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  • 951.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Effects of aircraft noise and speech on prose memory: What role for working memory capacity?2010In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that aircraft noise and meaningful background speech are particularly detrimental to school adolescents’ ability to remember what they read, but until now the effects from aircraft noise and speech have never been compared directly in an experiment. Furthermore, individual differences in susceptibility to these effects are not well understood. The present investigation addressed these two issues. Adolescents attending upper secondary school were recruited as participants and the data collection was made in their ordinary classrooms. The results from two experiments revealed that speech is more detrimental to prose memory than is aircraft noise, and individual differences in working memory capacity contributes more to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of aircraft noise on prose memory than to the effects of speech. Some applied implications of those findings to noise abatement interventions are suggested.

  • 952.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Grand challenges in environmental psychology2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the grand challenges in environmental psychology. Environmental psychology is the subdiscipline of psychological science that deals with psychological processes engaged in encounters between people and the built and natural environment. Global climate change is currently one of society's grand challenges. The current anthropogenic global warming is coupled with an exponential human population growth that is placing tremendous demands on agricultural and natural resources. Environmental psychology will have to confront a range of theoretical, methodological and conceptual challenges. These include applying knowledge from cognitive psychology-on memory, attention, perception and performance, -to classic questions in environmental psychology,such as how natural environments can facilitate restoration from attentional fatigue; how brain imaging method scan be employed to address how the human brain interacts with the built and natural environment; and how evolutionary perspectives can inform environmental design.

  • 953.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    High and low working memory capacity individuals are equally distracted by surprise2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 954.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    High working memory capacity attenuates the deviation effect but not the changing-state effect: Further support for the duplex-mechanism account of auditory distraction2010In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 651-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serial short-term memory is impaired by background sound, at least when a sound element suddenly deviates from an otherwise repetitive sequence (the deviation effect) and when each sound element in the sequence differs from the preceding one (the changing-state effect). Two competing theories have been proposed to explain these effects: One suggests that both effects are caused by the same mechanism (i.e., attentional resources being depleted by the sound), and the other suggests that the deviation effect is caused by attentional capture and that the changingstate effect is caused by interference between order processes. The present investigation found that working memory capacity predicts susceptibility to the deviation effect, but not to the changing-state effect, both when speech items (Experiment 1) and when tones (Experiment 2) produce the disruption. These results suggest that the two effects are caused by different mechanisms and support the duplex-mechanism account of auditory distraction.

  • 955.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    On interpretation and task selection in studies on the effects of noise on cognitive performance2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 1249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses two things researchers should consider when selecting tasks for cognitive noise studies and interpreting their findings: (a) The “process impurity” problem and (b) the propensity of sound to capture attention. Theoretical and methodological problems arise when the effects of noise on complex tasks (e.g., reading comprehension) are interpreted as reflecting an impairment of a specific cognitive process/system/skill. One reason for this is that complex tasks are, by definition, process impure (i.e., they involve several, distinct cognitive processes/systems/skills). Another reason is that sound can capture attention. When sound captures attention, the impairment to task scores is caused by an interruption, not by malfunctioning cognitive processes/systems/skills. Selecting more “process pure” tasks (e.g., the Stroop task) is not a solution to these problems. On the contrary, it introduces further problems with generalizability and representativeness. It is argued that cognitive noise researchers should employ representative noise, representative tasks (which are necessarily complex/process impure), and interpret the results on a behavioral level of analysis rather than on a cognitive level of analysis.

  • 956.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    On interpretation and task selection: the sub-component hypothesis of cognitive noise effects2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 1598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often argued that the effects of noise on a “complex ability” (e.g., reading, writing, calculation) can be explained by the impairment noise causes to some ability (e.g., working memory) upon which the complex ability depends. Because of this, tasks that measure “sub-component abilities” (i.e., those abilities upon which complex abilities depend) are often deemed sufficient in cognitive noise studies, even when the primary interest is to understand the effects of noise as they arise in applied settings (e.g., offices and schools). This approach can be called the “sub-component hypothesis of cognitive noise effects.” The present paper discusses two things that are troublesome for this approach: difficulties with interpretation and generalizability. A complete understanding of the effects of noise on complex abilities requires studying the complex ability itself. Cognitive noise researches must, therefore, employ tasks that mimic the tasks that are actually carried out in the applied setting to which the results are intended to be generalized.Tasks that measure “sub-component abilities” may be complementary, but should not be given priority in applied cognitive research.

