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  • 1.
    Bergefur, Jill
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Warberg, Karin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Stora bostadsfastigheter på landsbygden med skogsskiften. Hur påverkar förändrad tillämpning av fastighetsbildningslagen bosättningen på landsbygden?: En undersökning i Gävle, Ockelbo och Hofors kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, residential property is limited to the area needed for the property to substantially have the character of a residential plot. An increased demand for an attractive rural housing resulted in changes to property law, which made it possible to form large residential properties with combined purposes, all in line with the existing rural policy. Still, however, there were restrictions to bring forest land to residential plots for the protection of the productive forestry. The Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet) have therefore created working recommendations to facilitate the opportunity to incorporate forest plots, including the collection of firewood for household use. This study had the aim to investigate how the amended legislation, with subsequent work recommendations influenced the formation of large residential properties in rural areas.

    Why people move is an important issue for both researchers in the field and politicians, as the regional policy should be adapted to where people want to live and why they choose to move there. Previous studies have mainly focused on economic motives, but the living environment and nature’s impact has been increasingly highlighted in recent years. The importance of the property’s physical design for the decision to move, however, is less investigated. We have therefore examined whether and how those properties affected settlement in rural areas within the selected municipalities. The study consisted partly of a postal questionnaire to the property owners who hold these large residential properties with forest parcels included and semi-structured interviews with surveyors who carried out these missions.

    Overall, we saw that large residential properties with forest and land was a reason for the counter-urbanization that has taken place because many of the migratory reasons given have been difficult to achieve with a different type of property. Although surveyors’ assessment differed in terms of details the main purpose to create appropriate and attractive residential properties without the productive forest damaged was fulfilled. We made the conclusion that the property formed, perceived as attractive by those who moved to these properties because they took advantage of the opportunities available with this accommodation.

  • 2.
    Bergquist, Arne
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Klang, Dan
    Vad är optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering?2008In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Bolohan, Marcel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Framställning av digitala terrängmodeller med totalstation respektive terrester laserskanner2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala terrängmodeller (DTM) är mycket användbara geografiska produkter som behövs av många organisationer och företag. Som exempel kan nämnas telekommunikationsföretag som behöver terrängmodeller för analys vid planering av områden för nya master, och försäkringsbolag som använder DTM för att identifiera områden med hög eller låg risk för översvämningar när de fastställer premier. Markbaserad (terrester) mätning är en metod för framställning av DTM där man genom fältmätning insamlar data för objekt vars positioner bestäms med plan- och höjdkoordinater. Dessa objekt används sedan för att beskriva terrängen digitalt. Eftersom terrängmodellerna är generaliseringar av markytan, ställs olika krav på deras kvalitet, beroende på användningsområden.

     

    Målet med detta examensarbete var att skapa två digitala terrängmodeller i enlighet med tekniska specifikationen SIS/TS 21144:2004 (specifikation vid framställning av digitala terrängmodeller). Modellerna representerar samma område men inmätningarna genomfördes med två olika mätinstrument, en totalstation och en terrester laserskanner. En bedömning av kvaliteten hos dessa terrängmodeller gjordes, i förhållande till varandra och det uppmätta området.

     

    Det undersökta området är beläget i närheten av Teknikparken i Gävle och består av park-, vatten- och skogsområden med en areal på ca 3500 m². Mätningarna utfördes med totalstation av märket Leica TPS 1203 och terrester laserskanner av märket Leica ScanStation 2 som finns tillgängliga på Högskolan i Gävle och överfördes sedan till dator för bearbetning i lämplig programvara.

     

    En volymberäkning av terrängmodellerna gjordes och skillnaderna mellan dem lagrades i en differensmodell. Denna jämförelsemodell har använts till redovisning av avvikelser mellan DTM.

     

    Enligt min uppfattning representeras markytan bättre i terrängmodellen framställd med hjälp av totalstation. Fördelen med totalstation är i detta fall att koordinaterna i plan och höjd bättre representerar den faktiska markytan, till skillnad från laserskannern, som skannar grästopparna, vilka registreras som markyta. Som framgår av volymberäkningarnas resultat blir skillnaden i volym betydande, eftersom laserskannerns terrängmodell ligger på en högre nivå på platser där vegetationen är tät.

  • 4.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Betydelse av höjdmodellers kvalitet vid endimensionell översvämningsmodellering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Just nu pågår runt om i Sverige och övriga världen omfattande karteringar för översvämningsrisker. Inte minst på grund av EUs översvämningsdirektiv där det har fastslagits att preliminära riskbedömningar ska ha utförts senast 2011, och för konstaterade riskområden ska riskkartor och riskhanteringsplaner ha producerats senast 2013 respektive 2015. I Sverige har nästan samtliga större vattendrag redan karterats översiktligt, men flera studier har visat att de producerade kartorna är alltför osäkra för att kunna fungera som underlag i många planeringssituationer. Därför måste nytt material tas fram samtidigt som det behövs riktvärden, baserade på kvaliteten av underliggande data, på hur osäkra översvämningskarteringarna är. Denna studie utgör andra delen i ett större projekt ”Kvalitetsbeskrivning av geografisk information för översvämningsmodellering” där det övergripande syftet är att bidra till förståelsen för vilka osäkerheter som finns i samband med översvämningsmodellering. Målet med detta delprojekt är att undersöka hur vattennivåer och översvämningsutbredning förändras vid: stegvis degenerering av höjddata, introduktion av systematiska fel i höjdmodellen, samt olika friktionsvärden på vattendragets botten respektive omgivande mark. Som fallstudie har, liksom i ett tidigare Kris-GIS®-projekt, Eskilstunaån använts. Två områden med olika terrängtyper har undersökts, ett relativt flackt område och ett relativt kuperat område med branta sluttningar ned mot vattendraget, med avsikt att därigenom kunna se skillnader i resulterande översvämning med avseende på terrängens karaktär. Terrängen representerades av miljontals från helikopter laserskannade punkter och vattendragets botten representerades av ekolodade punkter. Vattenflödet simulerades som stationär strömning av storleken 198 m3/s, vilket är SMHIs uppskattning av det högsta beräknade flödet. Som modelleringsverktyg har den endimensionella hydrauliska programvaran HEC-RAS använts och för datapreparering och geografiska analyser har ArcView GIS använts. Följande parametrar undersöktes för att få ett mått på osäkerheten vid försämrade höjddata respektive förändrad markfriktion: vattendragets vattenstånd, bredd, tvärsnittsarea samt översvämningsutbredning. För ökad grad av degenerering av höjddata visade resultaten att vattenstånden endast marginellt ändras medan bredder, tvärsnittsareor och utbredning ändras mer markant. Förutom osäkerhet på grund av degenerering av höjddata (till exempel från referensmodellens 0,78 m cellstorlek till 2-3 m cellstorlek) påverkar av samma storleksordning även osäkerhet i friktionsuppskattning (Mannings n ± 0,01) och inkludering av små systematiska fel (upp till ca 0,1 m i höjdled). Dessutom visade resultaten att osäkerheten skiljer sig markant beroende på hur mycket omgivande mark sluttar mot vattendraget. För planeringsändamål med höga krav rekommenderas höjddata med upplösning upp till 1 m cellstorlek, för allmän detaljplanering upp till 4 m cellstorlek och för översiktlig planering upp till 10-25 m cellstorlek. Vid flacka strandsluttningar bör cellstorleken vara ännu mindre.

