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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ljungqvist, ArneSvedsäter, GöranUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Doping and public health2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping – the use of performance-enhancing substances and methods – has long been a high-profile issue in sport but in recent years it has also become an issue in wider society. This important new book examines doping as a public health issue, drawing on a multi-disciplinary set of perspectives to explore the prevalence, significance and consequences of doping in wider society. It introduces the epidemiology of doping, examines the historical context, and explores the social, behavioural, legal, ethical and political aspects of doping. The book also discusses possible interventions for addressing the problem on organisational and societal levels.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ljungqvist, Arne
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Introduction: Doping and Public Health2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , p. 151p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of “doping” is usually associated with sport, particularly elite sport. In fact, doping means the use of substances or methods that are banned in sport by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) because of their potentially performance-enhancing effects. Their use is, therefore, considered to be against the fair play spirit of sport and can also include significant health risks for the user. However, the use of many doping substances is no longer limited to the world of sport. Doping substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are nowadays used also by people who are not competitive athletes but who want to make use of the effects of AAS in making their bodies more muscular, stronger and impressive in conformity with the current masculine body ideal. The use of AAS and similar substances appears to be growing and has been found in a range of countries previously not researched. At least, recent data obtained from customs seizures, court cases and some surveys suggest that the extent of AAS use outside sport has been underestimated, some reasons probably being an underground circulation of such drugs in the gym and fitness culture and the easy availability of them on the internet. One particular concern is the increasing use of nutritional supplements by growing segments of society. A significant percentage of these products have been shown to contain prohibited substances such as steroids that are not listed on the label. This shows that the nutritional supplement industry needs to be more strictly regulated. Until that happens, supplements of dubious value, content and quality will continue to be easily available around the world. What, then, are the possible reasons that active and health-conscious individuals are willing to take the risk to use preparations such as AAS? A review of the research shows that the most important motive behind the use of AAS outside the elite sports environment, i.e., in a fitness context, is to improve physical appearance. Although most users are boys and young and middle-aged men, also women of various ages use doping substances. Different types of slimming pills are popular among women (including hormone preparations), but possibly even more interesting are the new female fitness and appearance ideals that are connected to muscles and strength. The body has become increasingly important for saying something about who we are. The hunt for the perfect appearance creates a situation where denial instead of acceptance of one’s own body influences the individual’s self-image.

  • 3.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Svedsäter, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    "The winner takes it all": Individualization and Performance-Enhancing Drugs and Methods in Sport and in Society2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Nader Ahmadi, Arne Ljungqvist, Göran Svedsäter, Abingdon: Routledge, 2016, 1, , p. 151p. 38-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common misconception in today's society is that everything is (or should be) rational and goal-oriented, which we summarized earlier as pragmatic rationalism. We call this pragmatic rationalism a misconception because it misses a historical fact that individuals' actions are and have never been governed entirely by rational motives. Emotional, ethical and existential considerations influence human actions extensively. Solidarity, willingness to share and even self-sacrifice and prioritizing the good of others before one's own are values that have survived many different economic cultures. Even today's extremely individualized society with its focus on reaching success and winning at any price cannot completely suppress these values. There is an inherent contradiction between the crude egoism of modern individualism and its historical development that largely has its origin in the care of humans.

  • 4.
    Arnell, Susann
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Health Care Research Center, Örebro University; School of Health Sciences, The Swedish Insititute for Disability Research (SIDR), Örebro University, Örebro Sweden.
    Perceptions of Physical Acitivty Participation Among Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Conceptual Model of Conditional Participation2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 1792-1802, article id 29236210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are less physically active compared to typically developing peers. The reasons for not being physically active are complex and depend on several factors, which have not been comprehensively described from the adolescent’s perspective. Therefore, the aim was to describe how adolescents with an ASD perceive, experience and reflect on their participation in physical activity. Interviews with 24 adolescents diagnosed with high-functioning ASD, aged 12–16 years, were analysed with qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. They expressed a variety of reasons determining their willingness to participate, which were conceptualized as: Conditional participation in physical activities. The present study presents an alternative perspective on participation in physical activity, with impact on intervention design.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ledarskap bland huvuddomare i SHL: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskapsstilar, hur ledarskap kommuniceras och förmedlas samt efterfrågat ledarskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine leadership styles among head officials in the SHL and how they communicate leadership to ice hockey players in the SHL. The aim of this study was also to examine what type of leadership head officials in the SHL believe is requested from ice hockey players in the SHL. The selection of the study consisted of ten head officials in the SHL from the ice hockey season of 2016/2017, and the data collection was acquired trough semi-structured interviews with the participants. The collected data was subsequently analysed trough a thematic method.

    The results showed that there is no monolithic leadership style amongst the interviewed head officials in the SHL during the 2016/2017 ice hockey season. To find a leadership style that acts according to yourself is a vital part to be able to lead an individual or individuals. The ten interviewed head officials of the SHL described that body-language is a vital part of their leadership. They also described their way of working with positive feedback in communications with ice hockey players in the SHL as a way to encourage or transform actions of ice hockey players. The results of the study also indicates that the ten interviewed head officials in the SHL believe that a distinct and communicative leadership is the preferred option amongst ice hockey players in the SHL.

  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Evaluating physical workload by position during match in elite bandy2018In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 2616-2622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve current understandings of physical Workload (WL) in elite Bandy, ten bandy players were monitored for heart rate (HR) during thirteen matches over one championship season. Participants were divided into five subgroups according to playing position - libero, defender, halves, midfielder and forward. HR measurements were analyzed with two different methods to compute physical WL - (i) percentage of total time spent in different HR zones (HRres) and (ii) WL based on the Edwards method. Also determined was the time spent at HR levels above the lactate threshold (LT). A one-way ANOVA was used for analysis. For WL according to the Edwards method, significant differences (p=0.05) were shown between groups with defenders presenting the highest scores and forwards and liberos the lowest. A significant difference (p=0.05) was found between liberos and halves and the other positions as to how much time they spent in zone 70-80% of HRres. In 91-100% of HRres there was a distinct difference between defenders and the other positions and also forwards differed significantly from liberos, defenders and halves (p=0.05). The libero spent only one percent of the time over the LT, whereas the midfielder spent about 27% of the time over the LT. Overall, defenders showed the greatest WL during a match and liberos the lowest. The practical implications of these findings can help coaches and trainers design training methods specific to each position as well as individualized training sessions for each player in elite bandy.

