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  • 1.
    Abbas, Syed Haider
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Enhancement of Viterbi Decoder2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Abbas, Wasim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Asghar, Imran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    The Role of Leadership In Organizatinal Change: Relating the successful Organizational Change with Visionary and Innovative Leadership2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization has converted the world into a small global village; a village in which there is an ever high stream of contentions and competitions between organizations. In this scenario the most effective and beneficial maneuver for any organization is to create innovative ways in conducting business. This thesis deals with the role of leadership in the phenomena of organizational change and innovation. The leader as a person in charge or as a change agent can manage an organization or the process of organizational change more effectively and successfully if h/she is capable and competent. Rapid technological advancements, high expectations of customers, and ever changing market situations have compelled organizations to incessantly reassess and reevaluate how they work and to understand, adopt and implement changes in their business model in response of changing trends. Organizational change is a demand of the day, and needed for organizations to survive. Organizations now a days, well understand the importance of the matter, and are serious to prepare themselves not only the current, but also for the future trends to get the level of sustainable success, but Along with all of its implications and importance the process of organizational change is also a very complex and challenging.  Research shows that 70 percent of organizational changes fail to get their goals. As leadership has a central role in evolution and cultivating an organization, the process of organizational change demands a very effective and highly competent leadership that is well capable to perceive the most desirable shape of an organization and address the issue of organizational change in most appropriate way. The analysis of literature reviewed and the results of real life cases of organizations which are studied for this thesis shows, that a leadership with the competencies of “Vision” and “Innovative Approach” along with other characteristics can prove more effective to conclude the complex phenomena of organizational change with success. Further the successful organizational change can leads to innovation for organization, which is the key of long term success and sustainability. This thesis as a result proposed a model which is derived from the leadership competencies, organizational change, and sustainable success and innovation literature. This model expresses relationship between successful organizational change and leadership on the basis of h/her characteristics, which are ‘Vision” and “Innovative Approach”. With the help of proposed model this relationship can be viewed graphically.

  • 3.
    Abbassi, Selma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Engström, Rickard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Algoritm för lokalisering av referensnoder med Indoor Positioning System2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Indoor Positioning Systems lokaliserar människor och objekt inomhus med hjälp av minst tre kända referenspunkter. System för inomhuspositionering som använder kända referenspunkter kallas anchor-based lokalisering medan de som beräknar deras positioner själva kallas anchor-free lokalisering. Syftet med detta arbete är att utveckla en algoritm som är anpassad efter ett anchor-free lokaliseringssystem. Den ska vara oberoende av nätverksuppkopplingen, hårdvaran och hur avstånden mellan mottagare och sensorer beräknats. Utgångspunkten för algoritmen är enbart avstånd mellan en mottagare och tre sensorer vilket kan beskrivas som arbetets huvudsakliga problem.

    Algoritmen implementerades i Java med en simulering som återspeglar positioneringen i en perfekt miljö och sedan testas på en Android-applikation. Simuleringen tillåter användaren att rita ut flera mätpunkter som skapar en rutt. Dessa mätpunkter utnyttjas för att dynamiskt lokalisera referenspunkterna och mätpunkterna genom att hitta ett minsta avstånd mellan sensorerna. Dessa avstånd kan beskrivas som sidorna för en referenstriangel som möjliggör att ett koordinatsystem kan spännas upp.

    Resultatet av den empiriska studien visade en felmarginal mellan 0,3-6 m utan signalstörningar, vilket inte var tillräckligt noggrant. Efter att algoritmen implementerats lades fokus på en korrigering som kan itereras igenom för att uppskatta bättre mätvärden för referenstriangeln. Korrigeringen gav positiva resultat med lägre felmarginal. Arbetet kan vidareutvecklas genom att implementeras i ett verkligt IPS-system och algoritmen kan förbättras genom att skapa utökade funktioner som kan hantera fler än tre beacons.

  • 4.
    Abdalla Mohamed Ahmed, Fayad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy Audit in Educational Buildings: Case study of Fridhemsskolan in Gävle2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global share from buildings towards energy usage in residential and commercial buildings have been increasing constantly reaching between 20% to 40% in developed countries and has overtook the other major sectors: industrial and transportation. Energy demand reduction in the building sector is important for Sweden to achieve national energy aims for reduced energy use in the future.  For this reason, energy efficiency measures in buildings today is one of the main objective for energy policy towards 2020 goals.

     

    This project moves on the same path to find energy efficiency potential in Fridhemsskolan buildings in Gävle, Sweden by performing energy audit using IDA-ICE software to simulate energy performance for the buildings under study. In addition, measurements have been made on three of the school buildings named Hus 1, Hus 2 and Hus 3.

     

    The results include different energy efficiency retrofits on each building and economic analysis of these retrofits for each building individually and for the whole buildings together. The presented measures are reducing working hours of the ventilation system in Hus 2, change of CAV system with VAV system in (Hus 1 and Hus 2) and lights changing to LED, s efficient lights and building envelope improvement which includes walls and roof extra insulation and windows replacement.

     

    Replacement of the CAV system in Hus 1 and Hus 2 were not economically beneficial when considering their high cost compared to energy reduction that can be achieved by applying them. On the other hand, energy retrofits analysis showed that combination of the following energy efficiency measures is the most effective and profitable: extra insulation (walls and roof), windows replacement and lights change to LED in the three buildings. In addition to these measure is reducing running hours of the ventilation system in Hus 2.

     

    Implementation of the recommended energy efficiency measures will save 120, 737 kWh/ year of the district heating and 21, 962 kWh/year electricity consumption with capital investment of 417, 396 SEK and 98, 957 SEK/ year cost saving with payback period of 4.2 years. These figures represent 40.3% and 18.1% reduction in district heating and electricity energy use respectively.

     

    Since reducing working hours of ventilation system measure has no capital investment and have the highest figure of energy reduction it reduces payback period significantly. In case the amount of money saved by this measure doesn’t consider; payback period for the other measures which require capital investment will be 13.5 years and the energy saving in terms of cost will be 30, 874 SEK/ year. 

  • 5.
    Abdalla, Shireen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Strömlind, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den ekonomiska lönsamheten att friköpa en tomträtt: En studie angående tomträtter i Gävle kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Site-leasehold right is a form of access to a property. This means that the owner of the property, usually a municipality or the state, let a site-leaseholder use the property against an annual ground rent. A ground rent is determined by a site-leasehold agreement between the owner of the property and the site-leaseholder. The fixed ground rents are for a period of 10 or 20 years. Long periods of rents combined with a real estate market with rising prices means that the ground rent at a new period of ground rent can be increased considerably. The site-leaseholder may well choose to redeem their long lease. To buy the freehold of a site-leasehold means that the site-leaseholder acquires the property of the property owner and form a new single-family real estate.  The purpose of the study is to provide a better understanding and knowledge of the site lessee facing the decision to retain the site-leasehold or redeem it. The goal of the project is to provide knowledge about when the economic viability of redeeming a siteleasehold may be deemed attained. Another goal is based on the site-leaseholders perspectives consider to highlighting the underlying reasons why a single-family siteleasehold redeemed.   The study is limited to detached single-family site-leaseholds in three geographical areas in the municipality of Gävle. The economic viability of redeeming single-family site-leasehold examined from the site-leasehold executiver's decision to sell or retain the site-leasehold. To examine more closely why a site lessee chooses to redeem the siteleasehold conducted qualitative telephone interviews.  From the results based on the study, it can be concluded that it is likely to be economically justified to redeem a single-family site-leasehold on the price of acquiring the plot is equal to or less than the amount that symbolizes the breaking point of economic viability. Of the respondents surveyed for the study the single biggest reason for why a site lessee chooses to redeem his site-leasehold was because of the uncertainty arising from the developments around the ground rent.