  • 5.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Betydelse av höjdmodellers kvalitet vid översvämningsmodellering2009In: ULI aktuellt, ISSN 1654-6016, no 1, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Conceptualization of hydraulic and sedimentary processes in downstream reaches during flushing of reservoirs2005In: Proceedings of the XXXI IAHR Congress [Elektronisk resurs]: Water engineering for the future : choices and challenges : COEX Seoul September 11-16, 2005, Seoul: Korea Water Resources Association , 2005, p. 2577-2588Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main focus of this paper is to describe the active hydraulic and sedimentary processes in downstream river reaches during flushing of sediments from reservoirs. During flushing extreme amounts of sediment may be released. Therefore, these processes are different than those downstream from dams and reservoirs not subjected to flushing. Hence, also the effects differ, which knowledge of may be of value for biologists, etc. During flushing of a reservoir a wave will be released to the downstream reaches. This wave can be divided into one water part and one sediment part. Initially they are in phase with each other, but with increased distance downstream from the dam, the transported sediment lags behind the water due to different traveling velocities. The paper treats when and where sedimentation occurs, and how this is related to the different traveling velocities of water and sediment. Also included are discussions on how the downstream effects during flushing differ from non-flushing effects, how visualization of effects can enhance both the analysis and communication with planners, politicians, etc., as well as discussions on how the studies of these effects can benefit from improved field-work methods.

  • 7.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Föreläsningar - övningar - eller?: en jämförande studie av undervisningsmetoder inom gevärsskytte och geografiska informationssystem2004In: Kunskap och lärande i den högre utbildningen: lärarreflektioner från praktiken / [ed] Sara Dahlström och Göran Fransson, Gävle: Pedagogiska rådet, Högskolan i Gävle , 2004, p. 19-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geoinformatics 2004: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics : Geospatial Information Research : Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 20042004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    FOREWORD

    Geoinformatics 2004, the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics, is the premier research forum for Geospatial Information Research. It commenced in 1992 in Buffalo, and has been held every year since. Meetings have been held in North America and Asia in Beijing (1993), Calgary (1994), Hong Kong (1995), West Palm Beach (1996), Taipei (1997), Beijing (1998), Ann Arbor (1999), Monterey (2000), Bangkok (2001), Nanjing (2002), and Toronto (2003, cancelled due to the outbreak of SARS). This is the premier event organized by the University of Gävle, together with the Association of Chinese Professionals in Geographic Information Science (CPGIS-abroad).

     

    This conference is the first of the series that takes place in Europe, hence the subtitle of the conference - bridging the Pacific and Atlantic. I believe it offers an opportunity for all professionals involved in research and development of geographic information systems, global position systems and remote sensing to discuss new theories and technologies around geoinformatics research.

     

    Based on the extended abstracts and following advice from the program committee, the organizing committee selected 108 papers (involving 264 authors from 29 different countries) around 10 different themes included in the proceedings. The conference themes include some emerging research issues such as location-based services and geovisualization as well as long studied conventional issues. As a post-conference publication effort, some selected papers around special themes will go another round of review process to be published in special issues with some scientific journals.

     

    The organization of the event is rather team-oriented work. On behalf of the organizing committee, I would like to thank CPGIS, the University of Gävle, our sponsors and all those individuals involved in making it a successful event, in particular, Kickan Fahlstedt, the conference secretary who took most administrative and organizational matters into her hands; Anders Brandt who read the papers and provided useful comments to the authors; Bengt Eriksson, Stig-Göran Mårtensson, and Bengt Rystedt who are always very supportive for the event; Peter Fisher and David Maguire who share their vision on current geoinformatics research; and all the authors who contribute with their papers of high quality.

     

    Last but not least, the following colleagues or students deserve special thanks for their contributions to the organization of the conference: Gunter Göckelmann, Pia Ollert- Hallqvist, Anna Hansson, Neta Hedberg, Elisabeth Hugg, Mikael Johansson, Rebecca Jonsson, Hendrik Loch, Bengt-Olof Lundinger, Staffan Nygren, Kaj Wejander, and Wenjun Xie.

     

    Welcome to the Geoinformatics 2004, and enjoy your stay in Gävle!

     

    Bin Jiang

    Co-chair of the organizing committee

     

    ---

     

    CONTENTS - VOLUME 1

    Keynote session

    The logic of fuzzy detecting change in geographical information, p. 3

    P. Fisher

    Distributed GIS: computing in the internet age, p. 4

    D. Maguire

    Plenary session

    About egocentric geovisualisation, p. 7

    L. Meng

    Shannonian, semantic and pragmatic geoinformation, p. 15

    J. Portugali

    Spatio-temporal modelling and analysis of geolifelines, p. 22

    C. Claramunt

    Location-based service, mobile GIS and GPS

    Location-based solutions for application services, p. 25

    K.H. Kim, S.G. Hong, J.H. Park and J.H. Lee

    A test-bed simulator for GPS and GIS integrated navigation and positioning research: - bus positioning, using GPS observations, odometer readings and map matching, p. 31

    J. Li, G. Taylor, C. Brunsdon, A. Olden, D. Steup and M. Winter

    Real-time map labelling for personal navigation, p.  39

    Q. Zhang and L. Harrie

    Multi-criteria decision analysis for location based services, p.  47

    M. Raubal and C. Rinner

    Map generalization for OSMasterMap data in location based services & mobile GIS applications, p. 54

    S. Anand, J.M. Ware and G.E. Taylor

    The media and the messages of location-based services (LBS): death of distance or the revenge of geography?, p. 61

    D.Z. Sui

    Real time community mapping: evaluating two wireless technology approaches, p. 69

    Y. Lao

    Digital data collection and analysis techniques for forestry applications, p. 77

    M.G. Wing and L.D. Kellogg

    A review of research and development on intelligent transport systems in Hong Kong - a geographic information system perspective, p. 84

    W.Z. Shi and H.K. Lam

    A distributed architecture for WAP-based mobile GIS, p. 92

    Wang F., Bian F. and Hou Y.

    Efficient routing service for the open LBS services, p. 99

    S.-S. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Network perspective for spatial data distribution on wireless environments, p. 107

    E. Lee, M.-J. Kim, M. Kim and B.-T. Jang

    Precise navigation with the use of buffer zones, p. 115

    A. Banachowicz and J. Uriasz

    The implementation of presentation service using JAVA web services, p. 120

    T.-W. Heo and J.-H. Park

    An open architecture of common core component for location based service, p. 127

    J.-C. Kim, J.-H. Park and J.-H. Lee

    Open LBS solution architecture using service chaining webservices technology, p. 134

    S.-G. Hong, K.-H. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Analysis accuracy integrated position of hyperbolic system JEMIOLUSZKA and satellite navigation system GPS, p. 139

    A. Banachowicz and R. Kamiński

    Spatio-temporal modelling and databases

    A web-based multimedia framework for diffusing spatio-temporal information: application to natural hazards, p. 149

    P-A. Davoine, J. Gensel and H. Martin

    Continuous data warehouse: concepts, challenges and potentials, p. 157

    T.O. Ahmed, M. Miquel and R. Laurini

    An extended locking method for geographical database with spatial rules, p. 165

    Cheng C., Shen P., Zhang M. and Lu F.

