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  • 1.
    Penttinen, Markku
    University of Vasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    The dynamic stochastic cash balance problem1983Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Ristiniemi, Jari
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Experiential Dialectics. An Inquiry into the Epistemological Status and the Methodological Role of the Experiential Core in Paul Tillich's Systematic Thought.1987Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Improving Food Products Distribution in Developing Countries: an analysis of environmental forces influencing food distribution and recommendation for policy reforms1992Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Avhandlingens övergripande syfte kan sägas vara att finna vägar och medel att effektivisera distributionen av livsmedelsprodukter i ett marknadssystem. Avhandlingen utnyttjas empiriska observationer i form av minifall som återspeglar olika

    kritiska händelser avseende distributions och inköp av livsmedel. Detta används för en brett anlagd teoretisk analys med normativa slutsatser.

  • 4.
    Knez, Igor
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    To know what to know before knowing: acquisition of functional rules in probabilistic ecologies1992Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Karlsson, Sten O
    Tema, teknik och social förändring, Universitet i Linköping.
    Arbetarfamiljen och Det Nya Hemmet : Om bostadshygienism och klasskultur i mellankrigstidens Göteborg1993Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Shima, Alan
    Engelska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Skirting the Subject: Pursuing Language in the Works of Adrienne Rich, Susan Griffin, and Beverly Dahlen1993Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I delve into the strategic certainty and theoretical quandary that characterize both the practice and the assessment of “women’s language.” My contention is that “women’s language” is a composite of hypothetical speculations, political intentions, interpretive practices, and ethical convictions. Consequently, the validity of “women’s language” is dependent on an economy of belief and consensus rather than on fixed linguistic features or absolute stylistic distinctions. Proceeding from this premise, I draw attention to what might be called the compositional legibility of “women’s language.”

    To illustrate this point, I examine the critical assumptions and textual initiatives of three feminist poets: Adrienne Rich, Susan Griffin, and Beverly Dahlen. Taken together they cover a wide range of aesthetic departures and travel various textual routes. All three persistently focus on the codes and structures of language from a feminist perspective. What they have in common is a desire to revitalize language and thus invoke new positions for female identity. Although their discursive strategies overlap and intertwine, I accent documentation, dramatization, and invention as the characteristic writing modes of Rich’s, Griffin’s, and Dahlen’s work respectively. These distinctions are relevant when considering the means by which Rich, Griffin, and Dahlen conceive woman as a subject of changing significance and they are beneficial when examining the degree to which change is actualized in their language revisions. The differences between their writing strategies signal important variance within feminist thinking. Thus, in the final section of my study, I attempt to relate the diverse modes of “women’s language” to the contingencies of conscious and unconscious factors which elicit change.

  • 7.
    Shima, Alan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Moderna språk.
    Skirting the Subject: Pursuing Language in the Works of Adrienne Rich, Susan Griffin, Beverly Dahlen1993Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I delve into the strategic certainty and theoretical quandary that characterize both the practice and the assessment of “women’s language.” My contention is that “women’s language” is a composite of hypothetical speculations, political intentions, interpretive practices, and ethical convictions. Consequently, the validity of “women’s language” is dependent on an economy of belief and consensus rather than on fixed linguistic features or absolute stylistic distinctions. Proceeding from this premise, I draw attention to what might be called the compositional legibility of “women’s language.”

    To illustrate this point, I examine the critical assumptions and textual initiatives of three feminist poets: Adrienne Rich, Susan Griffin, and Beverly Dahlen. Taken together they cover a wide range of aesthetic departures and travel various textual routes. All three persistently focus on the codes and structures of language from a feminist perspective. What they have in common is a desire to revitalize language and thus invoke new positions for female identity. Although their discursive strategies overlap and intertwine, I accent documentation, dramatization, and invention as the characteristic writing modes of Rich’s, Griffin’s, and Dahlen’s work respectively. These distinctions are relevant when considering the means by which Rich, Griffin, and Dahlen conceive woman as a subject of changing significance and they are beneficial when examining the degree to which change is actualized in their language revisions. The differences between their writing strategies signal important variances within feminist thinking. Thus, in the final section of my study, I attempt to relate the diverse modes of “women’s language” to the contingencies of conscious and unconscious factors which elicit change.

  • 8.
    Lovén, Svante
    Uppsala universitet. Litteraturvetenskapliga institutionen..
    Skuggornas rike: Mytiska mönster i Heidenstams Endymion och Hans Alienus1993Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Richter, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Supraliminal contrast functions and voluntary negative modulation of accommodation in the visual system1993Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lantbrukskooperationen och staten: Samspelet rörande föreningslagen1994Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Leidhammar, Börje
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten.
    Bevisprövning i taxeringsmål1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Bustad, Johnny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap. Natur.
    Computational studies of core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems: Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon core ionization of a free molecule or a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface, higher binding energy satellites are observed, so called "shake-up" satellites, which can be viewed as valence excitations simultaneously to the creation of the core hole. In this thesis, theoretical studies of such core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems are presented, as well as cluster calculations of XES spectra, using the quantum mechanical INDO method. The main motivation of these studies is to get a more detailed understanding of the bonding between the adsorbed molecules and the metal and the screening process accompanying the creation of the core hole. This interest is motivated by fundamental questions about the adsorbate-substrate interaction as well as technical applications, such as catalysis.

    It has been found that many aspects of extended adsorbate systems, where CO is coordinated to metal atoms, can be modelled by transition metal carbonyls such as Mo(CO)6, Cr(CO)6 and Ni(CO)4. The bonding between the core ionized CO group and the transition metal, consists of an interaction between, on the one hand, the sigma lone pair of the ligand and, on the other hand, the metal d-orbitals and the CO antibonding pi-star orbital of the CO-group, i.e. a sigma donation from the ligand and pi donation from the metal. It is the changes in this bonding which are responsible for the dominant features of the shake-up spectra in the studied model molecules. The main conclusion of the three abovementioned case studies is that new excitations involving charge transfer from the metal to the ionized ligand occur with significant probability in the metal carbonyls, in addition to the internal excitations present also in free CO.

