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  • 1.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Simulated Long-term Thermal Performance of a Building That Utilizes a Heat Pump System and Borehole2008In: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, installation and use of heat pumps has grown rapidly in Sweden, to the extent that these mainly or partly heat roughly 25 % of the heated floor space in single-family houses. A majority are ground coupled where the heat exchanger is a borehole of 60-220 m depth. As the heat pump system operates, heat extraction will in time reduce borehole temperatures, rendering lowered efficiency of the heat pump system thus directly affecting its economical and environmental aspects. Within the building sector, durability and life performance dynamics of energy systems is often not reflected upon. System performance and efficiency is assumed to be static over time, changing only due to different operation scenarios. This paper serves to quantify the long-term thermal performance degradation of a component, in this case the borehole, and how the degradation of this component affects performance-over-time of an entire system, in this case the heating system of the building. A dynamic thermal simulation model is used to assess the long-term thermal performance of the borehole. The building, which the heat pump serves, is assumed to be a typical Swedish house with normal energy consumption. Simulation results show that the depth of the borehole is of great importance to limit over-time temperature drops. The efficiency of the heat pump system is directly dependent of temperatures in the borehole. How the overall system performance is affected by component performance degradation, is highlighted.

  • 2.
    Assefa, Getachew
    et al.
    School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Built Environment Analysis, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kindembe, Beatric
    White Arkitekter, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Myhr, Ulla
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Environmental assessment of building properties - where natural and social sciences meet: the case of EcoEffect2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 1458-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoEffect method of assessing external and internal impacts of building properties is briefly described. The external impacts of manufacturing and transport of the building materials, the generation of power and heat consumed during the operation phase are assessed using life-cycle methodology. Emissions and waste; natural resource depletion and toxic substances in building materials are accounted for. Here methodologies from natural sciences are employed. The internal impacts involve the assessment of the risk for discomfort and ill-being due to features and properties of both the indoor environment and outdoor environment within the boundary of the building properties. This risk is calculated based on data and information from questionnaires; measurements and inspection where methodologies mainly from social sciences are used. Life-cycle costs covering investment and utilities costs as well as maintenance costs summed up over the lifetime of the building are also calculated.

    The result presentation offers extensive layers of diagrams and data tables ranging from an aggregated diagram of environmental efficiency to quantitative indicators of different aspects and factors. Environmental efficiency provides a relative measure of the internal quality of a building property in relation to its external impact vis-à-vis its performance relative to other building properties.

  • 3.
    Aurusell, Louise
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Ytbehandling baserad på hampolja2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The varieties of paint are today very big, but many of the more popular paints are less than environmental friendly. The uses of fossilized fuel in paints are common because these paints dry fast and are color true. It would be beneficial for the environment if more renewable source were used to produce paint. Linseed oil is an old base for oil paints. It is renewable and easily procured. But linseed oils have some aspects that give it a bad reputation. There are problems with the slow drying and the color turning yellow when exposed to darkness for long periods of time. Researchers at KTH have connected the yellowing to linolenic acid, one of the common fatty acids in linseed oil (Svensson, M. Johansson, M, Stenberg, C. Samuelsson, J. 2003). Hempseed oil is also a drying oil like linseed, but hempseed oil contains a larger amount of the fatty acid linoleic acid and a smaller amount of linolenic acid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hempseed_oil). This might mean that oil paint based on hempseed-oil instead of linseed-oil might have fewer problems with yellowing.Experiments with the two oils have been executed side by side in order to compare results. Two oil paints have also been produced and tested. Test pieces painted with the two different oil paints were exposed to moisture, daylight and complete darkness and then compared.

  • 4.
    Bellander, Rickard
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Testing large samples of PCM in water calorimeter and PCM used in room applications by night-air cooling2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The latent-heat-storage capacity in Phase-Change Materials can be used for storing or releasing energy within a small temperature interval. Upon the phase transition taking place in a narrow temperature span, the material takes up or releases more energy compared to sensible heat storage. For an ideal phase-change material, the transition temperature is a single value, but for the most common phase-change materials on the market, used in building applications, the transition temperature is distributed within a temperature range of several degrees.

    Integration of phase-change materials in building applications can be effected in several ways, for example by impregnating phase-change materials into porous building materials like concrete, wallboards, bricks or complements of the building structure. Integrating storages filled with phase-change materials makes other implementations, for instance accumulating tanks or envelopes as presented in this thesis, in an air heat exchanger. An appropriate phasetransition temperature of the supposed application is critical to the functionality of the material. For example, in cooling applications, the transition temperature of the material should be a few degrees lower than the requested comfort temperature in the building, and the opposite for heating applications.

    In order to assess the thermal properties and the durability of the material, a watercalorimetric equipment was developed and employed in an accelerated testing programme. The heat capacity of the material and in particular possible change in the heat capacity over time, after thermal cycling of the material, were measured. In the thermal cycling of the material from solid to liquid phase, the temperature rise and required energy supply were recorded. The testing programme was undertaken according to control procedures and documents. In order to be able to utilize the heat-storage capacity in the best way, it is necessary to gain knowledge about thermal properties of the material, especially the long-term behaviour of the material and the deterioration rates of the thermal properties.

    A semi-full-scale air heat exchanger based on phase-change material was developed and tested under real temperature conditions during the summer of 2004. The test results were used to compare and verify computer simulations made on a similar plant. The air heat exchanger utilises the ambient diurnal temperature swing to charge and discharge the phasechange material. The material tested in the calorimeter and in the air heat exchanger has an estimated phase-change temperature of about 24 °C.

  • 5.
    Bellander, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Durability of outdoor exposed wood: a comparative study on a noise barrier2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In March 1996 nine test sections of a noise barrier were built along the Arlandaline in co-operation with Banverket, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Swedish National Testing Research Institute (SP), Beijer Bygg AB and different wood preservative manufactures.

    Each sections has an approximately length of 4 meters per section and a height of 3,1 meter. Three sections are made of non-treated pine, spruce and larch respectively. The rest of the sections are made of pine, treated with different wood preservations.

    The aim of this study is to find the most appropriate wood material for a specific construction, in this case a noise barrier, regard to durability and decomposition, and in the extension to find the most ecological and economic wood material. By comparing different wood species and preservations of wood regard to durability of outdoor exposed wood gives an indication of the most appropriate wood material to be chosen for this type of construction.

    The untreated spruce, pine and larch boards in contact with ground is in a bad condition, an assessed service life of about 5-15 years according to the results in this study, while the untreated wood above ground is hardly affected at all by biological attacks. No degradation is detected on the different preserved pine sections. More data is needed to assess the residual service life of the wood preserved sections.

