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  • 1.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lindberg, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det krävs mer än mediciner: Betydelsen av samverkan och stödjande insatser kring personer som deltar i substitutionsbehandling för sitt opiatberoende2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Substitutionsbehandling är en vårdform som rekommenderas av Socialstyrelsen för personer med ett långvarigt opiatberoende. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur samverkan kring klienterna fungerade, samt vilka stödinsatser som kunde bli aktuella utifrån klinternas behov. Då substitutionsbehandling anses vara kontroversiellt, fanns även ett intresse av att undersöka de professionellas upplevelser av vårdformen. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma (n=8) som i sina olika yrkesroller hade kontakt med klienterna. Resultatet analyserades utifrån systemteori, stämplingsteori och empowerment. Studiens huvudresultat visade att det förekom mycket samverkan kring klienterna och att det fanns flera stödinsatser tillgängliga för den enskilde. Inställningen till substitutionsbehandling var till övervägande del positiv och de främsta argumenten för vårdformen uppgavs vara de personliga vinsterna för klienterna. Slutsatsen är att det krävs mer än mediciner för att upprätthålla drogfrihet och klienternas sociala nätverk kan vara avgörande för en lyckad behandlingsprocess. Studiens resultat kan därmed bidra med kunskap om substitutionsbehandling.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Belinda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Våld och personer med funktionsnedsättning: En studie om våldets innebörder beroende på inblandade aktörer, inom grupp- och serviceboenden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through semi-structured interviews with three women working as care personnel in group or service homes for persons with disabilities, perceptions regarding violence as linked to persons with disabilities is studied from a social-constructionist point of view. The study explores how the roles of actors involved can be associated with notions and interpretations expressed, and with what the interviewees regard as “appropriate” action to handle the situation. The role of the aggressor proved crucial. Gender of the actors was not expressed as important but indications existed pointing to perceived differences. When discussing appropriate action, the interviewees related to both a sense of “duty” and the “right” thing to do from a utilitarian perspective. When involving a colleague, loyalty became relevant. Throughout the study the dimension of power and the complexity of violence is considered and its different understandings depending on context, actors and perspective.

  • 4.
    Abukar, Ismahan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Wedin, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Male social workers experiences of gender baises: A study of gender biases within the social service in Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how men in the social service in Gävle experience gender biases within the social work profession. We conducted a qualitative research with five male social workers that we interviewed regarding gender biases. The main result ended up under three themes which are client influence and reinforcement; work culture; and lastly the unconscious experience. The conclusion is that male social workers experience gender biases accordingly through three themes.

  • 5.
    Adan Issack, Ibrahim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Integration of unemployed immigrants into the labor market in Gävle.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Integration of unemployed immigrants into the labor market in Gävle

    Authors: Ibrahim Adan Issack and Ekaterina Ivanova

    The aim of this study was to investigate unemployed immigrant’s description of how they perceive the labor market in Gävle. Qualitative method face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. The results of this study shows that an unemployed immigrant seems to encounter hinders and opportunities in the labor market. The following five issues were described as being most important in influencing immigrants’ employment opportunities in Gävle: Swedish language knowledge, previous education, discrimination, social network and family situation. Ecological system theory and previous research were used to analyze the gathered results. 

    Key words: integration, immigrant, labor market.

  • 6.
    Aedel, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Rosell, Catrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hallå! Det är mig du ska prata med!: En kvalitativ studie om bemötande, kommunikation och delaktighet i mötet med personer som saknar ett verbalt språk.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I början på 1990-talet kom lagen om stöd och service till vissa funktionshindrade (1993:387) och Lagen om assistansersättning (1993:389). Detta skapade möjligheter för funktionshindrade att få förutsättning till ett självständigt liv. Syftet med denna kvalitativa uppsats är att undersöka hur personliga assistenter upplever bemötande, kommunikation samt delaktighet i mötet mellan funktionsnedsatta barn utan verbal kommunikation och handläggare inom Försäkringskassa, LSS-handläggare och personal inom sjukvård. Då benämningen "personlig assistent" endast har funnits sedan början på 1990-talet är detta ett relativt outforskat område. Det empiriska materialet består av sex individuella intervjuer. I det analyserade empiriska materialet har tidigare känd forskning, empowermentteori och icke-verbal kommunikation använts. Resultatet av undersökningen tyder på att det finns brister i att bemöta, kommunicera och att få brukare känna sig delaktiga i deras egen livssituation. I studien framkommer det att personliga assistenterna upplever att det inte finns tillräckligt med tid och kunskap kring alternativ kommunikation, vilket kan vara orsaker till att brukarna inte känner sig delaktig

  • 7.
    Ahlberg, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Johansson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det ätstörda samhället och det sociala arbetet: En kvalitativ studie om ätstörningar ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main domain in which eating disorders are defined is medical, whereas socio-cultural perspectives are less common. Because social workers seeks to explain different problems taking societal factors into account, we asked ourselves if social workers have a way of understanding eating disorders, that is different from a medical point of view. Two focus group interviews were conducted; the one composed by social workers with experience of working with eating disorders, and the other by social workers without that experience, which enabled comparisons. The interviews were analyzed using socio-cultural and feminist perspectives. The result showed that the social workers use socio-cultural perspectives in explaining eating disorders. Both groups also emphasized the medical perspective, but the first group where less willing than the other to depart from this perspective. The conclusion were made that the social workers having experience of working with eating disorders are more into the medical discourse than are the ones without this experience.

  • 8.
    Ahlinder, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Viktorsson, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Vikten av feedback och dess inverkan på arbetstillfredsställelse och arbetsmotivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether feedback from the first line manager increase job satisfaction and work motivation for employees. The sample for the study were employees between 18-65 years, and data collection was conducted through a web-based survey which generated 157 completed questionnaires. The survey was based on Feedback Orientation Scale (FOS), Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale (BNS). The analyse were performed in SPSS and the result showed a positive correlation between the index of feedback and job satisfaction, but not between the index of feedback and job motivation. The result also showed that positive feedback predicted job satisfaction and job motivation. No differences in estimation of feedback, job satisfaction and work motivation were found between men and women.