  • 957.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    On interpretation of the effects of noise on cognitive performance: the fallacy of confusing the definition of an effect with the explanation of that effect2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 958.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ringsignaler, plötsliga skrik och slamrande dörrar: varför störs vi av det?2010In: Forskning, no 3, p. 46-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 959.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Role of Working Memory Capacity in Auditory Distraction2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 960.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The role of working memory capacity in auditory distraction: A review2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 217-224Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to review the current knowledge on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of noise on cognition. The literature indicates that at least two functionally different cognitive mechanisms underlie those differences; one is the efficiency by which people process the order between perceptually discrete sound events and the other is related to working memory capacity. The first mechanism seems to be involved only when disruption is a function of conflicting order processes, whereas the other mechanism is involved in a wider range of phenomena including those when attentional capture and conflicting semantic processes form the basis of disruption. Because of this, noise abatement interventions should first of all be directed towards people with poor working memory capacity. Implications for theories of auditory distraction are discussed.

  • 961.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Concentration: the neural underpinnings of how cognitive load shields against distraction2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether cognitive load and other aspects of task difficulty increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information which decreases distractibility as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

  • 962.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden; Technical Audiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing2015In: Abstract book: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication 14–17 June 2015 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Maria Hugo-Lindén, 2015, p. 62-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long lasting debate in selective attention research revolves around the issue of whether irrelevant information is filtered at an early/perceptual processing stage or at a late/cognitive processing stage. Another long lasting debate concerns whether selective attention depends on a single, multi-purpose processing resource or whether it depends on several, independent processing resources. As a reaction to both debates, we have proposed a unified view of attention (Sörqvist, Stenfelt, & Rönnberg, 2012) whereby central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing. Moreover, the unified view of attention embodies a domain-general processing resource – called working memory capacity – that determines people’s capability for attentional/cognitive engagement. Here, we will present data from a recent experiment designed to critically examine this model. Participants undertook a visual-verbal version of the n-back task in various taskdifficulty conditions. Cortical processing of a background sound was measured with an fMRI protocol and individual differences in working memory capacity were measured with a package of three complex-span tasks. Our hypothesis is that higher task difficulty (in the n-back task) will be associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity and decreased auditory-temporal activity. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect should be related to individual differences in working memory capacity.

  • 963.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hansla, André
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    An eco-label effect in the built environment: Performance and comfort effects of labeling a light source environmentally friendly2015In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 42, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People tend to idealize eco-labeled products, but can eco-labeling have consequences for performance? To address this question, 48 university students were asked to undertake a color discrimination task adjacent to a desktop lamp that was either labeled “environmentally friendly” or “conventional” (although they were identical). The light of the lamp labeled “environmentally friendly” was rated as more comfortable. Notably, task performance was also better when the lamp was labeled “environmentally friendly”. Individual differences in environmental concern, but not pro-environmental consumer behavior and social desirability indexes, were related to the magnitude of the eco-label effect on performance. Whilst some previous studies have shown similar placebo-like effects of eco-labels on subjective ratings, this is the first study to show an eco-label effect for artifacts in the built environment on performance, and the first study to relate this effect to environmental concern. Psychological mechanisms that may underpin the eco-label effects are discussed.

  • 964.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Wallinder, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Seager, Paul
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire.
    The green halo: Mechanisms and limits of the eco-label effect2015In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 43, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumers believe that “eco-labeled” products taste better, which, at least in part, may be an effect of the label. The purpose of the current series of experiments was to examine some mechanisms and limits of this eco-label effect. In Experiment 1, an eco-label effect of similar magnitude was found for taste ratings of both conventional and organic bananas. Experiment 2 showed eco-label effects for a wider range of judgmental dimensions (i.e., health, calories, vitamins/minerals, mental performance, and willingness to pay) and the effect was about the same in magnitude for judgments of grapes and raisins. Experiment 3, with water as the tasted product, found no eco-label effect on judgments of taste, calories and vitamins/minerals, but an effect on willingness to pay, judgments of health benefits and judgments of mental performance benefits. Experiments 2 and 3 also included questionnaires on social desirability traits, schizotypal traits and pro-environmental consumer traits. The last was the strongest predictor of the eco-label effect amongst the three. In all, the eco-label effect is a robust phenomenon, but depends on interactions between product type and judgmental dimension. Implications for several accounts of the effect are discussed.