    A hybrid approach to detect spatial-temporal outliers, p. 173

    T. Cheng and Z. Li

    A knowledge-based restricted problem solving method in GIS applications, p. 179

    Wei H., Xu Q. and Bai Y.

    Representation of moving objects along a road network, p. 187

    N. Van de Weghe, A.G. Cohn, P. Bogaert and P. De Maeyer

    A three-dimensional temporal GIS for the analysis of morphometric changes, p. 195

    M. Sriti, R. Thibaud and C. Claramunt

    Quality assessment and uncertainty handling in spatial data mining, p. 203

    B. He, T. Fang and D. Guo

    From the schema matching to the integration of updating information into user geographic databases, p. 211

    A. Braun

    Construction and specification of spatial configurations in a geographical information retrieval context, p. 219

    M. Ould Ahmed Limam and M. Gaio

    A new tetrahedral network (TEN) generation algorithm for 3-D GIS, p. 226

    Song Z., Liu Y. and Niu W.

    GIS data modeling of 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles, p. 233

    C. Guney, B. Yuksel and R.N. Celik

    The spatial data server based on open GIS standards in heterogeneous distributed environment, p. 241

    M.-J. Kim, E. Lee, B.-W. Oh and M. Kim

    Vector cellular automata based geographical entity, p. 249

    Hu S. and Li D.

    A method for testing low-value spatial clustering, p. 257

    G. Lin and T. Zhang

    Research on Petri Net based spatiotemporal data model, p. 265

    Yin Z. and Li L.

    Advances in earth observation technologies

    Lossless inter-array predictive coding for subpixel-shifted satellite images based on texture analysis, p. 275

    Gao S., Zhang X.J. and Sun W.D.

    Visualizing distributions from multi-return lidar data to understand forest structure, p. 283

    D. Kao, M. Kramer, A. Love, J. Dungan and A. Pang

    3D scanning and photogrammetry for heritage recording: a comparison, p. 291

    W. Boehler and A. Marbs

    On modelling and visualisation of high resolution virtual environments using LIDAR data, p. 299

    S. Ahlberg, U. Söderman, M. Elmqvist and Å. Persson

    The utilization of GPR data in GIS, p.  307

    Chen B.Z., Hu Z.Q. and Li W.D.

    APIAS - Airborne photos and images attainment system, p. 311

    J.C.C. Gonçalves Junior, E.C. Piovesan, G.C. Silveira and E.A. Silva

    Geovisualisation

    Representation of geographic terrain surface using global indexing, p. 321

    J. Kolar

    Geo-visualization support for multidimensional clustering, p. 329

    G. Andrienko and N. Andrienko

    Annotated observations as knowledge construction elements in visual data analysis, p. 336

    I. Denisovich

    3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology, p. 339

    S.A. Brandt and B. Jiang

    A study on algorithms of a 3D visualization dynamic modification system based on TIN, p. 347

    P. Yang, H. Lin, S.J. Mao and D. Shen

    A multi-user mobile system to visualize environmental processes, p. 355

    J. Danado, E. Dias, T. Romão, N. Correia, A. Trabuco, C. Santos, J. Serpa, M. Costa and A. Câmara

    Interacting with 17th century fortresses on Dardanelles through web-based geo-visualization, p. 363

    C. Guney and R.N. Celik

    Visualization of landscape data in digital maps by exclusive use of XML-based languages, p. 370

    K. Neumann, P. Ahlbrecht, S. Eckstein, B. Mathiak and A. Kupfer

    Embedding digital rights in geovisualizations, p. 375

    J. Döllner

    Experimental research on web-based 3D terrain visualization - using Java3D and Microsoft.Net, p. 383

    Wang Y., Tan H. and Liu J.

    The principles of designing CIS - cartographic information system, p. 389

    Zheng S. and Chen Y.

    A network common data form (NetCDF) utility for efficient environmental data processing and visualization, p. 397

    J. Liu, J.M. Chen, D.T. Price, and S. Liu

    Design and implementation of high precision map symbol library based on GDI+, p. 405

    Wu X., Du Q., Cai Z. and Xu Z.

    User-centered 3D geovisualisation, p. 412

    A. Nielsen

    Studying groundwater resource by volume visualization technology, p. 417

    Zhu G., Xu Z., Wu X. and Yan H.

    Cognition theory-based research on adaptive user interface for GEO-visualization system, p. 424

    Ling Y., Chen Y. and Wang Y.

     

    CONTENTS - VOLUME 2

    GIS in urban planning and modelling

    Spatial patterns of urban growth in Nepal: a GIS-assisted analysis, p. 435

    M. Adhikari, B.A. Portnov and M. Schwartz

    What's planning (support system design)?, p. 443

    M. Campagna and G. Deplano

    GIS and remote sensing for urban planning: a case of Festac town, Lagos, Nigeria, p. 451

    M.J. Fasona and A.S. Omojola

    Geographical information systems on the web for public participation in planning, p. 459

    O. Gudes, E. Stern and T. Svoray

    Study on China National Park planning supported by spatial information technology, p. 464

    Dang A., Liu X., Yang R. and Zhuang Y.

    Uncertainty and data quality

    Uncertainty evaluation of military terrain analysis results by simulation and visualization, p. 473

    P. Horttanainen and K.Virrantaus

    Defuzzification operators for geographical data of nominal scale, p. 481

    T. Hatzichristos and J. Potamias

    Fuzzy model and Kriging for imprecise soil polygon boundaries, p. 489

    R. Sunila, E. Laine and O. Kremenova

    Fuzzy description of fuzzy direction relations and their similarities, p. 496

    Du S., Wang Q. and Yang Y.