    In extending the model towards larger systems, calculations of CO/Ni(100), N2//Ni(100), CO/Cu(100) and benzene/Cu(100) were undertaken, where the metal surface was modelled by clusters of 1-12 metal atoms. Many of the features from the metal carbonyls are found also in these systems. The most important added feature is the presence of high-intensity metal-metal excitations, which mainly affect the shape of the main line.

    Ground state cluster calculations were performed to explain the XES spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) and Cu(100) surfaces. It was found that the calculations reproduce the important characteristics of the experimental spectra, and were used as a support for the assignments of the involved states.

  • 13.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Elastic light scattering by thin films: spectroscopic measurements and analysis1996Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Turbulent jets in confined spaces: application in mixing ventilation: experimental and numerical studies1996Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The basis of mixing ventilation is the airflow supply to the room by means of jets initiatedfrom the ventilation diffusers. To avoid the draught problem, the design of mixing ventilationmakes uses the throw term, which is defined as the distance to the supply air terminal inwhich the jet centreline mean velocity is decreased to a given value. Traditionally, the throw ismeasured by the supply air device manufacturer. The throw is applied by designers to estimatethe velocity levels in the occupied zone. A standard for determining the throw is the CENstandard CEN/TC156/WG4 N86 "Draft Standard. Air terminal Devices. AerodynamicsTesting And Rating For Mixed Flow Application".The measurement of the throw is very time consuming even with the free jets and theinfluence of the room (the effect of confinement) is not considered. The objective of thepresent study is to give a basis for modifying the existing design and testing method used topredict the velocities in the occupied zone during the design process. A new method whichmay probably be more easier than the existing methods and at the same time give a betterprecision by including the confinement effect.In this thesis two methodological systems of experiment and numerical simulations have beenused. The numerical predictions are used in comparison with the measurements. Thereasonable agreement of the above mentioned methods is implemented to numerical study ofthe other room configurations which are not experimentally studied. This examining methodallows the possibility of studying a lot of configurations and in this manner generalising of theresults. Although the experimental part was made for both model-scale and full-scale testrooms, a large amount of data was obtained for a new test room whose dimension aresystematically varied. All of studies have been made for the isothermal case and themeasurements of velocities and pressures conducted along the room perimeters. The effect ofshort and deep rooms on the properties of the jet ( velocities, pressure, integral scale, jetmomentum, the rate of spreading of jet and turbulence intensities) have been carried out.Some old and recent investigations have been examined. Specially the concept of correlationsfrom open to closed rooms is criticised. It is also shown that the flow field in a confined roomis affected by many other factors than the Reynolds number. The surface pressure on theperimeters was used to calculate the reaction forces at the corners which causes recirculatingbubbles at corners. A study of the turbulent axisymmetric jet which is the basic element inturbulent shear flows and some restrictions of the traditional measurement techniques at theregion of interest in ventilation applications are discussed. The jet momentum is measured byweighing on a balance. Also a study of jets which collide with a wall , that is impinging jet,the effect of walls and confinement on the jet momentum have experimentally andnumerically been carried out. A new momentum balance model was developed for both thefree jet and confined one. An empirical relation has been found for estimation of the room’srotation centre which is used for validation of CFD results.Finally, it is found that the jets in a ventilated room which are a combination of free jet, walljet and impinging jet differ from the traditional wall jets. The rate of spreading of the jet andthe maximum velocity decay in a ventilated room are also different depending on the roomsize and its confinement.

  • 15.
    Rönnberg, Margareta
    Institutionen för filmvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    TV-tittande som dialog: På väg mot en symbolisk-interaktionistisk TV-teori1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research itself -  on television and the young -  is the object of this research. From a humanistic viewpoint, relational and interactional concepts are critically scrutinized: how have eg 'identification' and 'para-social interaction' been defined and used by (psycho-analytically influenced) mass communication researchers in sociology, psychology and pedagogy in order to allegedly 'explain' the 'effects' of television on the identity, personality or behavior of young viewers? These definitions and uses are found lacking in many respects, and the views of insightful film theoreticians are recommended instead. Terms such as 'viscarious experiences/satisfaction', 'escapism', and 'mirror/ing' are also examined and rejected.

    Crucial deficiencies in mass media studies is firstly the lack of a theory that would be able to explain how viewers with the assistance of TV construct their identities and, secondly, the absence of an aesthetic theory which could explain why TV viewers presumedly would become more influence by what they know does not exist (fiction) than by what they know to be facts. Symbolic Interactionism and Aesthetic Philosophy (the 'thought-theory of imagination') are here used to illuminate these issues. G H Mead's theory of self development and the importance of play and games in self-formation is applied to children's television viewing and M Csfkszentmihályi's concept 'flow' to adults' absorbed TV-relations. Both for school age children and adults, watching television is treated as a form of complex perspective-taking and muted dialogue or inner conversation with imaginal Others. TV viewing is thus considered a form of true and fully social 'two-way' communication oscillating, however, between 'participation through the thinking and feeling I' and 'observation through the reflecting and empathizing self'.

    The concept of 'role-taking' is finally tested for methodological utility on preschoolers' (videotaped) reception of a six-minute-episode of a TV series for children. These children are clearly found not to be captured by or engulfed in any 'identification' with the main protagonist/s, but instead alternate between the different perspectives of the characters, interspersed with their own reflective perspective and that of their friends' - judging by their smiles, laughter, looks, comments. Consequences of this for their imagination and moral thinking is also discussed.