  • 965.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 966.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Home advantage in chess2013In: Journal of Sport Behavior, ISSN 0162-7341, Vol. 36, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 967.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hedblom, Daniel
    The University of Chicago.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kågström, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Who needs cream and sugar when there is eco-labeling?: Taste and willingness to pay for 'eco-friendly' coffee2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. e80719-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 968.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköping University.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköping University; Dalarna University.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University.
    High second-language proficiency protects against the effects of reverberation on listening comprehension2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether classroom reverberation influences second-language (L2) listening comprehension. Moreover, we investigated whether individual differences in baseline L2 proficiency and in working memory capacity (WMC) modulate the effect of reverberation time on L2 listening comprehension. The results showed that L2 listening comprehension decreased as reverberation time increased. Participants with higher baseline L2 proficiency were less susceptible to this effect. WMC was also related to the effect of reverberation (although just barely significant), but the effect of WMC was eliminated when baseline L2 proficiency was statistically controlled. Taken together, the results suggest that top-down cognitive capabilities support listening in adverse conditions. Potential implications for the Swedish national tests in English are discussed.

  • 969.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Bullerintervention: vem tjänar mest på åtgärder?2010In: Audionytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 970.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Glorification of eco-labeled objects: An effect of intrinsic or social desirability?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally friendly consumables and products are often perceived as superior to their conventional counterparts. The reason for this, at least in part, is that people tend to glorify eco-labeled objects. For example, people prefer the taste of coffee called “eco-friendly” in comparison with another cup of coffee called “conventional”, even when the two cups of coffee are actually identical and merely named differently. What is the underlying mechanism of this eco-label effect? Do people report superior evaluations of eco-labeled products for intrinsic reasons or because they think this attitude is approved by others (a social desirability mechanism)? In two experiments, the participants’ concerns with social desirability were manipulated by telling them that their taste judgments of consumables were monitored by others. The eco-label effect was just as strong in the high social desirability concerns condition as in a control condition (Experiments 1 and 2). However, the eco-label effect was stronger in magnitude for participants who were told that consumers are morally responsible for the environmental consequences of their consumer behavior (Experiment 2). Taken together, the eco-label effect appears to be caused by intrinsic desirability processes, not by social desirability processes.

  • 971.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Women Assimilate across Gender, Men Don’t: The Role of Gender to the Own-Anchor Effect in Age, Height and Weight Estimates2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 1733-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports two studies of the own-anchor effect (i.e., assimilation in age, height and weight estimates) in same- and cross-gender age, height and weight estimates. The own-anchor effect is believed to be stronger for same-gender estimates, but the investigation reported here is the first to test this hypothesis with participants and target persons of both genders. Several own-anchor effects were found in females’ same- and cross-gender estimates, whereas males only showed own-anchor effects in same-gender estimates. These results lean towards the possibility that women assimilate across gender, whereas men do not. Explanations of these results with reference to Krueger’s theory of social projection and the consequences for witness reliability are discussed.

  • 972.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, U.K.
    Social desirability does not underpin the eco-label effect on product judgments2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What reason underpins why people say they prefer eco-labeled over conventional products during direct perceptual comparison? One possibility is that there is no difference in the perceptual experience of the products; the participants just say there is because they wish to gain other’s approval. In this paper, we tested this social desirability account of the eco-label effect by requesting participants to judge grapes that were in truth identical but labeled “eco-friendly” and “conventional” respectively. The eco-label effects were similar in magnitude for an impression management condition (participants were told that their responses were monitored) and a no-instructions control condition, but greater in a moral-instructions condition (the participants were told, amongst other things, that conventional agriculture is harmful). The experiment suggests that people do not say that they prefer eco-labeled products because they seek other’s approval. Social motives may underpin reasons to purchase “green” products at the grocery store, but social motives are not the direct cause of the eco-label effect on the perceptual experience of the products.

  • 973.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    A sub-process view of working memory capacity: Evidence from effects of speech on prose memory2010In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 310-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we outline a "sub-process view" of working memory capacity (WMC). This view suggests that any relationship between WMC and another construct (e.g., reading comprehension) is actually a relationship with a specific part of the WMC construct. The parts, called sub-processes, are functionally distinct and can be measured by intrusion errors in WMC tasks. Since the sub-processes are functionally distinct, some sub-process may be related to a certain phenomenon, whereas another sub-process is related to other phenomena. In two experiments we show that a sub-process (measured by immediate/current-list intrusions) is related to the effects of speech on prose memory (semantic auditory distraction), whereas another sub-process (measured by delayed/prior-list intrusions), known for its contribution to reading comprehension, is not. In Experiment 2 we developed a new WMC task called "size-comparison span" and found that the relationship between WMC and semantic auditory distraction is actually a relationship with a sub-process measured by current-list intrusions in our new task.