  • 6. Bröchner, Jan
    et al.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Quality and coordination: Internationalizing Swedish building research2003In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 479-484Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of Swedish research finance was radically changed in 2001, and the present goals of research policy are that Sweden is to be a leading research nation, where research with a high scientific quality is conducted. However, the process of internationalizing Swedish building research leads to an issue of how international standards for scientific quality are applied and how Swedish researcher participation in industry initiatives and European framework programmes is supported. This issue is discussed against a background of a national system where research funding is indirectly and strongly linked to university teaching, which also means that research institutes are comparatively unimportant. International expansion of large firms in the construction industry has led to an increasing engagement with university research. However, the current process intended to guarantee high scientific quality in projects with national funding is inflexible and not fully compatible with what is required for industry and European research cooperation.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle; ACC Glasrådgivare, Stockholm.
    Wintzell, Helene
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Helene Wintzell AB.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Ohring, Ilari
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Miljöstrategisk analys – fms, KTH, Stockholm.
    Erlandsson, Malin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Stockholm.
    Lindholm, Torbjörn
    Installationsteknik, Chalmers, Göteborg.
    Andersson, Johnny
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Gävle.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    Installationsteknik, KTH, Stockholm.
    Testfasen i miljöklassningsprojekten: Delrapport september 20072007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en redovisning av resultat och underlag i testfasen imiljöklassningsprojekten.

    I januari 2005 inleddes tre forskningsprojekt med målet att föreslå ettsystem för miljöklassning av byggnader. Forskningsprojekten har engemensam projektgrupp där 27 företag ingår. Syftet med projekten är attta fram förslag till indikatorer och kriterier för klassning inom områdenaenergi, innemiljö och farliga ämnen. Projekten avslutas hösten 2007.

    Under perioden december 2006 – mars 2007 genomfördes ett test avflera alternativa förslag till indikatorer. Testet utfördes i nära samverkanmed 16 företag från projektgruppen och ytterligare 10 bostadsrättföreningaroch 6 småhusägare. Sammanlagt ingick 46 byggnader av olika typ(flerbostadshus, kontor, sjukhus, småhus etc.).

    Testet utfördes genom att företag, föreningar och småhusägare samladein nödvändiga data för klassning av ett antal preliminära indikatorer. Defick också svara på frågor om prioritering av aspekter, indikatorer ochvilka resurser som krävdes.

    Insamlingen av mätdata kompletterades sedan med intervjuer för att fåin ytterligare information och synpunkter.

    Denna rapport innehåller resultat i form av:

    • Indata från dem som testat.
    • Försök till klassning av respektive byggnad.
    • Synpunkter på genomförandet av testningen.
    • Synpunkter på klassningssystemet.

    Dessutom ingick en studie av kopplingen mellan energideklarationer ochmiljöklassning. Några av byggnaderna energideklarerades och dessa datajämfördes med vad som behövs för miljöklassning.

    Rapporten innehåller samtliga dokument från testningen och kommeratt vara ett viktigt underlag i det fortsatta arbetet. Under hösten 2007kommer ett förslag till klassningssystem att presenteras.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Description of test houses, data logging systems and user guides: Deliverable D4b, "Endothermic Technology for Energy Efficient Housing in the EU". NNE5-2001-005652006Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Carlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Feedback from a group of End Users: Deliverable D9e, "Endothermic Technology for Energy Efficient Housing in the EU", NNES-2001-005652007Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Carlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Prototype Endohouses in the EU: Deliverable D4a, "Endothermic Technology for Energy Efficient Housing in the EU", NNE5-2001-005652005Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Carlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Validation of Lifecon LMS and recommendations for further development: Deliverable D6.4, "Life Cycle Management of Concrete Infrastructures for Improved Sustainability", G1RD-CT-2000-0037882004Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Carlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Abrahamsson, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Farliga ämnen2006In: Farliga och miljöstörande material i hus: guidebok om förekomst och hantering / [ed] Dag Lundblad, Stockholm: Formas , 2006, p. 49-53/-61-62Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Assefa, Getachew
    Industrial Ecology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research - FMS, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    What life-cycle assessment does and does not do in assessments of waste management2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 989-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessments of the environmental impacts of waste management, life-cycle assessment (LCA) helps expanding the perspective beyond the waste management system. This is important, since the indirect environmental impacts caused by surrounding systems, such as energy and material production, often override the direct impacts of the waste management system itself. However, the applicability of LCA for waste management planning and policy-making is restricted by certain limitations, some of which are characteristics inherent to LCA methodology as such, and some of which are relevant specifically in the context of waste management. Several of them are relevant also for other types of systems analysis. We have identified and discussed such characteristics with regard to how they may restrict the applicability of LCA in the context of waste management. Efforts to improve LCA with regard to these aspects are also described. We also identify what other tools are available for investigating issues that cannot be adequately dealt with by traditional LCA models, and discuss whether LCA methodology should be expanded rather than complemented by other tools to increase its scope and applicability.

  • 14.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Westerberg, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet. Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Urban Climate Group, Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city2007In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 82, no 1-2, p. 72-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four urban public spaces, representing various designs and microclimates, were investigated in Gothenburg, Sweden, in order to estimate how weather and microclimate affect people in urban outdoor environments. The research strategy was both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary and included scientists from three disciplines: architecture, climatology and psychology. The project is based on common case studies carried out during four seasons, including measurements of meteorological variables, interviews and observations of human activity at each place. Multiple regression analysis of meteorological and behavioural data showed that air temperature, wind speed and clearness index (cloud cover) have a significant influence on people's assessments of the weather, place perceptions and place-related attendance. The results support the arguments in favour of employing climate sensitive planning in future urban design and planning projects, as the physical component of a place can be designed to influence the site-specific microclimate and consequently people's place-related attendance, perceptions and emotions.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    EU-project ENV4-CT98-0796 D02.01 Summary report on environmental damages2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    EU-project ENV4_CT-98-0796 D02.01 WST Environmental Damage Wood Surface Treatment2000Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    EU-project ENV4-CT98-0796 D04.02b ERFM Report Swedish demonstrator2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Waldum, Alf
    Riks, Eva
    Andersson, Tord
    Andersen, Heidi
    Albatici, Rossano
    A PC based system for maintenance management of buildings: Description of the damage atlases2001In: CIB World Building Congress: Performance in Product and Practice 2nd - 6th April 2001, Wellington, New Zealand, 2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The EU-project ENV4-CT98-0796 MMWood has the following objective: To develop and validate for the SMEs an integrated Maintenance and management system for historic (wooden) buildings, adapted to the needs and purposes of various user group levels. The system will specifically contain - A documentation system for outer and inner parts of historic (wooden) building parts and components. - Soft- and hardware tools for the building inspection in the course of maintenance tasks, - an environmental risk factor assessment module, - a standardized maintenance assessment module based on complementation of the Wood-Assess process of assessing the symptoms, causes, effects, consequences, risks and remedial actions for environmental damages to the historic buildings and - a cost and maintenance planning module. In the project Damage Atlases for the following materials are given: Wood (including Surface Treatment), Adjoining Materials in Wood Constructions, Rendering, Brick and Natural Stone. These Damage Atlases use the same general layout, following closely the guidelines and protocol developed in a previous EU-project with the acronym "Wood-Assess". The general layout given for these damages is built up with the following questions: - Type of material; - Description of the symptom; - Investigation methods; - Condition degrees referred to pictures; - Extent of the symptom; - Possible causes/degradation agents; - Total condition degree; - Consequences and risks; - Recommended actions. In this paper the general layout of these Damage Atlases is extensively described and included are also some examples of the treated damages. These Damage Atlases are also put into the PC-based maintenance and management system developed in the same project (a first version was developed in the Wood-Assess project ENV4-CT95-0110, which was reported in some detail in the previous CIB congress in Gavle).