  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Rehn, Börje
    Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehabilitering, Fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Fysisk aktivitet och hälsa för personer med utvecklingsstörning2015In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 1, p. 26-31Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är en förutsättning för att kunna förverkliga sina mål i livet. Personer med utvecklingsstörning, cirka 90 000 i Sverige, har nedsatt hälsa jämfört med personer utan utvecklingsstörning och det leder till att denna grupp har svårare att uppfylla sina mål. Personer med utvecklingsstörning drabbas i större utsträckning av övervikt, typ 2-diabetes, hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, högt blodtryck, benskörhet och depression. Undersökningar visar också på nedsatt fysisk aktivitet, motorik, syreupptagningsförmåga, muskelstyrka och postural balans hos denna grupp. Dessa sjukdomar och nedsatta förmågor går att påverkai positiv riktning med fysisk aktivitet. Fysioterapeuter som har bred kunskap om hälsa och anpassning av fysisk aktivitet kan vara till stor hjälp vid prevention, bedömning och träning.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Van Biesen, Debbie
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Gear selection between techniques in freestyle cross-country skiing in athletes with intellectual impairment: A pilot study2018In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1150-1155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-country skiing is a fast-paced, a cognitively demanding, and a popular sport within international organizationsincluding athletes with intellectual impairment (II); however, research on how the level of II affects skiing performanceis limited. The aim of this exploratory study was to compare differences in the overall performance (segment time and racetime) and gear selection between a sample of cross-country skiers with II (n¼22) and a control group of skiers without II(n¼12), during a competitive 10 km freestyle race. The groups were matched on training background and skiing level basedon interviews with coaches and trainers. The independent samples t-test revealed a higher velocity in the first segment forthe control group (6.100.62 m/s) compared to the skiers with II (5.500.56 m/s; p<0.05), but no significant differencesin total race time between the groups. With respect to their ability to effectively select gears during the races, there was asignificant difference between the groups, where the pattern was that skiers with II used a lower gear compared to theskiers without II and that pattern became even more apparent towards the second half of the race. These findings supportthe assumption that impaired cognitive function may constrain the ability to optimally select the appropriate gear infunction of the characteristics of the skiing track, which is a key determinant of skiing performance.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education.
    Lönnberg, Lisa
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Physical exercise frequency seem not to influence postural balance but trunk muscle endurance in young persons with intellectual disability2017In: Journal of Physical Education and Sports Management, ISSN 2373-2156, E-ISSN 2373-2164, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The influence of various physical exercise frequencies on postural balance and muscle performance among young persons with intellectual disability (ID) is not well understood.

    Method Cross-sectional data from 26 elite athletes were compared with 37 students at a sports school and to 57 students at a special school, all diagnosed with mild to moderate ID and with different exercise frequencies. Data were also compared with a group of 149 age-matched participants without ID.

    Results There were no significant differences in postural balance between young ID groups regardless of physical exercise frequency, all of them had however impaired postural balance compared to the non-ID group. The group with high exercise performed better than the other ID groups in the trunk muscle endurance test.

    Conclusions It appears as if physical exercise frequency don’t improve postural balance but endurance in the trunk muscles for young persons with ID.

  • 10.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Elin
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundkvist, Hillevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Postural stability, physical activity, aerobic capacity and their associations for young people with and without intellectual disabilities2014In: European Journal of Adapted Physical Activity, ISSN 1803-3857, E-ISSN 1803-3857, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies show that people with intellectual disability (ID) appear to have impaired postural stability, a lower level of physical activity, and lower aerobic capacity compared to persons without ID, limitations that could affect their health. This study investigates these physical functions and their associations in a group of young people with ID compared to an age-matched group without ID. In total, this cross-sectional study included 106 high school students (16-20 years): 57 students with mild to moderate ID and 49 age-matched students without ID (control group). Tests were performed for postural stability, level of physical activity, and aerobic capacity. Both females and males with ID had significantly lower estimated maximum oxygen uptake (l O2/min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.004 for males) and a lower aerobic capacity expressed relative to body weight (ml O2/ kg*min) (p< 0.001 for females and p=0.012 for males) compared to age-matched peers. Analyses of associations were made using the Pearson’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. No significant associations could be found. Physical status appears impaired for young people with ID and functions, such as postural stability, should be evaluated separately.

  • 11.
    Bohman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Vårdnadshavarnas attityder till ämnet idrott och hälsa: -En kvalitativ undersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att undersöka hur viktigt vårdnadshavarnas tycker att ämnet idrott och hälsa är. Frågeställningarna tar upp vårdnadshavarnas uppfattningar kring hur de själva och skolan kan påverka barnens insikt till hur viktig motion och idrott och hälsa är. Undersökningen baseras på sju kvalitativa intervjuer gjorda med vårdnadshavare till gymnasieelever på en gymnasieskola i södra Sverige.   

    Ämnet idrott och hälsa anses av vårdnadshavarna som ett av de viktigaste i Svenska skolan och placerar det på plats 1-6 av de 15 som finns. Ämnet har så stor betydelse enligt vårdnadshavarna att de trots att de anser att barnet själv ska packa idrottskläderna ändå ser till att rätt utrustning är med till dagens idrottslektion. Lika viktigt är det att vara med sina barn i fysiska aktiviteter såsom gårdsfotboll och landhockey.

    Att på fritiden delta i föreningsverksamhet anses som betydelsefullt av vårdnadshavarna.  Vårdnadshavarna anser att hemmet och skolan har ett gemensamt ansvar att väcka intresset hos eleven för idrott och hälsa. Alla vårdnadshavarna är samstämmiga kring att ämnet idrott och hälsa ska finnas kvar. Undersökningen visar också att det är viktigt att få med sig rätt utrustning och att eleverna får testa på olika aktiviteter för att se vad som passar dem. 

  • 12.
    Connick, Mark J.
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Beckman, Emma
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Malone, Laurie A.
    Lakeshore Foundation, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tweedy, Sean M.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1123-1129, article id 097558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required.

    AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure.

    METHODS: Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed.

    RESULTS: All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports.

  • 13.
    Efverström, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Två aktuella böcker problematiserar den moraliska kampen mot dopning inom idrotten: Recension av böckerna The War on Drugs in Sport av Vanessa McDermott och Testing for Athlete Citizenship av Kathryn E. Henne2016In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, no 16 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hoff, David
    Lunds universitet.
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: An international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are a number of studies on policy making concerning doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has largely been neglected. The present study contributes to bridging this gap. Since forming and developing the anti-doping policy utterly depends on how legitimate the practitioners believe this policy to be, the specific aim for this paper is to study how elite athletes at the broad international arena perceive the legitimacy of anti-doping policy and practices. An on-line questionnaire, designed to capture elite athletes’ perceptions, was answered by 261 respondents from 51 different countries and four international sports federations. Respondents were elite athletes belonging to the International Registered Testing Pool of each federation. The respondents were generally supportive towards anti-doping policy. Over 80% agreed that different anti-doping activities, from doping controls and the whereabouts system to storing of test samples and biological passports, are essential parts of the work against doping in sports. Support for anti-doping policy is also shown when 80% of the athletes agreed that anti-doping work should develop in a way that there is the same level of, or more, anti-doping activities compared to the current. The principle of anti-doping is, in this study, shown to be legitimate. However, at the level of practices, four areas were perceived as challenging. Regarding practical procedures, 34% experienced difficulties filing whereabouts information and 73% felt worried that they won’t be available for testing at the right place and right time in correlation to the whereabouts information they had provided. Concerning the athletes’ personal life and privacy, 50% of female athletes and 30% of males stated that they feel somewhat or very uncomfortable regarding their privacy when providing a urine sample. Furthermore, in regard to the whereabouts system, 47% of the respondents stated that they feel monitored. The efficacy and equality of anti-doping work is put under question by 58% who believed that users of forbidden substances/methods escape detection and 44% who did not believe that the whereabouts system is working properly in all countries. 70% of the respondents did not believe that all athletes applying for a therapeutic use exemption are treated in the same way. Regarding the athletes influence and participation in the policy work, 85% believe that athletes should be more involved. These four areas can be seen as unintended consequences of the work and reveal a weak point for the legitimacy of anti-doping when the athletes not fully perceive procedural justice. In conclusion, legitimacy for anti-doping policy in general is strong while a questioning of the legitimacy in the execution of the rules is discerned. If anti-doping authorities wish to maintain and increase the legitimacy of the anti-doping efforts, a thorough understanding for and consideration of the athletes’ perceptions is beneficial.

