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  • 1.
    Abid, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Global Supply Chain Design: Exploring configurational and coordination factors2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the topic of global supply chain design. One major challenge concerns how to manage the tension between separation and integration pertaining to the localization of business activities. In this regard Ferdows (2008) worked to create two new production network models (rooted production network and footloose production network). Earlier studies have highlighted the choices that are involved in the network of facilities but lack in providing a comprehensive picture in terms of both configurational and coordination factors that govern the design of global supply chain. There is a need for a conceptual model where factors affecting the design process of a global supply chain can be applied. Two main research questions have been addressed in this study. First, exploring and identifying the factors affecting global supply chain design. Second, investigating the factors that influence the position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose supply chain design.      

    A literature review analysis and multi-case studies have been performed for this study in order to explore the factors. The companies were selected in order to reflect upon the two types of network, i.e., rooted and footloose. The primary data were selected through interviews with the managers.

    This study highlighted that there are many factors that affect configurational and coordination decision areas within a global supply chain. This study categorized the factors and the configurational/coordination decision areas with two main competitive priorities, i.e., cost and differentiation in the form of a “conceptual model.” The study also highlighted the factors in a matrix, which showed their position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose network configurations. For instance, the coordination factors that drive towards a footloose network include: high orchestration capabilities, need access to new technology and knowledge, proximity to suppliers, etc. The configurational factors that drive towards a rooted network include: economic stability, proximity to market, concerns for sustainability issues, high transportation cost, need for high proximity between key functions, need for intellectual property rights protection, etc.

  • 2.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholm University, School of Business.
    Factors affecting shifts in global supply chain networks: A configurational approach2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In certain situations, global companies strive to take advantage of short-term changes in economic and exchange rates on the never-ending journey of competitiveness. This paper seeks to extend Ferdows’s (2008) production network models by adding the factors affecting shifts between rooted and footloose network configurations. Two companies were selected in order to illustrate the models and reveal other possible factors. The identified factors are differentiated in terms of configuration and coordination and merged in a matrix. The trends and implications on global supply chains are also discussed. 

  • 3.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Factors affecting global supply chain design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the limited existing knowledge pertaining to the factors which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, the purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of global supply chains. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. Five companies were selected in order to illustrate the issues of global supply chain design. Among them, three companies are considered to have efficient supply chain and less complex products, while the two others are considered to have responsive supply chain and more complex products. The issues discussed with the selected companies cover global sourcing, challenges, technological advancement and issues related to management control. The study identifies about fifty factors that affect global supply chain design, and specifically how theses relate to design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution of products and organisation of interfaces along the supply chain. The discrepancies between theory and practice as well as the implications for further research are discussed.

  • 4.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mandar, Dabhilkar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Global supply chain design: Building a decision model2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge pertaining to the factors, which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, is limited. The purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of a global supply chain. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. The study identifies 30 factors that affect a global supply chain design and specifically how theses relate to the design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution logistics, organisation of interfaces/enterprise information infrastructure along the supply chain and human resource development. The decision model is developed and the description of the model is done with the help of an example (location of a factory) by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty, 1990).  

  • 5.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fobbe, Lea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainability reporting as a way to foster entrepreneurial universities2018In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual EurOMA Conference - To Serve, to Produce and to Servitize in the Era of Networks, Big Data and Analytics, Budapest, June 24-26, 2018., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a major role in the development of societies. In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest on the commercialisation of knowledge by universities for economic development that lead to the emergence of the term “Entrepreneurial University”. This study aims to report the sustainability efforts of the University of Gävle, Sweden by applying a systematic tool, Graphical Assessment of Sustainability in Universities (GASU). This study highlights sustainability reporting as a way to improve communication practices between universities and stakeholder. The systematic and holistic assessment of HEIs gives insights of collaboration opportunities and by that foster their entrepreneurial journey.

  • 6.
    Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Farhat, Farshad
    Peighambari, K
    Lueå Tekniska Universitet.
    Supply chain process maturity and financial performance study of Swedish steel SMEs2010In: Proceedings of  the 17th Euroma conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this research is to demonstrate that the financial performance of the current year in Swedish steel SMEs is dependent on the amount of maturity of supply chain processes. This is examined by considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years. It was found that the delivery process of supply chain processes and prior cost of goods sold (COGS) have an effect on current COGS. Additionally, prior inventory and plan process of the supply chain have a positive and negative effect on inventory turnover respectively.