    A new approach for modeling uncertainty in remote sensing change detection process, p. 503

    A. Alimohammadi, H.R. Rabiei and P.Z. Firouzabadi

    GIS in environmental management and decision making

    Mapping landslide susceptibility in the Three Gorges area, China using GIS, expert systems and fuzzy logic, p. 511

    A-X. Zhu, R. Wang, J. Qiao, Y. Chen, Q. Cai and C. Zhou

    A 3D GIS for managing building rehabilitation process, p. 518

    F. Ramos, D. Siret and M. Musy

    Spatial-temporal carbon sequestration under land USE and land cover change, p. 525

    S. Liu, J. Liu and T.R. Loveland

    GIS based analysis of store closure: a case study of an Office Depot store in Cincinnati, p. 533

    Y. Xu and L. Liu

    Branch bank closures in Sydney: a geographical perspective and analysis, p. 541

    L. Zhao, B. Garner and B. Parolin

    Integration of multidisciplinary knowledge and modelling techniques for a river-SDSS, p. 549

    J. Möltgen and G. Schmidt

    Applications of GIS and RS for land use dynamics monitoring in the rim zone of North China, p. 557

    Z. Qin, B. Xu, J. Liu and W. Zhang

    A methodology for siting a water harvesting reservoir, p. 565

    W.M. Jabre and F.A. Awar

    Landscape indices for comparison of spatial forest patterns in different geographical regions, p. 573

    E.M. De Clercq and R.R. De Wulf

    GIS in spatial management on a local level of administration in Poland, p. 578

    P. Fogel and J. Fiszczuk-Wiktorowicz

    Development of spatial GIS database for monitoring on dynamic state of grassland productivity, p. 585

    and animal loading balance in Northern China

    B. Xu, X. Xin, Z. Qin, H. Liu, Z. Chen, G. Yang, W. Wu, Q. Zhou and X. Wu

    Remote sensing coupled to a database of catchments and coastal zones, p. 593

    S.G. Halldórsdóttir and H. Þorbergsson

    Regionalization of N2O measurements for the North China Plain, p. 599

    G. Bareth and M. Kogge

    Application of RS and GIS in ecological environmental dynamic monitoring and management information system, p. 607

    Liao K.

    Geospatial cancer analysis for the state of Santa Catarina, brazil - environmental parameters considered, p. 615

    C.E. Hübner and F.H. Oliveira

    Information extraction from remote sensing data

    Object-based updating of land-use maps of urban areas using satellite remote sensing, p. 623

    R.J. Dekker

    Multiscale object-specific analysis: scale problems and multiscale solutions, p. 631

    O. Hall, G.J. Hay and D.J. Marceau

    A greedy point algorithm derived by Gabor filter bank for IKONOS satellite image segmentation, p. 639

    N. Nezamoddini-Kachouie and J. Alirezaie

    A modeling-based threshold approach to derive change/no change information over vegetation area, p. 647

    Y. Hu, S.M. de Jong and R. Sluiter

    A neural network approach for information extraction from remotely sensed data, p. 655

    J. Liu, G. Shao, H. Zhu and S. Liu

    New stereo matching and 3D view generation algorithms using aerial stereo images, p. 663

    J.-C. Kim and J.-H. Park

    Comparison of remote sensing based analysis of crop diseases by using high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral data - case study: Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet -, p. 670

    R. Laudien, G. Bareth and R. Doluschitz

    A comparison of land-use classification with sampled IKONOS and TM imagery, p. 677

    Tang Z. and Zhu L.

    Quality study of ASTER data geometry by digitize contour lines in ILWIS, p. 683

    A. Partovi, K. Grabmaier and J. Hendrikse

    A new algorithm for map projection reverse transformation in GIS, p. 691

    Teng J., Huang W. and Sun M.

    Exploitation of geospatial techniques for studying the snow and water runoff parameters, p. 699

    A.S. Almas, M. Azam, M.J. Butt and S. Amer

    Land cover mapping of Khulna City applying remote sensing technique, p. 707

    M. Billah and G.A. Rahman

    Integration of ground sampling with satellite imaging through GIS database to monitor rangeland productivity for grazing in north China, p.  715

    Z. Qin, B. Xu, W. Li, W. Zhang and J. Liu

    Forestry inventory and information systems in developing countries: constraints and benefits, p. 723

    S.M. Malaza, P.G. Abbot and S. Mabena

    Multi-scale representation and generalisation

    Building a multi-granularity based spatial database, p. 733

    Cheng C. and Lu F.

    Automated generalisation in a multiple representation database, p. 741

    M. Dunkars

    Data update across multi-scale databases, p. 749

    H.-K. Kang, J.-W. Moon and K.-J. Li

    Modelling urban road networks integrating multiple representations of complex road and junction structures, p. 757

    N.N. Ulugtekin, A.O. Dogru and R.C. Thomson

    Streaming of compressed multi-resolution geographic vector data, p. 765

    J. Persson

    Metadata and spatial data infrastructure

    A hierarchical framework to aid the entry of metadata, p. 775

    J.-H. Hong, Y.-H. Chen and H.-P. Liao

    Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge - using Bloom's taxonomy to evaluate non-professional users' understanding of GI, p. 783

    M. Arleth

    Opportunities and challenges for SDI development in developing countries - a case study of, p. 789

    Uganda

    M. Musinguzi, G. Bax and S.S. Tickodri-Togboa

    SDI and network-based GIS for disaster management, p. 797

    A. Mansourian, A. Rajabifard and M.J.V. Zoej

    Discovering structure in geographical metadata, p. 805

    I. Podolak and U. Demšar

    Map interface valid coverage analysis based on XML metadata, p. 812

    H.-P. Liao and J.-H. Hong

    A cadastral domain model, p. 820

    J.M. Paasch

  • 9.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Rapport från Utbildningssektionens årliga utbildningskonferens2009In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 2009, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kartografiska sällskapets utbildningssektion genomför varje år de så kallade lärardagarna, en utbildningskonferens som kretsar kring geografisk information. Tilltänkta deltagare är alla, både utbildare och avnämare, som har intresse av utbildningsfrågor från skol- till universitetsnivå. Den 17 till 18 augusti detta år stod KTH som värd, med Hans Hauska hållande taktpinnen, och med 19 deltagare från ett tiotal olika arbetsgivare.

  • 10.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Resolution issues of elevation data during inundation modeling of river floods2005In: Proceedings of the XXXI IAHR Congress [Elektronisk resurs]: Water engineering for the future: choices and challenges. COEX Seoul September 11-16, 2005, Seoul: Korea Water Resources Association , 2005, p. 3573-3581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study of the Eskilstuna River in Sweden is presented. This study is carried out within the project KRIS-GIS®, a Swedish initiative of handling crisis situations, including flooding. The purpose is to show how different resolutions in input elevation data affect the resulting inundation maps. Terrain elevation points at the sides of the river were gathered from an airborne laser altimetry survey, and river bed elevations were gathered from an echosounding survey. The terrain model was constructed in ArcView GIS as a triangulated irregular network (TIN), which served as the base for all later modeling. The hydraulic modeling was done as one-dimensional steady flow in HEC-RAS flow routing software. High-resolution elevation data resulted in better inundation delineation than did lowresolution elevation data. If the mean water discharge was used in the modeling and if the river is narrow, a low resolution could even lead to that the river itself would not be marked as inundated. At high water discharges, the river was usually inundated, but there was great uncertainty if the riparian areas really would be flooded or not. With steep side slopes, the delineation of inundation becomes more certain, while at gentler side slopes, the flow is distributed on a larger surface with a risk that the raster cells will be incorrectly marked regarding inundation. Finally, the use of high-resolution elevation data compared with lowresolution data, makes estimates of friction factor, Manning’s n, relatively more important for correct results in inundation studies.