  • 9.
    Ahlsten, Matilde
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Camaj Ericson, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Kön och ålderns påverkan på den inre arbetsmotivationen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine if self- perceived intrinsic work motivation differed between men and women and between three age groups (20-38 years vs. 39-50 years vs. 51-65 years). The data was collected by administering the Basic Need Satisfaction at Work Scale (BNS) to employees at an international company. The survey was based on the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and measured intrinsic work motivation by asking 21 propositions that concerned the sub-categories autonomy, competence and belongingness. The result of this study showed that there was no difference between men and women in self-reported intrinsic work motivation. However, there was a main effect of age group, wherein employees aged between 39 and 50 years reported a lower score on the propositions that measured perceived competence compared to employees aged between 20 and 38 years. This study highlights the importance of that individuals aging can have an influence on the perceived intrinsic work motivation.

  • 10.
    Ahmadi, Babak
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    How Second Generation Iranians Understand Their National and Ethnic Identity?: A comparative study of the impact of the host society- the case of Sweden and the United States.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the social characteristics of the host society on the second generation Iranians’ understanding of their national and ethnic identities. In this regard I have studied how the second generation Iranians in Sweden identify themselves with Iranian society, with the Iranian ethnic group in Sweden and/or with Swedish society and then compared the second generation Iranians in Sweden and those in the Unites States to try to make clear the impact of the host society on the second generation Iranians’ understanding of their ethnic and national identities.

    Educational attainment is regarded as a cornerstone in the identity construction of second generation Iranians (Hartman, 2009; Bozorgmehr and Douglas, 2010; Shavarini, 2004). The literatures, which is based mainly on the studies conducted in the Unites States among second generation Iranians, indicates several factors being important for such an attainment. I have examined whether these factors also are important for the second generation Iranians in Sweden; this in order to more concretely show the impact of the social characteristics of the host society on the second generation Iranians' understanding of their identities.

    For gathering the data in Sweden I used semi-structured e-mail interviews with fifteen young people of Iranian background (defined as individuals with both parents born in Iran).

    When comparing my study with those in the United States, I could not find the identity tensions and identity crisis reported by the research on second generation Iranians in the United States among the same generation in Sweden. The comparison between the two groups concerning the educational attainment strengthens the hypothesis that the social characteristics of the society where the second generation Iranians live in, has an import impact on their understanding of their ethnic identity.

  • 11.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping och arbetsliv: arbetsliv som en coping-strategi2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 61-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping with Cancer in Sweden: A Search for Meaning2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on triangulation research consisting of a sociological qualitative and quantitative study among people struck by cancer and a study conducted among nurses working in cancer care.

    The aim of the book is to present the results of these studies, in particular those of the quantitative study.

    The qualitative study aimed at identifying the religious and spiritually oriented coping methods used by cancer patients in Sweden, which serves as an example of societies in which religion is not an integrated part of the social life of individuals. The empirical data for the study were based on interviews with cancer patients. Fifty-one interviews were conducted in various parts of Sweden with patients suffering from different types of cancer. Concerning the use of religious and spiritually oriented methods by the Swedish informants, we learn that gaining control over the situation is a very important coping strategy for them. The informants show a strong tendency toward relying primarily on themselves for solving problems related to their disease. Receiving help from other sources, among others God or a supreme power, seems to primarily be a way to gain more power to help oneself, as opposed to passively waiting for a miracle. For the informants, thinking about spiritual matters and spiritual connection seems to be more important than participating in religious rituals and activities. Turning to nature as a sacred and available resource is a coping method that all informants have used, regardless of their outlook on God, their religion and philosophy of life or their age and gender. The qualitative study shows clearly the impact of culture on coping.

    The qualitative study on nurses focuses on coping among Swedish oncology nurses. The research questions were close to the coping theory (Pargament, 1997) that was used for interpretation. 1. How can the stress experienced by oncology nurses be described? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2007) 2. Which functional and dysfunctional coping strategies do nurses use to cope with work-related stress? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2006) 3. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses’ orienting system and what function does religiosity have in their work? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2010) 4. How does culture influence the coping process through different coping styles? (Ekedahl, 2011; Ekedahl & Wengström, 2012)

    Four levels of stress were identified: the individual level of the nurse, a group level that is related to the team, an organizational level, and a cultural level. Nurses working in cancer care have to cope with different types of stress. They move from simpler types to the worst type of stress: multifaceted stress with an existential dimension. The most intensive stress is on the individual level and the group level, where the existential dimension is activated.

    Concerning the coping strategies, the dominant one is boundary demarcation. Lack of this important strategy is dysfunctional. Religious coping is dominated by basic trust and prayer and can provide support. Using concepts from cultural psychology, individualistic and collectivistic coping are suggested as additional coping styles.

    The aim of the quantitative study was to examine the extent to which the results obtained in the qualitative study among cancer patients, explained above, are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also makes use of the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in designing the quantitative study. In this quantitative study, 5000 questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden.

    The highest mean value (2.9) is for the factor ‘nature has been an important resource to you in allowing you to deal with your illnesses.’ Two out of three respondents (68%) affirmed that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after their illness. The second highest average (2.8) is for the factor ‘listening to “natural music” (birdsong and the wind).’ Two out of three respondents (66%) answered that this coping method helped them feel significantly better during their illness. The third highest average (2.7) is for the factor ‘walking or engaging in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense.’ Concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients, this survey confirms the results obtained from the previous qualitative studies.