  • 6.
    Abdalmunim, Rand
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Effektivisering av bygglovsprocessen gällande ändring av kulturhistoriskt värdefull bebyggelse: En fallstudie av ett miljonprogramsområde-Nya Nordostprojektet i Gävle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor del av Sveriges bebyggelse har byggts mellan 1965 och 1974 eftersom det rådde stor bostadsbrist i Sverige. Regeringen beslutade att en miljon bostäder skulle uppföras under denna tid, det s.k. miljonprogrammet. Det byggdes bostäder i varierande former och storlekar för att bygga bort bostadsbristen. Storskaligheten och en stor grad av upprepning av identiska hus är kännetecken för miljonprogrammets bebyggelser. Nu är det dags att renovera dessa byggnader. I och med att dessa byggnader är av allmänt intresse då de speglar en del av Sveriges arkitekturhistoria ställer kommunerna vissa krav vid renovering av dem. Det kommunala företaget Gavlegårdarna i Gävle tar initiativ till att utveckla bygglovsprocessen för sådana bebyggelser. Detta görs för att reducera tiden för framställande av ett godkänt bygglov samt effektivisera och underlätta kommunikationen med kommunen under hela projektet. För att kunna bevara dessa byggnader i högsta möjliga mån har Gavlegårdarna utarbetat en effektiviseringsprocess genom att hyra in en extern bevarandeexpert för att fungera som en bro mellan företaget och kommunen samt för att kunna dela med sig av sina erfarenheter gällande bevarandet av det eventuella området. Dessutom har Gavlegårdarna låtit kommunen vara med från ett tidigt skede, d.v.s. redan från den första presentationen av förslaget. Därmed har kommunen fått vara med och medverka i förslaget, redan innan bygglovsansökan.

     

    Detta examensarbete tar upp konsekvenserna av de nya tillagda rutinerna och hur de har påverkat bygglovsansökningsprocessen för Nya Nordostprojektet. Genom att intervjua de inblandade aktörerna i det undersökta projektet har slutsatsen dragits att dessa rutiner har bidragit till att processen bedrivits mer effektivt jämfört med företagets tidigare projekt. Därutöver visar denna uppsats hur hyresgästerna har engagerat sig i det eventuella arbetet. Enkätundersökning har utförts för att kunna höra hyresgästernas åsikt.

     

    Det har visat sig att de nya rutinerna har effektiviserat tiden för bygglovsansöknings-processen. Tiden har förkortats jämförts med Gavlegårdarnas övriga projekt. Fördröjning i tid kostar företaget mer pengar. Dessutom har den förbättrade kommunikationen underlättat för båda parter att ta emot klagomål lättare och acceptera det. Det bidrar till att kommande problem kan lösas smidigare. Undersökningen har även visat att i projekt som Nya Nordost tas inte stor hänsyn till hyresgästernas åsikter, då byggherren redan är styrd från kommunen, vilket försvårar att flera kan vara med och välja. Ett annat resultat av denna undersökning var att de intervjuade personerna hade olika åsikter om bevarandet gällande Nordost. De flesta tyckte att Nordost ej var värt att bevara. Undersökningen visade även att hyresgästerna inte har engagerat sig lika mycket i bevarandet av gamla byggnader jämfört med att bo i ett modernare och nyrenoverat område.

  • 7.
    Abdelrahman, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Detection and Extraction of Sky Regions in Digital Images based on Color Classification2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications of image processing there is a need to extract the solid background which it is usually sky for outdoor images. In our application we present this solution. We developed an automatic algorithm for detection and extraction of sky regions in the color image based on color classification. In which the input image should be in the RGB color space and the blue color is detected and classified. Then the color image is transformed to the binary form and the connected regions are extracted separately. The connected regions are then sorted in a descending order according to the biggest area and the biggest region is identified. Then we merged all objects that have similar sky properties. Experimental results showed that our proposed algorithm can produce good results compared to other existing algorithms.

  • 8.
    Abdi, Shorash
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stedt, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Leicas multistations och laserskanners mätosäkerheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Presently there is no standard for the evaluation of measurement uncertainties for terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) despite the fact that the instrument has been on the market and used for a long time. Since the manufacturer's specifications do not always correspond with reality, it is important to have knowledge about how well the instrument performs. Numerous studies over the past decade have applied different approaches to estimate the measurement uncertainties on various TLS.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the measurement uncertainties of the TLS Leica ScanStation C10 with the multi station Leica Nova MS50 under two different weather conditions. The uncertainty was calculated using ISO 17123-5:2012, which is an international standard developed for acquiring measurement uncertainties of total stations, to investigate whether this standard could also be applicable for TLS. The survey, which took place outdoor at the University of Gävle, was carried out by scanning targets that were set up in a triangle formation from three stations. Both spheres and HDS-targets were scanned with the TLS while the MS50 only scanned spheres. The targets were scanned four times from each instrument setup. Cyclone was used to find the coordinates on the center of the targets which were used to calculate the uncertainties according to the ISO-standard. The results showed that the 3D-uncertainty of C10 with HDS-target and spheres were 2.9 mm and 3.5 mm during sunny conditions and 1.1 mm and 1.4 mm during cloudy conditions, respectively. In the case of the MS50, the uncertainty was 3.0 mm during sunny and 3.7 mm during cloudy conditions. MS50 demonstrated a higher 3D-uncertainty in both weather conditions due to high uncertainty in the vertical direction. In addition, a chi-two-test carried out on the TLS showed that the calculated uncertainty in plane and height did not significantly deviate from the manufacturer's specified uncertainty when using HDS-targets during cloudy conditions. Furthermore, it was found in the F-test that there was a significant difference in plane and height between two scans with the same instrument and target type in different weather conditions. MS50 did not show any significant difference at all. The results of this study showed that there will be a significantly lower uncertainty when scanning in cloudy conditions. Our conclusion is that it is possible to apply the standard to calculate the measurement uncertainties on TLS and ISO should consider using the same standard for TLS as the total station.

