teorierna säger att om man som lärare anpassar sig till elevernas lärstilar så kommer deras resultat att bli bättre. Det är inte bara positiv forskning som finns om lärstilar utan även kritisk forskning. Vårt fokus när det gäller kritik ligger på två artiklar: Learning styles, Concepts and Evidence och The Myths of Learning Styles. Artiklarna fokuserar till att människor enligt psykologin inte har olika sätt att lära sig utan att man bör fokusera på vilket arbetssätt som är bäst för att nå målet. Det vill säga att välja arbetssättet efter ämnet man ska lära sig. Även att anledningen till att eleven lär sig hör ihop mer med intresse, förmågor och bakgrundskunskaper.

     

    Sammanfattningsvis så visar våra resultat på att om eleven är i centrum så är den mer aktiv samt visar en större vilja att lära sig. Lärstilar är en genväg för att som lärare nå fram till eleven men kanske inte är en självklar pedagogisk utgångspunkt som är den bästa för elevens lärande. 

  • 991.
    Asplin, Margret
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Brink, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Sjuksköterskors och läkares förhållningssätt till basala hygienrutiner inom slutenvård och primärvård2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare nurses, district nurses and physicians approach to the hygiene guidelines. The data collection was conducted with a questionnaire within four hospital units and nine primary care units in a Swedish county during spring and early summer of 2009. A total of 186 healthcare workers returned the questionnaire, 86 from hospital units and 100 from primary care units. The main result of the study shows that the healthcare workers from both hospital and primary care didn´t estimate all, by the authors chosen, routines equally. A significant difference found between the units was that hospital personnel estimated the importance of not to wear private clothes during work higher than personnel from primary care. Also, they more rarely departed from the routines regarding to disinfect their hands after physical contact, not to wear jewelry or a watch on their hands or arms and not to wear private clothes during work hours. Nurses/district nurses from hospital and primary care units estimated the importance of following the guidelines to be higher than the physicians did from both units. They also estimated higher on the majority of the moments regarding compliance. This study shows the need of continued studies within this subject because of the lack of studies regarding healthcare workers approach to the guidelines and what effect it can have on improving compliance.

  • 992.
    Asplund, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Resiliens i stadsutveckling: En kvalitativ jämförelse mellan teori och kommunal planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We face a number of uncertainties, challenges and risks, known and unknown, many of which are linked to global changes. Urban development must be planned to become sustainable in the long term despite future changes and to succeed, planning must handle uncertainties. The current view of sustainability has resulted in a planning ideal that strives for sustainability as a vision of an ideal structure and design. The research on resilience question this by asking how something static can be sustainable in the face of uncertainties and future changes. The work towards sustainability must focus on increasing the capacity of cities to be resilient. Cities which are resilient have the capacity to adapt to future changes while retaining the same function, structure and identity.

    Näringen is an existing industrial area in Gävle which has been designated suitable for a larger urban development exploitation project. The study aims to investigate how resilience is incorporated into the planning and development process of Näringen. The study compared Gävle municipality's intentions and ambitions for the development of Näringen in relation to theoretical principles for increased resilience in urban environment. The comparison between theory and practice was done through a qualitative content analysis of policy documents and interviews with two officials.

    The findings show that the intentions and ambitions of Gävle municipality in some ways are in line with the principles for increased resilience in cities but miss important aspects within the principles. The municipality strives for novel and innovative ways of planning which the principles for resilience can contribute with. One problem which can lead to reduced sustainability and resilience is that socio-economic prerequisites and conditions are prioritized over natural geographical ones.

    Implementation of the principles in municipal planning is not easily achieved in all situations because the principles in some respects overlap depending on the scale. Gävle Municipality's view of sustainability is also not in line with the approach that the research of resilience advocates, that we all live and operate in complex social-ecological systems. Resilience deals with complex theories and attempts to implement resilience principles without an understanding for the complexity of systems can lead to an unsuccessful outcome. The resilience principle adaptive planning holds the potential for continuous learning about social-ecological systems and is considered the principle that should be prioritized in planning for sustainability through resilience.

  • 993.
    Asplund, Adrian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Persson, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förändrad lagerlayout för ökad leveranssäkerhet: En fallstudie med hänsyn till den faktiska efterfrågan på Smurfit Kappa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of the safety stock is to compensate customers uncertain forecasts. The task of operations is to be able to cover up customers fluctuations in demand. By being able to maintain a stable and competition strong delivery performance results in a safety stock to be used, however, it entails tied-up capital. The case the company has an ambition to produce larger quantities and then store it on an external warehouse that the authors have chosen to call the safety stock.  