    Moreover, the results of the quantitative study indicate that few informants used religious coping methods, as they were inclined to trust their own abilities to solve problems more than other sources of power, such as God or a religious authority. This result may be partly due to the predominance of secularism in Swedish society and the strong position individualism plays in Swedish culture, which fosters the idea that individuals are responsible for tackling their own problems.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping with cancer through music: Three studies among cancer patients in Sweden2016In: Music therapy in the management of medical conditions / [ed] Hashefi, Mandana, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, 1, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the result of three research studies on meaning-making coping conducted among cancer patients in Sweden is used to highlight the effect of music in coping with cancer. The first research was a qualitative research aiming to study coping with cancer, through religious and spiritual means, from a cultural perspective. The second project was a quantitative study, which aimed to determine to what extent the result of the first study could be generalized to the cancer patients in Sweden. The third study had as its target to investigate the cancer patients’ own understanding of the role of music in coping. The results of these studies indicate the impact of culture in using music as a coping method when facing the psychological burden cancer brings with itself. The outcomes of the third study showed, besides the impact of culture, the individual characteristics of the music as a coping method.

  • 14.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ensamkommande barn i ett internationellt och nationellt perspektiv2013In: Ensamkommande flyktingbarn: utifrån perspektivet socialt arbete / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & My Lilja, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2013, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Kultuuriperspektiiviline uurimus Rootsi vähipatsientide religioossetest ja vaimsetest toimetulekumeetoditest (A study of the religious and spiritual coping methods among Swedish cancer patients from a cultural perspective)2010In: Inimene, tervis ja haigused - Terviseteemaline artiklikogumik "Medica" (Human, Health and Illnesses. Health-concerned article collection "Medica") / [ed] Piret Paal & Mare Kõiva, Tallinn: Teaduskirjastus (Science Publishers) , 2010, 1, p. 185-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Music as a method of coping with cancer: a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden2013In: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 152-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness.

    Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients.

    Conclusions: A patient’s situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of that music can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method.

  • 17.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Song lyrics and the alteration of self-image2011In: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0803-9828, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 225-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to examine, from a patient perspective, the role music plays as a coping method when facing cancer, I conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. The patients were between 24–73 years of age and had used music (listened to or played music) to cope with their illness. In this article, four case studies serve to highlight one of the major findings: that the lyrics of religious, cheerful, and hard and heavy music can help cancer patients obtain a balance in their inner feelings by identifying themselves with the person to whom the song lyrics are addressed. This result may be of interest to therapists using music therapy interventions, especially with patients suffering from serious illness.

  • 18.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Ahmadi, Babak
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Ethnic identity and the meaning of context: a study of second generation Iranians in Sweden2012In: The Iranian community in Sweden: multidisciplinary perspectives / [ed] Hassan Hosseini-Kaladjahi, Tumba: Mångkulturellt centrum , 2012, 1, p. 193-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Meaning-Making Methods for Coping with Serious Illness2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides an alternative, complementary approach to the existing conventional approaches to religious and spiritually oriented coping. By focusing on the role of culture, the authors take into account the methods employed by a vast number of people who do not directly identify themselves as religious. The empirical data used in this book derive from studies conducted in several countries; Sweden, China, South Korea, Turkey and Malaysia, across which religion plays a different role in the social and cultural life of individuals. This approach and these empirical data are unique and allow comparisons to be made between different cultural settings.

    By introducing the concept of meaning-making coping, the authors explore the influence of culture on choice of coping methods, be they purely religious, spiritual or existential. The term "existential meaning-making coping" is used to describe coping methods that are related to existential questions; these methods include religious, spiritual and existential coping methods.

    Meaning-making Methods for Coping with Serious Illness contributes to new approaches and theoretical models of coping. As such it is an invaluable resource for health care, medical, public health and sociology students and researchers. It will also be of interest to educators and policy-makers working in the area of health.

  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Nature as the most important coping strategy among cancer patients: a Swedish survey2015In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1177-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in the design of the new quantitative study. In this study, questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2,355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden. The highest mean value (2.9) is the factor ‘nature has been an important resource to you so that you could deal with your illnesses’. Two out of three respondents (68 %) affirm that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after illness. The second highest average (2.8) is the factor ‘listening to ‘natural music’ (birdsong and the wind)’. Two out of three respondents (66 %) answered that this coping method significantly helped them feel better during illness. The third highest average (2.7) is the factor ‘to walk or engage in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense’. This survey concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients confirms the result obtained from the previous qualitative studies. 

  • 21.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Cetrez, Önver
    Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ortak, Asil
    American Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    A survey study among cancer patients in Turkey: meaning-making coping2017In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the role of culture on the use of the meaning-making coping among people who have been struck by cancer, qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in several countries like Sweden, China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, and Turkey. This article reports on a quantitative study carried out in Turkey. The aim of the study has been to answer the following question: “Which meaning-making coping method (even nonreligious or spiritual coping methods) is used by informants?” The sample consists of 95 persons, 18+ who had been struck by cancer. The questionnaire was distributed to former/current cancer patients via a web address as an electronic survey through the media page of Cancer Survivors Association. The results of the study show that the most important coping methods used by cancer patients in Turkey are the religious coping (RCOPE) methods, particularly spiritual connection, active religious surrender, passive religious deferral, and pleading for direct intercession. Several RCOPE methods such as spiritual discontent, seeking support from clergy or members, punishing God reappraisal, and demonic reappraisal or self-directing religious coping are not used by the Turkish informants. Nor are non-RCOPE methods highly prevalent among informants.

  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Darvishpour, Mehrdad
    Department of social work, Academy of Health and Welfare, Mälardalen University, Mälardalen, Swe.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Palm, Irving
    Department of sociology, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Swed.
    Diversity barometer: attitude changes in Sweden2018In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss the results of the 2016 Diversity Barometer (Mångfaldsbarometern) and compare these results with those obtained from ten years of the longitudinal Diversity Barometers for 2005?2014. An additional aim is to demonstrate whether and how Swedish people?s experiences of and attitudes toward people with a foreign background and ethnic diversity have changed.A random sample of the Swedish population took part in the annual study, which was carried out in the form of a nationwide postal survey. The results show that negative attitudes toward ethnic and cultural diversity in general, and migrant population in particular, have increased to some extent and with respect to certain issues. Views on diversity in relation to culture and religion ? especially Islam ? were more negative than views on diversity in relation to work. Those who have larger experience of contact with foreigners show a more positive attitude toward diversity compared with those with limited experience and contact. Individuals who have higher education, those who identify themselves as female, younger persons and those living in large cities are more positive than other groups. In our analysis of the empirical data, we proceeded from a social work perspective and applied contact theory and group conflict theories relating attitudes to group position.