  • 9.
    Abeurathna, Nuwan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. KTH.
    Design and Construction of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System for full scale combustion test facility2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of major concerns in gas turbine industry is to reduce emissions.  Tow kind of approaches could be identified in the industry to reduce emissions, namely Primary Emission Reduction approach and Secondary Emission Reduction approach. The primary approach concerns emission prevention in combustion, while secondary approach is all about emission cleanup before releasing to the atmosphere.

    Combustion flame temperature highly influences on emissions specially NOx formation.  NOx emission is lower when the combustor operates close to lean flammability limit. Incorporating catalyst to combustor is one of methods to extend flammability limit.  Heat and Power Division at KTH-Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden has developed a test facility to test performances of catalyst in combustion.

    The combustion test facility available at Heat & Power Davison at KTH, consists of high pressure air compressor and air flow control system, air preheating unit and control system, fuel flow control system, combustor unit, and exhaust gas analyzer system. But lack of proper user interface to control and monitor the operation of the test facility through a computer work station was a major concern from experimenters.

    The purpose of the thesis work is to design and construction of supervisory control and data acquisition system for the full scale catalytic combustion test facility.  Labview 2012 is used as the main platform for implementing data acquisition and control system for the test facility. Thermocouples, pressure transducer signals, air flow meter signal are connected to Keithley 2701 data acquisition system and then connected to the computer. Fuel flow controllers are directly connected to the computer via serial port. Air flow control actuator signal is given through ADAM digital to analogue converter.

    Developed GUI is more convenient for users in terms of easy control of air flow, fuel flow and gas sampling probe systems, and monitoring of temperature, pressure measurements and exhaust gas species systems. And also GUI provides web interface to select correct conversion factor, and also to view live data recording. The developed GUI can be accessed through online to monitor the operation. 

  • 10.
    Abeywardana, Asela Janaka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Solar - Biomass hybrid system for process heat supply in medium scale hotels in Sri Lanka2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at evaluating and demonstrating the feasibility of using Concentrated Solar Thermal technology combined with biomass energy technology as a hybrid renewable energy system to supply the process heat requirements in small scale industries in Sri Lanka. Particularly, the focus was to apply the concept to the expanding hotel industry, for covering the thermal energy demand of a medium scale hotel.

    Solar modules utilize the rooftop area of the building to a valuable application. Linear Fresnel type of solar concentrator is selected considering the requirement of the application and the simplicity of fabrication and installation compared to other technologies. Subsequently, a wood-fired boiler is deployed as the steam generator as well as the balancing power source to recover the effects due to the seasonal variations in solar energy. Bioenergy, so far being the largest primary energy supply in the country, has a good potential for further growth in industrial applications like small hotels. 

    When a hotel with about 200-guests capacity and annual average occupancy of 65% is considered, the total annual CO2 saving is accounted as 207 tons compared with an entirely fossil fuel (diesel) fired boiler system. The annual operational cost saving is around $ 40,000 and the simple payback period is within 3-4 years. The proposed hybrid system can generate additional 26 employment opportunities in the proximity of the site location area.  

    This solar-biomass hybrid concept mitigates the weaknesses associated with these renewable technologies when employed separately. The system has been designed in such a way that the total heat demand of hot water and process steam supply is managed by renewable energy alone. It is thus a self-sustainable, non-conventional, renewable energy system. This concept can be stretched to other critical medium temperature applications like for example absorption refrigeration. The system is applicable to many other industries in the country where space requirement is available, solar irradiance is rich and a solid biomass supply is assured.    

  • 11.
    Abid, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Global Supply Chain Design: Exploring configurational and coordination factors2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the topic of global supply chain design. One major challenge concerns how to manage the tension between separation and integration pertaining to the localization of business activities. In this regard Ferdows (2008) worked to create two new production network models (rooted production network and footloose production network). Earlier studies have highlighted the choices that are involved in the network of facilities but lack in providing a comprehensive picture in terms of both configurational and coordination factors that govern the design of global supply chain. There is a need for a conceptual model where factors affecting the design process of a global supply chain can be applied. Two main research questions have been addressed in this study. First, exploring and identifying the factors affecting global supply chain design. Second, investigating the factors that influence the position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose supply chain design.      

    A literature review analysis and multi-case studies have been performed for this study in order to explore the factors. The companies were selected in order to reflect upon the two types of network, i.e., rooted and footloose. The primary data were selected through interviews with the managers.

    This study highlighted that there are many factors that affect configurational and coordination decision areas within a global supply chain. This study categorized the factors and the configurational/coordination decision areas with two main competitive priorities, i.e., cost and differentiation in the form of a “conceptual model.” The study also highlighted the factors in a matrix, which showed their position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose network configurations. For instance, the coordination factors that drive towards a footloose network include: high orchestration capabilities, need access to new technology and knowledge, proximity to suppliers, etc. The configurational factors that drive towards a rooted network include: economic stability, proximity to market, concerns for sustainability issues, high transportation cost, need for high proximity between key functions, need for intellectual property rights protection, etc.

  • 12.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholm University, School of Business.
    Factors affecting shifts in global supply chain networks: A configurational approach2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In certain situations, global companies strive to take advantage of short-term changes in economic and exchange rates on the never-ending journey of competitiveness. This paper seeks to extend Ferdows’s (2008) production network models by adding the factors affecting shifts between rooted and footloose network configurations. Two companies were selected in order to illustrate the models and reveal other possible factors. The identified factors are differentiated in terms of configuration and coordination and merged in a matrix. The trends and implications on global supply chains are also discussed. 

  • 13.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Factors affecting global supply chain design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the limited existing knowledge pertaining to the factors which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, the purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of global supply chains. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. Five companies were selected in order to illustrate the issues of global supply chain design. Among them, three companies are considered to have efficient supply chain and less complex products, while the two others are considered to have responsive supply chain and more complex products. The issues discussed with the selected companies cover global sourcing, challenges, technological advancement and issues related to management control. The study identifies about fifty factors that affect global supply chain design, and specifically how theses relate to design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution of products and organisation of interfaces along the supply chain. The discrepancies between theory and practice as well as the implications for further research are discussed.

  • 14.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mandar, Dabhilkar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Global supply chain design: Building a decision model2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge pertaining to the factors, which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, is limited. The purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of a global supply chain. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. The study identifies 30 factors that affect a global supply chain design and specifically how theses relate to the design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution logistics, organisation of interfaces/enterprise information infrastructure along the supply chain and human resource development. The decision model is developed and the description of the model is done with the help of an example (location of a factory) by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty, 1990).  

  • 15.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fobbe, Lea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainability reporting as a way to foster entrepreneurial universities2018In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual EurOMA Conference - To Serve, to Produce and to Servitize in the Era of Networks, Big Data and Analytics, Budapest, June 24-26, 2018., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a major role in the development of societies. In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest on the commercialisation of knowledge by universities for economic development that lead to the emergence of the term “Entrepreneurial University”. This study aims to report the sustainability efforts of the University of Gävle, Sweden by applying a systematic tool, Graphical Assessment of Sustainability in Universities (GASU). This study highlights sustainability reporting as a way to improve communication practices between universities and stakeholder. The systematic and holistic assessment of HEIs gives insights of collaboration opportunities and by that foster their entrepreneurial journey.