  • 15.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Swedish School of Sports and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2016In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 491-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes’ everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes’ perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes’ involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work’s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

  • 16.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Different socities, different conditions: Lessons from anti-doping in elite-sport on a global level2017In: Doping in sport, doping in society - Lessons, themes and connections: Book of abstracts, Aarhus University, Department of Public Health , 2017, p. 7-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice and fairness in sport is fundamental for its legitimate existence. On a global level, the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency and the regulatory framework World Anti-Doping Code was formed largely as a consequence of the need for a coordination of the work against performance enhancing drugs in sports. Today, the anti-doping system often means application of rules and "best practice" developed in the cultural West for the cultural rest. Research on anti-doping policy or practice not only tends to be based on deductive models, these models may also assumingly be culturally biased. Moreover, we have relatively little knowledge of the practical conditions for individual athletes concerning implementation of the rules in different contexts around the world. This presentation, however, adds to the existing research with new empirical findings from interview data on diverging conditions for elite athletes in different social, cultural and geographical contexts. Through exploring how 13 elite athletes from five continents and three different sports federations perceived the anti-doping programme, we were able to show that global anti-doping policy was implemented in different contexts under different conditions. These differences included infrastructure, knowledge and support. How participation in anti-doping procedures on an everyday basis is endorsed may thus vary around the world. By examining our interview data on the athletes’ perceptions and experiences in relation to theories of procedural justice, we were able to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping in practice. These findings suggest that inequities and structural injustice emerge on an individual level because of the varying contexts and conditions. In turn, the consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of the anti-doping work. In order to understand implementation processes of regulations, we propose that anti-doping policy-making pay attention to differences that may exist on an individual and practical level. Perspectives that underpin regulations applied globally should in other words be sensitive to varying contexts and conditions.

  • 17.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice2016In: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of global anti-doping regulations was intended to provide a level playing field for all athletes entering sports competitions. However, studies have shown that the worldwide harmonization of rules has not been entirely efficacious. For instance, great variation has been found in how anti-doping organizations implement anti-doping regulations, and it has also been shown that athletes distrust the equivalence of the worldwide rules as regards their effects. The purpose of the present article is to examine how elite athletes from different contexts experience anti-doping procedures and to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping practice. In order to capture a variety of voices and perspectives, 13 elite athletes from five different continents and three international sports federations were interviewed. The analysis shows that when global anti-doping policy is implemented in different contexts and under different conditions, inequities and structural injustices emerge concerning infrastructure, knowledge and support at the individual athlete level. These consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of anti-doping work, because the existence of procedural justice may be called into question. We therefore suggest that anti-doping policy-making should be based on taking into account these different conditions and being aware of the perspectives that underpin regulations intended to be applied global.

  • 18.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tsaklis, Panagiotis
    Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    W. Söderström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A Strong Correlation Between Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex And Vastus Lateralis Activity During Running To Fatigue2016In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 854-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is a phenomenon of pronounced importance in sports. Recently, there is strong evidence of interplay between the prefrontal cortex and motor output during fatiguing contractions. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) due to its large involvement in cognitive and motor activities is believed to be involved but this requires physiological clarification. AIM: We investigated the relationship between DLPC activity - responses in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) activity - quantified as root-mean-square (RMS) of the EMG signal, during a fatigue protocol.

    METHODS: Four male runners (32±12 yrs) with probes for NIRS over the DLPC and EMG over the VL performed a track running test at a constant speed to fatigue (exhaustion). The running speed was individually determined as the average speed of a 1200-m time trial performed ~3 days prior to testing. For NIRS changes in μmole/L of HbO2 and HbT were computed. The VL EMG-RMS of the contraction of each step was normalized as a percent of a submaximal reference contraction (%RMS), thus removing the non-activity between steps. Data of 10s epochs at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of time for each lap were averaged for analyses. Regression analyses performed with HbO2 and with HbT as dependent variables and %RMS as the independent variable.

    RESULTS: Over time there was an increase in HbO2 and HbT in the DLPC, and in VL-%RMS. Both HbO2 and HbT correlated strongly with EMG-RMS during running to fatigue (see figures below); p<0.001 for both.

    CONCLUSION: The strong relationship between DLPC and VL activities during running to fatigue suggests the involvement of the DLPC in the central processing of fatigue.

  • 19.
    Falgin, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Blomster, Kaisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Svenska crossfitutövares bakgrund, skadeprevalens & förekommande skadekategorier: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Crossfit is a modern sport that yearly expands worldwide. The goal of the sport is to develop performance and fitness so athletes can optimize their performance in many training categories. Furthermore, the sports WOD:s is complex, where many physiological challenges occur. The athlete is forced to push their limits of the movements, where there is a possibility for failure between the muscle fibers activation and synchronization. This can risk the sports security regarding injuries because of insufficient motor performance. A study from 2014 estimate the injury prevalence in crossfit to be 20%. Meanwhile a study from 2017 showed that the injury prevalence increased to 31,91%. Method: The objective of this study was to examine the crossfit athlete background, injury prevalence and injury categories between oktober 2016 - april 2017 in Sweden. A Brazilian survey was used in this study. The survey was modified and translated to Swedish before administered to certified crossfit facilities around the country. The method for this study used a descriptive cross-sectional design with a quantitative distribution of an online survey. Result: The common crossfit athlete is preferably 32 years or older, had a sedentary work and strict training routines with years of experience. Furthermore, 58 of 190 participants sustained a total of 87 injuries the past 6 month. This correlates to an injury prevalence of 30,5% for the crossfit athletes in Sweden. Furthermore, the most common injury categories were located on the neck/spine (21,84%), shoulder (18,39%), skeletal muscle (16,09%) and knee (16,09%). Therefore, the sport can cause different injuries throughout participation. Conclusion: Due to a high injury prevalence and a wide variation of injuries does the sport show a high injury risk, despite the athletes training experience. It takes more research to know the exact mechanisms for the injuries and how they can be prevented. 

  • 20.
    Funestig, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Wiklund, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. 1991.
    Kan SMAT protokollet tillämpas för att mäta den aeroba effekten på vuxna ishockeyspelare?: En experimentell studie med Skating Multistage Aerobic Test (SMAT)2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Vikten av att testa idrottares aeroba effekt idrottsnära har länge varit känd. Skating Multistage Aerobic Test (SMAT) är ett idrottsspecifikt test för ishockeyspelare som utvecklades med unga individer men som idag används på vuxna ishockeyspelare utan att någon validering har skett med den vuxna åldersgruppen.