  • 23.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Clinic of Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Religion, culture and meaning-making coping: A Study Among Cancer Patients in Turkey2018In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project has been to carry out international studies on meaning-making coping among people who have been affected by cancer in a number of societies and, thereby, to try to understand the influence of culture on use of these coping methods. Five countries—Sweden, South Korea, China, Japan, and Turkey—are included in the project. Qualitative semistructured interviews have been conducted with persons with a cancer diagnosis. The research group in each country has used, as a foundation, the interview questions developed for the Swedish study. These questions were, however, modified to better suite the sociocultural context of each participating country. The results presented here concern only Turkey and are restricted to religious coping methods. The study consists of 25 cancer patients (18 females and 7 males) between 20 and 71 years of age. The results of the study in Turkey indicated that the RCOPE (Religious Coping) methods are highly relevant for the interviewees. A sociological analysis of the study made from a cultural perspective showed clearly the importance of the idea of being tolerant (Sabr) for patients when coping with the psychological problems brought about by cancer. The study made it clear that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods.

  • 24.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Larsson, SamUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Larsson, Sam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Redaktörernas inledning: en spelöppning om hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 9-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Lilja, MyUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Ensamkommande flyktingbarn: utifrån perspektivet socialt arbete2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Matos, Paula
    Tavare, Rita
    Tomas, Carla
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Religious/Spiritual Coping Methods among Cancer Patients in Portugal2018In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article is part of an international study on meaning-making coping aimed at understanding the role of culture in coping in different cultural settings. The international study was conducted among cancer patients in ten countries. This article contains the results obtained in the study in Portugal. The main aim is to investigate the impact of culture on the meaning-making coping methods used by cancer patients. In the present article, only religious/spiritual coping methods are in focus.

    Thirty-one participants with various kinds of cancer (e.g., breast, testicular, lymphoma) were interviewed. Nine different kinds of coping methods related to religion and spirituality emerged from analysis of the interviews. These methods, which are categorized on the basis of RCOPE’s five basic religious functions (Pargament, 1997), are: Seeking Spiritual Support, Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Discontent, Benevolent Religious Reappraisal, Punishing God Reappraisal, God’s Trust in Personal Strength, Support from Clergy or Members, Self-Directing Religious Coping and Active Religious Surrender. The study confirms the notion that the strategies people employ when they are stricken by disease, accidents, misfortune, etc., are cultural and temporal constructions. As such, they are valid in concrete contexts and time periods. It is, thus, important that cultural context be taken into consideration when exploring the use of meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

  • 28. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Mella, Orlando
    Palm, Irving
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Darvishpour, Mehrdad
    Stockholms universitet; Mälardalens högskola.
    Mångfaldsbarometern: tio år av attitydmätningar i Sverige2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är en samling av de flesta texter som har publicerats i samband med Mångfaldsbarometern.

    I det första kapitlet redogör Fereshteh Ahmadi, Mehrdad Darvishpour och Irving Palm för resultat från Mångfaldsbarometern från 2005 – 2014 och även andra undersökningar. De presenterar också en sociologisk analys av insamlade data under tio år.

    I det andra kapitlet presenterar Orlando Mella de första årens resultat utifrån ett sociologiskt perspektiv, både teoretiskt och metodologiskt.

    I det tredje kapitlet förklarar Orlando Mella resultaten av sju års mätningar av attityder till mångfald, av mätningar av attityder mot mångfald och fastställer och tolkar vissa tendenser som stabila profiler.

    I det fjärde kapitlet fokuseras på mångfalden i arbetslivet. Den svenska välfärden är tydligt relaterad till invandring. Att underlätta för invandrare att få möjlighet till arbete och egen försörjning har ansetts viktigt för deras integrering i samhället. Invånarnas egna erfarenheter av kontakter med personer med utländsk bakgrund visar sig påverka befolkningens attityder liksom kön, ålder och utbildning.

    I det femte kapitlet behandlas problem kring integration. Mångfaldsbarometern 2009 som kompletterats med ett antal intervjuer visar att en stor andel av befolkningen har positiva erfarenheter av invandrare och menar att de skall ha samma rättigheter och möjligheter som den infödda befolkningen. Studien visar dock att den sociala toleransen har sina gränser och tycks förändras över tid.

    Kapitlen 6-15 består av de årliga rapporterna av Mångfaldsbarometern. I dessa rapporter hittar man statistik och förklaringar till de olika tabeller och figurer som presenteras. I slutet av boken presenteras en lista över en del viktiga artiklar som skrevs i massmedia om Mångfaldsbarometern.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Mohamed Hussin, Nur Atikah
    Social Work Section, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
    Mohammad, Mohd Taufik
    Social Work Section, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.
    Religion, Culture and Meaning-Making Coping: A Study Among Cancer Patients in Malaysia2018In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to explore the use of meaning-making coping mechanisms (existential, spiritual and religious coping) among ethnic Malay cancer patients in Malaysia and to investigate the impact of culture on their choice of coping methods. Twenty-nine participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Four kinds of coping resources emerged from analyses of the interview transcripts: (1) relying on transcendent power, (2) supernatural or mystical beliefs, (3) finding oneself in relationships with others and (4) nature. In this article, the two first resources are in focus. The present findings suggest that Malay culture, which is imbued with Islamic belief, strongly influences cancer patients’ coping methods and ways of looking at their experience of being cancer patients. 

