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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015In: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, p. 98-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Gullberg, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Hussénius, Anita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, USA.
    "We do science, we don't do gender!" Challenging science teaching education: Gender awareness in contructing knowledge of science and science teaching2015In: Feminist Pedagogy in Higher Education : Critical Theory and Practice / [ed] T. P. Light, J. Nicolas & R. Bondy, Waterloo, ON, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Kellner, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    School-€“University Action Research: Impacts on Teaching Practices and Pupil Learning2017In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 313-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe a design and implementation of a school–university action research project about teaching and learning biology and mathematics in primary school. Nine teachers in grades 1 to 6, in collaboration with two researchers, were using content representation (CoRe) in learning study (LS)-inspired cycle as pedagogical tools when planning, implementing, and reflecting on lessons and pupil learning. By using pre- and post-tests, the teachers acquired knowledge about pupil subject-specific knowledge and learning. Some examples are given on how the tools in the project influenced the teaching practices and pupil learning. This research design brought together university and school practitioners to work collaboratively in a professional learning community, which developed teaching and learning in biology and mathematics.

  • 4.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom .
    Westerberg, Lars
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the case of Synanthedonvespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedonvespiformis L. (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discovered in 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sex pheromone attractant became available recently. This study details a national survey conducted using pheromones as a sampling method for this species. Through pheromone trapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at 77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reported records for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformis is truly a rare species with a genuinely scattered distribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyses were conducted in order to test the relationship between habitat quality and the number of individuals caught. In Sweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oak hosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by the abundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. We therefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledge on distribution may have led to the assumption that this species is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part of its range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar to S. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central and Southern Europe. We conclude that pheromones can massively enhance sampling potential for this and other rare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-based surveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absences across a considerable part of a species national distribution range, and thus for the first time provide a viable means of systematically assessing changes in distribution over time with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 5.
    Calamnius, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Mikael
    Harmångers Machine & Marine, Stocka, Sweden; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fjälling, Arne
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Königson, Sara
    Institute of Coastal Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pontoon trap for salmon and trout equipped with a seal exclusion device catches larger salmons2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing seal populations of the Baltic have led to more frequent interactions with coastal fisheries. The motivation for seals to interact with fishing gear is high. It provides high densities of fish. A successful means of mitigating the conflict is the pontoon trap. Seal visits here have been frequent. Seals have access to most parts of the trap system including the middle chamber, which is an overhead environment. Concerns have been raised about seals possible entanglement in this specific part of the trap. As a means of keeping seals from entering the middle chamber, two different Seal Exclusion Devices (SEDs) were tested. A diamond mesh SED and a square mesh SED, which was rotated 45. The aim was to compare the functionality of the different SEDs with respect to seal deterrent abilities and catch composition. The hypothesis tested were (i) that seals would not be able to enter the middle chamber, (ii) that the catch would increase and (iii) that the SED would deter larger fish from swimming into the middle chamber. Catch data and underwater film were collected. Larger salmons were caught in traps equipped with SEDs. The SEDs did not affect the number of caught fish or the total catch per soak day. © 2018 Calamnius et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 6.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Guerrero-Casado, José
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador.
    Barasona, José A.
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí (ESPAM), Calceta, Ecuador.
    Vicente, Joaquín
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel
    Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrario de Vairão, Vairão, Portugal; Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
    Hunting as a source of alien species: a European review2017In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1197-1211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hunting activities are responsible for the translocation and restocking of millions of animals throughout Europe, including the introduction of alien species. In a context of the growing use of game translocations and of increasing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our goal is to review the role of alien species introduced primarily for hunting purposes on the European scale. In particular, we explore: (1) the relative importance of game species in the context of alien species introductions; (2) the temporal evolution of the number of species introduced for hunting purposes; (3) the contribution of different taxa; (4) the pattern of introduced game species composition across countries (in terms of similarity), and (5) the underlying human demographic factors driving the diversity of introduced game species per country. According to our results, 24.3% of the mammals and 30.2% of the birds introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for hunting purposes, in total, 93 species (63 birds and 36 mammals), the most important taxa being Artiodactyls, Anseriformes and Galliformes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced game species in larger countries and in those with a higher human population density and proportion of hunters. This review stresses that hunting was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive species into Europe in the last century. Since some of the game species introduced have had severe environmental impacts on many European regions, and introductions of non-native game species are still occurring, it is essential to improve regulations and increase public awareness regarding invasive game animals. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current hunting schemes in increasingly managed European ecosystems.