  • 7.
    Agostini, Lara
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Nosella, Anna
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Combining an external with an internal perspective on open innovation with scientific partners and patenting2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Agostini, Lara
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University LIUC, Italy.
    Nosella, Anna
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Open innovation with scientific partners and patenting: the moderating role of the internal context for innovation2017In: Proceedings of IFKAD 2017: Knowledge Management in the 21st Century: Resilience, Creativity and Co-creation, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Astner, Linda
    et al.
    Gävle Hamn AB, Gävle, Sweden.
    Carpenter, Angela
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Utilizing waste to create new port land2018In: Port Technology, Vol. 77, no Spring, p. 118-119Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the most recent port expansion and the major dredging and land creation project that has been undertaken in the Port of Gävle since 2007. This project has seen the deepening and widening of the fairway to accommodate larger vessels, as well as the construction of a new cargo terminal area due to open in late 2019. This land creation work has been undertaken using contaminated sediments dredged from deepening the shipping channel.

  • 10.
    Barås, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Brunberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A supply chain strategy for an innovative commodity producer: Testing the applicability of established theoretical models2014In: EurOMA 2014 Full Papers, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between innovative and functional products have for more than a decade been central to our understanding of how to design appropriate supply chains. However, the distinction between the two types of products, and the associated "optimal" supply chain, are blurring, as high competition forces commodity producers to move up the value chain and increase the innovative content of their products. The purpose of this paper is to use a single case study to test whether established supply chain models can be applied to an innovative commodity producer. The paper finds that although some established model still have merits, a supply chain strategy cannot only be based on product characteristics. Factors such ease of transport and uncertainties in materials supply needs to be taken into account and an effective supply chain may involve utilising decoupling point to combine the benefits of both efficient and responsive supply chains.

  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation in global supply chains. The case of Huawei Technologies2012In: Proceedings of the P&OM conference 2012 in Amsterdam, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Outsourcing manufacturing and its effect on engineering firm performance2008In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 44, no 3-4, p. 373-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the proclaimed advantages and popularity of outsourcing, there are few and contradictory studies of the effects. The main purpose of this paper is to analyse how outsourcing manufacturing relates to performance and innovation at the plant level. A second purpose is to analyse how this outcome relates to investments in manufacturing capability. This paper is based on the results of a large-scale survey of outsourcing and manufacturing practices among a representative sample of Swedish engineering firms. The results show mainly no significant effects from outsourcing manufacturing on plant operating performance or innovation capability. This paper, however, reveals that the firms' investments in technological and organisational capabilities explain the improvements of performance at the plant level to a significantly higher extent than outsourcing does. This paper concludes with a suggestion to further analyse the potential of combined outsourcing and manufacturing strategies.

  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Berggren, Christian
    University of Linköping, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping, Sweden.
    The integrator’s new advantage: the reassessment of outsourcing and production competence in a global telecom firm2008In: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, E-ISSN 1873-5681, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 314-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a long time, the telecom equipment industry has been at the forefront of outsourcing and relocating production operations to contract manufacturing firms located in Asia and Eastern Europe. Recently, however, leading firms have begun to revise this strategy, based on their recognition of the continual importance of technological leadership and integration capabilities. Using a case study of a key company, this paper explores the dynamics of outsourcing and production strategies in the telecom equipment industry. One of the central aspects under study is the interaction of product development with industrialisation and production. The paper analyses issues such as component standardisation versus differentiation and technological integration, the value of deep integration capabilities for cost reductions, and why production competence and the rapid industrialisation of products incorporating new technologies have acquired renewed importance, despite the global trend towards lowest-cost locations.

  • 14.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Solmaz Karabag, Filiz
    Linköpings universitet.
    Innovativa konkurrenter från tillväxtekonomier: vad gör svenska företag?2018In: MGMT of Innovation and Technology, Vol. 1, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konkurrensen från tillväxtekonomier handlar inte längre om lågkostnadsproduktion. I Kina, Turkiet och Brasilien har många företag utvecklat förmågor till både innovativ och snabb produktframtagning. Vad karaktäriserar dessa företag? Och vad kan svenska företag göra för att hantera de nya utmaningarna och möjligheterna?