  • 974.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire.
    How concentration shields against distraction2015In: Current directions in psychological science (Print), ISSN 0963-7214, E-ISSN 1467-8721, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 267-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we outline our view of how concentration shields against distraction. We argue that higher levels of concentration make people less susceptible to distraction for two reasons. One reason is that the undesired processing of the background environment is reduced. For example, when people play a difficult video game, as opposed to an easy game, they are less likely to notice what people in the background are saying. The other reason is that the locus of attention becomes more steadfast. For example, when people are watching an entertaining episode of their favorite television series, as opposed to a less absorbing show, attention is less likely to be diverted away from the screen by a ringing telephone. The theoretical underpinnings of this perspective, and potential implications for applied settings, are addressed.

  • 975.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    How concentration shields against distraction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 976.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hulme, Rebecca
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Seager, Paul B.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Effects of labeling a product eco-friendly and genetically modified: A cross-cultural comparison for estimates of taste, willingness to pay and health consequences2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand for eco-friendly food—produced without pesticides and environmentally harmful chemicals—increases, the need to develop genetically modified (GM) organisms that are more resistant to parasites and other environmental crop threats may increase. Because of this, products labeled both “eco-friendly” and “genetically modified” could become commonly available on the market. In this paper, we explore—in a Swedish and a UK sample—the consequences of combining eco-labeling and GM-labeling to judgments of taste, health consequences and willingness to pay for raisins. Participants tasted and evaluated four categories of raisins (eco-labeled and GM-labeled; eco-labeled; GM-labeled; and neither eco-labeled nor GM-labeled). The results suggest that there is a cost associated with adding a GM-label to an eco-labeled product: The GM-label removes the psychological benefits of the eco-label. This negative effect of the GM-label was larger among Swedish participants in comparison with UK participants, because the magnitude of the positive effect of the eco-label was larger in the Swedish sample and, hence, the negative effects of the GM-label became more pronounced. The pattern was somewhat different depending on judgmental dimension. The cost associated with adding a GM-label was larger in estimates of taste and health than in estimates of willingness to pay, at least for the Swedish sample. The roles of individual differences in attitudes, environmental concern and socially desirable responding in relation to the label effects are discussed.

  • 977.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Marsh, John
    Cardiff University.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hemispheric asymmetries in auditory distraction2010In: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 978.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linköping University.
    Marsh, John
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    High working memory capacity does not always attenuate distraction: Bayesian evidence in support of the null hypothesis2013In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 897-904Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) predict individual differences in basically all tasks that demand some form of cognitive labor, especially if the persons conducting the task are exposed to distraction. As such, tasks that measure WMC are very useful tools in individual-differences research. However, the predictive power of those tasks, combined with conventional statistical tools that cannot support the null hypothesis, also makes it difficult to study the limits of that power. In this article, we review studies that have failed to find a relationship between WMC and effects of auditory distraction on visual-verbal cognitive performance, and use meta-analytic Bayesian statistics to test the null hypothesis. The results favor the assumption that individual differences in WMC are, in fact, not (always) related to the magnitude of distraction. Implications for the nature of WMC are discussed.

  • 979.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Disruption of writing processes by the semanticity of background speech2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have noted that writing processes are impaired by task-irrelevant background sound. However, what makes sound distracting to writing processes has remained unaddressed. The experiment reported here investigated whether the semanticity of irrelevant speech contributes to disruption of writing processes beyond the acoustic properties of the sound. The participants wrote stories against a background of normal speech, spectrally-rotated speech (i.e., a meaningless sound with marked acoustic resemblance to speech) or silence. Normal speech impaired quantitative (e.g., number of characters produced) and qualitative/semantic (e.g., uncorrected typing errors, proposition generation) aspects of the written material, in comparison with the other two sound conditions, and it increased the duration of pauses between words. No difference was found between the silent and the rotated-speech condition. These results suggest that writing is susceptible to disruption from the semanticity of speech but not especially susceptible to disruption from the acoustic properties of speech.

  • 980.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm2012In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habituation of the orienting response is a pivotal part of selective attention, and previous research has related working memory capacity (WMC) to attention control. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in WMC contribute to habituation rate. The participants categorized visual targets across six blocks of trials. Each target was preceded either by a standard sound or, on rare trials, by a deviant. The magnitude of the deviation effect (i.e., prolonged response time when the deviant was presented) was relatively large in the beginning but attenuated toward the end. There was no relationship between WMC and the deviation effect at the beginning, but there was at the end, and greater WMC was associated with greater habituation. These results indicate that high memory ability increases habituation rate, and they support theories proposing a role for cognitive control in habituation and in some forms of auditory distraction.