  • 7.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Alameda del Obispo s/n, Córdoba, Spain ; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, C-1 Rabanales, Córdoba, Spain.
    Effects of wild boar predation on nests of wading birds in various Swedish habitats2016In: European Journal of Wildlife Research, ISSN 1612-4642, E-ISSN 1439-0574, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 423-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild boar has, over the past few decades, undergone an expansion in Europe, which may have negatively affected ground-nesting bird populations and particularly those of wading birds. The aim of this study was to evaluate predation on waders’ nests by wild boar in Sweden, where this species has been increasing since its reintroduction. This was done by placing artificial nests in seven different study areas. A comparison was then made of predation rates of the nests placed on control plots (areas in which no wild boar were present but other predators were) and plots containing different abundances of wild boar. Contrary to our expectations, the proportion of nests predated was significantly lower in those areas in which wild boar were present, with a predation rate of 54 %, whereas the predation rate was 87.5 % in the others. The wild boar was identified as the second most important nest predator in the plots in which it was present, accounting for 18 % of the predated nests. The main predator on both types of plots was the red fox, which was responsible for 28 and 38.5 % of the predated nests on plots with/without wild boar, respectively. Interestingly, predation by badgers occurred principally in areas in which the wild boar was absent (34.5 % of the predated nests), whereas only one nest was predated by this predator in areas containing wild boar. It is not, however, possible to state whether predation by badgers was lower because of the presence of wild boar or whether this was owing to the fact that badgers do not select those particular patches because of habitat features.

  • 8.
    Djukic, Ika
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Kappel Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Early stage litter decomposition across biomes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 1369-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.

  • 9.
    Falk, Anders B.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Central University Administration.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack2018In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

  • 10.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Energy recovery from horse manure - exploring energy actors’ experiencesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union and Swedish national energy policy and energy objectives state an increased interest in transition of energy systems to more efficient use of energy, as well as increased use of renewable sources of energy. Horse manure is a potential resource available for renewable energy. Horse manure is sometimes considered a waste problem, resulting in research of possible energy recovery processes, such as combustion and anaerobic digestion. In this study 13 energy actors’ experiences of horse manure were explored by means of interviews and e-mail. Five related to combustion of horse manure and eight related to anaerobic digestion. The aim was to make a compilation of their knowledge and from the results identify how horse manure could be made more attractive as an energy resource. The challenges the actors face are mainly connected with horse manure being a heterogeneous material, primarily due to its bedding content (straw, wood bedding, etc.), and occasionally to other types of added waste. These unpredictable variations in the substrate as well as impurities like sand make it more difficult for plants to have standard procedures for processing horse manure. The view that bedding material needs to be specifically straw pellets and that all impurities should be kept out of the collected horse manure for anaerobic treatment was also expressed. Horse manure as part of co-combustion processes was perceived as a fuel with capacity to contribute to plant economy as it gives revenue from gate fees and could reduce costs for its NOx reducing capacity. Another view was that grate furnaces could possibly be more suitable than fluidized beds as incineration technology. However, problems with odour made two plants end their combustion trials. In farm-scale incineration horse manure required a lot of monitoring and co-combustion with pellets in order to maintain an effective process. When compiling all available information this study has a number of suggestions for how horse manure should be treated already at the production stage in order to be a more versatile resource in energy recovery processes. The recommendation is to keep horse manure dry (transports and incineration), avoid initiation of composting processes (AD and incineration), sort the waste = no added other waste (AD), and depending on intended AD-treatment process, use a specific bedding type. Most of these issues may be solved by supplier’s involvement in the supply chains for resource recovery, i.e. closing natural cycles of plant nutrients and energy recovery.

  • 11.
    Hussénius, Anita
    et al.
    Centre for Gender Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.
    Andersson, Kristina
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Interstitial Spaces: A Model for Transgressive Processes2016In: Illdisciplined Gender: Engaging Questions of Nature/Culture and Transgressive Encounters / [ed] Bull, J. & Fahlgren, M., Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 11-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter introduces the concepts of interstitial spaces and transgressive identities to examine the boundaries of gender and feminist studies, science, and education and discuss our research practices and positions. We use a metalogue as the vehicle for analyzing our autobiographies to provide examples when we have operated in interstitial spaces and engaged transgressive identities. Interstitial spaces exist between and within boundaries. These spaces are possible sites within a defined context (a discipline, a practice, a culture) that may be occupied by an actor/agent working as a “carrier” of different cultural practices, knowledge, and theories. A “carrier” can use the interstitial space to influence and challenge a “new” context and thus loosen up boundaries but can also by experiencing new cultures and developing new knowledge return to the “old” culture to integrate these new practices. Thus, interstitial spaces establish a context for transgressive identities to emerge so one can act in ways to transform and change the cultures of disciplines. We usetransgressive identities as a theoretical description and understanding of our research practices and positions.