    Syfte och frågeställning: En experimentell pilotstudie utfördes med syftet att validera SMAT-protokollet på vuxna ishockeyspelare samt undersöka vilken tillförlitlighet SMAT-protokollet har för att uppskatta testvärdet hos vuxna ishockeyspelare jämfört med det uppmätta värdet.

    Metod: 6 aktiva ishockeyspelare i division 2 (Ålder: 27,6 ± SD 7,2 år) deltog i studien. Syreupptagningen mättes konstant under utförandet av SMAT med Jaeger Oxycon Mobile system och jämfördes med SMAT protokollets erhållna värden. VO2 platå, blodlaktat, respiratoriska kvot (RER) och % av maxpuls granskades för att undersöka om testet var tillförlitligt.

    Resultat: På nivå ett var medelvärdet på samtliga 6 deltagares testvärde 24,52 ml syre/min/kg i jämförelse med SMAT protokollets erhållna testvärde på 27,7 ml syre/min/kg. Medeltestvärdet för deltagarna visade en stigande skillnad med SMAT protokollets värden i och med nivåökningarna, på nivå 13 var skillnaden 53,37 (Jaeger systemet) kontra 71,6 ml syre/min/kg (SMAT-protokollet). Samma trend sågs på individuell nivå.  5 av 6 deltagare uppnådde en VO2 platå och ≥95% av maxpuls. Laktatnivåerna innan testet var 0,7 till 1,7 och efter testet 5,6 till 13,6 varav 2 deltagare uppnådde gränsvärdet (≥8 mmol/L-1). 4 av 6 uppnådde RER gränsen på ≥1.10.

    Diskussion: Skillnaderna i testvärdena mellan SMAT och det uppmätta värdet tros blivit påverkat av ungas arbetsekonomi (skridskoteknik), på grund av sämre arbetsekonomi så kräver unga en högre syreförbrukning för ett givet arbete. Den anaeroba kapaciteten kan också ha påverkat då vuxna har en större förmåga att utnyttja det anaeroba systemet.

    Slutsats: Resultatet tyder på att SMAT protokollet inte är tillförlitligt för att mäta testvärdet hos vuxna ishockeyspelare.

     

  • 21.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    How can sport clubs for non-disabled youth include children and adolescents with disabilities?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Severe obesity and a sedentary leisure-time are more common among young people and adults with disabilities than in the rest of the population. Young people with disabilities participate in sports to a lesser extent than other adolescents. That physical activity has positive effects on children and adolescents, such as reduced risk of diabetes, overweight and obesity, anxiety and depression are understood. The positive effects of participation in organized sport and physical activity are at least as great for children and young people with disabilities as children and young people without disabilities. One of the most important tasks of various actors is to find ways to increase physical activity and the health of children and youth with disabilities. Sports clubs are identified as potential and attractive environments for physical activity, but also for social and mental health. The reasons why children and young people with disabilities participate to a lower extent in organized sport is complex and barriers can be deriving from many different levels. However, barriers have been studied more than what can facilitate participation in organized sport. Therefor the aim of this study is to present the first results from a systematic international and scientific literature review of how sport clubs for non-disabled youth can include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities.

    Articles (with inclusion criteria of studies focusing on children and adolescents, disability, physical activity, engagement in organized sports, inclusive sport settings) from a 20 years period were selected. Studies with topics that concerned physical education, medical, physical activity without an organized sport agenda, elite sport or equipment issues were excluded. 

    The results will focus on which type of sport, target group and countries the examples are from, but foremost on how sport clubs for non-disabled youth actually do to include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities.

    It is essential to establish a knowledge base for effective interventions towards the target group at hand. If more children and youth with disabilities participate in organized sports several positive health benefits can be achieved.

  • 22.
    Geidne, Susanna
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University,.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    How sports clubs include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities: A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles2016In: Sport Science Review, ISSN 2066-8732, E-ISSN 2069-7244, Vol. XXV, no 1-2, p. 29-52, article id 0002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people with disabilities participate in sports to a lesser extent than other adolescents. That physical activity has positive effects on young people are understood. Sports clubs are identified as potential environ­ments for physical activity. The reasons why young people with disabilities participate to a lower extent in organized sport is complex and barriers can be deriving from many different levels. However, barriers have been studied more than what can facilitate participation in organized sport. Therefor the aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how sports clubs include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities. The results of this systematic search are presented using the three research questions: What are the characteristics of the sports clubs that include young people with disa­bilities?; How are the young people with disabilities included in sports clubs’ activities?; and finally Why are young people with disabilities included in the sports activities?. A vision must be to go from adapting physical activity for disabled persons to adapting physical activity for all people, because the di­versity of people’s reasons for doing sports, their differing backgrounds and their uniqueness all demand it. This will result in more people doing sports for longer in life.

  • 23.
    Gesar, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Idrottsskador vid löpning, vilken betydelse har löparskons egenskaper?: En Litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Löpning är en av de största fysiska aktiviteterna runt om i världen. Det räknas med att 37-56 % av alla som löper någon gång drabbas av en skada i samband med löpningen. Studiens syfte är att undersöka effekten av olika dämpningsmaterial, drop samt motion-kontroll av löparskor på skadefrekvens i samband med pronation och supination under löpning. Studien gjordes som en litteraturstudie där 11 vetenskapliga artiklar ingick i studien. Resultatet visar att motion-kontroll skor rekommenderas till pronerande löpare och neutrala skor till supinerande eller neutrala löpare. Minskat drop leder till minskad skaderisk. Framfotslöpning är att föredra jämfört med häl till tå löpning. En mjuk sula är bättre vid kortdistans och en hårdare sula vid långdistans. EVA material visade på en bättre återhämtningseffekt än TPU.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Kvinnliga fotbollsspelares erfarenheter av manligt respektive kvinnligt ledarskap: En kvalitativ studie om damfotbollsspelares erfarenheter av manliga respektive kvinnliga damfotbollstränare i Mellansverige.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how some women football players in Central Sweden experience how their male and female coaches exert their communication and leadership. The selection in the study consists of 4 women's football players with experiences of female and male football coaches at one level between Damallsvenskan-Division Two. The methodology for data collection is a qualitative interview with semi-structured nature. An inductive analysis method is used to analyze data.

    The result of the study shows that the perception of the players who have experiences of female and male football coaches does not differ significantly in the perception of leadership style. The perceived differences that the players describe are individual differences between the different coaches. Thus, there is no difference between female and male coaches. The result of the study shows that the players prefer a coach who is clear in the leadership. Openness and dialogue with the coaches are highly prioritized by the players.Which may indicate that the players in the study prefer a more democratic leadership then an authoritarian leadership. The conclusion from the study is that the experience of the women's football players of female and male football coach leadership styles is not gender-related.