  • 16.
    Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Farhat, Farshad
    Peighambari, K
    Lueå Tekniska Universitet.
    Supply chain process maturity and financial performance study of Swedish steel SMEs2010In: Proceedings of  the 17th Euroma conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this research is to demonstrate that the financial performance of the current year in Swedish steel SMEs is dependent on the amount of maturity of supply chain processes. This is examined by considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years. It was found that the delivery process of supply chain processes and prior cost of goods sold (COGS) have an effect on current COGS. Additionally, prior inventory and plan process of the supply chain have a positive and negative effect on inventory turnover respectively.

  • 17.
    Abou Raas, Mhd Jihad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Wall Compensation Algorithms for M-sequence UWB Radar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for wall compensation in the ultra-wideband (UWB) through-wall imaging radar is presented. The UWB system can be utilize in high precision measurements, but due to phase distortion and amplitude attenuation caused by the wall the precision is limited, the target is displaced, and the image is defocused. 

    In order to mitigate the wall effects, two methods are applied in this project. First, the unknown wall transfer function is estimated using real data measurements to design the inverse filter. Secondly, FIR Wiener filter is designed to improve the received m-sequence. After all, each method is tested using three parameters, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), and the relative position error (RPE). 

    The inverse filter can eliminate the wall effects very well; it could correct not only the position of the target but also the image defocus. The new method can give improve the image quality and that can extend the use of UWB radar in many applications. 

  • 18. Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E.
    et al.
    Vitti, Antonella
    Nuzzaci, Maria
    El-Attar, Ahmad K.
    Piazzolla, Giuseppina
    Tortorella, Cosimo
    Harandi, Ali M.
    Olson, Olof
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Piazzolla, Pasquale
    Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies2014In: Advances in Virus Research / [ed] Maramorosch, K; Murphy, F A, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 89, p. 1-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP TMGMV CP expression vectors.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Emilie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Relationen mellan kalkyleringsmetoder, Lean och produktionsflöden av kundanpassad karaktär: Hur kostnadsprecisionen i förkalkyleringen i denna typ av produktion kan ökas samt vilken kalkyleringsmetod som passar bäst2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the manufacturing industry is heading for a higher level of customization and implementation of Lean, at the same time as outmoded traditional costing methods is still used in modern industrial organizations, it is interesting to explore the relations between production flows of customized character, Lean and different costing methods.

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the cost precision in the preliminary calculation for a product flow of customer adapted and Lean character, and to describe a generalizable work process for this. The purpose is also to develop general recommendations regarding the choice of costing methods by, on a basis of the character of this production, a comparative analysis of costing methods (traditional costing methods, ABC and Lean accounting/VSC). Through a literature study and a case study of a production flow with a high level of variety and influence from Lean, both of the purposes has been fulfilled.

    The case study has been accomplished through interviews and observations. Problems and positive elements that according to literature characterize the production of customized products have also been found in the case company. That connection has been used to support the analysis of the relations. The relations between costing methods, Lean and production flows of customized character has been analyzed through a comparison between findings in literature and results from the case study. It has been found that Value Stream Costing (VSC) is the most appropriate costing method for production flows of customized products that has reached a high maturity level of Lean.

    The preliminary costing is dependent on reliable operation times which have been produced on the case study company, while a general work process has been developed. The operation times were in this case identified through video recordings of the production moments and a following analysis in the software AviX. By following the general work process that has been developed, useful material for preliminary costing and continuous improvements in the production flow will be obtained.

    Since research is showing that Lean should be implemented in the whole organization if full advantages of Lean shall be obtained, VSC is found to be an ideal costing method to replace outmoded, traditional costing methods at the same time as this costing method simplifies costing in production flows of customized character.

  • 20.
    Abrego peris, Iñaki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Antenna with medical applications for tumour cancer: hyperthermia function2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The idea is to improve or help the treatments that exist in the market in the medical field. Treatments such as mammography or radiotherapy make use of X-rays. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation in a high frequency band, this type of electromagnetic is dangerous to health because ionizing radiation is used, ionized atoms interact with matter. For this reason, in our work we give alternative solution to these treatments without any risk to health. This project consists in the use of non-harmful frequencies such as microwave. In this way, we will make an antenna with medical applications whose frequency range will be between 300 MHz and 30 GHz, specifically between 950MHz and 2.45GHz (medical range). The first step will be the detection of the tumour and classification of this, but our work is about another technique called hyperthermia. This technique consists in increase the temperature with a value of 40-43 degrees in the tumour area. Tumour resistance decreases when heat is applied to this. When combining a treatment with oncologic hyperthermia, the effect of radiotherapy is most effective (between 1.5-5 times). The most important part is study antenna in body tissues characteristics as SAR, depth penetration and antenna size; this theory part is essential to know the best parameters and what case use this. In work development we will choose and design antennas for the different parts of the body in some specific frequencies and choose circular antennas in frequencies of 915 MHz and 1.8 GHz. Finally, we will take measurements about temperature increase with meat and say some conclusions.

  • 21.
    Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modelling Moho depth in ocean areas based on satellite altimetry using Vening Meinesz-Moritz' method2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN ISSN 2213-5812, EISSN 2213-5820, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for estimating Moho depth is carried out based on satellite altimetry and topographic information using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric isostatic hypothesis. In order to investigate the possibility and quality of satellite altimetry in Moho determination, the DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field model and the DTM2006 global topography model are used to obtain a global Moho depth model over the oceans with a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The numerical results show that the estimated Bouguer gravity disturbance varies from 86 to 767 mGal, with a global average of 747 mGal, and the estimated Moho depth varies from 3 to 39 km with a global average of 19 km. Comparing the Bouguer gravity disturbance estimated from satellite altimetry and that derived by the gravimetric satellite-only model GOGRA04S shows that the two models agree to 13 mGal in root mean square (RMS). Similarly, the estimated Moho depths from satellite altimetry and GOGRA04S agree to 0.69 km in RMS. It is also concluded that possible mean dynamic topography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination.

  • 22.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Life Sciences, Geomatics Section, University of Karlstad, Karlstad,Sweden; Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lars, Sjöberg
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology(KTH), Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sampietro, Daniele
    GReD s.r.l., Como, Italy.
    Towards the Moho depth and Moho density contrast along with their uncertainties from seismic and satellite gravity observations2017In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a combined method for estimating a new global Moho model named KTH15C, containing Moho depth and Moho density contrast (or shortly Moho parameters), from a combination of global models of gravity (GOCO05S), topography (DTM2006) and seismic information (CRUST1.0 and MDN07) to a resolution of 1° × 1° based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz’ inverse problem of isostasy. This paper also aims modelling of the observation standard errors propagated from the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and CRUST1.0 models in estimating the uncertainty of the final Moho model. The numerical results yield Moho depths ranging from 6.5 to 70.3 km, and the estimated Moho density contrasts ranging from 21 to 650 kg/m3, respectively. Moreover, test computations display that in most areas estimated uncertainties in the parameters are less than 3 km and 50 kg/m3, respectively, but they reach to more significant values under Gulf of Mexico, Chile, Eastern Mediterranean, Timor sea and parts of polar regions. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by KTH15C and those derived by KTH11C, GEMMA2012C, CRUST1.0, KTH14C, CRUST14 and GEMMA1.0 models shows that KTH15C agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The Moho density contrasts estimated by KTH15C and those of the KTH11C, KTH14C and VMM model agree to 112, 31 and 61 kg/m3 in RMS. The regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between KTH15C and Moho depths from seismic information yields fits of 2 to 4 km in South and North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, respectively.