  • 981.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse masked by speech: What is the role for working memory capacity?2012In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech.

    Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Rönnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sörqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual differences in WMC. Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse was measured by requesting participants to listen to stories masked either by normal speech or by a rotated version of that speech and to subsequently answer questions on the content of the stories.

    Results: Normal speech impaired performance on the episodic long-term memory test, and both WMC tasks were negatively related to this effect, indicating that individuals with high WMC are less susceptible to disruption. Moreover, further analyses revealed that size-comparison span (a task that requires resolution of semantic confusion by inhibition processes) is a stronger predictor of the effect than is reading span.

    Conclusions: Cognitive control processes support listening in adverse conditions. In particular, inhibition processes acting to resolve semantic confusion seem to underlie the relationship between WMC and susceptibility to distraction from masking speech.

  • 982.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Individual differences in distractibility: an update and a model2014In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the current literature on individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of background sound on visual-verbal task performance. A large body of evidence suggests that individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) underpin individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction in most tasks and contexts. Specifically, high WMC is associated with a more steadfast locus of attention (thus overruling the call for attention that background noise may evoke) and a more constrained auditory-sensory gating (i.e., less processing of the background sound). The relation between WMC and distractibility is a general framework that may also explain distractibility differences between populations that differ along variables that covary with WMC (such as age, developmental disorders, and personality traits). A neurocognitive task-engagement/distraction trade-off (TEDTOFF) model that summarizes current knowledge is outlined and directions for future research are proposed.

  • 983.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Memory of spoken discourse masked by speech2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 528-531Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 984.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Memory of spoken discourse masked by speech2011In:  , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 985.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Working memory capacity and visual-verbal cognitive load modulate auditory-sensory gating in the brainstem: Toward a unified view of attention2012In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 2147-2154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two fundamental research questions have driven attention research in the past: One concerns whether selection of relevant information among competing, irrelevant, information takes place at an early or at a late processing stage; the other concerns whether the capacity of attention is limited by a central, domain-general pool of resources or by independent, modality-specific pools. In this article, we contribute to these debates by showing that the auditory-evoked brainstem response (an early stage of auditory processing) to task-irrelevant sound decreases as a function of central working memory load (manipulated with a visual-verbal version of the n-back task). Furthermore, individual differences in central/domain-general working memory capacity modulated the magnitude of the auditory-evoked brainstem response, but only in the high working memory load condition. The results support a unified view of attention whereby the capacity of a late/central mechanism (working memory) modulates early precortical sensory processing.

  • 986.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sætrevik, Bjørn
    Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    The Neural Basis of Updating: Distinguishing Substitution Processes from Other Concurrent Processes2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 357-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies of updating processes have not been able to contrast processes of substituting items in memory with other concurrent processes. In the present investigation, we used a new task called “number updating” and an fMRI protocol to contrast the activation of trials that require item substitution (adding a new item to the working memory representation and suppressing an old item) with trials that involve no substitution (discarding the new item). Trials that require item substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, areas typically seen activated for working memory tasks in general. Trials that do not require substitution activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Studies examining executive functions have associated this area with cognitive conflict, and may represent suppression of the substitution processes.

  • 987.
    Taghi, Karimipanah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    The confinement effects on jet kinetic momentum flux quantified by measuring the reaction force2014In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 285-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A turbulent jet is the most important flow element in mechanical ventilation. Mixing ventilation is basedon the properties of turbulent jets. By entrainment into the jet the ambient air is set into motion. For ajet supplied within a room the enclosure may affect the jet in several ways, through: a) Coanda effect which is the tendency of a fluid to be attracted to a nearby surface. A free jet is turned into a wall jet and the momentum flux of the jet decreases by friction against the room surfaces.b) The jet collides with the opposing wall and the jet is transformed into a wall jet. c) The size of the cross sectional area relative to the supply opening will affect the flow pattern withinthe enclosure. One can expect the direction of the inflow (entrainment) to the jet to be affected. d) Location of supply and extract. The location of the supply is a factor that influences the pressure gradient within the room. This paper considers the items b), c) and d). The main characteristic of a jet is its momentum flux, but determining the momentum flux is not an easy task and has lead to contradicting results. Standard methods require velocity field measurements which have their restrictions and uncertainties. To overcome these problems a direct and more reliable method was used by recording the flow force, caused by an impinging jet, with a digital balance. Thetests were carried out both for unenclosed (free jet) and enclosed cases. In the latter case tests were conducted with supply and extract both located on the same wall and located on opposite walls. Detailed pressure measurements were conducted to describe the details of the reaction force. There was a clear effect of the confinement on the reaction force and a Reynolds number dependence.