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Westberg, Kjell
    Use of measured climatic data to estimate the micro environment at buildings2000In: ILCDES 2000 Helsinki, Finland, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    A large part of the building stock and infrastructure will sooner or later fa11 into disrepair and make the economic and the cultural costs significant due to deficient maintenance. To make the maintenance more efficient and reduce the costs there is a need to predict the service life of building components and materials. In order to estimate the service life of a building component or material the environmental impact as well as the dose-response function must be known. Many dose-response functions are today available and in this paper we focus on the estimation of the environmental impact. In many countries meteorological measurements have been performed for several years and on many locations. In Sweden meteorological data can be collected for, in principle, any time period in the second half of the century and for several different locations. The number of climatic stations has gradually increased since the first measurements started in the 1860ies and is today around 900. The measured climatic data must be transformed into the actual impact ont0 different building materials. In order to perform such transformations the surroundings of the building as well as the building itself must be considered. Such calculations have been performed using the European standard prEN 13013-3 and measurements with the Wetcorr technique on a building in the central Gavle, Berggrenska garden. We have used climatic data measured at the official meteorological station north of Gavle, mainly focussing on precipitation and wind.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Department of Urban Planning and Environment, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Plastic waste as a fuel - CO2-neutral or not?2009In: Energy and Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, Vol. 2, no 9, p. 907-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is not only a societal problem addressed with environmental impact, it is also a resource that can be used for energy supply. In Northern Europe combustion of MSW (incineration with energy recovery) in combination with district heating systems is quite common. In Sweden, about 47 % of the household waste is treated by incineration with energy recovery. Most incineration plants are CHP, summing up to 0.3 % of the total electricity generation. MSW is to a high extent a renewable fuel, but plastic, rubber etc. can amount to 50 % of the carbon content in the waste. Recycling of plastic is in general environmentally favourable in comparison to landfill disposal or incineration. However, some plastic types are not possible to recycle and some plastic has such low quality that it is not suited for recycling. This paper focuses on the non-renewable and non-recyclable plastic in the MSW. A CO2 assessment has been made for non-recyclable plastic where incineration with energy recovery has been compared to landfill disposal. In the assessment, consideration has been taken to alternative fuel in the incinerator, emissions from waste treatment and avoided emissions from heat and power supply.

     

    For landfill disposal of plastic the emissions of CO2 amounts to 253 g/kg plastic. For incineration, depending on different discrete choices, the results vary from -673 g/kg to 4 605 g/kg. Results indicate that for typical Swedish and European conditions, incineration of plastics has net emissions of greenhouse gases. These emissions are also in general higher for incineration than for landfill disposal. However in situations where plastics are incinerated with high efficiency and high electricity to heat ratios, and the heat and the electricity from incineration of plastics are replacing heat and electricity in non-combined heat and power plants based on fossil fuels, incineration of plastics can give a net negative contribution of greenhouse gases. The results suggests that efforts should be made to increase recycling of plastics, direct incineration of plastics to places where it can be combusted with high efficiencies and high electricity-to-heat ratios where it is replacing fossil fuels, and reconsider the present policies of avoiding landfill disposal of plastics.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental Strategies Research—fms, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of fuels for district heating: a comparison of waste incineration, biomass- and natural gas combustion2007In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 1346-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is to compare district heating based on waste incineration with combustion of biomass or natural gas. The study comprises two options for energy recovery (combined heat and power (CHP) or heat only), two alternatives for external, marginal electricity generation (fossil lean or intense), and two alternatives for the alternative waste management (landfill disposal or material recovery). A secondary objective was to test a combination of dynamic energy system modelling and LCA by combining the concept of complex marginal electricity production in a static, environmental systems analysis. Furthermore, we wanted to increase the methodological knowledge about how waste can be environmentally compared to other fuels in district-heat production. The results indicate that combustion of biofuel in a CHP is environmentally favourable and robust with respect to the avoided type of electricity and waste management. Waste incineration is often (but not always) the preferable choice when incineration substitutes landfill disposal of waste. It is however, never the best choice (and often the worst) when incineration substitutes recycling. A natural gas fired CHP is an alternative of interest if marginal electricity has a high fossil content. However, if the marginal electricity is mainly based on non-fossil sources, natural gas is in general worse than biofuels. 

  • 22.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - fms, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson Reich, Marcus
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörbom, Adrienne
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden2007In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 27, no 8, p. S1-S8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment of solid waste continues to be on the political agenda. Waste disposal issues are often viewed from an environmental perspective, but economic and social aspects also need to be considered when deciding on waste strategies and policy instruments. The aim of this paper is to suggest flexible and robust strategies for waste management in Sweden, and to discuss different policy instruments. Emphasis is on environmental aspects, but social and economic aspects are also considered. The results show that most waste treatment methods have a role to play in a robust and flexible integrated waste management system, and that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb from an environmental perspective. A review of social aspects shows that there is a general willingness among people to source separate wastes. A package of policy instruments can include landfill tax, an incineration tax which is differentiated with respect to the content of fossil fuels and a weight based incineration tax, as well as support to the use of biogas and recycled materials.

  • 23.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys; Institutionen för miljöstrategiska studier, FOI, Stockholm. .
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Carlsson Reich, Markus
    Naturvårdsverket, Stockholm .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sörblom, Adrienne
    Sociologiska Institutionen, Stockholm, Stockholms Universitet.
    Robusta och flexibla strategier för utnyttjande av energi ur avfall2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avfallsfrågor engagerar. Det är någonting som berör människor i deras vardag och det är kanske ett skäl till att vi då och då får uppblossande debatter om hur vi ska hantera avfall. Beslut och investeringar inom avfallsområdet kan få långsiktiga konsekvenser. En avfallsförbränningspanna är exempelvis en stor och långsiktig investering. Samtidigt lever vi i en föränderlig värld. Avfallspolitiken har förändrats både i Sverige och internationellt och man kan förvänta sig fortsatta förändringar. Kombinationen av långsiktiga beslut med en osäker framtid och det engagemang som finns kring avfallsfrågor, gör det intressant att söka lösningar som är flexibla och robusta. Med flexibla menar vi att de bör kunna anpassas efter eventuella förändringar i omgivningen så att man inte bygger in sig i återvändsgränder. Med robusta menar vi dels att lösningarna och strategierna ska vara någorlunda bra i olika tänkbara framtidsscenarier, dels att de är någorlunda bra både med avseende på miljöfaktorer, ekonomiska aspekter och att det finns en social acceptans för dem. En utgångspunkt är alltså att lösningar som bara uppfyller kraven för en eller ett par av dessa dimensioner inte är intressanta. Den här rapporten har som syfte att sammanfatta och syntetisera resultaten från ett flerårigt projekt finansierat av Energimyndigheten. Syftet med projektet var att diskutera och föreslå flexibla och robusta strategier för utnyttjande av energi ur avfall.