  • 11.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Svensk kartografiutbildning i ett historiskt perspektiv2008In: Kartan i våra hjärtan: Kartografiska Sällskapet 100 år 2008, Stockholm: Kartografiska Sällskapet , 2008, p. 305-318Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    The University Exchange Programme and the Master's Programme for ALAGaC Employees: Report No. MN 3-14 in the project Capacity Building in Human Resource Development to Strengthen the Land Administration Sector of Mongolia, September 20062006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Utbildning och kompetensutveckling inom lantmäteri, kartografi, GIS och mätningsteknik2008In: Atlas: Geografi och kartor — igår — idag — imorgon, ISSN 1654-9015, Vol. 1, p. 34-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Översvämningsmodellering i GIS: betydelse av höjdmodellers upplösning applicerat på Eskilstunaån - ett delprojekt i KRIS-GIS®2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare tid har översvämningar alltmer uppmärksammats av allmänhet, politiker, myndigheter och organisationer. Samtidigt har allt fler insett att det inte är en fråga om en översvämning kommer att ske utan när och hur stor den blir. Detta innebär att översvämningsrisker ständigt måste vara en närvarande del i politikers, planerares och krisberedskapsorganisationers arbete. Ett sätt att vara väl förberedd inför översvämningar är att ta fram översvämningsområden för olika stora vattenflöden. Därför har det inom projektet KRIS-GIS®, beställt och finansierat av Krisberedskapsmyndigheten, gjorts en mer detaljerad specialstudie över översvämningar kring Eskilstunaån. Tillförlitligheten hos framtagna översvämningsområden beror framför allt av två faktorer: korrekt vattenflödessimulering och korrekt beskrivning av terrängen. I denna studie har den endimensionella modellen HEC-RAS använts för flödessimuleringen och för beskrivning av terrängen har en flygburen 3D-laserskanning över området kring Eskilstunaån utförts. Dessutom har ekolodning utförts för att möjliggöra beskrivning av bottentopografin i Eskilstunaån. Samtliga höjddatapunkter kopplades ihop i ett GIS till ett triangulärt oregelbundet nätverk, TIN. Därefter lades sektioner tvärs över vattendraget och omgivande terräng. Dessa tvärsektioner tilldelades höjdvärden från TIN-modellen innan de exporterades till HEC-RAS. Fyra olika vattenföringar simulerades i HEC-RAS: medelvattenföringen på 23,7 m3/s, årsfloden på 70 m3/s, 100-årsflödet på 123 m3/s samt högsta beräknade flödet på 198 m3/s. Dessutom har det gjorts några alternativa körningar med varierande värden på Mannings n, dvs. markfriktion. Efter körningar i HEC-RAS, exporterades resulterande vattennivåer tillbaka till GISet där ett resultatraster skapades, där varje rastercell visades som översvämmad eller ej, och i förekommande fall översvämmat djup. Resultaten av översvämningsanalyserna visar att betydligt säkrare översvämningsprognoser nu kan göras när tillgång till terrängmodeller av hög kvalitet finns. Vid tidigare studier har Lantmäteriets höjddatabas använts, där höjder finns representerade med ett värde per 50-metersruta. Från att terrängmodellen har varit den begränsande faktorn övergår i stället en korrekt beskrivning av markens råhet eller friktion, uttryckt som Mannings n, till att vara den begränsande faktorn. Det rekommenderas därför att differentiera råhetsvärdena beroende på vilken markanvändningstyp som finns längs med vattendraget. Speciellt viktigt är detta i flacka områden. För Eskilstunaåns nordligaste delar är det viktigt att vattennivån i Mälaren bedöms korrekt. För att sprida och kunna dra nytta av resultaten framtagna i KRIS-GIS®-projektet rekommenderas det att färdiga översvämningspolygoner kan användas av kommuner, räddningstjänst osv. i deras arbete. De kan ringa eller automatiskt få information, från t.ex. SMHI eller vattenregleringsföretag, som innehåller upplysningar om förväntade flöden. Motsvarande polygon för förväntat flöde visas i ett GIS och direkt har man lägesbilden klart för sig. Utöver detta har även visualiseringsaspekter behandlats.

  • 15.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Arnberg, Wolter
    Stockholm University.
    A harmonized GIS course curriculum for Swedish universities2007In: EUC'07 HERODOT Proceedings: ESRI European User Conference 2007: Stockholm, Sweden, 25-27 September 2007, 2007, p. 10 s.-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, European and other universities must change or adjust courses and programmes so they fit into the Bologna model. In Sweden this will take place during 2007. The intention with the declaration, for example, is that a basic course in one subject at one university should be treated as equivalent to the same type of course at another university. Once a year, the recently formed section for education of the Swedish Cartographic Society gathers university lecturers and others for an education conference to discuss matters concerning higher education in geomatics, geoinformatics, geography, etc. Last year’s conference identified the need for a harmonized course curriculum in basic GIS. One of the advantages of such a course is easier transfer of study records for inclusion of course credits in study programmes at other universities. Therefore, an attempt has been made to write a harmonized course curriculum for basic GIS. The course will contain about 50% common content and about 50% of content decided by the individual university. The common content will be described as learning outcomes, and then it is up to the universities to place the learning outcomes into a context. Thanks to this common core, the course can be given for such diverse programmes as archaeology, land surveying, or economy, and still be able to include the required knowledge for students to continue on more advanced courses at other universities.

  • 16.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Bergquist, Arne
    Lantmäteriet.
    Översvämningskarteringars tillförlitlighet2009In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I ett tidigare nummer av Kart & Bildteknik beskrevs ett pågående forskningsprojekt som försökte ta reda på om det finns en optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering (Bergquist, Brandt & Klang, 2008). Projektet är nu avslutat och avrapporterat i Brandt (2009) och Klang och Klang (2009). Av resultaten framgår bland annat hur mycket tillförlitligheten av en översvämningskartering minskar med graden av försämrad höjdmodell, vilken utgör ett av de viktigaste underlagen för en översvämningsanalys. I samband med EUs översvämningsdirektiv (Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv, 2007) föranleder detta en diskussion om vilka översvämningskarteringar som krävs för att uppfylla direktivet.

  • 17.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    3D geovisualization as a communication and analysis tool in fluvial geomorphology2004In: Geoinformatics 2004: proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Geoinformatics - Geospatial Information Research: Bridging the Pacific and Atlantic, University of Gävle, Sweden, 7-9 June 2004, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2004, p. 339-346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology get more and more attention in the general public. The reason for this is changed climate patterns with increased frequencies of storms and river flooding and as a result changed geomorphology and living conditions for the inhabitants of the area. With the development of 3D geovisualization, hydrological and geomorphological processes can be better simulated and visualized. Thus not only the domain specialists, but also the general public can appreciate very complex hydrological processes and resulting geomorphology. This is of great value since a high frequency of storms and flooding has been a big issue for politicians, planners, and the general public. It is in this sense that 3D geovisualization can be an important tool for analysis and communication. Complex hydrological and geomorphological processes can be effectively simulated and analyzed by the domain specialists while efficient and effective visualization provides a common platform for communication among domain specialists and the general public. This paper will discuss and illustrate these issues using a case study of geomorphology along the Reventazón River, downstream from the Cachí Reservoir in Costa Rica, due to the release of extreme amounts of sediment during flushing of the reservoir.