  • 988.
    Tang, Yunmo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    The current situation of high-altitude wind power2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the use of renewable energy sources is obviously. But what the problem confused us, is that renewable energy unlike the fossil fuel have such high energy density which means the renewable generally was dispersed form. In other words, in order to obtain amount of the energy we need, require to exploitation a wider cover area. Therefore, scientists and companies are struggling to find high densely renewable energy as possible, which is high altitude wind energy, have very promising but not developed so much by humans. High altitude wind power is indicating the altitude between 3000 meters and 10000 meters. So far, high altitude wind power is a new renewable energy that basically not development or utilization yet, but which is an abundant reserves. High altitude wind power is a widely distributed renewable clean energy. The characterized of high-altitude wind energy is fast speed, wide distribution, high stability and perennial. Utilize high-altitude wind power can get high stability with low cost of wind power generation, which is one of the notable features for high-altitude wind power, but also is one of the most significant advantages for high-altitude wind energy compared to conventional wind energy. High altitude wind power generation equipment is more compact and flexible, far superior then the traditional fan, which equip with thick blades and the tower must be fixed in the depths of the ocean or in the ground.To development renewable power in a large scale, to face the global climate change, achieve the sustainable development become the inevitable for human development. How to solve the energy shortage problem has become an important question, harness high altitude wind power was becomes the focus of multinational technology.

  • 989.
    Tapper, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energisimulering för optimala förhållanden för fritidshus: Simulering genomförd med IDA ICE2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 990.
    Tchuidjang Tchouaha, Sebastien
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hydropower in Cameroon2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 991.
    Teodorsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Subkulturens lagliga väggar: En designprocess mot felhantering av gasfyllda sprayburkar på allmän plats2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With graffiti’s advancement in Stockholm recent years, there has occurred to be a problem regarding the handling of graffiti spray cans. The problem consists spray cans containing paint and gas, but thrown into public trash bins, although classified as hazardous waste. This report shows a design process that develops a concept to simplify when handling the cans. Through discussion with stakeholders and law research this process strives to come up with the design solutions for a trashcan to puncture the cans in place where they were used. A spray can that is punctured is classified as metal waste instead of hazardous waste and this is a solution to the problem that exists today with all the rules to deal with regarding hazardous waste. This master thesis is limited to the study of a place and complies with the rules and laws that apply there. The place that examines in this master thesis is the legal graffiti wall in Tantolunden in southern Stockholm.

  • 992.
    Tesfaye, Feleke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Department of Energy Technology.
    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CASTOR BIODIESEL AND PETRO DIESEL BLENDS WITH DIETHYLEETHER ADDITIVE2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this research was pointed at exploring technical feasibility of castor biodiesel with and without diethyl ether additives in direct injection compression ignition engines without any substantial hardware modifications. In this work, the methyl ester of castor oil with and without additives was investigated for its performance as a diesel engine fuel. Fatty acid methyl ester was produced via transesterification process using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst and purified castor oil which is extracted from the castor seed was used.

     

    To obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel that comply the specification of standard methods, some important variables such as reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil and mass weight of catalyst were selected and studied. At the following optimum conditions; 60 °C of reaction temperature, 6:1 methanol to castor oil molar ratio, 1% catalyst concentration wt/wt%, reaction time of 90 minutes and 600 rpm agitating speed, an optimum fatty acid methyl ester yield of 92.08% was obtained, indicating that potassium hydroxide has the potential as a catalyst for the production of fatty acid methyl ester from castor oil.

     

    The fuel samples were prepared by blending castor ethyl ester with diesel in the composition of B0, B10, B15, B20, B10DEE5, B15DEE5, and B20DEE5. Moreover, after preparation of the tested fuels only the kinematic viscosity were measured and the measured results were changed. For instance, kinematic viscosity changes in percent were 23.5%, 22.5% and 18.7% for B10DEE5, B15DEE5 and B20DEE5 respectively.