  • 23.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combined Moho parameters determination using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz model2015In: Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1674-487X, E-ISSN 1867-111X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parameters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1A(0)x1A(0). The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m(3), with a global average of 321 kg/m(3), and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our leastsquares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our estimate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  • 24.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016In: International Journal of Geophysics, ISSN 1687-885X, E-ISSN 1687-8868, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 262-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1° × 1° blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 25.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges2011In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Data Infrastructure denotes the collection of technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial information. During the last few years the development of spatial data infrastructure in Sweden has been influenced by two actions. The first was the European Directive in spatial data infrastructure namely Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE), and the second action was the Swedish parliament's directive early in 2008 on e-Government. In a modern society, spatial data play major roles and have different applications such as information support during disaster prevention and management. These two milestones involving Geodata development have created huge demands and represent great challenges for researchers in the area of spatial data infrastructure. One of these challenges concerned the methodologies involved for testing proposed data specifications from INSPIRE. This paper addresses the above challenge and introduces a framework for testing Geodata. The testing of Geodata includes, the testing of the data specifications for different geographical themes and data structure, the performance testing of Opengeospatial Web Services (OWS) and the usability of Geoportals and services. The proposed methods were evaluated during a pilot test for a regional geoportal in Sweden, and the reported results in this paper show the feasibility and applicability of the methods used. The methods used assisted in the identification of the performance related defects and the bottleneck involved in relation to the response time, stress and load. The methods support the detection of different types of errors that occur during the testing time such as http error, timeout error, and socket error. During the pilot test of a geoportal, it was discovered that the response time was 30 seconds which is 6 times higher than the INSPIRE required time (Maximum 5 second), with 500 virtual users accessing the system and performing a specific task. A usability test was conducted which focused on the users' acceptance and the “think aloud” methods. The usability testing enabled the identification of user-interface related problems and the results were quantified to enable comparisons to be made with current results and those from the new test.

  • 26.
    Adeboye, Taiyelolu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Robot Goalkeeper: A robotic goalkeeper based on machine vision and motor control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows a robust and efficient implementation of a speed-optimized algorithm for object recognition, 3D real world location and tracking in real time. It details a design that was focused on detecting and following objects in flight as applied to a football in motion. An overall goal of the design was to develop a system capable of recognizing an object and its present and near future location while also actuating a robotic arm in response to the motion of the ball in flight.

    The implementation made use of image processing functions in C++, NVIDIA Jetson TX1, Sterolabs’ ZED stereoscopic camera setup in connection to an embedded system controller for the robot arm. The image processing was done with a textured background and the 3D location coordinates were applied to the correction of a Kalman filter model that was used for estimating and predicting the ball location.

    A capture and processing speed of 59.4 frames per second was obtained with good accuracy in depth detection while the ball was well tracked in the tests carried out.

  • 27.
    Adis, Kurtalic
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Linkfire2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Planen var att konstruera en PCI-Express-till-PCI brygga för fyra MoCA radiokort. Problem uppstod då det visade sig att PLC8112 inte kunde hantera fyra PCI samtidigt som var utlovat från tillverkaren av bryggan. För att lösa problemet fick PCI6152 läggas till i designen. Det är en PCI-till-PCI brygga som också ska klara att hantera upp till fyra PCI enligt tillverkaren. Fyra MoCA radiokort förbrukar mycket ström. Två spänningsregulatorer lades till i designen för att kunna leverera de strömmar som krävs. För att säkerställa att radiokorten som ansluts till Linkfire inte blir för varma så placeras en temperatursensor under ett radiokort. Temperatursensorn har endast av/på lägen och till den ansluts två fläktar, därmed så betraktas dem som en fläkt då de inte är individuellt styrda.

  • 28.
    Afzal, Nauman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. tet10nal@student.hig.se.
    Udata, Ramakrishna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. tet10rua@student.hig.se.
    Designing and measurement of routing module for transceiver system at 3.125GHz2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report intends to impart a good understanding of routing modules used in modern transceiver systems. The radar system at RadarBolaget AB needed to have a good routing module for its newly designed transceiver antenna. In this report, studies have been done related to two majorly used routing modules in modern electronics industry; Microwave Circulator and RF/Microwave Switch. First off, different characteristics of routing modules are discussed. After having discussed important design parameters, practical design considerations for two routing modules are presented in a profound way. Theoretical knowledge for both of these two devices is presented in the beginning, followed by their practical designs using standard simulation software like HFSS and ADS. The report concludes its findings in a way that at the end of this report, reader becomes acquainted with ample information to be able to choose the best option available among all of the discussed designs. An FET RF Switch is chosen at the end of this project to be used for transceiver system which should be able to satisfy specifications specified by RadarBolaget AB. This project was carried out by two students of Master Program in Electronics/Telecommunications at Högskolan i Gävle in collaboration with RadarBolaget AB, Gävle, Sweden.    

  • 29.
    Agbauduta, Stephen Ogba
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    SPATIAL MCDA FOR FINDING SUITABLE AREAS FOR HOUSING CONSTRUCTION2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Demand for residential houses in urban areas has become a major problem facing town planners today. With the high increase in urbanization due to the increase in population, residential houses are becoming more difficult to find. Planners aim at developing new ideas to combat the high increase in the demand for residential buildings. In recent times, different methods of analysis have been introduced that will help planners select best locations to erect residential houses.

    A Geographic information system (GIS) is one of the tools for analyzing and storing a great deal of information. Over the years, GIS technology has been introduced into planning and the result has been of great help to urban planners in planning sustainable environment for residents. This research aims at using GIS technology and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to determine possible locations to build residential houses and analyzing different methods of selecting suitability areas within the study area. An MCDA map was produced from the combination of different factors and constraint which include elevation, orientation of the building (direction), the soil type and land use type. Proximity analysis was also done to find out how infrastructures (existing roads, shopping malls and health care enter) are close to the study area. Results show that the southern, eastern, and a part of western side of the study area is better to build residential houses than other areas.