  • 12.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chinjuang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing,China.
    Nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis for adaptation to contrasting geologic phosphorus sites2018In: Annals of Forest Research, ISSN 1844-8135, E-ISSN 2065-2445, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 59-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message

    Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption in Quercus variabilis Blume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content.

    Context

    Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas.

    Aims

    We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content.

    Methods

    The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China.

    Results

    P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P.

    Conclusion

    These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 13.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Comparison of the nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis Blume growing in two sites contrasting in soil phosphorus content2018In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 75, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption inQuercus variabilisBlume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content. Context: Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas. Aims: We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content. Methods: The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China. Results: P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P. Conclusion: These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 14. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Kellner, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    (I) gapet mellan teori och praktik - utveckling av lärarkunskap i biologi2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar - inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 47-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Kellner, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Attorps, Iiris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Kollegialt lärande: aktionsforskning i biologi- och matematikundervisning2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar - inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 61-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Kellner, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Attorps, Iiris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Primary school teachers' concerns and needs in biology and mathematics teaching2015In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 282-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into nine primary school teachers’ concerns and instructional needs in biology and mathematics, grades 1 to 6. By using Content Representation, combined with Learning Study in an action research project, teachers were encouraged to reflect on their conceptions, processes of instructing and pupil learning. From concerns articulated by teachers three instructional needs emerged: (i) to make subject progression, especially in biology, and pupil learning more visible, (ii) to develop mathematics teaching in order to change pupils’ views of the subject, and (iii) to develop teachers’ subject matter knowledge and teaching in an ongoing collaborative process.  The paper argues that in order to stimulate teacher professional development it is important to make teacher concerns and thereby needs explicit. They help teachers to identify and reflect on relations between teacher subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge and pupil learning.

  • 17.
    Lundin, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Umeå, Sweden; Harmångers Maskin and Marin AB .
    Calamnius, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Harmångers Maskin and Marin AB.
    Fjälling, Arne
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Drottningholm, Sweden.
    Size selection of whitefish (Coregonus maraena) in a pontoon trap equipped with an encircling square mesh selection panel2015In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 161, p. 330-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many fishing methods result in significant catches of non-target species or individuals that are too small to be retained for economic values or within quota regulations. In the Baltic Sea trap fishery, the major problem is the bycatch of juvenile and non-marketable whitefish (Coregonus maraena) which constitutes a threat to the sustainability of the fishery and a time-consuming problem for the fishers. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a modified fish trap in reducing such bycatch. An encircling selection panel consisting of 50 × 50 mm square mesh netting was installed in a pontoon fish chamber of a salmon/whitefish trap. Comparative fishing was conducted against a control trap without selection panel in the inshore waters of the Bothnian Sea. Comparisons of catch compositions between the traps showed that there was a 72% reduction in juvenile whitefish catch in the experimental trap. The length at 50% retention (30.1 cm) corresponded well to the minimum market size (>30 cm) of whitefish that are desired for the local market. Fishers are advised to use a netting panel of 50 × 50 mm square mesh for their traps to reduce undersized whitefish. The results are important for the sustainability of whitefish stocks in the Baltic Sea.

  • 18.
    Lundin, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Umeå, Sweden and Harmångers Maskin and Marin AB.
    Calamnius, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Harmångers Maskin and Marin AB.
    Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil.
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Umeå, Sweden.
    The efficiency of selection grids in perch pontoon traps2015In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 162, p. 58-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In commercial fishing, minimizing the bycatch of undersized fish or non-target species is highly beneficial, to avoid unnecessary fish mortality and to save time for the fishers. Two pontoon traps developed for perch fishing were equipped with size selection grids, and the efficiency with which under-sized fish could escape was tested. Average size of perch, roach, and whitefish was larger in traps with selection grids compared to in control traps without grids. Selection efficiencies using these comparisons were 82–86% for perch, 33% for whitefish and 100% for roach. The selection grids were filmed with an underwater video camera over the daily cycle, to estimate timing, and total number of exits from the traps. Selection efficiencies, calculated by extrapolating number of escapes observed to the total time of trap submergence, were 94–100% for perch and 100% for roach. The discrepancy in the selection efficiency estimates for perch probably depends on an uncertainty in the extrapolation, because of the variation in escape rate across time periods. Perch and roach differed in time of day for escapes. For perch most escapees was seen in the evening, and for roach most fish escaped at night, probably reflecting the general activity cycles of the two species. Over a fishing season, several thousands of fish would be able to escape from each trap, and an increase in the use of size selection grids could potentially be an efficient tool for fish population management.