  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Norberg, Maria
    Socialogiska Institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Aggressiv musik som copingstrategi2010In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 78-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln ”aggressiv musik och coping” diskuteras aggressiv musik (heavy metal, hårdrock, punkrock, hård rap och aggressiv popmusik) som copingstrategi vid den rollkonflikt som kan uppstå i samband med att någon drabbas av cancer. Detta eftersom den sjukroll som tenderar att tillskrivas individen i många fall strider mot den roll personen själv önskar inneha. Diskussionen förs utifrån två fallbeskrivningar hämtade från en studie som fokuserar på musikens roll för personer som drabbats av cancer. I analysen av de två fallbeskrivningarna framgår att aggressiv musik har fungerat som en copingmetod genom att hjälpa informanterna att hantera den ovan nämnda rollkonflikten.

    Emellertid visade analysen på att ålder kan vara en aspekt av betydelse beträffande vid vilken tidpunkt som ett motstånd gentemot sjukrollen växer fram och en konflikt mellan rollerna uppstår. Det är viktigt att se att en copingstrategi är en mötesplats mellan individ och situation. Den är komplex, mångbottnad och högst kontextuell. Diskussionen i denna artikel, vilken förs utifrån detta synsätt, visar på att aggressiv musik, som ofta förknippas med

    aggressivitet och våld, kan verka som en funktionell och högst användbar copingstrategi för unga personer som drabbas av cancer.

  • 31.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Palm, Irving
    Sociologiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Mångfaldsbarometern 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]
    1. Erfarenheterna från människor med utländsk bakgrund fortfarande goda Erfarenheterna från att ha kollegor med utländsk bakgrund i skolan eller på jobbet är goda hos 70 procent av befolkningen och stabila över tiden. En av tio har dåliga erfarenheter. Ju högre utbildning man har desto bättre erfarenheter. Respondenter med låg utbildning och pensionärer saknar relativt ofta helt erfarenhet från människor med utländsk bakgrund.
    2. Försämrade attityder till att ge utlandsfödda sociala och kulturella rättigheter En majoritet tycker att nyanlända skall ha samma sociala rättigheter som personer födda i Sverige – men de positiva attityderna har minskat från 77 procent år 2014 till 55 procent i årets mätning. Knappt hälften av respondenterna vill skapa förutsättningar för människor att bevara sina kulturella traditioner, och även här kan en tydlig minskning skönjas jämfört med 2014. Dessa försämrade attityder återfinns bland såväl kvinnor och män, som unga och gamla.
    3. Allmänt mångfaldsindex sjunker och tangerar lägsta nivå Fortfarande är 64 procent av befolkningen positiva till mångfald men andelen minskar med 10 procentenheter. Försämrade attityder till mångfald märks bland kvinnor och de i medelåldern.
    4. Positiva attityder till mångfald i ett arbetsperspektiv – men något försämrade Fortfarande är de positiva till mångfald en betydligt större grupp än de negativa i ett arbetsperspektiv. Men de negativa attityderna ökar något sedan 2014, bl.a. bland kvinnorna.
    5. Attityderna till mångfald i ett religionsperspektiv har försämrats Kvinnorna har i ett religionsperspektiv nästan blivit lika negativa som män. Försämrade attityder har också skett bland akademiker som annars är de mest positiva. Nästan hälften av de boende i Sverige hävdar att alla religioner inte har samma värderingar och särskiljer då framförallt Islam.
    6. Negativa attityder till människor från Afrika och Mellanöstern i ett boendeperspektiv Var tredje boende i Sverige föredrar personer födda i Sverige som grannar. Men det beror mycket på varifrån grannen kommer. Attityderna är betydligt sämre mot eventuella grannar från Afrika eller Mellanöstern då dessa grupper enligt många är förenat med problem.
    7. Majoritet för att etnisk mångfald utvecklar den svenska kulturen – men attityderna försämras Hälften av de tillfrågade uppfattar stora olikheter mellan den inhemska kulturen och kulturer från Afrika och Mellanöstern. Människor från dessa länder anses vara svårintegrerade i samhället.

     

  • 32.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Park, Jisung
    Retirement Research Center at Samsung Life Insurance, Seoul, Korea.
    Kim, Kyung Mee
    Department of Social Welfare, Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Meaning-making coping among cancer patients in Sweden and South Korea: a comparative perspective2017In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1794-1811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study compared meaning-making coping among cancer patients in Sweden and South Korea, with a focus on the sociocultural context. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 51 Swedes and 33 Koreans. The results showed significant differences between the two countries as well as similarities in existential, spiritual, and religious coping. For example, Swedes primarily used meaning-making coping as a means of meditation or relaxation, whereas Koreans relied on coping with prayer and using healthy foods as a means to survive. The present study confirms the significance of investigating cultural context when we explore the use of meaning-making coping among people who have experienced cancer.

  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Park, Jisung
    Retirement Research Center at Samsung Life Insurance, Jung-Gu, Seoul, Korea.
    Kyung Mee, Kim
    Department of Social Welfare, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Exploring Existential Coping Resources: The Perspective of Koreans with Cancer2016In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 2053-2068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to explore the use of meaning-making coping (existential, spiritual, and religious coping) among cancer patients in Korea and to investigate the impact of culture on their choice of coping methods. Thirty-three participants with various kinds of cancer were interviewed. Four different kinds of coping resources emerged from analyses of the interview transcripts: (1) belief in the healing power of nature; (2) mind–body connection; (3) relying on transcendent power; and (4) finding oneself in relationships with others. The findings of this study suggest the importance of investigating cultural context when exploring the use of the meaning-making coping strategies in different countries.