  • 16.
    Larsson, Sam
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Det andra jaget vid manlig transvestism: Ett jagteoretiskt och kognitionspsykologiskt perspektiv : [a self-theoretical and cognitive psychology perspective]1997Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a comprehensive examination of cross dressing among men and providesdescriptive information, a review of the literature and some new research data. The theoreticalpart presents a multidimensional model for the analysis of transvestism. Various theoreticalapproaches are analyzed and a self theory based on a cognitive and transpersonal psychologyperspective is successfully elaborated. Transvestism is viewed as a multidetermined phenomena. One important argument in the model is that transvestism can be seen as an expression of a second self or a feminine self. The feminine self is conceptualized as a subsystem of the self.

    The empirical section of the thesis contains three different studies. The main part focuseson a qualitative in-depth analysis of a group of twelve transvestites from a cross dressing clubin Sweden, This group of transvestites is also compared with a small group of marginaltransvestites and male-to-female transsexuals. The empirical results give a detailed picture ofthe experiential world of the transvestite and the cognitive and affective changes associatedwith cross dressing. The results confirm previous findings that male transvestism can be seenas an expression of a second self or a feminine self and that cross dressing follows a dynamicpattern from an early "fetishistic stage" to a later "gender identity stage".

    The second part of the empirical study contains a comparison between treated and untreated male cross-dressers. This comparison was based on an interview study with 92 male members of a cross dressing club in Sweden. Multiple comparisons showed many similarities between the two groups. However, those in the treated group were more often unmarried or divorced, had experienced more difficulties functioning in the male gender role and also seemed to have a more intense identification with the feminine self.

    The third part of the empirical section reviews the findings from a study of 50 wives andlong-term partners of transvestites in Sweden. The results show both positive, neutral andnegative attitudes in various degrees towards cross dressing and both positive and negativefactors in marriage attributed to transvestism.

  • 17.
    Wahlström, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. moderna språk.
    Husbands, Lovers, and Dreamlovers: Masculinity and Female Desire in Women's Novels of the 1970s1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Öberg, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Livet som berättelse: Om biografi och åldrande1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation’s objective is twofold: (1) to show how the life lived is reflected in old age (the articles), and (2) to analyze how life-stories are presented and interpreted from the social constructivist perspective (the comprehensive summary).

         Article I is a critical discussion of two biographical methods of data collection: the “freely-told” life-story and the semistructured biographical interview. Article II addresses the thesis’ first aim. This article presents the data gathered through the qualitative biographical interviews conducted with elderly Finns, which resulted in a typology of six ways of life: The bitter life and Life as a trapping pit, which end up in a problematic old age; Life as a hurdle race, The devoted silenced life, Life as a job career and  The sweet life, which describe different strategies for successful ageing. Article III is a study of Life as a hurdle race, where successful ageing is reached, despite previous difficulties in life. Article IV explains the paradox of the absent body in social gerontology, in light of the dualism of the Platonic-Christian tradition between body and soul.

         The comprehensive summary consists of critical methodological reflections on the conducted research. This summary acknowledges how the conclusions, reached at through analytic induction, where influenced by gerontology’s two myths (misery vs. success). The summary also treats the Renaissance of biographical social research, and the conducted research in relation to the theoretical debate on “the realist perspective” vs. “the story-focused, constructivist perspective.” From the latter perspective it is shown how emplotment shapes the life-story. Finally the summary addresses the generalizability and credibility of my results; results which by virtue of the life history perspective open up for a new qualitative understanding of ageing.

  • 19.
    Röjdalen, Carin Ann-Marie
    Göteborgs universitet.
    "Men jag ville hjälpa": studier i Lars Ahlins 1940-talsnovellistik1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Cornell University.
    The genetics of antibiotic production and the role of antibiotics in biological control of Erwinia amylovora by Erwinia herbicola1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Erwinia herbicola is an epiphyte of apple and pear with potential as a biocontrol agent of Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight. This research aimed to assess the relative role of antibiotics produced by E. herbicola, Eh318 as a mechanistic basis for biocontrol. A genomic library of Eh318 DNA was constructed in Escherichia coli and two distinct cosmids, pCPP702 and pCPP704, were identified that conferred upon E. coli the ability to produce two antibiotics inhibitory to E. amylovora. The antibiotics were distinct based on their spectra of activity, differential susceptibility to the presence of histidine and arginine and antibiotic production by marker-exchange mutants of Eh318. Transposon mutagenesis and subcloning were used to delineate the Eh318 DNA that enabled E. coli to produce the two antibiotics. The smallest clone that conferred antibacterial activity was pCPP717. Its antibiotic was named pantocin A. The Eh318 insert DNA of pCPP717 revealed three predicted genes, paaA, paaB and paaC, in a 2.7 kb region. The predicted paaA gene product is similar in sequence to a group of biosynthetic enzymes that possess a dinucleotide binding motif. PaaC was judged to encode a membrane protein. The second antibiotic was named pantocin B. Its synthesis is conferred on E. coli by DNA harbored in clone pCPP719. Between 19 kb and 20 kb of Eh318 DNA is needed for the production of pantocin B. Direct Tn5- and marker-exchange mutants of Eh318, deficient in pantocin A and/or pantocin B, were created. The mutant strains were tested for biocontrol ability in immature pear fruit in the laboratory and in apple blossoms in a controlled environment chamber. Results from both assays revealed that the marker-exchange mutant deficient in both antibiotics (Eh440) protected against fire blight less well than Eh318. The single marker-exchange mutants, Eh421 (deficient in pantocin A) and Eh439 (deficient in pantocin B), were not significantly impaired in biocontrol ability, whereas three directly induced Tn5-mutants, Eh454, Eh464 and Eh468, were less effective than Eh318. Thus, pantocins contribute to but are not solely responsible for the biological control of fire blight by E. herbicola Eh318.