  • 15.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Manufacturing outsourcing and its effect on plant performance: lessons for KIBS outsourcing2009In: Journal of evolutionary economics, ISSN 0936-9937, E-ISSN 1432-1386, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 231-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the proclaimed advantages and popularity of outsourcing manufacturing and knowledge-intensive business services, there are few and mainly contradictory studies of its short- and long-term effects. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the way in which outsourcing manufacturing and design work relates to performance at plant level. The study is based on a large-scale survey among a representative sample of Swedish engineering plants. The results show no significant effects from outsourcing manufacturing on plant operating performance. The paper further shows that investments in technological and organizational capabilities explain the improvements of performance to a significantly higher extent than does outsourcing. The problems of additional costs and managing dependencies when applying partial outsourcing and separating interdependent key processes provide important insights to the analysis on the effects of outsourcing knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS).

  • 16.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Exploring the strategic role of purchasing: An empirical comparison of purchasing practices and performance outcomes2010In: Proceedings of the 17th International Annual EurOMA Conference, 6-9 June, Porto, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Industrial Economics and Management, KTH, Sweden.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Knowledge integration challenges when outsourcing manufacturing2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial firms experience a strong tension between high demands to outsource manufacturing to low-cost regions and the need to integrate and co-locate key competencies in product development chains. The chapter explains this tension as a dynamic balance between knowledge integration (KI) requirements and capabilities. Three themes are discussed, illustrated by survey data and case studies. First, the chapter argues that parallel investments in manufacturing capability are valuable for meeting KI requirements derived from outsourcing manufacturing. Second, the analysis demonstrates how different kinds of outsourcing strategies shape the KI challenges. Third, the chapter shows how KI challenges turn up as hidden costs, performance trade-offs, or deteriorated cost reduction capability. The chapter claims that the lack of analysis of KI challenges is one explanation why previous studies on outsourcing effects have shown contradictory results. The chapter ends by suggesting the notion of manufacturing absorptive capacity for understanding KI challenges when outsourcing manufacturing.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Linköpings universitet.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI), Linköpings universitet.
    Öppen och sluten på samma gång: Att integrera kunskap över företags gränser2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi / [ed] Hans Andersson och Christian Berggren, Stockholm: Makadam förlag , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Exploiting supplier innovativeness through knowledge integration2013In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 61, no 3-4, p. 237-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms are increasingly involving and relying on networks of suppliers and other external partners in their innovation processes. A successful exploitation of suppliers' technology and competencies is however challenging, not least in situations characterised by technological uncertainty. The main purpose of this study is to analyse how supplier innovativeness may be leveraged through internal knowledge integration capabilities in involving suppliers. The analysis is based on a survey of firms in Europe and North America. The study shows that innovative suppliers do contribute to a firm's innovation performance in terms of time–to–market and level of innovation in products/services. The main result is that an internal knowledge integration capability in terms of proficiency in supplier management and cross–functional decision making boosts innovation performance, in particular when technological uncertainty is high.

  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    IEI, Linköpings Universitet.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Indek, KTH.
    Innovation through purchasing: Leveraging supplier innovativeness through purchasing involvement and proficiency2010In: Proceedings of the 11th International CINet Conference, 5-7 September, Zürich, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Leveraging innovation through purchasing involvement and proficiency2010In: Proceedings of APMS 2010 International Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Leveraging supplier innovativeness through knowledge integration2011In: Exploring Interfaces - Book of Abstracts, 2011, p. 68-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Use the inside – Exploiting supplier innovation through knowledge integration2011In: Proceedings of the 12th CINet conference, Arhus, Denmark, 11-13 September, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI) / Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap (PIE), Linköping universitet.
    Laursen, Keld
    Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics, Copenhagen Business School.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Managing knowledge integration across multiple boundaries in open innovation2015In: 16th International CINet Conference: "Pursuing Innovation Leadership", 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Laursen, Keld
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Open innovation: Managing knowledge integration across multiple boundaries2016In: Managing Knowledge Integration across Boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, and Andrew Van de Ven, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 1, p. 87-105Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University.
    Open to a select few?: Matching partners and knowledge content for open innovation performance2015In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 72-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to illuminate the costs and benefits of crossing firm boundaries in inbound open innovation (OI) by determining the relationships among partner types, knowledge content and performance. The empirical part of the study is based on a survey of OI collaborations answered by R&D managers in 415 Italian, Finnish and Swedish firms. The results show that the depth of collaboration with different partners (academic/consultants, value chain partners, competitors and firms in other industries) is positively related to innovation performance, whereas the number of different partners and size have negative effects. The main result is that the knowledge content of the collaboration moderates the performance outcomes and the negative impact of having too many different kinds of partners. This illustrates how successful firms use selective collaboration strategies characterized by linking explorative and exploitative knowledge content to specific partners, to leverage the benefits and limit the costs of knowledge boundary crossing processes.