  • 18.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Karlsson, Janne Margrethe
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ollert-Hallqvist, Pia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Harmonization of GI educations in Sweden and the Bologna process: viewpoints of University of Gävle2006In: Fifth European GIS Education Seminar (EUGISES 2006), 2006, p. 10-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the implementation of the Bologna declaration, many study programmes and course curricula needs to be updated and revised. This paper describes the current situation in Sweden regarding GIT educations and courses and whether a harmonization is needed. A survey was made to see which GIT courses that are given and at which level they are given at the various universities. For some universities, interviews were conducted about their courses’ contents and their strategies for determining course levels. Discussions were also made about harmonization of courses between Swedish universities. Some problems due to lack of harmonization was noted, which probably will be more severe in the future due to increased student mobility. To harmonize courses, Bloom’s revised taxonomy is put forward as a tool which is used to clearly state the level of the course in relation to learning objectives.

  • 19.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Larsson, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kartografiska Sällskapets utbildningssektion: ett nytt tillskott i KS-familjen2006In: Kart- & bildteknik, ISSN 1651-792X, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    På Kartografiska Sällskapets årsmöte i Jönköping den 21 mars beslutades att inrätta en ny sektion inom sällskapet – en utbildningssektion. Denna artikel beskriver bakgrunden till sektionen och dess verksamhetsidé. Utbildningssektionens embryo tillkom för tre år sedan efter förslag från ULI som delegerade uppgiften till Geomatikprogrammet vid Högskolan i Gävle. Tanken vara att skapa ett forum för lärare inom geomatikområdet. Både för att sammanföra lärare från olika lärosäten, för att öka förståelsen för varandras arbeten, och för att kunna förbättra möjligheterna till samarbete.

  • 20.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Mårtensson, Stig-Göran
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Utbildning inom kart- och mätningsteknik2008In: Sveriges kartläggning: tillägg 1998-2007, Gävle: Kartografiska sällskapet , 2008, p. 208-213Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Brodin, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Konbul, Yunus
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Determining bumpiness and inclination of surfaces with geodetic methods2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Determining bumpiness and inclination of surfaces is very important in many different areas, such as airports and at constructions sites. In this study, a surveying trolley and a remote controlled (RC) car were used to determine the bumpiness of two different surfaces. The aim with this study was to test the accuracy of a surveying trolley and an RC car to see how the accuracy can be increased with different observation methods. Total station, GPS and laser scanner surveying equipments were used, and all observations obtained by them were analysed. The laser scanner data was found to have the best precision. For that reason, it was accepted as the “true” data and it was used for comparing and evaluating other methods. It was found that the trolley and the RC car provided good height information with total stations and they were corresponding to the laser scanner data. When they were used with GPS, the accuracy was much lower. It was concluded that using two total stations is not increasing the accuracy, the RC car and the trolley are good measuring methods but not capable to inspect 1,2 mm tolerance for the floors, and finally, 2-3 cm positioning accuracy is obtainable when using GPS.

  • 22.
    Callmyr, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Persson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Utformning av riktlinjer för trafiksäkerhet i mindre stadscentrum: fallstudier i Bollnäs och Sandviken2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several cities have implemented various projects to improve traffic safety in city centers.During 1970s and 1980s the city centers changed as the suburbs grew and large shopping centers were located outside the center. At the same time, several projects were initiated with construction of pedestrian streets and restriction of traffic in the center. In year 1994,shared-used areas were introduced in Sweden and these areas are often used in center environments.

    In Sweden, municipalities are responsible for integrating security in public places and in comprehensive plans and detailed development plans. The National Board of Housing,Building and Planning is the authority for administrating planning issues and develop general guidance about planning. Traffic is one of their key issues, although today there are no concrete guidelines from the National Board of Housing, Building and Planningfor the design of traffic safety in city centers.

    Traffic safety in city centers affects many people because the city center is a public place.It is therefore important that there are current guidelines available that are helpful for changes and improvements in traffic safety in the city center.

    The purpose of this report is to formulate guidelines for planning city centers from a traffic safety perspective. The aim is that the guidelines can be applied in the design of smaller city centers for improving traffic safety. For this report two case studies were implemented that included inventories and observations of Bollnäs and Sandviken city centers. The results showed that many of the streets did not function well and that there was a lack of design in the city centre center from a traffic safety perspective, for example pedestrian crossings and car parks.

    Inventories and observations are good methods to see how the traffic environment in the city center varies in use and function. The observations and inventories resulted in guidelines with recommendations for the design of streets and traffic in small city centers.

  • 23.
    Dahlgren, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, GIS-institutet.
    Harrie, Lars
    Development of a tool for proximity applications2007In: Proceedings of the 10th AGILE International Conference on Geographic Information Science, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dahlgren, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Harrie, Lars
    Evaluation of computational methods for connecting points to large networks2006In: Mapping and Image Science, ISSN 1651-8705, no 4, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Shahzad, K
    KTH.
    Geospatial Integration: Preparing Building Information Databases for Integration with CityGML for Decision Support2008In: Proceedings of Innovations 08th, IEEE Conference, Dubai, December 16-18, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    El-Mekawy, Mohamed
    et al.
    Future Position X.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Shahzad, K
    KTH.
    Geospatial Interoperability for IFC and CityGML: Challenges of Existing Building Information Databases2008In: Proceedings of Innovations 08th, IEEE Conference, Dubai, December 16-18, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Svärd, Isak
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Mätningar inför byte av referenssystem i plan i Ockelbo kommun2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många kommuner i Sverige genomför eller planerar att genomföra ett byte av sina geodetiska referenssystem i plan till det nationella referenssystemet Swedish Reference Frame 1999 (SWEREF 99). En av anledningarna till att ett sådant byte genomförs är bland annat för att underlätta all användning av geografisk information. Arbetet med att byta referenssystem är dock komplicerat och resurskrävande, bland annat behövs mätningsteknisk personal, mätningsutrustning och kunskap om hur ett sådant byte skall genomföras. Mindre kommuner som inte har sådana resurser kan välja att vända sig till andra större kommuner där dessa resurser finns. Ockelbo kommun är ett sådant exempel.

    Denna rapport beskriver hur punkter i stomnäten i Lingbo och Åmot mättes med nätverks-RTK, enligt Lantmäteriets rekommendationer. Syftet var att skapa lokala transformationssamband med restfelsmodeller. Detta som ett steg i processen med att byta referenssystem. Först genomfördes en inventering av stomnäten, eftersom den på förhand tillgängliga informationen var något bristfällig. Alla punkter som hittades och valdes ut för inmätning kunde dock inte mätas in.