  • 21.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Uppsala Universitet, Kulturantropologiska Instituionen.
    The Performance of Tradition.: An Ethnography of Hira Gasy Popular Theatre in Madagascar.1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the popular theatre performance of Hira Gasy, and its actors and audiences in the central highland regions of Imerina and northern Betsileo in Madagascar. The Hira Gasy has developed from a court to a rural performance during the last two centuries, a period influenced by first the British and then by the French presence in the country. Today, the performances are given in diverse contexts, the most common being in connection with reburial ceremonies. The Hira Gasy troupes all have a common form of their performance, with speeches, songs, acrobatics, dance and music, while the content is unique for each troupe, although given in a culturally recognized form.

    The study is based on 19 month of fieldwork divided into five periods between 1991 and 1996. The main argument is that the Hira Gasy performances provide a forum in which the problems of identification and belonging are discussed. The 'foreigner'is used as a 'mirror image' for the rural and the poor in their aims to assert and shape their sense of belonging in a changing society. The symbols of identification - the ancestral land, the common tomb and the family solidarity - are felt to be threatened by increasing individualization and the decrease in the fulfillment of the ancestral duties. For the rural poor their feelings of marginality and powerlessness in relation to the economically and politically powerful urban elite are expressed in Hira Gasy. Through the practice of custom they sustain their moral dignity, which is one of the most important means in order to remain malagasy. The Hira Gasy performance are indigenious arenas for existential and moral discussions, and for providing a sense of belonging in a problematic reality shaped by both the 'way of the ancestors' and the 'way of the foreigner'.

  • 22.
    Flykt, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    A threat imminence approach to human fear responding: direction of threat, aversive contexts, and electrodermal responses.1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    "En mänsklig atmosfär": trygghet, samhörighet och gemenskap: god vård ur ett patientperspektiv1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Söderlund, M. 1998: "En mänsklig atmosfär". Trygghet, samhörighet och gemenskap. God vård ur ett patientperspektiv. ("In the atmosphere of humanity". Security, solidarity and mutual understanding. The concept of good care from the patients’ perspective).

    Written in Swedish with an English summary. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Studies in Education 210 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 91-554-4310-9

    The dissertation is a qualitative study which is based on the patients’ experience of caring. The aim of the research is to obtain a hermeneutical understanding of the meaning of Man’s existential world of being a patient. In order to attain the aim, the author uses a model for existential interpretation.

    The existential perspective on caring is total with respect to the view of how human beings, wherever they might be, are influenced and changed by some educational process. The author’s opinion is that the patients’ perceptions of care depend on the unique educational process which is present in every culture and which influences people in each and every aspect of life. It makes caring a cultural matter and it calls attention to the processes of socialization and learning which traditionally would remain hidden or invisible.

    The need to study experiences of caring in context was demonstrated using the method of triangulation in purposeful sampling. To be able to reach a deeper understanding of the concept of caring, interpretation using the hermeneutical dialectic process is necessary.

    The author has interpreted different types of texts and, in doing so, she has reached a deeper understanding of the patients’ existential world as being a conflicting process of dehumanization or humanization. Dehumanization is experienced when the caring process is characterized by patients’ struggle against caregivers to overcome their suffering and humiliation. In the process of humanization the confirming dialogue is the essential mode of caring communication as a learning process. The opposite is when the caregivers fight with them, not for them, in the struggle with the aim to protect the patients’ humanity. In the process of dehumanization the anti-dialogue is conspicuous.

    The dissertation concludes with a reflection on the freedom of praxis in relation to caring.

  • 24.
    Hammar, Björn
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Historia och statsvetenskap.
    Relaciones internacionales, tiempo y espacio político: discursos sobre Europa y España.1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25.
    Nylén, Karl-Olof
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Industriell ekonomi.
    Civil Works: Unique projects or a repeatable process?1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Inomhusmiljö.
    ON THE EFFICIENCY OF DISPLACEMENT VENTILATION, with Particular Reference to the Influence of Human Physical Activity1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of room ventilation by the displacement principle was studied with respect to some influential factors, in particular that of physical activity. The study was experimental and performed in two full-scale test rooms, one of office-size and one of classroom-size. Physical (mainly walking) activity was executed in these rooms by person simulators and by humans. The ventilation efficiency was quantified by tracer gas measurements.

    In the performed tests, the activity of a walking person generally proved detrimental to the ventilation efficiency. Particularly the air quality in the occupied zone was impaired, due to down-wash of air in the wake behind the moving person, causing transportation of relatively old and contaminated air from the upper part of the room down to lower levels. It appeared, however, that it takes a rather high level of physical activity to completely abolish the displacement effect. Especially the air quality in the breathing zone of non-moving occupants tended to remain significantly better than at perfect-mixing conditions. Completely mixed room air occurred nevertheless when the activity was intense, but the displacement flow pattern was re-established fairly quickly after ceasing of the activity.

    The contaminant distribution showed substantial horizontal variations in the "classroom". A contaminant released in the occupied zone was effectively extracted from the room when the source was situated on the same side of the room as the extract terminal(s), whereas, when situated on the opposite side, the contaminant accumulated in the upper part of the room. It was further shown that the air supplied from displacement diffusers tends to reach all occupants fairly quickly, also in relatively large and densely populated rooms such as classrooms.

    The temperature stratification of the room air, and free-convection currents along the walls are crucial for the appearing air flow pattern and contaminant distribution. Transfer and accumulation of heat in materials tend further to make the thermal conditions indoors more or less transient at all times. This entails, it was shown, that also the ventilation efficiency is time dependent. In tests where people suddenly entered the "classroom", the ventilation efficiency improved with time. This generally caused the highest contaminant exposures to occur at the beginning of the stay in the room.

    Tests with two different ceiling heights showed lower ventilation efficiency with the higher ceiling, involving a higher contaminant exposure of the occupants. The reason for this appears to be enhanced down-flow along the walls, caused by a higher section of relatively low surface temperature, and possibly by the appearance of merging plumes, enhancing the vertical recirculation process.