     

    The performance parameters evaluated were break thermal efficiency (B.Th.), torque and power. The results of experimental investigation with biodiesel blends were compared with that of methyl ester and baseline diesel. The results indicate that the torque percentage variation of fuels with DEE additive increase with increase engine speed, this shows the percentage change of torque at lower speed is small, because even though the fuel has higher viscosity than B0 it has sufficient combustion time. At higher engine speed the percentage torque variation is higher; this is due to the high reciprocating motion of the piston the fuel cannot get sufficient time to be evaporated and combusted due to pure atomization.

     

    The comparing power percentage difference between fuel with and without DEE to the neat diesel fuel, with DEE is less power difference than without DEE, this is due to DEE the fuel has less viscosity than without DEE, this increase atomization of fuel to easily burn in the combustion chamber.

     

    The BSFC percentage difference which is compared to fuels with and without DEE to the neat diesel fuel,from this figures the difference between diesel fuel and with DEE adding fuel is smaller than without DEE fuels, this is due to DEE the fuel is atomized and easly burned this decreased the fuel consumption.   Furthermore, a single cylinder compression ignition engine was operated successfully using ethyl ester of castor oil as the soul fuel with acceptable performance.

  • 993.
    Thenabadu, Malkanthi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Anaerobic digestion of food and market waste; Waste characterization, Bio methane potential and Bio reactor design: a Case study in Sri Lanka2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion is the process that generates the biogas. This process can be used successfully to treat municipal organic solid wastes and kitchen waste to produce valuable end products, such as methane gas and fertilizer.

    This research aimed at finding out how a large scale market place in Ratmalana, a city close to capital, Sri Lanka can successfully utilize its organic waste as opposed to land filling or dumping. The study specifically aimed at determination of composition and characterization of waste produced over a season followed by possibility of biogas generation using anaerobic digestion process for the use in a nearby University restaurant.

     The study revealed  that the composition of the market waste as follows; vegetable wastes  45%, fruit wastes    35% , packing materials 15% and restaurant waste/food waste 3%, The materials in the form of stones, plastics, wood etc. was less than 1.3 % of the waste quantity. Total average waste production per day was around 1 ton. The average pH value, percentage of water present, percentage of solids and percentage of volatiles present in fruits and vegetable were   6.38, 92%, 8.08% and 6.18% respectively. 

    BiomethanePotential (BMP) in respect to fruit and vegetable waste and Food waste were found to be 0.3 and 0.56 m3 CH4/kg respectively.    The biodegradability of fruit and vegetable waste and food waste were calculated as be 59.3%, 83.6%, respectively.

    According to characteristics and Biomethanepotential of the feedstock the biogas production rate was estimated as 21.75m3/day. A pilot scale digester was designed with a volume of 52.57 m3 which would generate 8.72 m3 of biogas per day, considering practical limitations.   It was estimated that at least three Continuous flow biogas digesters of the same volume of are needed to treat all the waste produced. According to the study the quantity of waste produced at the market place can be successfully used to generate one fourth of the energy requirement of the university restaurant

  • 994.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Department of Thematic Studies—Technology and Social Change, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: €”Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination2015In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 5694-5703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

  • 995.
    Thomas, Alsmyr
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Injustering och optimering av värmesystem i befintlig fastighet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 996.
    Thomsson, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Takfotens inverkan på byggnaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eaves is something that is common to see on buildings. But what is the purpose of the eaves and how do they affect the building? To get an answer to that and if you really need to build eaves is the main purpose of this work.

    The work is mostly done as a literature study in which existing literature concerning eaves is compiled. As a completion to that, interviews have been performed with people that has a lot of knowledge about eaves to see what they have to say about the effect eaves have on a building.

    In today’s building regulations it’s hard to tell when you should build with eaves and how long the eaves should be because they are formed as functional requirements. If you instead look at older building regulations, recommendations on how to build with eaves can be found. Many clients require eaves on their buildings, but they do not give any reasons to it.

    The common picture based on answers from interviews with people in the industry is that eaves protects the façade and mostly the upper parts. It is possible to build without eaves, but it should be considered a risk. Some materials are extra sensitive to wind driven rain and then it’s more important to build eaves.

    The research that has been done about eaves is mostly simulations, but field measurements have also been made. Both the simulations and measurements show that it is the upper parts of the facade that is exposed to the most wind driven rain and it is also the upper parts of the facade that is mostly protected by eaves.

    So even if the impact that the eaves have on a build is not too well determined it’s clear that the eaves have a function. The eaves do not only protect the building as an extra roof it also changes the wind flow around the building and gives good protection to the upper parts of the facade that is the most exposed part of the faced for wind driven rain for buildings without eaves.