    Totalt mättes 20 punkter in, 10 stycken i Lingbo och 10 stycken i Åmot. Dessa punkter lades sedan in i Lantmäteriets programvara GTRANS, där de inpassades från de gamla kända koordinaterna till de nya inmätta koordinaterna för samma punkter, och transformationsparametrar skapades. Därefter gjordes en restfelsinterpolering. Syftet var att skapa transformationssamband med korrektioner baserat på restfelen mellan de inmätta punkternas koordinater och de kända punkternas koordinater, i det nya koordinatsystemet SWEREF 99 16 30. Slutligen transformerades båda stomnäten dels med restfelsmodellen inlagd och dels utan den.

    Resultatet av denna studie visade att den genomsnittliga längden på restfelsvektorerna i de skapade restfelsmodellerna låg på ca 12 mm för Lingbo och ca 21 mm för Åmot. Vidare visade studien att precisionen var genomgående hög i mätningarna men att noggrannheten och riktigheten var låg vilket tyder på att det fanns ett systematiskt fel i dessa genomförda mätningar som kan bero på stomnätets kvalitet.

    Slutsatser dragna var att de största deformationerna uppvisade stomnätet i Åmot. Vidare slutsatser var att stor vikt bör läggas på inventering av stomnät samt att ett par kompletterande mätningar i vardera stomnät bör göras för att skapa säkrare restfelsmodeller. Ett test av de skapade restfelsmodellerna bör även göras.

  • 28.
    HE, Xin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Modeling church services supply and performance, using geographically weighted regression2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop a multiple linear regression model that measures the relationship between the church services supply and the attendance to the services in the Uppsala diocese, Church of Sweden. By reviewing previous models and examining the nature of data available, two research questions were introduced, namely, the problem of omitted variables and the problem of spatial autocorrelation. For the first question, two methods were compared, namely, the Y-lag method and the first-differenced equation. Statistical tests then showed that the latter was more preferable for this study. For the second question, geographically weighted regression was used to examine the spatial variations in relationships estimated by above modeling strategies. However, no significant spatial variation was found for them. In conclusion, by using the ordinary least square estimation for the first-differenced equation the most suitable regression model was obtained. The data showed no need to consider the issue of spatial non-stationarity.

  • 29.
    Hermansson, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Berg, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Infallsvinkelns påverkan på mätresultatet vid terrester laserskanning: undersökning av ScanStation 22009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Noggrannheten hos mätningar gjorda med en terrester laserskanner påverkas av många faktorer. En viktig faktor som bör undersökas är laserstrålens infallsvinkel. Vårt syfte med den här undersökningen var att kontrollera laserskanner Leica ScanStation 2 vad gäller infallsvinkelns påverkan på punktmolnets noggrannhet. Undersökningen bestod av skanningar från 10-100 m avstånd mot en specialbyggd kub på 1x1x1 m, med infallsvinklar 0-85°, både inomhus och utomhus. Efterarbetet gjordes i programvaran Leica Cyclone där vi registrerade och modellerade våra punktmoln till olika plan. Resultaten visade en tendens att med ökad infallsvinkel till den inskannade kubens yta ändras resultatet av plananpassningen, vilket betyder att ett fel i avstånd uppstått. De slutsatser vi tagit var att det på 10-20 m avstånd uppvisades så små variationer i planinpassningen att infallsvinkels påverkan på precisionen av inpassade plan ligger inom förväntad noggrannhet och kan förbises. Vi såg en liknande trend för längre avstånd, 30-100 m, men felet var större än det förväntade samt att det visade på en viss instabilitet och infallsvinkeln måste tas i beaktning. Extrema infallsvinklar på 80-85° bör undvikas eftersom mätningarna där blir allt för ostabila.

  • 30.
    Huang, Yujie
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The application of multispectral analysis to reduce cloud interference2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    For multispectral Remote Sensing (RS) image analysis, a big problem is that original dataalways include Clouds-Interference (CI). Especially in the bad weather conditions, the CI is evidentin RS image. So during the pre-processing of RS image, the CI should be reduced as much aspossible. In this paper, reducing CI is researched as the central problem, so that much Ground-Objects Feature (GOF) can be obtained. An analysis about the clouds reflection in differentSpectral-Bands (SBs) was done based on optical theory and early researches. Moreover, therelationships between clouds reflection and ground-objects reflection are presented to understandwhat the Digital Number (DN) represented in each SB, and to reduce the impact of CI the Same DNSpectral Matching Method (SDN-SMM) based on the multispectral application is applied. Finally,two cases are tested using Matlab Programme to indicate the rationality and practicability of SDNSMM.About SDN-SMM, some advantages and disadvantages are concluded through discussion onfinal results. The method can be used in any kind of multispectral sensors image with simplecalculation, while, the original data of clouds-free region will not be changed. However, the qualityof CI reduction depends on the precision of clouds identification and the SB which is used forspectral position relationship creating. In the end of this paper, the improvement is also presentedfor the future work.

  • 31.
    Hussain, Tayyab
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Checking the integrity of Global Positioning Recommended Minimum (GPRMC) sentences using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is used to check the integrity of the Global Positioning Recommended Minimum (GPRMC) sentences. The GPRMC sentences are the most common sentences transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS) devices. This sentence contains nearly every thing a GPS application needs. The data integrity is compared on the basis of the classification accuracy and the minimum error obtained using the ANN. The ANN requires data to be presented in a certain format supported by the learning process of the network. Therefore a certain amount of data processing is needed before training patterns are presented to the network. The data pre processing is done by the design and development of different algorithms in C# using Visual Studio.Net 2003. This study uses the BackPropagation (BP) feed forward multilayer ANN algorithm with the learning rate and the momentum as its parameters. The results are analyzed based on different ANN architectures, classification accuracy, Sum of Square Error (SSE), variables sensitivity analysis and training graph. The best obtained ANN architecture shows a good performance with the selection classification of 96.79 % and the selection sum of square error 0.2022. This study uses the ANN tool Trajan 6.0 Demonstrator.

  • 32.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A different topology: moving from geometry to geography2005In: GEO Informatics, no March, p. 21-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    A structural perspective on visibility patterns with a topographic surface2005In: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 475-488Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A topographic surface can be modeled as a graph, a visibility graph in terms of how each point location is visible to every other. This paper demonstrates various structural properties of visibility patterns with a topographic surface from a graph perspective, which could be important for landscape planning. This paper illustrates the fact that the visibility graph with a topographic surface is a small-world. This finding implies that the average visual separation between any two point locations with a surface is very short (i.e. a small separation), and the visible locations to a given location have a high possibility of being visible to each other (i.e. a high clustering level). Additionally we show that the visibility graph exhibits an exponential distribution rather than a power law distribution, i.e. it is not scale-free, in contrast to many other real world networks.