    A wall temperature deviating from that of the indoor air impaired the ventilation efficiency, whereas an increase in ventilation rate improved it. In all test cases in this study, however, the air quality in the breathing zone of seated occupants remained significantly better than that at perfect-mixing conditions – a sports-activity test being the only exception.

  • 27.
    Vesterlund, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Den glömde mannen: Erik "Hampe" Faustmans filmer2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Sundqvist, Olof
    Uppsala universitet.
    Freyr's offspring: rulers and religion in ancient Svea society2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Dahlin, Olov
    Uppsala universitet.
    Zvinorwadza: being a patient in the religious and medical plurality of the Mberengwa district, Zimbabwe2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with patients in a rural area of southern Africa and poses these basic questions: What does it mean to be ill in this part of the world and what do patients' life-worlds look like? In order to find answers to these questions, an in-depth fieldwork was carried out through which I was able to study how patients reacted to illness. I followed twenty patients in their search of ease, of which ten were members of Chief Mataga's family, with whom I was staying. Each patient, some relative(s) and the traditional healer(s) and faith healer(s) consulted constituted a "multi-episodical" case. In addition, a questionnaire was applied in order to collect supplementary information. A further area of research was the various factors which negatively and positively influenced the lives of people in the area. I examined those factors from both the insider and an outsider perspective and concluded that the phenomenon of illness and healing need to be regarded holistically and that it is of crucial importance to acknowledge patients' own ideas concerning those issues.

  • 30.
    Ljungquist, Sarah
    Umeå universitet.
    Den litterära utopin och dystopin i Sverige 1734-19402001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Samhällsbyggnad.
    Height determination by GPS: A practical experiment in central Sweden2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    GPS as a height measuring tool has been widely introduced for solving various tasks within the fields of Geodesy and Engineering Surveying. The obvious advantage of not needing lines of sight when acquiring height differences is, however, darkened by the fact that GPS and traditional spirit levelling have fundamentally different reference systems for heights. To handle the main task, i.e. to replace spirit levelling with GPS levelling, or other important tasks, like, for instance, detection of vertical crustal movements or geoid slope and undulation contribution for creating geoid models, knowledge about the two reference systems, and how to combine them, is required.

    In this thesis a practical experiment concerning GPS as a height measuring tool is described. The experiment, whos aim is to develop and evaluate a geometric geoid model, has been carried out in an area of approximately 100x300 km situated in central Sweden, were GPS measurements (with average baseline length of 13 km) have been conducted at well established benchmarks with known orthometric heights.

    In order to gain experience, valuable for the experiment, GPS measurements were carried out on one and the same line (referred to as base measurements) during different circumstances, i.e. day, night, summer, winter etc., during the course of a year. The findings lead to strategies which were applied in the field work as well as in the post processing procedures of field collected data.

    Different gravimetric geoid models have been evaluated on a regional bases utilising the Swedish GPS reference network SWEPOS and locally, in the research area, utilising the results from the GPS levelling.

    To find out if a geometric geoid model, based on the GPS measurements, would be a better height corrector surface for the research area than the gravimetric geoid models, such a model has been computed with geostatistical methods, i.e. universal kriging. The model has been experimentally evaluated utilising a Swedish GPS campaign called RIX95. It was found, when the geometric geoid model is used, that the absolute accuracy of GPS levelling is ±14 mm and the relative accuracy ±10 mm (on a 10 km long baseline). It is concludet that the geometric geoid model is the best height corrector surface for the research area among the studied models.

  • 32.
    Carlson, Åsa
    Filosofiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Kön, kropp och konstruktion: En undersökning av den filosofiska grunden för distinktionen mellan kön och genus2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Wikström, Per-Arne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi.
    Att producera förändring: Marknadsorientering och IT i fastighetsföretag2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Åkerdahl, Per-Olof Johan
    Teologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Bahá'í Identity and the concept of Martyrdom2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 35.
    Fagerström, Arne
    Åbo Akademi.
    Group Accounting Across Borders2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last twenty years, accounting diversity between countries has been an important issue in international accounting research. A driving force has been the growth of multinational companies across borders. The development has created new challenges in consolidating financial statements across borders to a common group accounting report. The actual behaviour at the headquarter levels and in the subsidiaries abroad when consolidating vertically to a group report has not been empirically examined. 

    The main research question in the study is if Swedish multinational enterprises make the accounting adjustments that would be necessary to comply with the Swedish accounting standards in their group reports. The vertical adjustments can take place either at the parent company (group level) or at subsidiary levels. The empirical investigations were conducted as three survey investigations of companies on the Stockholm Stock Exchange (1990, 1992 and 1999) and case studies in twelve Swedish groups and their subsidiaries in Denmark, the US, and Brazil (1991-1992). The objective of the empirical study was to investigate how Swedish multinational groups listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange deal with accounting diversity among foreign subsidiaries in the consolidation processes.

    The study focused on accounting method choices in the adjustment process from local subsidiary reports to the group accounts as well as the issue in which currency the adjustments were made. The effects of currency translation methods can have a material impact on reported profits. Factors that were related to the frequency of adjustments were: the number of stock exchanges the Swedish groups were listed on, proportion of foreign activity in the group, inflation rate in the subsidiary countries, accounting diversity the group faced, main industry of the group, size of the group and income smoothing behaviour especially on subsidiary levels.

    An unexpected result was that some of the groups declared in their annual reports that they had followed actual Swedish accounting standards even if they made accounting method choices that did not comply with Swedish standards.

  • 36.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    Örebro universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Klassrummet som diskussionsarena2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to study whole class discussions in the Swedish upper secondary school, concerning issues subjected to controversy in the public debate. The empirical study is related to a wider question: the possibilities for the school to educate democratic citizens.