    Purpose: The problem of actual demand is that research questions usually take into account normal demand. By trying to fill the knowledge gap, we arrive at this purpose. The purpose is to investigate how actual demand influences the design of stock layout in order to achieve the desired delivery reliability.

    Method: To be able to answer the purpose and our questions, an abductive approach has been used where theory collection has taken place from literature and articles while empirical data is collected from the case company Smurfit Kappa. During the collection of empiricism, interviews and observations have been carried out. The collected findings have been discussed with the theory to answer the purpose and questions and lead to our conclusions.

    Findings: In the current situation, the case produces the company only against client orders and that there are no products in stock. This will result in delivery times of between 8 – 9 weeks and delivery security. An existing surface is available today to create a safety layer, there is also the possibility of a larger space if desired.

    Conclusion: With a safety stock, the case company will be able to deliver the actual demand while reducing its delivery times and increasing delivery reliability.

     

    Keywords: safety stock, demand, external inventory.

  • 994.
    Asplund, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle.
    Laine, Linda
    University of Gävle.
    Liljeroth, Veronica
    University of Gävle.
    Att läsa och lära på distans!: vilka möjligheter ger den nya tekniken?2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna skrift är ett delresultat av det IT-projekt vid Högskolan i Gävle (HiG), som arbetat med IT och distansutbildning. Projektet har varit verksamt under 1997-2000 och finansierats av KK-stiftelsen, Länsstyrelsen i Gävleborg, EU (Sociala fonden) samt av HiG. Projektets syfte har varit att, via Internet, driva utvecklingen av distansutbildning framåt. Internetbaserade lösningar för förmedling av digital information öppnar ständigt nya möjligheter för både distansstudenten och den lärare som undervisar på distans. Huvudmålet har varit att tillgängliggöra de nya verktygen för genomförande och distribution av distansundervisning. Vi har haft som delmål att sprida erfarenheter och reflektioner gjorda i projektet. I denna skrift har vi samlat tankar och idéer från lärare och andra engagerade i projektet. Skriften är ett sätt för oss att nå ut till dig som på något sätt kommer, eller har kommit, i kontakt med distansundervisning i någon form. Vi vill på detta sätt dela med oss av vårt arbete.

    Vår förhoppning är att inspirera Dig, som av olika skäl inte har möjlighet att studera på traditionellt sätt, att studera på distans, och till Dig som undervisar på högskola eller universitet hoppas vi kunna vara en källa till att väcka nya idéer för skapande av en mer flexibel undervisning.

    Vi har varit många personer som deltagit i projektet på ett eller annat sätt. Många erfarenheter har gjorts och ofta har det legat mycket vilja, iver och entusiasm bakom våra resultat. Utan hänförda projektdeltagare hade inte denna skrift blivit av överhuvudtaget. Jag vill härmed rikta ett stort TACK till alla Er som arbetet i projektet under den här tiden!

  • 995.
    Asplund, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Löwling Helmerskog, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Marknadsföring genom att skapa upplevelser i köpcentrum2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 996.
    Asplund, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Medarbetare i en målstyrd organisation – hur upplever de styrformen?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att öka förståelsen för hur medarbetare uppfattar den styrning de utsätts för. Förståelsen ska sedan bidra till att ledare ska kunna utveckla verksamhetsstyrningen inom liknande organisationer och på ett bättre sätt kunna nå de mål de satt upp och kunna utveckla dessa vidare och bli effektivare.

    Arbetet är genomfört med en inkännande och tolkande vetenskapssyn ur ett aktörrsynsätt. En hermeneutisk tolkningsmetod är använd för att uppnå syftet med arbetet. Genomförandet av arbetet är baserat på en kvalitativ metod, där en fallstudie med intervjuer utförts.

    Slutsatsen i studien är att medarbetarna uppfattar generellt målstyrningen som ett bra sätt att arbeta utifrån i sitt dagliga arbete. Men genom de negativa tankar de förmedlat har jag kommit fram till att det finns en fallgrop i att ha många system som styr parallellt. Systemen är bra i sig själva, men medarbetarna upplever en stress genom de krockar som uppstår dem emellan. Medarbetarna visar även att de inte upplever att de påverkar i så stor utsträckning som de faktiskt gör vilket organisationen måste arbeta fram bättre sätt för att förmedla så att medarbetarna känner sig sedda och på så vis gör ett ännu bättre arbete än de redan gör.