  • 34.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Cybercartography: theory and practice2007In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 186-187Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Geospatial analysis and modeling: theme issue2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    How many turns? It is smaller than we thought2004In: Geoinformatics, Vol. Oct./Nov., p. 27-27Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Ranking spaces for predicting human movement in an urban environment2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 823-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A city can be topologically represented as a connectivity graph, consisting of nodes representing individual spaces and links if the corresponding spaces are intersected. It turns out in the space syntax literature that some defined topological metrics can capture human movement rates in individual spaces. In other words, the topological metrics are significantly correlated to human movement rates, and individual spaces can be ranked by the metrics for predicting human movement. However, this correlation has never been well justified. In this paper, we study the same issue by applying the weighted PageRank algorithm to the connectivity graph or space-space topology for ranking the individual spaces, and find surprisingly that: (1) the PageRank scores are better correlated to human movement rates than the space syntax metrics, and (2) the underlying space-space topology demonstrates small world and scale free properties. The findings provide a novel justification as to why space syntax, or topological analysis in general, can be used to predict human movement. We further conjecture that this kind of analysis is no more than predicting a drunkard's walking on a small world and scale free network.

  • 38.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of Else/Where: Mapping - New Cartographies of Networks and Territories2008In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 769-771Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Location-Based Services by Jochen Schiller and Agnes Voisard2005In: Geoinformatics, no July/August, p. 21-21Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Mapping Scientific Frontiers: the Quest for Knowledge visualization by Chaomei Chen2005In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 189-190Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Review of: Telegeoinformatics: Location-Based Computing and Services by Hassan A. Karimi and Amin Hammad2004In: Geoinformatics, Vol. September, p. 57-57Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Small world modelling for complex geographic environments2005In: Complex Artificial Environments: simulation, cognition and VR in the study and planning of cities / [ed] Portugali, Juval, Berlin: Springer , 2005, p. 259-270Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Street hierarchies: a minority of streets account for a majority of traffic flow2009In: International Journal of Geographical Information Science, ISSN 1365-8816, E-ISSN 1365-8824, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1033-1148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban streets are hierarchically organized in the sense that a majority of streets are trivial, while a minority of streets is vital. This hierarchy can be simply, but elegantly, characterized by the 80/20 principle, i.e. 80% of streets are less connected (below the average), while 20% of streets are well connected (above the average); out of the 20%, there is 1% of streets that are extremely well connected. This paper, using a European city as an example, examined, at a much more detailed level, such street hierarchies from the perspective of geometric and topological properties. Based on an empirical study, we further proved a previous conjecture that a minority of streets accounts for a majority of traffic flow; more accurately, the 20% of top streets accommodate 80% of traffic flow (20/80), and the 1% of top streets account for more than 20% of traffic flow (1/20). Our study provides new evidence as to how a city is (self-)organized, contributing to the understanding of cities and their evolution using increasingly available mobility geographic information.

  • 44.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Visualization of qualitative locations in geographic information systems2005In: Cartography and Geographic Information Science, ISSN 1523-0406, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 219-229Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative location (QL) refers to the reference of a spatial location using linguistic terms such as qualitative descriptions and qualitative spatial relations with other geo-referenced features. Qualitative locations will be increasingly more popular in the future, driven by theoretical, technological, and database developments. Multiplicity and uncertainty are two innate characteristics of QLs. In other words, a QL often has multiple target locations (multiplicity), and the target locations sometimes cannot be pinpointed exactly due to the qualitative nature (uncertainty) of the qualitative descriptions and relations. The presence of the characteristics imposes research challenges on visualization of QL in geographic information systems (GIS). In response to the visualization challenges we discuss four strategies—namely proportional symbol mapping, fog map, fuzzy 3D surface, and fuzzy-logic-based animation—for the visualization of QL referents in GIS. These strategies combine conventional mapping and advanced interactive visualization methods. Each of them is suitable for one or more scenarios, depending on the presence of either one or both of the two characteristics. All illustrations and related animations are also available at http://www.ggy.uga.edu/people/faculty/xyao/VisQL.html.

  • 45.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Claramunt, Christophe
    A structural approach to model generalisation of an urban street network2004In: Geoinformatica, ISSN 1384-6175, E-ISSN 1573-7624, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 157-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel generalization model for selecting characteristic streets in an urban street network. This model retains the central structure of a street network. It relies on a structural representation of a street network using graph principles where vertices represent named streets and links represent street intersections. Based on this representation, so-called connectivity graph, centrality measures are introduced to qualify the status of each individual vertex within the graph. We show that these measures can be used for characterizing the structural properties of an urban street network, and for the selection of important streets. The proposed approach is validated by a case study applied to a middle-sized Swedish city.

  • 46.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Claramunt, Christophe
    Intergration of space syntax into GIS: new perspectives for urban morphology2002In: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 295-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of transportation demand forecasting has started to focus on disaggregate travel behavior and micro-simulation models. To create data infrastructure, disaggregate trip surveys are conducted and large numbers of observations are collected. To efficiently exploit these surveys, the transfer of the individual trip data to a GIS must start with the development of a solid conceptual data model that fully captures the semantic richness of the application domain and emphasizes its spatio-temporal properties. This paper presents a data modeling process that is based on a combination of complex system theory and the object-oriented paradigm and produced an object-oriented spatio-temporal data model. Main domain entities are modeled as highly structured classes. They encapsulate a memory of their time bound connections and states. Observation data sets are sampled from the origin-destination survey conducted in the Québec region in 1991. This survey incorporated street networks and activity places. The model was smoothly implemented into a proof-of-concept database prototype hosted by an object-oriented GIS shell. The prototype offers a means to navigate through a nested hierarchy of objects, providing a description of an individual’s travel behavior over space and time. The objects have a solid conceptual basis and can meet the needs of scientific research such as hypothesis formulation, simulation, forecasting and induction.

  • 47.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Claramunt, Christophe
    Topological analysis of urban street networks2004In: Environment and Planning, B: Planning and Design, ISSN 0265-8135, E-ISSN 1472-3417, Vol. 31, p. 151-162Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The authors propose a topological analysis of large urban street networks based on acomputational and functional graph representation. This representation gives a functional view inwhich vertices represent named streets and edges represent street intersections. A range of graphmeasures, including street connectivity, average path length, and clustering coefficient, are computedfor structural analysis. In order to characterise different clustering degrees of streets in a streetnetwork they generalise the clustering coefficient to a k-clustering coefficient that takes into accountk neighbours. Based on validations applied to three cities, the authors show that large urban streetnetworks form small-world networks but exhibit no scale-free property.

  • 48.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Harrie, Lars
    Selection of streets from a network using self-organizing maps2004In: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 335-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel approach to selection of important streets from a network, based on the technique of a self-organizing map (SOM), an artificial neural network algorithm for data clustering and visualization. Using the SOM training process, the approach derives a set of neurons by considering multiple attributes including topological, geometric and semantic properties of streets. The set of neurons constitutes a SOM, with which each neuron corresponds to a set of streets with similar properties. Our approach creates an exploratory linkage between the SOM and a street network, thus providing a visual tool to cluster streets interactively. The approach is validated with a case study applied to the street network in Munich, Germany.

  • 49.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Li, Z
    Theme issue on geovisualization2005Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Jiang, Bin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Li, Zhilin
    Geovisualization: Design, enhanced visual tools and applications2005In: Cartographic Journal, ISSN 0008-7041, E-ISSN 1743-2774, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 3-4Article in journal (Refereed)
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