  • 25.
    Hoff, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Lund University.
    Reflections on 'doping in sport' and 'doping in society'2016In: Doping and Public Health / [ed] Ahmadi, N.; Ljungqvist, A.; Svedsäter, G., Routledge, 2016, 1, p. 49-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doping in sport is recognized as an important problem in relation to fair play and health. Anti-doping work in sport has been going on since the beginning of the 1960s, and has been accentuated on several occasions by ‘doping scandals’. Until recently doping has been addressed solely as an internal sport issue, and not as a social problem outside sport. However, increasing evidence is showing that doping outside the elite sports context without any competitive reasons is not uncommon. Frequent use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been reported at gyms, among high school and college students, in criminal contexts and in relation to other types of substance abuse – where the competitive reasons for using illicit performance enhancing substances are of minor importance. Instead, the use of doping substances such as AAS is motivated by cosmetic reasons (to be more muscular, gain or loss weight), by criminal strategic reasons (to be stronger and more fearsome) and as a component in general substanceabuse behaviour. The use of ‘doping in society’ has been acknowledged in research, but still the issue is not publicly well known, and anti-doping efforts, prevention programmes and treatment strategies are underdeveloped, contrary to what is going on in relation to doping in sport. There is a need for more research on how widespread doping is outside sport, on social driving forces and motives for use of different doping preparations, and on physiological, psychological and social consequences of its use. In this article I discuss four issues in relation to the use of doping preparations – both within and outside sport (in society). In the first section – ‘Different types of doping and reasons for doping’ – I argue that ‘doping in sport’ differs from ‘doping in society’. For instance, doping in sport is something different from doping in a criminal context. But there are also common dominators between different types of doping behaviours, which will be discussed in the article. In the second section – ‘Doping use has to be understood in its own right’ – I argue that there are specific elements in the doping behaviour that differentiate use of doping preparations from substance abuse (alcohol and narcotics). In the third section – ‘Doping use is a sign of the times’ – I am arguing that the use of doping preparations should not only be analysed from an individual perspective.

    Until now, many studies have analysed doping as an individual problem (e.g. individual morals, a pessimistic personality, a risk-taking personality). I argue we have to consider the significance of current social processes and ideals in society to fully understand the interest in doping, not least concerning doping outside the competitive sports context. In the article I discuss some important social processes in relation to doping. In the fourth and last discussion I focus on today’s strong health ideals in society, in the section ‘The pursuit of good health could become unhealthy’. I argue that this is a double-edged development in relation to doping. To strive for better health through physical activities and a more healthy diet is of course a good thing, but when training and dieting become an obsession this can lead to eating disorders as well as use of doping substances.

  • 26.
    Högqvist, Christian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Källström, Jakob
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Alumners sysselsättning från ett Idrottsvetenskapligt program i Mellansverige: Hur många alumner arbetar inom utbildningens områden och förberedde utbildningen dem för arbetslivet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemet enligt studierna har påvisat resultat som tyder på att alumner från generella utbildningar behöver längre tid till att etablera sig på en relevant arbetsmarknad. Arbetsmarknaden kan även vara otydlig vilket inverkar på alumners möjligheter till att få en anställning med anknytning till utbildningen.

    Syftet i denna studie var att kartlägga hur många alumner från ett Idrottsvetenskapligt program i Mellansverige som efter ett till två år efter avslutade studier hade ett yrke med idrottsvetenskaplig anknytning och hur väl rustade de ansåg sig vara för arbetsmarknaden efter sina avslutade studier.

    Data samlade in med hjälp av en elektronisk enkät från Google forms. Enkäten skickades ut till 34 alumner från två årskullar och av dessa svarade 21 stycken på enkäten. Detta gav en svarsfrekvens på 61 % och ett bortfall på 39 %. Data samlades in samt analyserades i statistikprogrammet SPPS där en beskrivande analys utfördes.

    Resultatet visade att det var åtta (38,1 %) av 21 alumner som hade ett yrke med en tydlig anknytning till Idrottsvetenskapliga programmet. Av de 21 alumner som deltog var det 10 (47,7 %) som ansåg att utbildningen förberedde dem ganska eller mycket bra inför deras nuvarande yrke. Resultatet i denna studie tillsammans med en tidigare alumniundersökning från ett annat Idrottsvetenskapligt program, tyder på att idrottsvetare har svårare att hitta relevanta arbeten efter avslutade studier jämfört med alumner från yrkesutbildningar.

    Reflektioner av resultatet är att medvetenheten av idrottsvetarstudenter och Idrottsvetenskapliga programmet på Högskolan i Mellansverige behöver öka. Två lösningar kan vara att införa praktik under utbildningen, men även att arbetsgivare ges möjligheten att träffa studenterna under utbildningens gång. Det kan bidra till att idrottsvetare blir attraktivare på arbetsmarknaden, därmed skulle vägen in på arbetsmarknaden kunna bli tydligare och det går fortare att få anställning inom ett relevant yrke

  • 27.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University.
    Documented inclusive physical activities for children and adolescents with disabilities withinsport clubs2017In: Nordic Sport Science Conference: 'The Double-Edged Sword of Sport: HealthPromotion Versus Unhealthy Environments’, 2017, p. 36-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people with disabilities participate to a lower extent in organized sport than their peers without disabilities. Research in this matter has previously focused on the complex barriers that restrict participation in sports clubs, rather then what can facilitate participation and inclusive activities. There is a need to study real examples of how sports clubs can include children and youth with disabilities in the sport program. An overview of inclusion in organized sports regarding children and adolescents with disabilities is lacking today. Therefor the aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how sports clubs include children and adolescents with disabilities in their activities. The results of this systematic search on documented inclusive physical activities within sport clubs shows that are few peer-reviewed studies that describe how (i) children and young people with disabilities are included in sports clubs’ regular, ongoing activities. The sports clubs rather worked with short term intervention-based activities in team-sports settings (what ii). The main documented reasons for sport clubs to inclusion in organized sport (why iii) were to increase the participation of youth with disabilities and to promote social contact between children with and without disabilities. The lack of documentation and the limited collective knowledge-based is discussed as a problem while implementing a successful inclusive approach on adapted physical activity in organized sport settings for all people longer time in life.

  • 28.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Klavina, Aija
    Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Latvia.
    Kristén, Lars
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Hammar, Lena
    National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools (SPSM) Specialpedagogiska skolmyndigheten, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soulie, Tine
    Danish Disability Sport Information Centre, Denmark.
    Cooperation directed learning in inclusive physical education2013In: NNDR – 12th Research Conference, May 30–31, 2013 in Turku, Finland : Abstact book, 2013, p. 97-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the implementation of cooperation directed learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three elementary city schools in Sweden was studied. The purpose was to assess the impact of peer tutoring on the interaction behaviors between students with and without disabilities in GPE. A design of multiple case study with elementary school age students with moderate disabilities (n=4) was used. Peer tutors (n=37) were students without disabilities who voluntary participated in peer tutor training program. The program included the collaborative learning values, teaching instructions and communication skills served as the independent measure. Dependent measures were multiple interactions between students with and without disabilities.

    Totally 43 observation sessions of inclusive GPE settings were collected on videotapes and analyzed using the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in Physical Education (CEPI-PE). In addition, interviews with school personnel and children served as a complementary study outcome. The percentage of interactions between target students and peer tutors significantly increased (3.2% to 11.8 % respectively, p<.05) during peer tutor intervention. This study indicated that peer tutor arrangements can contribute the successful cooperation between students with and without disabilities in inclusive GPE in Swedish elementary school. All four students with moderate disabilities maintained high percentage of activities done independently throughout baseline and intervention phase (50.5% and 57.6%, accordingly). Interviews confirmed a positive class climate change and improvement in peer relation culture.