  • 19.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    et al.
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yang, Wanqin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Li, Han
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Liao, Shu
    Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Tan, Bo
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Yue, Kai
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Xu, Zhenfeng
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Zhang, Li
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Wu, Fuzhong
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Formation of forest gaps accelerates C, N and P release from foliar litter during 4 years of decomposition in an alpine forest2018In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative to areas under canopy, the soils in forest gaps receive more irradiance and rainfall (snowfall); this change in microclimate induced by forest gaps may influence the release of carbon (C) and nutrients during litter decomposition. However, great uncertainty remains about the effects of forest gaps on litter decomposition. In this study, we incubated foliar litters from six tree and shrub species in forest gaps and canopy plots and measured the release of C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in different snow cover periods in an alpine forest from 2012 to 2016. We found that N was retained by 24–46% but that P was immediately released during an early stage of decomposition. However, forest gaps decreased litter N retention, resulting in more N and P being released from decomposing litters for certain species (i.e., larch, birch and willow litters). Moreover, the release of C and nutrients during litter decomposition stimulated by forest gaps was primarily driven by warmer soil temperature in this high-altitude forest. We conclude that gap formation during forest regeneration may accelerate C turnover and nutrient cycling and that this stimulation might be regulated by the litter species in this seasonally snow-covered forest. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 20.
    Pinedo, Cristina
    et al.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Collado, Isidro G.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Goss, Rebecca J. M.
    School of Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    Dipartimento Agricoltura, Ambiente, Alimenti, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Hrelia, Patrizia
    Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Maffei, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualità della Vita, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Campus Rimini, Rimini, Italy.
    Durán-Patrón, Rosa
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Isotopic Labeling Studies Reveal the Patulin Detoxification Pathway by the Biocontrol Yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae LS112018In: Journal of natural products (Print), ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin (1) is a mycotoxin contaminant in fruit and vegetable products worldwide. Biocontrol agents, such as the yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, can reduce patulin (1) contamination in food. R. kratochvilovae LS11 converts patulin (1) into desoxypatulinic acid (DPA) (5), which is less cytotoxic than the mycotoxin (1) to in vitro human lymphocytes. In the present study, we report our investigations into the pathway of degradation of patulin (1) to DPA (5) by R. kratochvilovae. Isotopic labeling experiments revealed that 5 derives from patulin (1) through the hydrolysis of the γ-lactone ring and subsequent enzymatic modifications. The ability of patulin (1) and DPA (5) to cause genetic damage was also investigated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay on in vitro human lymphocytes. Patulin (1) was demonstrated to cause much higher chromosomal damage than DPA (5).

  • 21.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0172085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 22.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Shaw, Mark
    National Museums of Scotland,.
    The Swedish species of Cidaphus (Hymenoptera,Ichneumonidae, Mesochorinae), a new genus and threenew species for Sweden2017In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 138, no 3-4, p. 203-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ichneumonid genus Cidaphus Förster, 1869, and its three known European species Cidapus areolatus (Boie, 1850), C. alarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) and C. atricillus (Haliday, 1839) are reported as new to Sweden based primarily on specimens collected in light traps during projects monitoring nocturnal moths. The available material indicates that C. areolatus is a rather abundant and widespread species throughout most of the southern and central parts of Sweden. The trapping data indicates that it flies in one prolonged generation from July until October. Cidaphus atricillus and C. alarius are both rather rare and their distribution is much less clear, but both species appear to fly earlier in the season than C. areolatus.