  • 27.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Hur arbetar svenska företag med öppen innovation?2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond och Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, 1, p. 39-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    LIUC University Cattaneo.
    3D open innovation: Practices and outcomes2013In: Proceedings of the 14th international CINet conference, 9-11 September, 2013, Nijmegen, Netherlands., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lind, Johnny
    Handelshögskolan Stockholm.
    Balanserade produktionssystem: En möjlighet för global svensk produktion?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, p. 179-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lind, Johnny
    Handelshögskolan Stockholm.
    Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, p. 7-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lind, JohnnyHandelshögskolan Stockholm.
    Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Ljungström, Martin
    Framtida produktionskoncept: Verkstadsorienterad produktion och decentraliserat datorstöd1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report elaborate a vision of decentralized work organisation and especially the use of shop floor oriented computer system to support this. The focus is on industrial production. The report is divided into three parts.

    The first part discuss the characteristics of future production concepts in industrial companies. The point of departure is that Swedish companies abandon Taylorist principles of organization. Alternative paths of rationalization are examined, e.g. Anthropocentric Productions System, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Lean Production, Total Quality Management and Time Based Management. A conclusion drawn is that future production concepts should be shop floor oriented.

    The second part present a vision of this shop floor oriented concept. The vision is elaborated in terms of work organization, goal oriented group work and decentralized computer support. Primarily the principles and the concrete functions of new types of shop floor oriented computer systems are presented. This concern systems for production planning and control (Leitstand) and NC programming (WOP). Examples of graphics produced by these systems are given. An alternative CIM strategy based on these systems is also examined.

    The third part discuss the process of change toward this new production concept. This is enlightened through two case studies.

  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Martin, Ljungström
    Kvalitet och arbetsutveckling- hur går det ihop?: En förstudie1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century taylorism has been dominating as a production. concept. But lately the companies has started to look for new concepts. Examples of these are presented in the report: Flexible taylorism, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Socio-technic, Anthropocentric Production Systems, Lean Production, Time Based Management, Total Quality Management (TQM) and Reengineering. Quality as a strategy is getting stronger and stronger and the prior focus on work organization. and better jobs have now turned towards TQM. TQM consists of, except of different techniques and methods, development of organization, work and personnel.

    The main question in our study concern the connection between the development of quallity and work. The efficiency in changes is in many parts depending on the organization of work and the motivation and knowledge of the employees. In accordance to this we have used a model in six case-studies that distinguish the technical system and different quality methods used, but mainly the changes concerning personnel and organization. The results are:

    * The companies follow three quality strategies that affect the employees situation: Control, Motivation and Work development.

    * The choice of strategy depends on experiences from Work development and the production philosophy in the company.

    * The Control strategy can give better quality but poor productivity. There are no belief in workers and the work is controlled in detail.

    * The Motivation strategy upgrade the workers but only optimize the existing system. It can give contradictory work demands if the responsibility for quality inspection is not based on authorities.

    * The Working development strategy gives possibilities to a flexible manufacturing system and a good work. In ideal the development of work and quality is one process with the same persons involved.

    * Quality systems based on ISO 9000 have limited effects on the inner efficiency and bring a risk for a new hierarchy.

    * TQM-work can change the quality organization and create two different organizations. One that is working with product quality and one that is working across the traditional organization.

    * Kaizen-work has in the study only been seen on the shop floor and as a tool for optimizing the direct work/working place.

    * TQM is to make all processes in a company better. That makesmeasuring and feedback important. It can affect in total managementcontrol or give the opportunity to management by objectives.