    Three different methods (visual interpretation method, seeding method and neighborhood method) where used to find out which method produces the most suitable locations within the study area. In order to calculate the suitability areas and suitability values, the sum of pixel values were calculated for each method. The visual interpretation method servers as a standard method of deciding the suitability area covers 15,375 m² and has the highest suitability values of about 500 pixels. The seeding method was used as an automatic method for selecting the suitability area; result shows that the suitability area covers 17,421 m² and has the highest suitability value of about 1200 pixels. The neighborhood method was calculated using two different statistics (mean statistics and majority statistics). The mean statistics covers an area of 12,439 m² while the majority statistics covers an area of 14,332 m². From analysis carried out, the seeding method is preferred for selecting suitability areas than the visual interpretation method and the neighborhood method but the visual interpretation method covers more suitability area than the seeding method and neighborhood method.

  • 30.
    Agborsangaya, Etchu Oben
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Omoregie, Iyobosa Frank
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Does Culture Influence Decision Making in Project Teams?: A Multi Case Study in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In the contemporary society in which companies operate there is increasing interest in understanding the effects and changes of culture on projects in connection to decision making. This is evident of the fact that most companies are using groups or teams composed of mixed culture to perform their tasks and develop their activities into different geographical regions by adopting project management as a “way of working” other than a tool or technique. The objective of this study is to explore the cultural influence decision making in project teams through a multi case study of applying Hofstede’s dimensions of culture model to selected Swedish firms. 

  • 31.
    Agebro, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Datormodellering av en värmelagrande betongväggs inverkan på det termiska klimatet i ett växthus2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the building of a computer model that makes it possible to simulate the thermal climate in a greenhouse. The computer model is built on the physical theory of heat exchange that occur in a greenhouse, such as radiation and convective heat exchange. The model also includes the heat storage that is active in a greenhouse.

    The computer model is used to simulate the thermal climate in a greenhouse under three periods, winter, spring and summer. It also investigates which effect a concrete wall has on the thermal climate in a greenhouse. The purpose of putting a concrete wall in the greenhouse model is to investigate the possibility to store heat during the day and then use this heat when the temperature drops during the night.

    The result from the simulations shows that a concrete wall levels the big difference in temperature that normally occurs under a day in a greenhouse. It also shows that heat is stored in the concrete wall and during the night the wall temperature is higher than both the outdoor temperature and the greenhouse temperature. This makes the wall a source of heat during this time.

  • 32.
    Agostini, Lara
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Nosella, Anna
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Combining an external with an internal perspective on open innovation with scientific partners and patenting2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Agostini, Lara
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Nosella, Anna
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Open innovation with scientific partners and patenting: the moderating role of the internal context for innovation2017In: Proceedings of IFKAD 2017: Knowledge Management in the 21st Century: Resilience, Creativity and Co-creation, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Aguirre Sánchez, Mikel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Air flow disturbance by moving objects at local exhaust ventilation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis aims to study the effect of human movements on local exhaust ventilation.

    In its simplest terms, local exhaust ventilation is a system which has the function of extracting contaminated air situated close to the contaminant source, protecting a working person from exposure to hazardous substances by containing or capturing them locally, at the emission point. As an important security measure referred to terms of health, it is crucial for the healthiness of workers to control and prevent them from the exposure to vapour, mist, dust or other airborne contaminants. Additionally, to a lesser degree of significance, it can be stressed an expected increase in worker performance due to an improvement of the working conditions.

    There is an existing necessity for well-defined and appropriate methods to test the performance of local exhaust devices in order to reach standard efficiency values. The lack of an international standardization led to the realization of this study, which, ultimately, has the purpose of obtaining relevant results that can be utilized for future normalized test procedures.

    The study entails full scale experimental measurements that include air velocity measurements in 3 dimensions, a local exhaust ventilation device with circular hood and a flat flanged plate and a controlled generation of air turbulence through physical movements of a human-sized cylinder, simulating a walking person.

    The present study extends previous similar studies at the University of Gävle, where the controlled air turbulence was generated by a moving plate. After meaningful results obtained in that study, one of the considerations was to better simulate a walking person, by replacing the plate for a movable cylinder. The present study points at a larger similarity occurring with a cylinder than with a plate, as regards the air flow pattern produced by a real walking person.

    As in the previous study, the Percentage of Negative Velocities, PNV, has been used as the main measure of turbulence induced risk of contaminant spread. The PNV represents the fraction of the time when the flow is directed opposite to the suction air stream in front of the local exhaust hood. The obtained results conclude that the use of the cylinder as a moving object has been an improvement to simulate the effect of the movement of a human being on a relaxed walking pace.

    The present study was carried out in parallel with the thesis work by Leyre Catalán Ros, which complements this study by analyzing the effect of an added heated dummy, simulating a person seated in front of the local exhaust device.

  • 35.
    Ahlander, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Barns matematikinlärning i utemiljön.: Ett arbetsmaterial för pedagoger i förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Ahlbom, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nordlander, Edvard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Why choose a technical career?2010In: Socio-cultural and Human Values in Science and Technology Education / [ed] Slavko Dolinšek, Terry Lyons, Ljubljana, Slovenia: IRI UL , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Technology is a neglected mandatory subject in the Swedish compulsory school. The subject is supposed to inspire young people to consider a technical career, due to an increasing need for engineers and a declining recruitment to engineering education.

    An investigation of influential factors for choosing a technical career is presented. The factors are well-known, but the relative impact of the factors is investigated using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with engineering students. Special focus is put on the effect of previous technical schooling. The most important factors for choosing technical education are personal technical interest, future salary expectations, and personal qualities.

  • 37.
    Ahlmén, Caroline
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hemligheten bakom populära animerade karaktärer2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad gör en framgångsrik animerad karaktär? Homer Simpson, Svampbob Fyrkant och Eric Cartman kommer att analyseras och jämföras för att hitta vad som gör just dem så populära. Därefter kommer de psykologiska aspekterna att granskas. Varför tilltalar dessa karaktärer människor? Riktlinjer för hur man skapar en populär animerad karaktär kommer att utvecklas utifrån resultatet av utredningen.