  • 23. Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra Ann Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood2018In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

  • 24.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Ciu, Yalan
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Dong, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    We, Zhijie
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter of plant origin is the main source of soil organic matter, and its physical and chemical quality and decomposition rates are key variables in the prediction and modelling of how litter-derived carbon (C) is cycling through the ecosystem. However, the biological control factors for decomposition are not well understood and often poorly represented in global C models. These are typically run using simple parameters, such as nitrogen (N) and lignin concentrations, characterizing the quality of the organic matter input to soils and its accessibility to decomposer organisms. Manganese (Mn) is a key component for the formation of manganese peroxidase (MnP), an important enzyme for lignin degradation. However, the functional role of Mn on plant litter decomposition has been rarely experimentally examined. Here, using a forest and a cropland site we studied, over 41 months, the effects of Mn fertilization on MnP activity and decomposition of eight substrates ranging in initial lignin concentrations from 9.8 to 44.6%. Asymptotic decomposition models fitted the mass loss data best and allowed us to separately compare the influence of Mn fertilization on different litter stages and pools. Across substrates, Mn fertilization stimulated decomposition rates of the late stage where lignin dominates decomposition, resulting in smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. The increased MnP activity caused by Mn fertilization provided the mechanism explaining the stimulated decomposition in the Mn-addition treatments.

  • 25.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Hobbie, Sarah
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhank, Hongguang
    Laoshan Forest Station, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Wang, Qingkui
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Hättenschwiler, Stephan
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Montpellier, France.
    Contrasting dynamics and trait controls in first-order root compared with leaf litter decomposition2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 41, p. 10392-10397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition is a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet current ecosystem C models do not adequately represent the contributions of plant roots and their mycorrhizae to this process. The understanding of decomposition dynamics and their control by traits is particularly limited for the most distal first-order roots. Here we followed decomposition of first-order roots and leaf litter from 35 woody plant species differing in mycorrhizal type over 6 years in a Chinese temperate forest. First-order roots decomposed more slowly (k = 0.11 ± 0.01 years−1) than did leaf litter (0.35 ± 0.02 years−1), losing only 35% of initial mass on average after 6 years of exposure in the field. In contrast to leaf litter, nonlignin root C chemistry (nonstructural carbohydrates, polyphenols) accounted for 82% of the large interspecific variation in first-order root decomposition. Leaf litter from ectomycorrhizal (EM) species decomposed more slowly than that from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species, whereas first-order roots of EM species switched, after 2 years, from having slower to faster decomposition compared with those from AM species. The fundamentally different dynamics and control mechanisms of first-order root decomposition compared with those of leaf litter challenge current ecosystem C models, the recently suggested dichotomy between EM and AM plants, and the idea that common traits can predict decomposition across roots and leaves. Aspects of C chemistry unrelated to lignin or nitrogen, and not presently considered in decomposition models, controlled first-order root decomposition; thus, current paradigms of ecosystem C dynamics and model parameterization require revision.

  • 26.
    Van Tri, Mai
    et al.
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Minh Chau, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Department of Agraria, University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Località Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Olsson, Christer H. B.
    Department of Biological & Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Decline of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) incited by Phytophthora palmivora in Vietnam2015In: Phytopathologia Mediterranea, ISSN ISSN 0031-9465, EISSN 1593-2095, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 275-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new disease of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) was observed in the south- eastern region of South Vietnam. Symptoms included root rot, cankers and gummosis of trunks, chlorosis, wilt, blight of leaves, defoliation, fruit brown rot, and tree death. The disease was found in 10% of surveyed farms with an incidence varying from 2% to nearly 60% of the trees. A Phytophthora species, identified as P. palmivora (Butler) Butler, using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA as a barcode gene and morphological and cultural features, was consistently isolated from symptomatic roots, fruits, trunk cankers and leaves. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled using pathogenicity tests on seedlings, leaves and detached fruits of jackfruit. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. palmivora on jackfruit in Vietnam.

  • 27.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Patulin in food2015In: Current Opinion in Food Science, ISSN 2214-7993, E-ISSN 2214-8000, Vol. 5, p. 105-109Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin is produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and Byssochlamys. It is a mycotoxin that primarily contaminates pome fruit products, but is being reported from other fruit and foods, for example shellfish and cheese. New findings reveal that patulin binds to the bases of DNA, in addition to its well-established ability to conjugate sulfhydryl groups. Novel cellular targets are also being uncovered. In the EU, patulin levels in apple products are now mostly below specified limits. Biocontrol agents either prevent infection by mycotoxigenic fungi or lower patulin levels. More knowledge about critical control points, the role of patulin in plant disease, and the environmental cues that stimulate patulin production will enable the tailoring of effective, future control measures.

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