  • 34.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Foreword2013In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 48, no 13, p. 1283-1284Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    The Use of Religious Coping Methods in a Secular Society: A Survey Study Among Cancer Patients in Sweden2017In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 171-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present article, based on results from a survey study in Sweden among 2,355 cancer patients, the role of religion in coping is discussed. The survey study, in turn, was based on earlier findings from a qualitative study of cancer patients in Sweden. The purpose of the present survey study was to determine to what extent results obtained in the qualitative study can be applied to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. The present study shows that use of religious coping methods is infrequent among cancer patients in Sweden. Besides the two methods that are ranked in 12th and 13th place, that is, in the middle (Listening to religious music and Praying to God to make things better), the other religious coping methods receive the lowest rankings, showing how nonsignificant such methods are in coping with cancer in Sweden. However, the question of who turns to God and who is self-reliant in a critical situation is too complicated to be resolved solely in terms of the strength of individuals’ religious commitments. In addition to background and situational factors, the culture in which the individual was socialized is an important factor. Regarding the influence of background variables, the present results show that gender, age, and area of upbringing played an important role in almost all of the religious coping methods our respondents used. In general, people in the oldest age-group, women, and people raised in places with 20,000 or fewer residents had a higher average use of religious coping methods than did younger people, men, and those raised in larger towns.

  • 36.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Oncology Clinique, Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Uppsala University.
    Religious meaning-making coping in Turkey: a study among cancer patients2016In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project has been to carry out international studies on meaning-making coping among people who have been affected by cancer in a number of societies and, thereby, to try to understand the influence of culture on use of these coping methods. Five countries—Sweden, South Korea, China, Japan, and Turkey—are included in the project. Qualitative semistructured interviews have been conducted with persons with a cancer diagnosis. The research group in each country has used, as a foundation, the interview questions developed for the Swedish study. These questions were, however, modified to better suite the sociocultural context of each participating country. The results presented here concern only Turkey and are restricted to religious coping methods. The study consists of 25 cancer patients (18 females and 7 males) between 20 and 71 years of age. The results of the study in Turkey indicated that the RCOPE (Religious Coping) methods are highly relevant for the interviewees. A sociological analysis of the study made from a cultural perspective showed clearly the importance of the idea of being tolerant (Sabr) for patients when coping with the psychological problems brought about by cancer. The study made it clear that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods.

  • 37.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ljungqvist, ArneSvedsäter, GöranUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Doping and public health2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping – the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods – has long been a high-profile issue in sport but in recent years it has also become an issue in wider society. This important new book examines doping as a public health issue, drawing on a multi-disciplinary set of perspectives to explore the prevalence, significance and consequences of doping in wider society. It introduces the epidemiology of doping, examines the historical context, and explores the social, behavioural, legal, ethical and political aspects of doping. The book also discusses possible interventions for addressing the problem on organisational and societal levels.

  • 38.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ljungqvist, Arne
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Introduction: Doping and Public Health2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , p. 151p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “doping” is usually associated with sport, particularly elite sport. In fact, doping means the use of substances or methods that are banned in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) because of their potentially performance-enhancing effects. Their use is, therefore, considered to be against the fair play spirit of sport and can also include significant health risks for the user. However, the use of many doping substances is no longer limited to the world of sport. Doping substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are nowadays used also by people who are not competitive athletes but who want to make use of the effects of AAS in making their bodies more muscular, stronger and impressive in conformity with the current masculine body ideal. The use of AAS and similar substances appears to be growing and has been found in a range of countries previously not researched. At least, recent data obtained from customs seizures, court cases and some surveys suggest that the extent of AAS use outside sport has been underestimated, some reasons probably being an underground circulation of such drugs in the gym and fitness culture and the easy availability of them on the internet. One particular concern is the increasing use of nutritional supplements by growing segments of society. A significant percentage of these products have been shown to contain prohibited substances such as steroids that are not listed on the label. This shows that the nutritional supplement industry needs to be more strictly regulated. Until that happens, supplements of dubious value, content and quality will continue to be easily available around the world. What, then, are the possible reasons that active and health-conscious individuals are willing to take the risk to use preparations such as AAS? A review of the research shows that the most important motive behind the use of AAS outside the elite sports environment, i.e., in a fitness context, is to improve physical appearance. Although most users are boys and young and middle-aged men, also women of various ages use doping substances. Different types of slimming pills are popular among women (including hormone preparations), but possibly even more interesting are the new female fitness and appearance ideals that are connected to muscles and strength. The body has become increasingly important for saying something about who we are. The hunt for the perfect appearance creates a situation where denial instead of acceptance of one’s own body influences the individual’s self-image.

  • 39.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    "The winner takes it all": Individualization and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Methods in Sport and in Society2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , p. 151p. 38-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common misconception in today's society is that everything is (or should be) rational and goal-oriented, which we summarized earlier as pragmatic rationalism. We call this pragmatic rationalism a misconception because it misses a historical fact that individuals' actions are and have never been governed entirely by rational motives. Emotional, ethical and existential considerations influence human actions extensively. Solidarity, willingness to share and even self-sacrifice and prioritizing the good of others before one's own are values that have survived many different economic cultures. Even today's extremely individualized society with its focus on reaching success and winning at any price cannot completely suppress these values. There is an inherent contradiction between the crude egoism of modern individualism and its historical development that largely has its origin in the care of humans.

  • 40.
    Al-asadi, Ronza Halla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hanna, Jessika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Effektiva samverkansprocesser?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om socialarbetarens upplevelser av samverkan i arbetet med ensamkommande flyktingbarn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom denna studie har vi intervjuat socialarbetare kring deras upplevelser av samverkan mellan myndigheter och involverade personer i arbetet med ensamkommande flyktingbarn. Studien genomfördes genom semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer, där verksamma socialarbetare inom barn- och ungdomsenheten med specialisering på ensamkommande flyktingbarn intervjuades kring deras upplevelse av samverkansprocesser. Utifrån teoretiska perspektiv som KASAM och human relationsskolan har vi analyserat studiens datamaterial. Redovisning av tidigare forskning, studiens metodologiska utgångspunkter och tillvägagångssätt ges ingående. Resultatet av studien redovisas och analyseras. Slutligen förs en kritisk diskussion där även möjliga tolkningar av resultat diskuteras. Av studiens resultat har vi identifierat socialarbetares upplevelser av hinder för en effektiv samverkan vilket utgörs av fyra faktorer. Studiens resultat visade att samverkan möjliggör för socialarbetaren att skapa ett starkt nätverk för barnet samt ändra barnets negativa syn av myndigheter och vuxna. Samverkan möjliggör även ökad effektivitet och kvalitet i socialarbetarens handläggning där även behovsbedömningen underlättas.