  • 29.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Soulié, Tine
    Handivid, DK.
    Inclusion in adapted physical activity in theory and practice: Educational and didactial reflections and discussion2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Klavina, Aija
    et al.
    Department of Physiotherapy, Sport Medicine and Adapted Physical Activity, Latvian of Sport Education, Riga,.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Kristén, Lars
    Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Halmstad University,.
    Hammar, Lena
    The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Örebro, Sweden.
    Souliee, Tine
    Danish Disability Sport Information Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cooperative oriented learning in inclusive physical education2014In: European Journal of Special Needs Education, ISSN 0885-6257, E-ISSN 1469-591X, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 119-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the implementation of cooperation directed learning of peer tutoring in elementary general inclusive physical education (GPE) setting in three elementary city schools in Sweden was studied. The purpose was to assess the impact of peer tutoring on the interaction behaviours between students with and without disabilities in GPE. A design of ultiple case study with elementaryschool age students with moderate disabilities (n = 4) was used. Peer tutors (n = 37) were students without disabilities who voluntary participated in a peer tutor training programme. The programme included the collaborative learningvalues, teaching instructions and communication skills served as the independent measure.  Dependent measures were multiple interactions between students with and without disabilities. Data to the case studies were collected through a design of mixed methods, containing both quantitative and qualitative data. Totally 43 observation sessions of inclusive GPE settings were collected on videotapes and analysed using the Computerized Evaluation Protocol of Interactions in PhysicalEducation (CEPI-PE). In addition, interviews with school personnel and children plementary study outcome. The percentage of interactions between target students and peer tutors significantly increased (3.2–11.8%, respectively,p < .05) during peer tutor intervention. This study indicated that peer tutor arrangements can contribute the successful cooperation between students with and without disabilities in inclusive GPE in Swedish elementary school. All four students with moderate disabilities maintained high percentage of activities done independently throughout baseline and intervention phase (50.5 and 57.6%, accordingly). Qualitative data throughout field notes and interviews with school personnel and pupils confirmed a positive class climate change and improvement in peer relation culture.

  • 31.
    Klavina, Aija
    et al.
    Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Latvia.
    Kristén, Lars
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle (HOS).
    Hammar, Lena
    The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools, Sweden.
    Jerlinder, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Soulie, Tine
    Danish Disability Sport Information Centre, Denmark.
    Cooperation Directed Learning in Inclusive Physical Education2013In: 6th Baltic Scientific Conference Sport Science for Sustainable Society Riga, LATVIA, April 2013., 2013, p. 79-79Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kotsa, K.
    et al.
    Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Grammatiki, M.
    Diabetes Center, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Xergia, S.
    Division of Physiotherapy, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Catrina, S. B.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (MMK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tsaklis, P.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery (MMK), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physiotherapy, Alexander TEI, Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity towards fatigue of type 2 diabetes patients with macro-angiopathy and peripheral neuropathy (pilot study)2017In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 60, p. S446-S447Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Larsson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Rehn, Börje
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi..
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Umeå Univeristet.
    Muscle function among healthy adult athletes before and after a postural balance training period2016In: Jacobs Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2376-9432, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postural balance training is primarily used by athletes as rehabilitation after previous injuries or for prevention. A few studies have been made with the aim of investigating whether postural balance training can improve other physical functions in healthy participants. However, there is no consensus regarding effects.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether postural balance training can improve muscle function in healthy adult athletes.

    Method: Seventeen healthy adult (6 males and 11 females) athletes between the ages of 21 and 50 years performed three postural balance exercises once a day 3x30 seconds per exercise on each leg. This intervention was performed daily for six weeks. Their muscle function were assessed with squat jump, heel rise and grip strength (control). Evaluation was done before and after the training period.

    Results: Jump height, number of repetitions in heel rise and duration in standing on one leg increased with statistical significance. There were no improvements in postural sway and grip strength.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that a postural balance training period can provide a better local muscle function regarding explosive strength and endurance among adult athletes even if postural sway is not affected.

  • 34.
    Lius, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Åman, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Varför kvinnor 30-50 år använder kosttillskott: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka varför kvinnor 30-50 år använder kosttillskott

     

    Metod: En semistrukturerad intervjustudie där fem stycken kvinnor blev intervjuade. Kvinnorna tränade på samma friskvårdsanläggning och tog alla kosttillskott för att förbättra sin prestation/resultat.

     

    Resultat: Det framkommer i intervjuerna att de flesta kvinnorna i studien är rädda för att få i sig för lite protein genom sin kost. Några av deltagarna nämner att de har blivit inspirerade att testa kosttillskott av att de har sett personer i sin närhet som tillskotten har fungerat för. Några av deltagarna nämner även att med den nuvarande träningstrenden så är det mer acceptabelt att använda kosttillskott. Deltagarna nämner att de inte är säkra på om de verkligen får en effekt av det kosttillskott som de använder, men att de väljer att tro på att det fungerar och är bra. Det kan ju inte vara skadligt resonerar flera.

     

    Slutsats: Studien tar med sig en förhoppning till att i framtiden så kommer friskvårdsanläggningar och även kanske idrottsföreningar utbilda sina kunder och medlemmar i hur och vad tillskott gör i kroppen. Som det ser ut idag så får inte många människor någon information kring att kosttillskotten faktiskt kan vara skadliga för hälsan om det intas för stora mängder. Bara för att något kan vara bra för en så betyder inte det att det är ofarligt. Den information som finns på läkemedel kring dosering och vad som kan hända vid överdosering bör även finnas på kosttillskott, för att visa att för mycket av just det här tillskottet kommer förstöra mer än hjälpa.

  • 35.
    Myrén, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Mångfald inom ishockeyföreningar i Mellansverige: Vad underlättar och försvårar deltagandet av barn och ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund inom ishockeyföreningar belagda i Mellansverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka förutsättningar ishockeyföreningar belagda i Mellansverige har för att öka deltagandet av antalet barn och ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund i deras föreningar. För att svara på syftet så undersöktes det vilka hinder samt vilka möjligheter ishockeyföreningarna ansåg de hade för att öka deltagandet av antalet barn och ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund till sina föreningar. Detta undersöktes genom att intervjua fyra respondenter som var ansvariga för rekryteringen av barn och ungdomar i fyra föreningar belagda i Mellansverige. Studien är en deskriptiv studie av kvalitativ art. Semi-strukturerade intervjuer utfördes och en induktiv innehållsanalys användes vid kodningen av materialet. Resultatet från studien visade att ishockeyföreningarna inte arbetade specifikt med den etniska mångfalden samt var  möjligheterna för att lyckas med den etniska mångfalden var få, eftersom det alltid fanns ett hinder kopplat till möjligheterna. Detta hindrade föreningarna att öka deltagandet av antalet barn och ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund enligt respondenterna. Slutsatsen i studien är att föreningarna och ishockeyn överlag måste reflektera över hur de arbetar för att öka deltagandet av barn och ungdomar med utländsk bakgrund.   