  • 38.
    Ahlström, André
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Åström, Albin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Onyttiga vägsamfälligheter: En analys och beskrivning av åtgärder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Onyttiga vägsamfälligheter är ett problem som uppstått under äldre tiders fastighetsbildning och är idag en olägenhet för lantmätare och fastighetsägare i många förrättningsärenden. Detta arbete har syftat till att studera de metoder för utplåning av onyttiga vägsamfälligheter för att slutligen ge förslag på möjliga lösningar. Studier har gjorts av en utredning, en proposition, förrättningsakter och rättsfall med fokus på städning av fastighetsindelningen. De förrättningsakter som studerats innehåller fastighetsregleringsåtgärder som verkar för utplåning av onyttiga samfälligheter och sanering av fastighetsindelningen. Förrättningarna innefattade ett eller flera större områden med ett stort antal fastigheter. Rättsfallen som inkluderades i arbetet rörde samfälligheter och handlade om överklagan på saneringsåtgärder med ersättning och äganderätt i fokus. Utöver detta har ett exempel från Finland studerats, där utplåning av vägsamfälligheter utfördes 1977 genom lagstiftning. Den finska lagstiftningen för utplåning av vägsamfälligheter blev till stor del inte en förbättring utan försköt problemet genom att en stor mängd servitut bildades utan kontroll. I längden blev det svårt att hantera de uppkomna rättigheterna och en städningsåtgärd infördes i finsk lag för att rätta till problemen. Det svenska lagförslaget för utplåning av samfälligheter i Sverige från 1983 liknar lagen i Finland men antogs senare inte då det hade inneburit liknande problem. Ett antal ändringar i svenska fastighetsbildningslagen, som Proposition 1988/89:77 tar upp, infördes dock. Exempelvis medförde en ändring att någon ersättning ej behövde fastställas för föreningsförvaltade samfälligheter med lågt värde. Effekterna detta har haft på reglerandet av onyttiga samfälligheter är okänt men eftersom problemet kvarstår efter 20 år får det förmodas att nya åtgärder måste göras. Våra slutsatser visar att onyttiga vägsamfälligheter kan åtgärdas delvis genom större inflytande från sakägare. Någon lösning på problemet är dem däremot inte. Slutsatserna innehåller även förslag på vad en ny lag bör innehålla, med tidigare förslag som förebild. Framtida kostnader ett sådant lagförslag ger upphov till är troligtvis höga men vi hoppas att vissa ändringar från tidigare förslag kan reducera dessa.

  • 39.
    Ahlström, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kunskap under utveckling: En enkätundersöking på gymnasiets praktiska program.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att mäta elevernas kunskaper inom området evolution på yrkesförberedande program. En enkät delades ut till elever på en gymnasieskola med frågor som hade fasta och öppna svarsalternativ. Ett statistiskt test (Kurskal-Wallis) användes när materialet tolkades. De alternativa evolutionsidéerna dominerade svaren på flersarsfrågorna medan det hos de öppna frågorna var en dominans av vet ej/ingen aning svar. Det fanns ingen skillnad på rangen hos enkätfrågorna med öppna svar och intresset av att läsa naturkunskap b eller biologi. Förkunskaperna hos eleverna på yrkesförberedande program var liknande dem hos elever som läser biologi på gymnasiet.

  • 40.
    Ahlund, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av förskolan Smultronstället2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is an energy audit with recommended energy efficient solutions recommended made on a preschool in north Gävle. This preschool is administrated by Gavlefastigheter. In Sweden almost 40 % of Sweden’s energy supply goes to the housing and service sector. This means there is a lot of potential to save energy in this field. A good way to start saving energy in a building is to do an energy audit.This energy audit is made from blueprints of the building, real measurements, standard values, assumptions, and literature.The school has a calculated energy use of 1239 MWh per year; this is divided on ventilation, transmission losses and hot tap water. A calculation with energy efficient solutions makes a total of 612 MWh or 49, 4 % in saved energy. The energy efficient savings calculated are new windows, additional insulation and changed ventilation. To only change the ventilation made for an energy saving of 522 MWh which is 42, 1 % from the total energy use in the building. To change the ventilation to an FTX-system is the recommended change to be made.

  • 41.
    AHMAD, FAHEEM
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    KAKKERLA, PRAMOD
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    FOCUSING OF UWB RADAR SIGNALS USING TIME REVERSAL2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing techniques and detection of targets is usually associated to defense and military use. However in recent past things have moved ahead. Now target detection using UWB radars is being done in many industries and corporations. Radarbolaget AB is one of them; one of their projects uses UWB radars to detect steel strips inside a furnace. This research solves a potential problem of detecting middle steel strip out of total three strip edges which can be seen by radar placed on the front. For better understanding of the reader, existing system and introductory UWB radar principles are discussed. As there can be many solutions to focusing of targets here (steel strip edge detection). Available focusing techniques have been discussed in detail along with the possible physical and simulation setups. Later in the document, detection methods have been proposed. UWB time reversed signal detection is a fairly new method and a very limited research has been done so far. PRBS sequence has been focused on in detection mechanism. Results section show that the pulse of the PRBS works better and produces more promising results rather than a repetitive signal. Time reversal methods for locating the target have been used to find the approximate location of the target. Manual distance calculations from target to the transmitter and receiver have been done. Comparison of actual distance from target to the transmitter is compared with simulation results. Different model simulation setups and their results have proved that using UWB Time reversed signals; a still or moving target can be detected with centimeter window precision.

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Basem
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Investigation of energy retrofits of a multi-family building by using IDA Simulation Software2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy simulation in building sector was an important issue which can eliminate energy use and improve energy efficiency. The building, which is located at Ringvägen 18 in Ljusdal community in Sweden, was chosen to be the main mission of this research and it was one of eleven objects which were involved in EKG project. First step was to create the model and simulate it to reach heating value of 117 MWh which was reached by EKG project. After getting validation value, many renovations were implemented and the heating value was reduced by 58.7% and the heating demand by 55.2%. Improving of energy use through prefabrication gave reduction of heating value of 70.4% and heating demand of 65.8%

    The LCC part was important issue because it gave clear vision and judgment about the economic and investment issue. The acceptability of the investment decision was decided by 198 answers which were responsible to judge if the investments were good or not. There were 22 types of different renovation and every type included 9 cases which depended on interesting rate and energy price factors. The result was 198 answers which were divided to 100 answers as “YES” for good investment and 98 answers as “NO” for good investment.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Dolovan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Fadul, Mohammed Erik Jamal
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utsläpp från svenska reningsverk till Östersjön: Granskning av Henriksdals reningsverk, Ryaverket, Sjölunda reningsverk, Kungssängsverket och Duvbackens reningsverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From domestic and industrial waste water will have to be cleaned before it can be released into lakes and streams again. This purification takes place through various stages of treatment plants. Wastewater contains many substances that are harmful to the environment as well as human and animal health, so it is important that the purification that is done is done in an efficient and thoughtful manner. The steps that are common in Swedish cleaning plants are mechanical, biological and chemical purification. These purification steps ensure that larger particles do not come out to the open water, convert nitrogen into nitrogen through the activation process, and that by chemical treatment, the emission of phosphorus is reduced. All of these purification steps can be designed differently and vary from purification plants to purification plants. Therefore, the degree of purification and emissions can distinguish between different treatment plants. Because there are many factors involved in the processes at Swedish waste treatment plants, it is important to carry out annual audits to detect problems that can lead to environmental damage.If cleaning does not work, exercise can increase in lakes and seas, which causes people and animals to suffer. Bottom dead and acid deficiency are already a major problem for the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce the negative environmental effects, emissions of nutrients are drastically reduced. This concerns the release of nutrients from all countries around the Baltic Sea.This study focuses on nitrogen and phosphorus purification from 5 wastewater treatment plants, Henriksdal's purification plant (Stockholm), Ryaverket (Gothenburg), Sjölunda purification plant (Malmö), Kungssängsverket (Uppsala) and Duvbacken purification plant (Gävle). Information about its activities has been obtained through interviews and works own reports.The purification plants use different technical solutions, and all treatment plants meet today's requirements for purification. The biggest difference is the degree of nitrogen purification. All wastewater treatment plants have a history of changes in technical solutions to improve treatment. Cleaning wastewater from households and industries costs a lot of money for the treatment plants, so it's always a challenge for the wastewater treatment plants to clean the water in the best possible way without costing too much.It is expected that the cleaning requirements will be tightened and all treatment plants should continue to develop to increase efficiency. Current purification requirements are designed to suit the recipient's sensitivity. If the EU's idea of ​​the same degree of purification across the country is transformed into requirements, Duvbacken will need to significantly improve the nitrogen treatment at the waste water treatment plant.