    By using discourse analysis,14 videotaped lessons from social- and religious studies where analysed, with the ambition to investigate recurrent patterns of participation and meaning making. Five teachers and six classes participated in the study.

    The analysis shows that the teachers have two concurrent goals: to focus on the students’ contributions on issues in the public debate, and introduce the students to different questions in the public debate. A consequence of these goals is that the role of the teacher often becomes complex. By acting on the basis of having responsibility for the students’ development of knowledge, and sometimes also calling attention to certain values, the teacher attempts to guide the students as not yet ready for the public debate. Features from other kinds of teacher-centred education are thereby present in the discussions. However, students can also act as more autonomous participants in relation to the teacher. When they are not answering the teacher’s questions in an expected way, and in particular, in situations in which they are interacting with each other, the students may discuss the public issues without being teacher-guided to the same extent as in other situations.

    The last chapter concludes that the authority of the teacher is partly given by the official steering-documents. It is still possible to ask if the guiding role of the teacher itself could be subjected to discussion. This suggestion is made from the point that teacher authority is considered as more or less limited for developing a critical attitude among the students. One may also ask if the students’ could be offered possibilities to choose the topic for discussion themselves. This latter point is made against the background that classroom-discussion presupposes student’s viewpoints in order to be accomplished.

  • 37.
    Kus, Hulya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Byggnadskvalitet.
    Long-term performance of water repellants on rendered autoclaved aerated concrete2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Sjöblom, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    På väg ut: när ungdomar rymmer och kastas ut hemifrån - ur socialtjänstens perspektiv2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to discover and understand how caseworkers in the social services view and present the phenomenon of young people who run away from and/or are thrown out of their homes. What images of these young people do they entertain and how do they articulate their work with this group?

    The data were collected through 20 qualitative group interviews with caseworkers who in 1997 were working with young people between the ages of 12 and 20 at Individual and Family Care sections in all the social districts of Stockholm Municipality. Simultaneously, a quantitative background study of 96 problem cases was also conducted. Following analysis of the initial group interviews, two of these were chosen for detailed case study. To provide a complementary perspective, the thesis also contains two case studies of accounts of running away/being thrown out from a runaway’s and a parents’ respective points of view.

    Leaving home in this way is seen to be more common among girls than among boys and the most usual cause a problematic family situation with elements of violence, assault, and substance abuse. A particularly vulnerable group is girls in immigrant families who are exposed to authoritarian upbringing and often suffer rough treatment. Dominant among these young people’s own individual problems is difficulty in school. Other problem areas mentioned are substance abuse, truant behaviour, staying out late and sexual promiscuity. A small number of runaways were able to return home after counselling; but the conditions leading to running away/being thrown out were described by the welfare workers as complex, and accounts of the same situation given by parents and runaways often differed widely.

    The caseworkers’ view of the phenomenon is informed by a relationship and family oriented perspective, where the paramount goal is “working home” the runaways/thrown outs and restoring them to the bosom of their families. When that avenue has failed, as often was the case, the alternative is to place them in family homes or institutions. Running away and being thrown out are seen as deviant attempts at accomplishing the process of separation from parents that is normal at this stage. In the case of girls of immigrant background who run away/get thrown out of their homes, the tendency is to explain the phenomenon as a ‘culture collision’ between incompatible value systems and traditions. When young people and even the parents come to the social services needing practical help with accommodation and economic support so that the children can leave home, the caseworkers described this as presenting a dilemma.

    The main technique relied upon by the caseworkers is counselling intended to lead to reconciliation between children and their parents. The thesis discusses the importance and consequences for these youth in their development towards adulthood of the lack of a young people’s perspective within the social services and the emphasis on the sanctity of the family. A clear contradiction lies in the fact that while the youth units have been established expressly for the purpose of helping young people, a social services dominated by a family perspective with the aim of reintegrating runaways into their often dysfunctional families takes on a mainly controlling and disciplinary role, where the young people’s individual survival strategies are not paid attention to or taken seriously.

  • 39.
    Sarja, Karin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap. Religionsvetenskap.
    "Ännu en syster till Afrika": Trettiosex kvinnliga missionärer i Natal och Zululand 1876-19022002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Roos, Lena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap (upphört 080911).
    “God Wants It!”: The Ideology of Martyrdom of the Hebrew Crusade Chronicles and its Jewish and Christian Background2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Löntagarfondsfrågan: en hegemonisk vändpunkt2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is twofold. The primary aim is to explain how the wage-earner funds could change the way they did, from the original proposal 1975 to the carried through 1983. The second is to show the relevans of Marxist analysis today, through the application of Marxist theory on the wage-earner funds issue. A discourse analyses is carried through to show the arguments and positions taken by key actors during the wage-earner funds struggle.

    One important finding is that the wage-earner funds struggle was what I designate a hegemonic turning-point in the Swedish post war history. Until and including the raising of the fund issue the Swedish labour movement had for decades gradually moved their positions forwards vis-a-vis the bourgeois in wide meaning. The bourgeois won the fund struggle and has ever since step by step forced the labour movement on the defense. The wage-earner funds struggle then meant a very important change of the balance between the organized class forces.

    Previous works on the wage-earner funds have a strong emphasis on the political level in trying to explain the issue. The dissertation shows that although this is an important factor, it has to be related to others. In accordande with a structuralist influenced Marxist perspective the interrelation of economical, political, cultural and ideological factors has to be evaluated in the analysis of the issue. The agenda on the political level needs to be related to processes in the economy. In other words changes in the economic base strongly influenced what was taking place in the political/cultural/ideological domains.

    Marxism has for a long period been the objective for deconstruction and dissolution. Through the concrete analysis of the fund struggle the dissertation shows that Marxist theory is still relevant. The dissertation stresses that a relevant Marxism today is not the same as the classical marxism that culminated during the 1970’s. But there is fundamental parts, core, centrality, that can be built upon for a modern Marxism that is not ending up at the Post-marxism that dissolves and gives up still relevant foundations.