    I rapporten görs en genomgång av ett antal olika studier där man har jämfört återvinning med förbränning, biologisk behandling och deponering. Jämförelserna görs med avseende på miljöegenskaper samt ekonomi. Vidare redovisas en genomgång av beteendevetenskapliga studier. Bland slutsatserna finns att en robust avfallsstrategi bör innehålla dessa komponenter:

    • en ökning av materialåtervinning exempelvis av plaster, papper, metaller och glas
    • förbränning av sådant som kan klassas som biobränslen
    • förbränningsanläggningar bör vara utrustade för kraftvärme och för att kunna ta emot en varierad blandning av fasta bränslen
    • deponering av avfall som ej kan behandlas på annat sätt och möjligen av svårnedbrytbara plaster
    • rötning av vissa väldefinierade fraktioner
    • lättillgänglig källsortering hos konsumenter
    • ökad källsortering i näringslivet Inom avfallsområdet finns det ett antal olika styrmedel.

    Samtidigt kan man notera att det finns luckor i styrmedelspaketen. Förutom producentansvaret finns exempelvis inga styrmedel som styr mot ökad återvinning av material. Vidare finns det få styrmedel som tydligt styr mot minskade avfallsmängder. Det finns därför ett behov av nytänkande inom styrmedelsområdet. En kombination av ekonomiska styrmedel som styr mot uppsatta miljömål skulle sammanfattningsvis kunna vara:

    • En förbränningsskatt som jämställer beskattningen av de fossila delarna av avfall med andra fossila bränslen och som ger undantag för avfall med biologiskt ursprung.
    • En viktsbaserad förbränningsskatt som styr mot ökad återvinning av papper samt biologisk behandling.
    • En motsvarande ökning av deponiskatten.
    • Ett stöd till biogasanvändning.

    För att öka källsorteringen bör de ekonomiska styrmedlena slå igenom även hos konsumenterna. Man bör dock inte bara använda ekonomiska styrmedel utan även arbeta med information, stödjande fysiska strukturer (exempelvis fastighetsnära insamlingssystem) samt 4utforska olika typer av positiva styrmedel t.ex. olika former av bonus- eller återbäringssystem. Styrmedel behöver också riktas mot olika delar av näringslivet för att stimulera deras källsortering.

  • 24.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sustainability – different assessment methods give different answers2006In: Action for Sustainability: Sweden builds for the future / [ed] Gabrielle Waldén, GW Information, Stockholm: Formas , 2006, p. 19-23Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A bulding specially designed to be sustainable, Holmen, in the new development area Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm, has been studied with three different environmental assesment methods. The ideas of the client and the City of Stockholm are compared with the assessment result.

  • 25.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH.
    Borg, Ruben Paul
    University of Malta.
    Basic LCA Application: Residential Building Case study - Gronskar, Sweden2008In: Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approach to Life-time Structural Engineering COST Action C25 Proceedings of Seminar: Dresden 6, 7 October 2008 / [ed] Braganca et al, Cost Action C25: Addprint AG, Possendorf , 2008, p. 5:18-5:29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to provide a basic introduction to the application of life cycle thinking in building design. This is achieved through the development of a basic MS Excel tool, and applying it to a specific case study. The application of the tool to a new building is intended to illustrate its practical application and its potential as a basis for the choice of energy system and building technology with low environmental impact. The building, Gronskar, referred to in the case study was built by Skanska in Sweden, and is based on the “Moderna hus” concept, with the underlying principle of designing and constructing new efficient residential buildings. The tool is also intended to offer the necessary flexibility in view of the specific circumstances of different countries and available data.  Furthermore the platform chosen allows for potential further development by users.

  • 26.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH.
    Kindembe, Beatrice
    KTH.
    Norrman Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse: extern miljöpåverkan, beskrivning av olika miljöpåverkanskategorier2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här skriften utgör till största delen en översiktlig beskrivning av de miljöproblem som den moderna människans livsföring bidrar till att skapa i sin omgivning och hur samhället arbetar för att motverka dessa. Syftet är att ge en allmän förståelse för dessa miljöproblem och vad de orsakas av samt peka på vilka förändringar som krävs för att undvika eller eliminera dem. Varje kapitel är disponerat på samma sätt med problembeskrivning, mekanismer, den historiska utvecklingen, problemets omfattning, påverkan på människor samt underlag för EcoEffect-beräkningar. Denna allmänna bild har varit nödvändig att ta fram för att utveckla EcoEffect-metoden, som används för att analysera miljöpåverkan från byggande och användning av byggnader. Miljöproblemen som beskrivs är emellertid inte unika för byggsektorn utan gäller i olika grad också alla andra verksamheter i samhället. Därför bör beskrivningarna i rapporten även kunna vara av intresse för andra som vill tillägna sig en grundläggande förståelse för dagens stora miljöproblem. Rapporten utgör samtidigt en redovisning av det beräkningsunderlag som används för att göra miljöbedömningar i EcoEffect. Dessa uppgifter sammanfattas i slutet av varje kapitel och behöver således inte läsas av personer som inte är intresserade av EcoEffect metoden. Dataredovisningen är disponerad efter beräkningarna i EcoEffect som därför sammanfattas här.

  • 27.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Kahraman, Ilker
    Yasar University, Turkey.
    Basic life time conserations in design of buildings and constructions2009In: Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approach to Life-time structural Egineering. Proceedings of Workshop, Yimisoara, 23-24 October 2009 / [ed] Braganca L et al, Cost , 2009, p. 333-353Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse - EcoEffect metoden: bakgrund och sammanfattande beskrivning2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under beteckningen ”Miljövärdering av bebyggelse” utvecklas metoder att karaktärisera eller ”mäta” miljöanpassningen och den ekologiska uthålligheten hos bebyggelse. EcoEffect-metoden är en sådan metod som utvecklats vid KTH och Högskolan i Gävle med stöd av Formas, SBUF och en rad företag och organisationer inom byggsektorn.