  • 997.
    Thor, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Inläckage i spillvattenledningar i Rengsjö: En utredning baserad på ammoniummetoden2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to locate the intrusion of excess water in the sewage networks, analyzing the concentration of ammonium in the flow that is obtained from the wells in the network. The foundation for the work is the author’s previous attempts to investigate stormwater at the VA-company Helsinge Vatten AB. The analysis is carried out by using a portable spectrophotometer with such reagents that can measure ammonium concentration in just 15 minutes. This gives an indication of how diluted effluent is. If  it is diluted by excess water the analysis shows a low value which is indicating intrusion of possibly surface water, groundwater or drinking water. This method is developed by Norrköping vatten och avfall, who have been a major reference of this report, with their study “Minskning av in- och utläckage genom aktiv läcksökning”(Uusijärvi, 2013). 

    Results from the ammonium analyses have been presented with associated charts. Because the sewage networks often are associated with pumping stations and wastewater treatment plants, which effect the electricity consumption, the electricity consumption has been documented for the pump stations in the area of study. The electricity consumption increases when the pumps are working. A analysis has been made by comparing the electricity consumption and the precipitation to see if the sewage network is influenced by precipitation. 

    In order to obtain an estimated amount of excess water intrusion, a calculation have been made by using a template produced by Norrköping Vatten och Avfall. In the calculation, values indicating water intrusion along with the number of subscribers, management and those who discharge most wastewater have been used. Together it gives a result of estimated intrusion in liters per day and meter network (L/D/M). 

    In the report, three areas located in the village Rengsjö have been investigated by using this method. The first area where the outcome was not as desired, but very instructive for the staff. The second area gave results that show the good quality of the net with a comparison of dry and wet weather. And also an area where a likely intrusion is detected and will be investigated further during the summer. This finding can indicate large amounts of stormwater. Those findings compiles with parts of the objectives formulated in the report, to find the intrusion and to plan for further investigation. Together with the results for each area, include an extensive discussion in which all aspects that influence the measured analyses have been taken up. 

    The report shows that the ammonium method  has been proved to be successful in identifying excess water intrusion in Helsinge Vatten’s sewage networks. This method does not rely on many resources, and therefore it is suitable for companies that wish investigate excess water instruction in a cost-effective way. 

  • 998.
    Thornberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design. University of Gävle.
    Att orientera sig på cykel: Ett designkoncept2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En förändring inom transportmedel sker här och nu. Från fyra hjul är det

    bästa att människor nu rullar på två. Genom att cykla bidrar man med positiv

    inverkan både för sig själv och för miljön.

    Detta arbete har som utgångspunkt att undersöka och finna en lösning som

    uppmuntrar fler att välja cykel som ett dagligt transportmedel, genom en

    designprocess. Målbilden ses här intill. Denna syn medverkade till projektets

    inriktning att finna en lösning, som medverkar att dessa parkeringplatser är

    fulla av cyklar.

    Resultatet av detta projekt är ett koncept som underlättar orienteringen för

    cyklister. Genom att tydliggöra cykelmöjligheterna inom en stad medverkar

    till att fler individer väljer medvetet cykel som transportmedel.

  • 999.
    Threadgold, Emma
    et al.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Normative data for 84 UK English rebus puzzles2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent investigations have established the value of using rebus puzzles in studying the insight and analytic processes that underpin problem solving. The current study sought to validate a pool of 84 rebus puzzles in terms of their solution rates, solution times, error rates, solution confidence, self-reported solution strategies, and solution phrase familiarity. All of the puzzles relate to commonplace English sayings and phrases in the United Kingdom. Eighty-four rebus puzzles were selected from a larger stimulus set of 168 such puzzles and were categorized into six types in relation to the similarity of their structures. The 84 selected problems were thence divided into two sets of 42 items (Set A and Set B), with rebus structure evenly balanced between each set. Participants (N = 170; 85 for Set A and 85 for Set B) were given 30 s to solve each item, subsequently indicating their confidence in their solution and self-reporting the process used to solve the problem (analysis or insight), followed by the provision of ratings of the familiarity of the solution phrases. The resulting normative data yield solution rates, error rates, solution times, confidence ratings, self-reported strategies and familiarity ratings for 84 rebus puzzles, providing valuable information for the selection and matching of problems in future research.

  • 1000.
    Thyr, Max
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energiåtervinning av turbintätningsånga: En fältstudie hos Bomhus Energi AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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