  • 997.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Gustafsson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Empowerment - Ett framgångskoncept?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vårt syfte med detta arbete är att ge en inblick i hur empowerment som styrkoncept fungerar i praktiken. Detta undersöker vi för att nuvarande och framtida ledare ska få en bättre förståelse för empowerment och de effekter som uppstår när det används, för att kunna bidra till att de får större nytta av konceptet i framtiden. En hermeneutisk tolkningsmetod är använd för att uppnå det syfte vi har med arbetet. Genomförandet av arbetet är baserat på en kvalitativ metod, där en fallstudie med fem intervjuer utförts. Då arbetet kommit fram till ändpunkten har vi fått en förståelse för att de medarbetare i en organisation som använder empowerment som styrkoncept till största del ser på konceptet så positivt som teorierna säger om det. Vi ser att det är av stor vikt att organisationer ser till helheten i konceptet för att det ska ge de positiva effekter som det sägs ge. Denna helhet vill vi påpeka ser olika ut i alla organisationer beroende på vilka individer som finns i den samt hur organisationens andra förutsättningar ser ut.

  • 998.
    Asplund, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete: Nyckelpersonsintervjustudie om uppfattning kring arbetsmiljöarbete, lönsamhet och prioriteringar på en arbetsplats2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asplund, L (2007). Systematic Work Environment Management: Key Informant Interviews about Apprehensions, Priorities and Profitability. Examination paper in Pedagogy, 15 hp. Master’s Programme. University College of Gävle. Department of Education, Curriculum Studies and Psychology.

    Background

    Every fourth Swedish employee has been found to suffer from some form of work-related ill-health. Legislation, termed Systematic Management of Workplace Environments (SAM), has been enacted to promote optimal physical and psychosocial workplace environments. Em-ployers are obliged to follow the regulations issued by the Swedish Work Environment Au-thority [Arbetetsmiljöverket] and are responsible for operating active workplace environ-ment management plans. Such plans can prevent ill-health and, in some cases, increase the company’s profitability.

    Purpose

    A medium-sized, retail trade company from in central Sweden was chosen in order to study and analyze how systematic workplace management environment practices were imple-mented in relation to other management priorities and company profitability.

    Sample

    The key informants were chosen out of the personal manager who was the first contact on the company. Seven key informants, selected on the basis of their knowledge of their com-pany's Systematic Work Environment Management, participated in the study. An additional key informant was later chosen to validate the results. The informant composition was: three informants from middle management, with 5 to 7 years experience of the company, one supervisor (1 year), and three other members of staff (2 and 3 years.) Six qualitative in-terviews were carried out, within the period of one week, in the interviewees' offices. The validating interview was undertaken 4 weeks later, also on the company’s premises.

    Design and methods

    The company specialized in retail furniture. Non-structured interviews, based on an inter-view guide with 11 open-ended questions, were used. The interviews, lasting about 30 mi-nutes each, were recorded and transcribed. Statements were analyzed for notable differ-ences, similarities, themes and patterns. The statements were then categorized and sub-jected to further analysis.

    Results

    All the informants felt that the company’s actual practice met the work environment stipula-tions and was on-going. They agreed that workplace environment in general is considered an important issue, but that the company could probably do more to meet the intentions of the work environment legislation. Two specific focal points appeared in the results: ergo-nomic improvement in the workplace and the informants’ aspiration to implement and de-velop a system of caring telephone calls to employees absent through illness.

    Conclusions

    Management was seen as giving contradictory signals. On the one hand they say that work environment is active and ongoing and on the other hand agree that not enough is being done. The expression of intent does not appear to be matched by actions. Improved educa-tion in systematic workplace environment management would give employees a better un-derstanding of work environment and how systematic workplace management is supposed to operate. The analysis of the informants' suggestions led to a series of proposals for im-provements in workplace environment management strategies. A new plan for employee participation would involve employees being more directly and actively involved with work environment and increase support for the work of the safety representatives.

    Keywords:

    Systematic Management of Workplace Environments, health and safety codes, profitability, employee participation, muscular-skeletal, psychosocial working envi-ronment, health promotion

  • 999.
    Asplund, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner kring fysisk aktivitet på recept och motiverande samtal för att främja patientens fysiska aktivitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1000.
    Asplund, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Andersson, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    “Är du inte redo nu så står vi här, polisen finns kvar...”: En diskursanalytisk studie om polisens arbete med våld i nära relation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of our study was to identify existing discourses of violence in close

    relationships based on investigators' reasoning within the police in order to visualize its

    consequences in the next step. The method chosen was of a qualitative nature, interviews

    were held with three investigators from a medium-sized city in Sweden. The material was

    then processed using a discourse analysis inspired by Foucault, as well as previous

    research on the subject. Three discourses were identified which were the discourse of

    gender, the normalization process and the attitude to theoretical knowledge. The result of

    the study shows that the investigators' attitude towards theoretical knowledge is something

    that affects their work in different ways, which may adventure the fact that investigators'

    work is based on unreliable knowledge.

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