    Syftet med EcoEffect-metoden är att:

    • kvantitativt beskriva miljö- och hälsopåverkan från fastigheter och bebyggelse

    • ge underlag för jämförelser och beslut som kan leda till minskad miljöpåverkan

    Metoden vänder sig i första hand till beslutsfattare som planlägger, beställer, projekterar och förvaltar bebyggelse. Ett datorverktyg har utvecklats inom pro-jektet som tillsammans med s.k. arbetsblad utgör redskap för att praktiskt an-vända sig av EcoEffect-metoden.

    EcoEffect-metoden tar ett helhetsgrepp om miljöfrågorna genom att parallellt behandla områdena: Energianvändning, Materialanvändning, Innemiljö, Ute-miljö samt Livscykelkostnader. Inom varje område görs miljövärderingen för ett antal olika påverkanskategorier, t.ex. klimatpåverkan, försurning, övergöd-ning, buller, allergipåverkan etc. Strävan har varit att så långt som möjligt kvantifiera fastigheters/byggnaders bidrag till olika miljöproblem.

    En annan ambition har varit att EcoEffect-resultaten skall vara lättbegripliga och att underliggande förutsättningar och ställningstaganden ska vara lätta att få fram. Metoden är idag utvecklad för flerbostadshus, kontor och skolor.

    Den här rapporten beskriver huvuddragen i metoden, hur man kan tillämpa den och använda datorprogrammet. Det finns ytterligare fem mer detaljerade rapporter samt en bilagsdel med tabeller, enkäter mm.

  • 29.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH.
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse: metodbeskrivning EcoEffect-metoden2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental assessment in EcoEffect covers internal and external impact. Assessment of internal impact aims at giving a measure of the risk that people who stay in a building or on an estate will be subjected to nuisance caused by the surrounding environment. Assessment of external impact aims at giving a measure of the contribution to negative impact on health and comfort anywhere caused by the use of a real estate, building or building product. Environmental loads are calculated as equivalents contributing to different environmental effects. Aggregated measures are presented as %, which shows the environmental load of the product per user divided by the corresponding load per capita in the country. Environmental loads may also be shown per product or per m2 floor area. At both external and internal assessment is impact of health and comfort the basis for the evaluation: Also problems occurring in the natural environment, as lack of biologic diversity, are interpreted as problems for man. The size of the negative impact is measured as decreased quality of life with respect to certain components used in social medicine. They are: Mobility, Self-care, Daily activities, Pain, Depression and Cognition. Every kind of negative impact taken into account is classified with reference to these components and a disability weight based on the mean value is calculated for each of them. A “damage value” is then calculated for each impact, which equals the disability weight multiplied by the disability time. This concept may be called a further development of the DALY system (Disability Adjusted Life Years). A damage value, which shows the relative significance of any impact, can be calculated in this way. They are used as weights when different kinds of impacts are aggregated. This report describes the calculation of environmental loads, disability weights and damage values for both internal and external impacts in EcoEffect. Also the basis for the development work is reviewed. The method is new and can be applied systematically on all kinds of environmental impacts causing physical or psychological nuisance.

  • 30.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Miljövärdering av bebyggelse: metodbeskrivning för EcoEffect2005Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Carlson, Per-Olof
    Erlandsson, Martin
    Andersson, Johnny
    Winzell, Helene
    Finnveden, Göran
    Lindholm, Torbjörn
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    Miljöklassning av byggnader: Slutrapport april 20082008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Den här rapporten presenterar en metod för att miljöklassa byggnader med avseende på energi, innemiljö och kemiska ämnen. Rapporten presenterar också några särskilda miljökrav för byggnader med eget VA-system.

    Det övergripande syftet med ett nationellt miljöklassningssystem är att bidra till en hållbar bygg- och fastighetssektor. Arbetet ska resultera i en praktiskt tillämpbar metod för miljöklassning av byggnader som är väl förankrad i byggsektorn och hos myndigheterna. En allmänt accepterad miljöklassning av yggnader kan bli ett starkt incitament för byggherrar, fastighetsägare, fastighetsförvaltare och bebyggelsens användare att påskynda en utveckling mot en miljöanpassad och hälsoinriktad byggsektor.

    En av de viktigaste utgångspunkterna för arbetet med att ta fram ett miljöklassningssystem har varit Bygga-bo-dialogens1 mål att alla nya hus och 30 procent av det befintliga byggnadsbeståndet ska vara miljöklassade senast år 2009. Denna ambition har medfört att enkelhet har varit ett viktigt mål för miljöklassningsarbetet. Balansen mellan trovärdighet och

    enkelhet har varit viktigt för arbetet.

  • 32.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sundqvist, Åsa
    Finnveden, Göran
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Development of an Environmental Classification System for Buildings through a New Kind of Dialogue between Stakeholders and Researchers.2006In: Environment, health and sustainable development: IAPS 19 Conference Proceedings on CD-Rom / [ed] Mustafa K. Tolba, Aleya Abdel-Hadi, Salah Soliman, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and Objectives: The objective of this research project is to develop a system for environmental classifications of buildings, taking into account the building sector's requirements and expectations as well as international and national research findings. The classification system will deal with both new and existing buildings and will encompass indoor environment, efficient use of energy, efficient resource management and hazardous substances. The aim of this paper is to present, discuss and draw conclusions from the first research phase of the project.Context: The building sector is responsible for about 40% of all of energy and material use in Sweden and hence needs to become more sustainable. Major stakeholders in the Swedish building and property sector, including the Swedish government, municipalities and companies, have for the first time started a coordinated work to achieve a more sustainable building sector. This effort, called the dialogue project, embrace a number of commitments for each participant. One of these is to promote that all new buildings and 30% of the existing ones should be classified with respect to health and environmental impact before 2010. A general and broadly accepted system for classification of environmental performance is expected to have a large impact on management, retrofit and new designs. In accordance with this aim two research & development projects were initiated.Method: The classification system is developed by researchers in collaboration with a group of companies and municipalities who support the work practically and financially. They participate in seminars and interviews and they will test modules of the classification system along the development process. The first phase of the project has included a number of inventories: inventory of current bills, legislation and policy targets relating to environmental impact in the building sector; Interviews with key informants representing authorities and stakeholders ; inventory of national and international tools for environmental assessment of buildingsConclusions: The result will focus on conclusions from the inventories seen from three different points of views - demands from the society, demands from the sector and scientific demands. To which extent they are in harmony or contradictory will be examined. Finally some key features and elements of the anticipated classification system will be extracted and presented.