  • 44.
    Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, Mazz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Traffic Model Based Energy Efficient Radio Access Network2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the concerns about global energy consumption increased the matter of energy consumption in Radio Access Networks (RANs) became an important issue especially with the exponential growth in demanded traffic. This interest of developing innovative technologies to reduce the expected energy consumption by the mobile communication sector was driven by environmental concerns and cost reduction.

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce a new methodology to make the Radio Access Network (RAN) more energy efficient based on jointly the demanded throughput and a realistic traffic profile. Furthermore, to find a metric that quantifies the relation between the Energy Efficiency (EE), Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and demanded throughput.

    The proposed methodology for reducing the energy consumption in the RAN characterizes the offered throughput in order to determine the sufficient energy needed. The manner for reducing the energy consumed by the RAN is simply by switching (OFF/ON) Base Stations (BSs) based on the demanded throughput which introduces an energy efficient RAN.

    The results show a significant reduction in the energy consumption with regard to the demanded traffic. Moreover, it gives a measure of the EE with consideration to the SE which enhances the performance evaluation from an EE point of view during the RAN planning phase.

  • 45.
    Ahmed, Mohamed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Maxamed, Maxamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Modell för beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik: I både tjänsteföretag och tillverkningsföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In any successful business, it is important to establish a dedicated management with the ability to make critical and sustainable decisions. Policy makers are a major and perhaps the biggest factor in a company and usually it is the managers who are also decision-makers. There are a number of aspects to keep in mind in order to make as appropriate decisions as possible, which can be anything from personality traits to how market analytic decision-maker is.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model for decision-making on sustainable logistics, in both manufacturing companies and service companies in Sweden. Literature studies and interviews are conducted in order to answer the purpose. Through the literary study, significant factors can be found, for example crisis management and trust, prejudice and character traits.

    This work’s empirical material is based on interviews in four different organizations regarding their decision making and their approach to sustainable logistics. These organizations are both service and manufacturing companies, which gives the work a breadth and generalizability.

    The identified factors that are developed through the case studies include emotionality and rationality, trust, and transparency. Several factors in the literature are clearly consistent with the significant factors in the study result. The factors that both the service and manufacturing companies have in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics are presented in the results. The conclusion of this study is a model that visualizes the factors one should keep in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics. These factors are trust, supplier selection, unity, facts, transparency and empathy. Based on these factors, any company with a dedication and commitment to long-term decision-making processes can make wise and effective assessments.

  • 46.
    Ahmed, Motasim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Radarbolaget AB.
    Single-Layer Metamaterial Absorber for Radar Application2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the radar systems, the crosstalk or antenna-to-antenna interference between the radar antennas is useful in some cases. However in some application the received signal is too weak such as wall crack detection and it might affect the accuracy of the radar system. The aim of this thesis is to design, fabricate and test a single layer metamaterial absorber operates from 1 GHz to 4 GHz. The metamaterial absorber can be used as a barrier between the antennas or even in the antenna housing in order to reduce or prevent the antenna-to-antenna interference.

    The method used to fulfill the goal is to shift the frequency response of a known structure by changing the dimension to the wanted band. The software HFSS used to design and simulate the proposed structure which made of L-shaped copper placed diagonally over a substrate separating it from a continuous copper plane. The simulation results exhibit a wideband absorption response of 2.42 GHz ranging from 1.9 GHz to 4.32 GHz. The structure has been simulated over the dimension variation to investigate the flexibility and sensitivity of the designed single layer structure.

    The fabricated metamaterial absorber measured over the direct incident waves. The structure reveals a wideband absorption response of 1.69 GHz ranging from 2.23 GHz up to 3.92 GHz with more than 90% absorptivity. The structure also exposed that the response of the structure starts to create two bands within the wanted band by increasing the angle of the incident waves. 10° polarization angle gives more than 80% absorptivity response. 

  • 47.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lekmöjligheter och trafiksäkerhet för barn i stadsmiljöer: Fallstudie av centrala Falun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small children in the age around two to ten needs space to play and move around to be able to develop, and these needs should be considered in the spatial planning practice. Unfortunely there are signs that childrens need for places to play and move around have lost in priority in spatial planning practice in Sweden the last decades. For example research shows that childrens access to public places to play at in swedish citys is reduced. Also childrens possibilities to move around freely in swedish cities are continuously reduced due to increasing traffic. It has also been noted that fewer children walk or bicycle on there own to school and bicycling in the spare time has also been declining.   

    The aim of this study has been to exmine childrens possibilities to play and move around independently in urban environment. The study is restricted to a casestudy of the city-environment Falun-Centrum. That is an area of ca 2,5 km2 predefined by Falu kommun. It contains the city-center with shops, parks, roads, residential areas, kindergardens, schools etc. Information has been collected by a postal survey sent to guardians of 100 children (about 20 % of the total number in the area) that were older than one year and younger than eleven years during 2017 living in the casestudy-area.

    The results are based on 53 answers; 39 answers to the postal survey and 14 answers to additional interwievs over telephone. The answers show that in Falun-Centrum the respondents experience that their children have quite good access to places to play at in their vicinity. Field inventory of the places showed that many of the places were spacious enough to allow vast playing and had green and varied terrain, which is good. Though, the results about the safety aspects in traffic shows that there are a lot of traffic hazards that prevent the children to move around independently in the area.

    In summary it means that the children in general have good places to play at in there vicinity (although there are exeptions), but that they can not go there on their own due to traffic hazards. The lack of traffic safety also means that the conditions for them to go to, explore and get to know new places in their surroundings are severely limited. In the long run it limits the development of their geographichal imagination of their urban surroundings. It also limits their opporunities to meet, get to know and understand other persons in the city. In the long run it inhibits the urban social sustainability.

  • 48.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments2010In: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, p. 426-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

  • 49.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017In: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 50.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Morberg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Sustainability of world heritage: who inherits the ownership of decorated farmhouses of Hälsingland?2017In: A Good Life for All: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses sustainability of Sweden’s most recent World Heritage (WH) site, the Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland. A general overview presents what WH is, why it is special and why it should be preserved for future generations. The views of WH farm owners on managing a WH site and how they feel about the task have been assessed. WH must be preserved for future generations and it is necessary for the farms to interact sustainably with their local communities. Most WH farms are privately owned and have been within the same family for centuries. Will this continue in the future or are there problems with succession?

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