  • 41.
    Alftberg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Flodström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Man måste brinna för att tända glöd i andra.: Kvinnliga ledare i arbetslivet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society is facing rapid and continuous change. In order to participate in the development, organizations need to take advantage of all the knowledge and skills available in the labor market. Women leaders in top positions are still in the minority but do as good a job as their male colleagues. She brings different dynamics and a new dimension in the work culture but is nevertheless excluded from the mightiest rooms. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the organizational factors that determine and facilitate for women to take on leadership positions. Through semi-structured interviews with six women leaders, the material has resulted in a thematic analysis with four themes. These themes are the workplace culture, impersonation, conditions and driving forces. The result confirms earlier research showing the importance of a healthy corporate culture to shape and develop tomorrow’s passionate women leaders.

  • 42.
    Algerstam, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Andersson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    A Narrative Study About International Adopted Young Adults' Experiences Regarding Identity Development2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on three interviews with three internationally adopted young adults. The aim of the study was to explore how international adopted young adults have experienced their identity development in a retrospective perspective in relation to family and friends. To answer the research-questions semi-structured qualitative inter­views have been performed. A narrative method was chosen to explore how the parti­cipants' described their experiences. Topics that appeared in the result where topics such as family relationships, the society’s influence on the participants and connections to other adoptees. The conclusions of this study were that com­muni­cation and connections to family was an essential factor in the subjects' identity develop­ment. The informants feeling of belonging was affected by society´s influence on appearances and it was important for the participants to have someone in their life that they could talk to and get support from.  

  • 43.
    Ali, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Liljenmalm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Voluntary mediation for crime prevention – a qualitative study of professionals working for the Council for Crime Prevention inGävle2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  examine  which  attitudes  professionals  who  are  involved  in voluntary mediation in  Gävle, have towards voluntary mediation  as a  preventative  working method.

    The  empirical  material  used  in  this  study,  has  been  gathered  through  semi-structured interviews with staff members of the so called Crime Preventers in Gävle (Brottsförebyggarna I Gävle, BIG) and staff members from the police and social services. These interviews helped to get a deeper understanding and detailed information about the attitudes towards restorative justice  and  voluntary  mediation.  The  theoretical  framework  that  was  used  was  social constructionism and restorative justice theory.

    The  Crime  Preventers  (BIG)  in  Gävle  are  keeping  the  method  and  process  up  to  date  by further  educating  themselves  within  the  subject  via  conferences,  workshops  and  similar activities. There seems to be a preference for working more with mediation, since currently the activity of the voluntary process is decreasing due to a decrease in suitable criminal cases for mediation.

    The results from this study however indicate that attitudes toward mediation, as a process and method  on  a  voluntary  basis,  are  highly  appreciated  amongst  those  who  are  continuously working with it.   However, further research on the subject is desired to develop it better and gain more from its positive effects.

  • 44. Al-Khamisi, Rami
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Social mobilisering och nya sociala rörelser2018In: Samhällsarbete: aktörer, arenor och perspektiv / [ed] Sjöberg, S. & Turunen, P., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 277-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna diskuterar nya sociala förortsrörelser som försöker motverka den sociala exkludering och gentrifiering som blir allt mer synlig. Dessa rörelser kräver social upprustning av miljonprogrammen och inkludering i demokratiska beslutsprocesser. De har vuxit fram genom organisering underifrån av människor som bor och vuxit upp i området. I detta kapitel ligger fokus på den förortsbaserade organisationen Megafonen som arbetar med social mobilisering av medborgarna på Järvafältet i Stockholm, för att bidra till framväxandet av en social rörelse mot social exkludering och för ökat medborgarinflytande, social upprustning och social rättvisa. Som framtida utmaningar för mobiliserande samhällsarbete lyfter författarna den s.k. rörelsejuridiken.  Författarna förespråkar ett samhällsarbete som bygger påmedvetandegörande , skapande av kollektiv identitet och samhörighet, stödjande av aktivering och deltagande, samt mobilisering av de utsatta grupperna själva för social förändring.

  • 45.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Välfärdsmodellens omvandling: det privata kapitalets utvidgning i den offentliga sektorn2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den universella välfärdsmodell, som tillämpats i Sverige sedan andra världskriget, vägleddes av ambitionen att hålla marknadsintressen utanför välfärden för att undvika ojämlik tillgång och kvalitet samt för att stärka den demokratiska styrningen av välfärdssektorn. Sverige präglades därmed av en välutvecklad offentlig sektor med god tillgång till offentlig service.Den här rapporten kan dock genom omfattande statistiska studier visa hur den svenska välfärdsmodellen sedan 80-talet och framåt har genomgått genomgripande förändringar. Resultaten är bland annat:

    • Antalet privata aktörer i välfärdssektorn ökar som en följd av politiskt skapade välfärdsmarknader.

    • Gemensamma skattemedlen finansierar i högre grad privata välfärdstjänster, som i allt större utsträckning utförs av stora koncernägda aktiebolag, liksom dessa företags vinster.

    • Omfattande privatiseringar av gemensamt ägande har genomförts.

    • Andelen offentligt anställda har minskat med 10 procentenheter och antalet statsanställda har halverats, medan antalet sysselsatta i privat välfärdsverksamhet fyrdubblats.

    • En högre andel skatter går i allt större utsträckning till att finansiera välfärdsverksamhet som bedrivs av det privata näringslivet.

    • Offentlig sektors totala andel av samhällsekonomin har minskat från 60 procent till 50 procent av BNP.