  • 33.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH Miljöstrategisk Analys.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Development of an environmental rating tool for buildings through a new kind of dialogue between stakeholders and researchers2009In: ArchNet - I J A R, ISSN 1938-7806, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 116-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Study of international policies, Sweden: National initiatives for reducing the environmental impact of the building sector2006Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Glaumann, Mauritz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Survey of sustainable approaches in Sweden2008In: Sustainability of Constructions: Integrated Approch to Life-time Structural Egineering / [ed] Braganca L et al, Possendorf: Addprint AG , 2008, p. 2:78-2:95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Cole, Ivan
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Esposito, M. A.
    Geographical Information Systems for Sustainable Management of Built Environment2004In: Building for the Future: The 16th CIB World Building Congress 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building and construction sector all features are location based. The world of geographic information and application orientation is moving extremely fast, and there is a real danger that the slow uptake of new technology and applications in the building sector will again leave the sector trailing behind, also implying a loss in sustainable development and competitive edge. In order to deal with this issue CIB in 1996 established the task group CIB/TG20-GIS. Based on the report CIB 256 from this group and its recommendations, CIB in 2000 established the working commission CIB W106 "Geographical Information Systems", with the overall objectives to provide an international platform for R and D of GIS in the building sector. The W106 has members from 14 countries/organisations and will present its progress report at this Congress, while its final report with conclusions and recommendations is due for the 10DBMC conference in 2005. The work is divided into the following four Tasks: TG1 - GIS-requirements and availability of geographic standards-, data and infra-structures, TG2 - GIS-based analysis and modelling of flow and distribution of materials in the built environment, TG3 - Spatial dynamic modelling for simulation of the interaction between the natural and the built environment, TG4 - GIS in Education and Info sources. Objectives and work programme for each of these tasks are given and illustrated with examples, taken from state-of-the-art reports on the use of GIS elaborated by the participating countries/organisations.

  • 37.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Cole, Ivan
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Esposito, M. A.
    Vanier, D. J.
    CIB W106 Geographical Information Systems: Work Period Report2005In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components: Lyon, France, 17-20 April 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building and construction sector all features are location based. The world of geographic information and application orientation is moving extremely fast, thus challenging the building sector to facilitate and implement this new technology and applications. In order to deal with these issues CIB in 1996 established the task group CIB/TG20-GIS. Based on the report CIB 256 from this group and its recommendations, CIB in 2000 established the working commission CIB W106 - Geographical Information Systems., with the overall objectives to provide an international platform for R&D of GIS applications for the built environment, and to promote and encourage the use of GIS in the building sector. The W106 has members from 14 countries/organisations and will present its final report for work period 2001-04 due for the 10DBMC conference in 2005. The work is divided into the following four Tasks: TG1- GIS-requirements and availability of geographic standards-, -data and infra -structures, TG2- GIS-based analysis and modelling of flow and distribution of materials in the built environment, TG3- Spatial dynamic modelling for Simulation of the interaction between the natural and the built environment, TG4- GIS in Education and Info sources. Objectives and work programme for each of these tasks are given and illustrated with examples, taken from state .of-the-art reports on the use of GIS elaborated by the participating countries/organisations. With the rapid development of IFC based standards for digital object oriented models of building products there is a huge need for property sets, such as environmental exposure data, reference service life, service life models, factor distributions, LCA and LCC data, which can be linked directly to the building elements. The significant drive within the AEC/IFC to provide for relevant location based data (GIS) via IFC format will be a major facilitator for access to relevant durability data on the specific building site. It is concluded that time is ripe for a broad implementation of GIS based applications in the building sector. Hence, it is recommended that the work programme of W106 for the coming working period includes a focus on support for an IFC based fully integrated design and planning process for the built environment, as well as a close link to the European based R&D frameworks for integrated life cycle management of the built environment.

  • 38.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Gussiås, Arne
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Life Cycle Management of Built Environment: An ICT based concept and some Cases2004In: Proc. of CIB World Building Congress, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Lisö, K. R.
    Thiis, T.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Environmental Characterisation and Mapping with respect to Durability2005In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Service life planning calls for characterisation and classification of the exposure environment for the constructed asset(s) in question. Lack of knowledge of environmental exposure data and models among the building sector players is an important barrier for further progress towards service life prediction. The ever more evident climate change highlights even more the need for data and models on the exposure, when it comes to address its impact on the built environment. In general, requirements for establishing and implementing systems for quantitative characterisation and classification of durability of materials and components are: 1) well defined, and relatively simple damage functions for the materials in question, 2) availability of environmental exposure data/loads, including methods and models for assessing their geographical distribution, and 3) user friendly IT systems for storage, processing and modelling the environmental loads onto structures. Service life functions related to environmental degradation are today available for a range of building materials and components. As for availability of environmental data and models, as well as proper IT systems, it is shown that for most European countries, such data and models are available from meteorological offices and the environmental research area, and that these data and the work performed are directly applicable for service life planning and life cycle management of constructed assets. A short review of some of the most applicable models for environmental exposure and for degradation and damage of building materials and structures is included. The global climate system is likely to undergo changes, regardless of the implementation of abatement policies under the Kyoto Protocol or other regimes. Both the functionality of the existing built environment and the design of future buildings are likely to be altered by climate change impacts, and the expected implications of these new conditions are now investigated. The data and models are often directly exhibited in computer-based systems, often on GIS based platforms. With the rapid development of IFC based standards for digital object oriented models of building products there is a huge need for property sets, such as durability and service life data, linked directly to the building elements. The significant drive within the AEC/IFC community to provide for relevant location based data (GIS) via IFC format will be a major facilitator for access to site specific durability data, described by degradation models containing environmental (and other) degradation factors.

  • 40.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    Quantitative characterisation and classification of environmental degradation loads2006In: Predictive and Optimised Life Cycle Management: Buildings and Infrastructure / [ed] Asko Sarja, London: Taylor & Francis , 2006, p. 300-337Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Haagenrud, Svein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stordahl, Petter
    Eriksson, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Riks, Eva
    Krigsvoll, Guri
    A PC based system for maintenance management of buildings: General description2001Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Europe's rich culture in wooden buildings are rapidly degrading due to environmental impact, wrong conservation techniques and lack of resources and technological tools for appropriate conservation. These issues were addressed in the former EU-project ENV4-CT95-0110 Wood-Assess , which has been finalised (Haagenrud et al, 1999). In a new EU-project MMWood (ENV4-CT-98-0796) a PC-based system for maintenance management of buildings has been developed. The project had the following objectives: To develop and validate for the SMEs an integrated Maintenance Management system for historic buildings, adapted to the needs and purposes of various user group levels. Based on the Wood-Assess concept and results the modular GIS (Geographical Information System) based system, MMWood, will specifically contain - A documentation system for outer and inner parts of buildings and components; - Soft- and hardware tools for the building inspection in the course of maintenance tasks; - An environmental risk factor assessment module; - A standardized maintenance assessment module; - A cost and maintenance planning module. Main developments from the Wood-Assess project are the inclusion of the maintenance management phase, extension of the damage atlas to include also adjoining materials in wood constructions, rendering, brick and natural stone, and a fully integrated field inspection system, allowing the user to import/export all background and recorded data between the field inspection and the total maintenance management system.