  • 42.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Planning and Implementing Health Interventions -: Extrapolating Theories of Health Education and Constructed Determinants of Risk-Taking2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Söderlund, Maud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.
    As if Struck by a Hurricane:: The Situation of the Relatives of Someone Suffering from Dementia2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Comfort climate evaluation with thermal manikin methods and computer simulation models2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökat intresse för energiförbrukning och samtidiga krav på godtagbar termisk miljö gör det nödvändigt att i förväg kunna bedöma personpåverkan från olika kombinationer av klimatfaktorer. Enbart temperaturmätningar tar inte hänsyn till alla klimateffekter på en människa och speciellt inte för lokala effekter av luftrörelser och strålning. Eftersom såväl personer som termiska dockor (manikiner) kan känna av värmeförlustförändringar på enskilda kroppsdelar, är det lämpligt att mätmetoder och datormodeller med motsvarande arbetsprinciper och upplösningsnivåer utvecklas. Ett syfte med detta avhandlingsarbete är att sammanföra resultat från dessa olika typer av undersöknings-teknik med målet att fastställa effekten av olika termiska klimat på människor. Resultatet kan användas till att göra detaljerade bedömningar av termisk klimatpåverkan i både inomhusmiljö i byggnader och i olika typer av fordon.

  • 45.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Effects of Repetitive Work on Proprioception and of Stretching on Sensory Mechanisms: Implications for Work-related Neuromuscular Disorders2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitive low-intensïty work constitutes an important risk factor for Chronic Wark Related Neuromuscular Disorders (CWRND)· Derangemcnt of motor control, provoked by loaded or fati ued muscles, has been suggested as one of the underlying mechanisms behind these disorders. Faàgue-induced reduetion of proprioceptive acuity may be one of the factors accounting for the deranged motor eontrol. In contrast to high-intensity work, little ïs known about the effect of repetitive low-intensity work on proprioceptive acuity. Muscle stretching has becn proposed as a rocedure that can prevcnt, alleviate and/or treat CWRND· Before the importance of stretching can be adequately assessed for this purpose, a better understanding of the effects of stretching and the pathophysiological mechanisms behind thc work-related disorders are needed. The aims of the thesis were (i) to investigate the impact of repetitive low-intensity work exposure on proprioception and (ü) to examine effects of muscle stretching (especially sensory effects and effects on muscle nociception) and to relate its application to the prevention, alleviation and/or treatment of CWRND A simulated occupational setting was used to test the effects of low-intensity repetitive work on the shoulder proprioception in healthy subjècts. The effect of working time on the retention of subjective fatigue and their relation to changes in proprioception, and the immediate effect of stretching on shoulder proprioception were investìgated. A new method to test the stretchability of the rectus femoris muscle was investigated for reliability and validity and used to assess the effects of a 2-week stretching regimen on range of motion and an subjecàve stretch sensation. Finally, the interactions between innocuous musclc stretch and naciceptive chemical stimulaàon on discharge behavior of nociceptive dorsal horn neurons in the feline spinal cord were explored. The main findings wcre as follows: 1) The repctiàve low-intensity work to fatigue diminished the shoulder proprioceptian; the working time as well as the retention of subjective fatigue were partly related to the extent of changed praprioception: 2) There was no effect of acute muscle stretching on the proprioccpàon. 3) The ncw method for tesàng musele stretchability proved valid and reliable. A two-week stretching regimen inereased the tolerance to stretch torque, but the range of moàon remained unchanged. 4) Half of the nociceptive dorsal horn neurons that responded to close arterial injections of bradykinin were modulated by muscle stretching applied directly aftér thc injections. h thcsis of an involvement of sensory Altogether, the results give credence to the hypo information distonion due to repeàtive low.intensity work exposure in the development of CWRND· Increased toleranee to stretch torque may be an imponant mechanism i explaining improvements followin stretch treatment. The spinal interactions between innocuaus stretch and nociceptive muscle af erent inputs indicate a possible mrchanism involved in stretching-induced pain alleviaàon.

  • 46.
    Kalezic, Ivana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Experimental studies of spinal mechanisms associated with muscle fatigue2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Title Experimental stodies of spinal mechanisms associated with muscle fatigue Abstract Muscle fatigue is ubiquitous in every day life.Muscle fatigue might be considered as an altered state of motor behaviour, which impairs motor performance. By contrast, muscle fatigue could also be considered a positive phenomenon, which protects muscle tissue from damage that might be incurred to it by overose.

    The principal aim of the thesis was to explore some of the mechanisms ofmuscle fatigue at the spinallevel in animal models. The activation of multiple motor units of a single calf muscle may influence contractile properties of its neighbouring, otherwise inactive units, providing evidence for spatial spreading of fatigue between different muscle parts. The release of metabolites, their action on inactive muscle units and the effects oflocal hypoxia are the most likely causes. Fatigue-induced metabolite shift in the interstitium provokes excitation and/or sensitisation of high-threshold afferent fibers, with complex effects on the spinal premotoneuronal network involved in the modulation of motoneuronal output. This was examined by stoding the intrasegmentallamellar distribution of the lumbar spinal intemeurons following fatiguing contractions of the triceps surae muscle. Furthermore, fatigue ofcalfmuscles enhanced the activity of fusimotor neurons to these muscles irrespective of the regime of muscle activity (isometric vs. lengthening) in conditions that simulate locomotion. Altered fusimotor activity, through increased or maintained muscle spindIe arrerent responsiveness may be advantageous, providing support to the skeletomotor activity and enhanced information about muscle periphery to higher nervous centres. The particular effects of intemeuronal network at motor input (presynaptic inhibition system) and output (recurrent inhibition system) stages were then addressed. Fatigue of triceps surae muscle induced a suppression of the monosynaptic reflex. The intensity ofpresynaptic inhibition increased, while the intensity of recurrent inhibition decreased. Post fatigue-evoked changes in monosynaptic reflexes and presynaptic inhibition indicate the possibility that high-threshold afferents inhibit group la terminals pre-synaptically, which would allow fatigue-induced signals from the muscle to reduce the relevance of proprioceptive feedback. Besides intrasegmental, intersegmental spreading of nociceptive signals was explored. Activation of sensory arrerents from dorsal neck muscles by capsaicin induces powerful activation ofintemeurons located in the cervical spinal cord, as weIl as a widespre ad activation of cells in lumbar spinal cord segments.