    Dessa resultat tyder sammanfattningsvis på att den svenska välfärdsmodellen har genomgått kritiska förändringar vars följder inneburit att en omfattande omfördelning av makt, resurser och inflytande har skett från den demokratiskt styrda gemensamma sektorn – till den marknadsstyrda privata sektorn. Den svenska universella välfärdsmodellen som en gång hyllades har ersatts av en allt mer marknadsliberal modell. Bland konsekvenserna finns försämrad jämlikhet i tillgången till exempelvis skola, vård och omsorg, mindre ekonomisk omfördelningspolitik och mindre demokratisk styrning. Samtidigt går en allt växande andel av medborgarnas skattepengar till de privata välfärdsföretagens vinster.

  • 46.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Ägande- och förmögenhetsstrukturen och dess förändring sedan 19802018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar, genom omfattande studier av en mängd tidigare genomförda undersökningar om ägande och förmögenhetsförhållanden i Sverige, att koncentrationen av makt och ägande har blivit allt mer ojämlik. Resultaten är bland annat att:

    • Ungefär hälften av den samlade svenska ekonomin ägsnumera från utlandet.

    • Det utländska ägandet på Stockholmsbörsen har ökat från 4 procent år 1979 till 39,4 procent 2016.

    • Det offentliga bolagsägandet har minskat och antalet anställda i statliga företag har halverats från 310 000 år 1980 till 158 000 år 2015.

    • Det institutionella ägandet har ökat och utgör cirka 20 procent av ägandet i de börsnoterade bolagen.

    • Det så kallade riskkapitalet har vuxit kraftfullt i omfattning och störst i sektorn är Wallenbergkontrollerade EQT.

    • I de stora börsnoterade bolagen på Stockholmsbörsen har den största ägarens andel av röstetalet ökat från i genomsnitt 26,8 procent till 31,2 procent av bolagsstämmans röster.

    • De 15 största finansfamiljerna styrde år 2017 bolag värda 4 935 miljarder kronor. Som jämförelse var Sveriges totala BNP samma år 4 604 miljarder kronor.

    • Familjen Wallenberg kontrollerade företag värderade till närmare 2 000 miljarder kronor.

    • Vad gäller de samlade förmögenheterna så har den allra rikaste procentens andel av de samlade förmögenheterna fördubblats från 20,5 procent 1978 till 39,6 procent 2006 och har fortsatt öka sedan dess.

    • Antalet svenska miljardärer har ökat från 83 personer 2001 till 178 år 2016.

    För att samhällsutvecklingen ska kunna vändas i riktning mot ökad jämlikhet krävs det att den breda vänstern tar kampen för att återskapa former för reglering och begränsningar av kapitalets makt både i Sverige men också internationellt i en allt mer globaliserad värld. Utvecklandet av ett nytt gemensamt projekt, som utgör ett verkligt alternativ till den ojämlikhetsskapande marknadsliberalismen, är av avgörande betydelse för socialdemokratins framtid.

  • 47.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Suhonen, Daniel
    Katalys - Institut för facklig idéutveckling.
    Femton familjer kontrollerar sjuttio procent av börsvärdet2018In: Dagens nyheter, no 14 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Alm, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Alsaid, Madelein
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Anhörigvårdare i ett mångkulturellt samhälle: om vuxna barn och deras äldre hjälpbehövande föräldrar med invandrarbakgrund2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to study and understand the situation of adult children and their experiences of providing daily care for their elderly parents in need who have an immigrant background. One of the aims was to describe and analyze the motives of adult children choosing to become caregivers, without recourses to the right of using the public elderly care in form of home care and/or elderly care homes. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with five adult children who cared for their parents. The theoretical frames of analysis were symbolic interactionism with the concepts “I” and “Me” and “significant others”, the theory of reciprocity and finally risk factors for social exclusion. The theoretical frames were used to give deeper insight and different perspectives of the social reality of informal caring. Important results found in our study are that adult children who care for their parents believe it is their duty to help the person who used to take care of them. They described the relationship to their care receiving parents in positive words, but their care duties were described also as heavy and time consuming. These duties were sometimes hard to combine with employment for the family caregiver. Important factors for the adult childrens’ choice to become caregivers were interpersonal relationships, culture and language - language as a practical obstacle but also as part of the culture. Conclusions that could be drawn were that reasons behind the refrain from receiving assistance from the public eldercare was a combination of the wish of the adult children to preserve their culture and their parents’ helplessness in not being able to make themselves and their needs understood in their own language.

  • 49.
    Almkrona, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Björkman, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Den moderna mobbningen: Nätmobbning bland ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the professionals experiences of cyber bullying among teenagers of the age 14-16. To answer the purpose of the study six semi-structured interviews were performed with professionals who work in close contact with teenagers within the school system and social work. To analyze the results symbolic interactionism is used as well as concepts of attitude and norms. The results demonstrated that teenagers that have experienced cyber bullying can exhibit symptom of depression, self harming behavior and in certain cases performed suicide attempts. One contributing factor to why cyber bullying present to the extent it does is because teenagers are able to be anonymous on the internet. Being anonymous contributes to teenagers being able to act cruel towards each other with little repercussion. By informing teenagers and drawing attention to the impact cyber bullying have on a person is considered the most effective way to prevent cyber bullying to present itself according to interviewed people.

  • 50.
    Almqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Nilsson, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    En handlingsplan kan vara skillnaden mellan liv och död: Socialsekreterares beskrivningar av arbetet med hedersrelaterat våld och förtryck2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the social services work with honor-related violence and oppression, and how action plans are implemented into the work. Honor-related violence and oppression is a relatively new problem in Sweden and for a long time, the social services have lacked strategies for how the problem should be handled. Evaluations of the social services have shown that several municipalities in Sweden lack specific action plans against honor-related violence and oppression, as well as routines and guidelines for their work in this area. This study is based on qualitative interviews with five professional social workers from different municipalities. Through the interviews, each social worker’s view on the work of honor-related violence and oppression and the importance of the action plan have been highlighted. The results showed that the social workers described their work in a similar way but their view on the importance of an action plan differed. Based on the results of the study, our conclusion was that action plans can be a solid ground that creates a unified structure for the social services, and are therefore important in the work against honor-related violence and oppression. 

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