  • 42.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Adaptation and validation of a predictive GIS based maintenance management system2003In: Innovation in Construction and Real Estate: proceedings of the CIB Student Chapters International Symposium, Department of Building and Real Estate, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 26-27th September, 2003, Hongkong: Hong Kong Polytechnic University , 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of deteriorating civil engineering structures and buildings are constantly growing. This ongoing process will make a great impact on resources, environment, human safety and health. Today there is a need of a uniform methodology and systems for maintenance organisation and management.

    To manage such issues above two consecutive EU-projects were launched. The EU-project ENV4-CT95-0110 “System and Methods for Assessing Conservation State and Environmental Risks for Outer Wooden Parts of Cultural Buildings” (Wood-Assess) and its successor ENV4-CT98-0796 “System for Maintenance Management of Historic (Wooden) Buildings” (MMWood) achieved all the objectives and resulted in a Maintenance Management System (MMS) version 1.0 software application. The MMS was heavily developed according to the ISO 15686 series “Service life planning” requirements.

    A predictive GIS based Maintenance Management System has to correspond to the user needs and co-operate with other systems. It is also of great importance that the system is corresponding to the user-, national- and international standards. To fulfil those requirements the system has to be open and integrative and must cope with adaptations and adjustments of the system.

    The MMS software application will be the kernel in the ongoing development of the more comprehensive Life Cycle Management System (LMS). It is therefore important to make sure that the MMS is adaptable to LMS and cope with add-in modules.

    By using a slab bridge located in the City of Gävle, Sweden, the adaptation and validation of MMS was executed. The MMS enables systematic structuring of assets and condition assessments of buildings and structures and does also manage to link pictures, drawings, maps, geographic information system (GIS) functionalities and documents. The system administrator does some part of the adaptation and some part has to be adapted by the user himself.

    In the near future the MMS will be able to cope with life cycle cost (LCC), life cycle performance (LCP) and life cycle ecology (LCE) add-in applications to achieve full LMS status.

  • 43.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Application of a non-steady state model for estimation of Time of Wetness2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Moisture is of great importance due to a number of degradation processes. The moisture either accelerates or reduces the degradation velocity depending on the degradation mechanism and material. The degradation of building materials is thus dependent on the time during when the material is exposed to moisture. A model of how the time of wetness on a surface will vary, due to different climate conditions including impact of rain and solar radiation, is developed and presented. Due to the results of some test runs of the developed model, not surprising, both wind and the colour of the surface will have an impact on the time of wetness on a non-hygroscopic surface. However, the model is only tested during some specific climatic conditions and has to be tested in several different climatic conditions with real climatic data of rain and wind.

  • 44.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Development and Adaptation of a Life Cycle Management System for Constructed Works2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifetime Engineering (or Life Cycle Engineering) is a technical approach for meeting the

    current objective of sustainable development. The approach is aimed to turn today’s reactive

    and short-term design, management and maintenance planning towards an optimised and

    long-term technical approach. The life cycle based management and maintenance planning

    approach includes condition assessment, predictive modelling of performance changes,

    maintenance, repair and refurbishment planning and decisions. The Life Cycle Management

    System (LMS) is a predictive and generic life cycle based management system aimed to

    support all types of decision making and planning of optimal maintenance, repair and

    refurbishment activities of any constructed works. The system takes into account a number of

    aspects in sustainable and conscious development such as human requirements, life cycle

    economy, life cycle ecology and cultural requirements. The LMS is a system by which the

    complete system or parts thereof, works in co-operation or as a complement to existing

    business support systems. The system is module based where each module represents a subprocess

    within the maintenance management process. The scope of this thesis is focused on

    development and adaptation of the predictive characteristic of LMS towards a presumptive

    user. The objective is to develop and adapt a Service Life Performance Analysis module

    applicable for condition based Facility Management System in general and for condition

    based Bridge Management System in particular. Emphasis is placed on development and

    adaptation of a conditional probability based Service Life Performance Analysis model in

    which degradation models and Markov chains play a decisive role. The thesis deals also with

    development and adaptation of environmental exposure data recording and processing, with

    special emphasis on quantitative environmental classification in order to provide a simplified

    method of Service Life Performance Analysis.

  • 45.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Development and Adaptation of a Life Cycle Management System for Construction Works2006In: Lifetime Engineering of Civil Infrastructure : Honoring the career of Professor Asko Sarja, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifetime Engineering (or Life Cycle Engineering) is a technical approach for meeting the current objective of sustainable development. The approach is aimed to turn today’s reactive and short-term design, management and maintenance planning towards an optimised and long-term technical approach. The life cycle based management and maintenance planning approach includes condition assessment, predictive modelling of performance changes, maintenance analysis and maintenance, repair and refurbishment (MR&R) planning and decisions. The change towards a predictive approach requires generic systems, applicable to different maintenance manager organisations with different MR&R strategies, managing different types of construction works. The newly developed Life Cycle Management System (LMS) is a predictive and generic life cycle based management system aimed to support all types of decision making and planning of optimal MR&R activities of any construction works. The system takes into account a number of aspects in sustainable and conscious development such as human requirements, life cycle economy, life cycle ecology and cultural requirements. The LMS is a system by which the complete system or parts thereof, works in co-operation or as a complement to existing business support systems. This imply development and adaptation of the system in order to meet the user needs and requirements, a process which is to be geared and governed by the user. The scope of this paper is focused on development and adaptation of the predictive characteristic of LMS towards a presumptive user. The objective is to develop and adapt a Service Life Performance Analysis (SLPA) module applicable for condition based Facility Management System in general and for condition based Bridge Management System in particular. Emphasis is placed on development and adaptation of a conditional probability based SLPA model in which degradation models and Markov chains play a decisive role. The paper deals also with development and adaptation of environmental exposure data recording and processing, with special emphasis on quantitative environmental classification in order to provide a simplified method of SLPA.

  • 46.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Quantification of exposure classes in The European Standard EN 206-12005In: 10th International conference on durability of building materials and components: Lyon, France, 17-20 April 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently completed EU-project Life Cycle Management of Concrete Infrastructure for Improved Sustainability (Lifecon) has developed a generic and predictive Life Cycle Management System (LMS) for maintenance optimisation and planning of buildings. The system facilitates the change of today.s reactive practice of maintenance management into a predictive life cycle based maintenance management system. To enable simplified prediction of service life and maintenance interval in such a predictive life cycle management system, a quantitative classification system for environmental loading is needed. At present there are a number of standards containing quantitative classification of environmental loading onto structures and building materials, e.g. ISO 15686-4, EOTA and ISO 9223. The governing standard for concrete structures such as bridges and tunnels is the European Standard EN 206-1 Concrete . part 1: Specification, performance, production and conformity. This standard divides the environmental loading into 18 exposure classes, which cover environmental loads from atmosphere, seawater, fresh water, groundwater and soil, but also the decisive parameters for moisture and chlorides. Almost all exposure classes within the standard include only qualitative descriptions. To make the standard EN 206-1 valid for LMS the standard has to be further developed into a quantitative classification system for environmental loading. A proposal of a quantitative classification of the exposure classes within the standard EN 206-1 regarding corrosion induced by carbonation is presented in this paper. The proposed classification is partly based on the extensive work performed in the Lifecon project, partly based on literature studies. The proposed classification is validated through comparison of real measurements made on a bridge located in Sweden and calculations using a full probabilistic degradation model. It is believed that such exposure classification is possible to use in a LMS to provide simplified service life analysis and possibilities to map the risk of degradation.