  • 36.
    Potros, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Whole Body Cryotherapy och träningsvärk: Vad har Whole Body Cryotherapy för effekt på träningsvärk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Intensiv träning resulterar iskada i skelettmuskulaturen. Symptomen som idrottare uppvisar efter träning är svullnad, smärta och nedsatt muskelfunktion. Användningen av Whole Body Cryotherapy(WBC) har uppmärksammats och används för att återhämta sig från de symptom som orsakas vid Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness(DOMS). Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att se vilken effekt WBC har på DOMS. Litteratursökningen ägde rum i PubMed, Cinahl och Google Scholars databaser. Utfallsvariabler som testade för DOMS var smärta registrerat med Visual Analog Scale(VAS), Maximal genererad kraftkapacitet(MKK) och blodprover som testade för inflammatoriska ämnen CreatinCinase(CK) och inflammatoriska cytokiner. Litteratursökningen resulterade i nio artiklar. Fem av de totalt nio studierna som hade smärta som en utfallsvariabel visade en minskad smärta för WBC-guppen jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Studier som undersökte MKK var motsägelsefulla. Tre av sex studier som undersökte MKK visade en signifikant skillnad på WBC gruppen, samtidigt visade de tre resterande studierna ingen effekt alls. Studier som haft CK och inflammatoriska cytokiner som utfallsvariabel visade ingen effekt. Sammanfattningsvis visade det sig att WBC har liten och ingen effekt på DOMS. Området saknar fortfarande forskning och detta område behöver undersökas mer innan WBC kan rekommenderas som en effektiv återhämtningsmetod mot DOMS, och hittills har metoden visar liten eller ingen effekt på dessa utfallsvariabler

  • 37.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Anderson, H. W.
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Englund, Martin
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A comparison of mental and visual loads resulting from semi-automated and conventional forest harvesting: An experimental machine simulation study2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with a new method for partly automating forestry harvesting work. Work-related injuries and constant demands for a higher productivity are two of the many arguments for why forestry work must be improved. Forestry work places great mental demands on the driver because they must continuously evaluate and act on relevant parts in a heavy visual information flow. Against this background the purpose of the present study was to extend the knowledge of functional linkages between visual and mental fatigue, performance, and prefrontal cortex activity, during semi-automated and conventional forestry harvesting work. Eleven healthy participants, range 21–51 years old, with a minimum of 1-year work experience, carried out the task of loading logs along a standardized path in a machine simulator during two counterbalanced 45-min periods: (i) conventional forest harvesting, and; (ii) semi-automated forest harvesting. Equal emphasizes was put on accuracy and speed. During manual forest harvesting the driver controlled the crane arm, used to load logs into the load space of the forest vehicle (“forwarder”), by manually operating the joysticks and so guide the crane to the location of the log and then back to the load space. During semi-automatic forest harvesting the driver moved the crane with the press of a button to a pre-programmed location near the log and then, after another button press, to a pre-programmed location within the load space. The following joystick usage parameters were considered for the statistical analysis: Sequential work cycle number, work phase (1-loading in basket, 2-movement to log, 3-picking up log, 4-movement to load space), number of simultaneously used controls across samples of one phase, number of direction changes of joystick movements per phase. Mental load was assessed by quantification of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) via non-invasive functional near infrared spectrometry (fFNIRS: PortaLite mini, Artinis Medical Systems, Zetten, the Netherlands). The frequency and duration of horizontal amplitudes of eye/head/neck angles was assessed continuously with 8 SmartEye cameras and used as a measure of visual load. NASA-TLX and Borg CRS was used to assess perceived mental and physical fatigue. Linear Mixed Model will be used to test and to analyze the effect of the duration of work, joystick usage, work type (manual or semi-automated) and perceived mental and physical effort on the outcome of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration. This study contributes with new knowledge of the consequences of the current increase in automation. The 4th industrial revolution can have tremendous implications on how we perceive and organize work in the future, but little is still known about the impact on human body and brain.

  • 38.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Andersson, H. W.
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Englund, Martin
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Mental and Visual Load Resulting from Semi-automated and Conventional Forest Forwarding: An Experimental Machine Simulation Study2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume X: Auditory and Vocal Ergonomics, Visual Ergonomics, Psychophysiology in Ergonomics, Ergonomics in Advanced Imaging / [ed] Bagnara S., Tartaglia R., Albolino S., Alexander T., Fujita Y., Cham, 2019, 827, Vol. X, p. 199-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to extend the knowledge offunctional linkages between visual and mental load, performance, and prefrontalcortex (PFC) activity, during forestry forwarding work. Eleven healthy participants,range 21–51 years old, with a minimum of 1-year work experience,carried out the task of loading logs along a standardized path in a machinesimulator during two counterbalanced test conditions: (i) conventional cranecontrol, and; (ii) semi-automated crane control. Mental load was assessed byquantification of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration changes overthe right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) via non-invasive functional nearinfrared spectrometry (fNIRS). Visual, autonomic, and motoric control variableswere measured and analyzed in parallel along with the individual level of performance.Linear Mixed Models (LMM) analysis indicated more mental loadduring conventional crane work. Collectively, our data suggest that fNIRS is aviable tool which can be used in neuroergonomic research to evaluate physiologicalactivity levels in PFC.

  • 39.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Brautaset, R.
    School of Optometry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue2018In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

    Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

    Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

    Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

  • 40.
    Rolfhamre, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Träning för livet: Fysisk aktivitet i samband med pågående cancerbehandling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Många forskare är idag överens om att det är viktigt med motion för att hela kroppen ska må bra och kunna fungera på bästa sätt. Människor är gjorda för rörelser och den fysiska aktiviteten har stor betydelse även vid ett sjukdomstillstånd. Cancerdrabbade lider ofta av cancerrelaterad trötthet (fatigue) och försämrad hälsorelaterad livskvalitet under och efter behandling. Fysisk aktivitet kan fungera som en kompletterande behandlingsmetod efter ett cancerbesked för att motverka biverkningar.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vårdpersonalens syn på patientens behov av fysisk aktivitet i samband med pågående cancerbehandling.

    Metod

    En enkätstudie genomfördes där samtliga läkare, sjuksköterskor och fysioterapeuter vid Gävle sjukhus och Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala som tjänstgjorde under den tid som studien genomfördes, tilldelades enkäten. Enkäten, som bestod av slutna och öppna frågor, besvarades av 48 personal. Data analyserades med deskriptiv statistik.

    Resultat

    De allra flesta av vårdpersonalen upplever att patienten har behov av fysisk aktivitet under pågående cancerbehandling. Majoriteten av vårdpersonalen informerar också om hur viktigt det är med fysisk aktivitet i samband med cancerbehandling, framförallt genom motiverande samtal. De flesta ordinerar även patienten fysisk aktivitet som ett komplement i behandlande syfte. Majoriteten av vårdpersonalen är positivt inställd till FaR, men det är i stort sett inte någon som skriver ut recept till cancerpatienter, då metoden inte används på arbetsplatsen. Skäl som anges är tidsbrist och att vårdpersonalen känner sig osäkra på att hantera FaR.