    The results confirm the pivotal role of small diameter muscle afferents in the orchestration of segmental responses to fatigue and show complex interactions that may lead to limited accuracy of motor output. They also depict processes that may be related to, and even become precursors of chronic muscle pain.

  • 47.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Human muscle spindles: Complex morphology and structural organisation2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    lntroduction: Muscle spindIes are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that mediate the stretch reflex and provide axial and limb position information to the central nervous system. They

    have been proposed to playamajor role in the pathophysiology of muscle pain. Knowledge about the normal human muscle spindIes is needed in order to understand their role in muscle disease or dysfunction.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fiber content and MyHC composition of the muscle spindIes in the human biceps brachii (88) and deep muscles of the neck (DN); to determine whether there are age-related changes in human muscle spindIes with respect to structure and MyHC composition; to investigate the distribution of SERCA isoforms and to evaluate whether there is a coordinated expression of SERCA and MyHC isoforms in intrafusal fibers. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content correlates to contraction velocity and force and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) is a major determinant ofmuscle fiber relaxation velocity .

    Methods: Muscle specimens obtained from young and old subjects were serially sectioned and the pattem of distribution of different proteins along the length of the intrafusal fibers was revealed by immunocytochemistry .The MyHC content of single muscle spindIes was assessed with SDS-PAGE and immunoblots.

    Results: There were clear differences between 88 and DN with regard to the morphology and MyHC composition of muscle spindIes. Virtually each muscle spindIe in th~ 88, but not in the DN, had a unique allotment of numbers of bagl, bag2 and chain fibers. In DN, a number of muscle spindIes lacked either bagl or bag2 fibers. Four major MyHC isoforms (MyHCI, Ila, a.- cardiac and intrafusal) were detected by SDS-PAGE. In both 88 and DN, immunocytochemistry revealed co-expression of several MyHC isoforms in each intrafusal fiber and regional heterogeneity. 8oth nuclear bagl and bag2 fibers contained slow tonic MyHC uniformly and MyHCI, a.-cardiac, embryonic and fetal with regional variations. Nuclear chain fibers contained MyHCIla, embryonic and fetal and in the 88 also MyHCIIx.

    The total number of intrafusal fibers per spindIe decreased significantly with aging, due to a significant reduction in the number of nuclear chain fibers. The patterns of MyHC expression were also affected by aging.

    The bagl fibers predominantly contained both SERCA isoforms in the encapsulated region. The bag2 fibers were more heterogeneous in their SERCA composition and 16-27% of them lacked both isoforms. Chain fibers contained SERCAI. There was a poor correlation between the MyHC and SERCA isoforms in nuclear bag fibers, whereas a strong correlation existed between MyHCIla and SERCAI in the nuclear chain fibers.

    Conclusions: Human muscle spindles, each being unique, proved to be more complex than anticipated. The clear differences shown between the 88 and DN muscle spindIes suggest functional specialization in the control of movement among different human muscles. Aging apparently had profound effects on intrafusal fiber content and MyHC composition. The age- related changes in muscle spindIe phenotype may reflect deterioration in sensory and motor innervation and are likely to have a detrimental impact on motor control in the elderly.

  • 48.
    Ljungström, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö. Industriell ekonomi.
    Implementation of a Work Development Oriented Strategy for Continuous Improvements2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 49.
    Hast, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap. Datavetenskap.
    Improved Algorithms for Fast Shading and Lighting2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 50.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Neck function in rhythmic jaw activities2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies in animals and humans show anatomic and physiological connections between the trigeminal and cervical regions. This investigation tested the hypothesis of a functional integration between the human jaw and neck motor systems in rhythmic jaw activities. By means of a wireless optoelectronic 3-D movement recording system, spatiotemporal characteristics of mandibular and head-neck movements were studied during rhythmic jaw opening-closing and chewing tasks, in healthy and in individuals with pain and dysfunction in the jaw and neck region following neck trauma, Whiplash-associated Disorders (W AD). As a basis, a methodological study evaluated the applicability of skin and teeth attached reflex markers fixed to the lower jaw and to the head in optoelectronic recording of chewing movements. The results showed concomitant and coordinated mandibular and head movements during rhythmic jaw tasks. The start of the head movement generally preceded the start of the mandibular movement. For chewing, larger size and harder texture of bolus were associated with larger head extension and larger amplitude of both mandibular and head movements. Immobilization of the head by mechanical fixation deranged jaw motor behaviour with regard to speed and amplitude of mandibular movements. Even with head fixation, muscle activity was present in neck muscles during activities. Compared to healthy subjects, WAD individuals show ed smaller amplitudes and disturbed coordination of mandibular and head movements. Furthermore, a dynamic load test showed a reduced endurance during chewing in the W AD group. In conclusion, the results suggest that optimal jaw function requires free unrestricted head-neck movements and support the hypothesis of a close functional relationship between the jaw and the neck regions in rhythmic jaw activities. A new concept for human jaw function is proposed, in which "functional jaw movements" are the result of activation of jaw as weil as neck muscles, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. The finding of an association between neck injury and disturbed jaw behaviour suggest that assessment and management of neck injured patients should include jaw function.

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