    * The unions has no strategy for have to deal with quality strategies.

  • 34.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Combining master and apprentice roles: a potential for knowledge integration in distributed manufacturing networks.2009In: Proceedings of the 10th International CINet Conference, 4-8 September, 2009, Brisbane, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Combining master and apprentice roles: Potential for Learning in distributed manufacturing networks2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore possible effects for learning when a manufacturing plant takes a double role, as being both master plant and apprentice plant, in a globally distributed industrialization process. Industrialization is here understood as the process of preparing new products for volume manufacturing. Two research questions are addressed. The first is what characterizes the dual roles. The second concerns how the dual roles affect knowledge integration and learning processes, and whether this arrangement facilitates learning between master and apprentice. Based on a study of a global telecom equipment company, the paper provides insights into some of the challenges and effects of dynamic switching of roles. By separating the network function from the strategic role of the plant, the study identifies four options for learning. The case adds to the literature on learning in manufacturing networks and to previous research on how distributed processes affect innovation capability.

  • 36.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation - Comparing global and local approaches2014In: The 25th annual POMS conference, Atlanta, 9-12 May, 2014: Celebrating 25th Anniversary Conference : Online proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in open innovation, one of the core questions that remain unanswered is how different kinds of openness affect innovation performance. Moreover, the impact of the geographical dispersion of partners also needs further investigation, while there is a tension between the motives for global search and the needs for proximity in innovation processes. In this paper we will research the relationship between openness and performance outcome in manufacturing companies when taking the localisation of partners into account. The study is based on survey data from 415 companies. The openness is defined by three dimensions: partner breadth, partner depth and phase depth. Performance is measured in terms of cost, risk and time-to-market, innovativeness and economic performance. The results of this study confirm and illustrate the localisation dilemma. For manufacturing companies using a global approach, it seems advisable to collaborate more intensively with a reduced number of partners. In contrast, the companies applying a more spatially balanced approach could collaborate with an increased number of partners and still be innovative and cost efficient. This implies that different localisation strategies for external partner collaborations require different integration approaches in order to be successful.

  • 37.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation: Global or local?2014In: Proceedings of the 21th EurOMA conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Outsourcing Maintenance – Not always a good idea?2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH.
    Low-Cost versus Innovation: Contrasting outsourcing and integration strategies in manufacturing2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Outsourcing eller kunskapsintegration?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 58-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Digitalisation of production: The significance of CI capability and teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    People still matters: Digital transformation of production requires CI capabilitiesand teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation: En studie av Huaweis globala produktionssystem2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies2016In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost innovation has been used to describe how firms offer a variety of customised and high-tech products at low prices. Insights into how this trade-off is overcome by supply chain design are lacking. This paper analyses the global supply chain strategies and practices of Huawei Technologies, and specifically how these contribute to cost innovation capability. The paper is based on interviews with managers at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, plus managers at two European supply chain centres. The case study shows that even though Huawei does not possess specifically unique supply chain solutions, there are some features that drive Huawei towards cost innovation in its supply chains. Some of them concern low-cost operations based on the location of main R&D, manufacturing and suppliers to China, in combination with a strong customer orientation, an integrated supply chain organisation and a balanced outsourcing strategy.

  • 45.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    How can they be so rapid? New product development in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovation processes in Chinese firms2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: An illustration of diversity in two Chinese firms2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid NPD processes in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Karabag, Solmas Filiz
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Exploring Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction relates the principal idea behind the book - that knowledge integration is a vital part of the dynamics of the innovation process to previous literature on knowledge integration, with its focus on companies' 'routine' activities. It presents the book's main empirical focus: internationally competing technology-based firms in, for example, the automotive, heavy electrical equipment, packaging machinery, telecom, tooling, and aerospace industries. It also introduces three major trends that affect conditions for innovation and knowledge integration: internationalization of R&D and production, transformation of markets, and changes in the character of developments in science and technology. In contrast to most definitions, the introduction emphasizes that knowledge integration is more than combining, sharing, or transferring different knowledge bases; it is also a process of creating new knowledge. The introduction concludes with an overview of the twelve chapters, describing how they provide an understanding of knowledge integration as a multilevel process.

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