  • 47.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    System for Predictive Life Cycle Management of Buildings and Infrastructures2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Life Cycle Management System (LMS) aims at supporting decision-makers and engineers in their efforts to achieve a more optimised proactive life cycle design and maintenance management strategy. LMS is an open and integrative system, which has to be adapted and developed in order to meet the needs and requirements of users. This process should be geared to and governed by the clients. The Architecture, Engineering, Construction and Facility Management (AEC/FM) sector includes all varieties of clients and stakeholders, all of them having different qualifications, possibilities and requirements for implementing, or increasing the feature of predictive maintenance management and optimised proactive strategies. The possibilities of adopting predictive maintenance management are dependent on the availability of performance-over-time and service life forecasting models and methods. The relevance of these models and methods depends on the required level of detailing. Furthermore, the use of the models and methods depends on the availability of reliable input data, such as material data and environmental exposure/in-use condition data. The thesis aims at analysing the possibilities of implementing predictivity in different fields of applications and at evaluating relevant tools facilitating management of information associated with predictive maintenance management systems. The thesis includes studies of three different clients and fields of application; Swedish Road Administration – management of bridges, Locum AB – management of hospital buildings, and Gävle Energi AB – management of district heating distribution systems. While the Swedish Road Administration is responsible to ensure an economically efficient, sustainable transport system for the society throughout the country, Locum AB and Gävle Energi AB compete on an "open" market. The Swedish Road Administration have gathered information about their bridges since 1944, for what reason their bridge management system includes a large amount of valuable data for performance-over- time analyses and service life forecasting. Locum AB has recently begun to systematically gather condition data, why the amount of data is limited. However, since the performance of buildings generally is well known, it is assumed that possibilities of implementing predictive maintenance management tools are rather good. Since district heating pipes are buried into the ground, it is difficult to assess the condition. Therefore, data for service life estimation rely mainly on damage reports. Environmental exposure data on macro or meso level can be obtained from meteorological and environmental institutes, thus making it possible to apply available dose-response and damage functions. Environmental exposure data on a micro level are lacking. Guidelines, methods and tools for environmental measuring and modelling on a micro level are therefore strongly needed. Efficient management of information plays an important role in predictive life cycle management systems. The ongoing development and implementation of open Building Information Model (BIM) tools in the AEC/FM sector is a promising progress of making the information management more cost effective and valuable, especially when open BIM solutions being fully integrated into the AEC/FM business. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are tools for efficient handling of spatial positioned information. GIS provide possibilities of processing and presenting, e.g., environmental exposure data and environmental risk factors.

  • 48.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kedbäck, Mikael
    Life Cycle Management System: a planning tool supporting Long-term based design and maintenance planning2008In: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University , 2008, p. 1871-1878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction projects include large amounts of information that has to be communicated to a number of actors, such as authorities, companies, clients and end users. Information exchange is complex, involving various players on different levels and phases of the construction process. For private clients, who generally have little experience and knowledge of this process, the on-going “Bygga Villa”-project has developed a web-portal, which offers them relevant information about the process and a number of services to facilitate realisation of their projects. One of the services provides a tool for supporting long-term strategy planning. The tool is based on the Life cycle Management System (LMS) that is a predictive and generic life cycle-based management system, aimed to support decision-making and planning of optimal design and maintenance of any construction works. The LMS-Bygga Villa tool estimates service life and maintenance intervals of different building parts and systems based on environmental-dependent degradation models. Simulated scenarios can give optimised solutions by applying life cycle cost analysis. This paper presents two case studies within LMS-Bygga Villa. The first case focuses on service life performance analysis of exterior parts of buildings. The second focuses on service life performance analysis of energy systems; here specifically a borehole assisted heat pump system used for heating a Swedish single-family residence.

  • 49.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Racutanu, George
    Swedish Road Administration, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Development of the Swedish bridge management system by introducing a LMS concept2007In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 627-639Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Road Administration (SRA) has developed an information technology (IT) based bridge and tunnel management system (BaTMan) that is widely implemented by the organisation. The system is a tool for operational, tactical and strategic management. However, this system does not include systems and tools for managing optimisation and long-term planning of␣Maintenance, Repair and Rehabilitation (MR&R) actions due to service life performance aspects. This paper discusses the need of service life performance analysis for sound optimisation and long-term planning of MR&R actions in the bridge management. The paper presents a service life performance analysis model that is based on a Markov chain model and the MEDIC method. The model is developed to manage different kinds of degradation characteristic and yet present a uniform result expressed in conditional probabilities. The paper discusses also the need of systems and tools for describing objects on both an overall level and on a component level.

  • 50.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Rickard, Bellander
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Beständighet hos trä – utvärdering av långtidsförsök med bullerplank av trä2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar resultatet av en långtidsstudie rörande biologisk nedbrytning av ett bullerplank, uppfört 1996, längs Arlandabanan, snabbtågsförbindelsen mellan Stockholms C och Arlanda flygplats. Bullerplanket är till största del byggt av lärkträ men ett antal testsektioner är uppbyggda av andra träslag och behandlade med olika impregneringsmedel. Resultatet från projektet visar att endast de plankor som är i direktkontakt med marken har angripits av röta. De oimpregnerade sektionerna uppvisar högre grad av rötangrepp än de impregnerade furusektionerna. Någon skillnad mellan obehandlad furu och lärk med avseende på rötangrepp har inte gått att finna. En slutsats som kan dras med utgångspunkt från studiens resultat är att impregnerat virke är mycket mer beständigt än obehandlat virke med avseende på rötangrepp. Beständigheten mot biologiska angrepp kommer inte enbart att vara den kritiska faktorn för det studerade bullerplanket. En kombination av de vibrationer och skakningar som uppstår vid förbipasserande tåg kommer att leda till mekanisk nedbrytning av planket. Effekten av den mekaniska nedbrytningen har dock inte undersökts. Även de estetiska faktorerna bör beaktas såsom klotter och klottersanering och hur en eventuell klottersanering kommer att påverka trävirket. För att i framtiden följa nedbrytningen av bullerplanket bör en eventuell uppföljning av projektet göras om 5-10 år. Resultatet kan ses som ett bidrag till framtida forskning inom beständighetsområdet och livslängdbestämning av behandlat och obehandlat trä. Förhoppningen är att resultatet även skall ge en fingervisning om bästa val av material och konstruktionsutformning, för såväl privatpersoner som för projektörer och andra aktörer i byggsektorn.

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