    Slutsats

    Studien visar att trots att vårdpersonalens syn är att patienten har behov av fysisk aktivitet i samband med cancerbehandling och att information om dess betydelse är viktig, samt ordination, är fysisk aktivitet fortfarande inte en självklarhet i vårdsammanhang.

  • 41.
    Ronquist, Tim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Den fysiska aktivitetens inverkan på sarkopeni hos äldre: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka den fysiska aktivitetens betydelse för att motverka sarkopeni hos äldre individer, samt om protein- och D-vitamin-intag kunde ha betydelse tillsammans med fysisk aktivitet för att motverka sarkopeni utvecklingen hos äldre individer (>65år).

    Metod: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie med litteratursökning i databaserna Pubmed och Discovery. Tio kvalitetsgranskade artiklar valdes ut som var publicerade från år 2004 och framåt.

    Resultat: Fysisk aktivitet i kombination med aerob träning och styrketräning, 150 min per vecka har en betydelse för att motverka sarkopeni utvecklingen hos äldre personer men även i ett förebyggande syfte för ungdomar och vuxna individer. Kosten: Proteinintaget för de äldre personerna verkar inte ha någon större betydelse för motverkan av redan konstaterad sarkopeni i de industrialiserade länderna. Däremot ser man en positiv effekt på motverkan av sarkopeni vid intag av D-vitamin hos äldre.

    Slutsats: Denna studie ger stöd åt uppfattningen att regelbunden riktad fysisk aktivitet för äldre har en motverkande effekt (som är mätbar och därför faktabaserad) på utvecklingen av sarkopeni. Äldre personer med redan konstaterad sarkopeni kan genom riktad fysisk aktivitet återhämta sin fysiska kapacitet som de hade innan sarkopeni utvecklingen. Det visade sig också att D-vitamin nivåerna hos de äldre deltagarna har betydelse för bentäthet och muskelstyrka som motverkar sarkopeni utveckling.

  • 42.
    Svennberg, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik och Idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Exploring four teachers’ gut feeling of what to grade in physical education and health2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Svennberg, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Institutionen för idrotts- och hälsovetenskap.
    Grading in physical education2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis the aim is to investigate different aspects of what teachers value when grading in Swedish physical education (PE) and to analyses how sociological background factors impact students’ grades. Grades in PE have included aspects other than those prescribed in the grading criteria, for instance motivation and effort. Teachers sometimes find their value-setting difficult to articulate and refer to a “gut feeling”. In order to explore both explicit and implicit forms of value-setting, the Repertory Grid interview technique is employed.

    The thesis includes four sub-studies, three interview studies with Swedish PE teachers and a fourth study based on registry data from the Swedish National Agency for Education. The data of all students leaving nine-year compulsory school in 2014 (n=95317) is analysed to explore how sociological background factors, such as migration background, parents’ education, school provider and gender, affect PE grades.

    The results reveal aspects of grading that are not detectable in the official description of the grading assignment and highlight problems that teachers need to address when grading. Four themes are discerned in the teachers’ grading practices: motivation, knowledge, confidence and social skills. The implementation of a new national curriculum with specified knowledge requirements seems to improve the alignment with the national criteria, but there is still a gap between policy and practice. The knowledge requirements for movement are often interpreted as performances in competitive sports, even if the teachers try to find other interpretations. The odds ratio for getting a higher grade in PE is greater for the variables migration background and parents’ education than for the other investigated variables. The concepts formulated by Bernstein are applied to explore the relations between teachers’ grading practices and cultural and political influences and to discuss how the tensions between different interests could affect teachers’ grading.

    The conclusion is that the gap between policy and practice confirmed in this study is related to tensions between the interests and purposes of different agents, all of whom strive to influence steering documents and practice. Cultural and political influences need to be considered and facilitate discussions about how to understand which knowledge is valued in PE and who has better possibilities to assimilate it.

  • 44.
    Svennberg, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swedish PE teachers' understandings of legitimate movement in a criterion-referenced grading system2017In: Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, ISSN 1740-8989, E-ISSN 1742-5786, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 257-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical Education (PE) has been associated with a multi-activity model in which movement is related to sport discourses and sport techniques. However, as in many international contexts, the Swedish national PE syllabus calls for a wider and more inclusive concept of movement. Complex movement adapted to different settings is valued, and in the national grading criteria qualitative measures of movement are used. This research seeks to examine how the wider concept of movement is interpreted and graded. Drawing on Bernstein’s concept of the pedagogic device, the paper explores teachers'€™ roles as active mediators in the transformation of national grading criteria for movement and the kinds of movement that are valued in teachers’ grading practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate what PE teachers consider legitimate movement in a criterion-referenced grading system and the factors that influence their grading practice. The Repertory Grid (RG) technique was employed in order to access their tacit knowledge.

    Methodology: Seven Swedish PE teachers were interviewed, all of whom teach and grade years seven to nine in different compulsory schools. Using the RG technique, the teachers were asked to reflect on the aspects they considered important for achieving a high grade. The national grading criteria for years seven to nine were then presented one at a time and the teachers were asked to describe how they assessed and graded each requirement. The teachers were also asked whether any specific factors had influenced their grading. In the content analysis, the second part of the interview was attended to first and the results were interpreted in light of Bernsteins'€™ concept of the pedagogic device.

    Findings: Sport techniques and competitive sports influenced the teachers'€™ interpretations of what constitutes complex movement. The aspect of fitness also appeared to be valued by the teachers in that it facilitates the valued movement. In some cases the difficulty of describing movement qualities in words could reduce the concept of movement to something measurable and quantifiable. The teachers' concerns about students'€™ unequal opportunities to develop and demonstrate their skills also influenced the teachers’ interpretation of complex movement.

    Conclusions: In the transformation of national grading criteria to grading practice, the pedagogic actions taken inform and limit the way in which legitimate movement in PE is conceptualised. Adopting a concept of movement that is wider than competitive sports allows the structures of inequality to be addressed and enables the movements performed by students with other moving experiences than competitive sports to be valued. The tension between the demands of transparency in a high stakes grading system and the inability to articulate the quality of complex movements is problematic. There is a need to verbalise teachers’ conceptions about physical education knowledge to be able to discuss and develop the concept of movement. In this process, the RG technique is a potentially useful tool. Having the language to discuss movement qualities also enables us to strengthen the interrelation between curriculum, pedagogy and assessment.

  • 45.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Who gains?: Sociological parameters for obtaining high grades in physical education2018In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 48-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to higher grades in Swedish physical education (PE) by analysing register data from the Swedish National Agency for Education for all students graduating from compulsory school in 2014 (n = 95,317). The results show that the chances of gaining a high grade in PE are affected by (in decreasing order) migration background, parents? education, attending an independent or a municipally operated school and gender, and that this also holds true after controlling for the other background factors. The results also show that PE grade differences between boys and girls are bigger in the group that moved to Sweden after school start than in the group that had lived in Sweden since school start. In addition, the results point to substantial inequalities between students with a combination of the highest odds and those with a combination of the lowest odds. Bernstein?s concept of the pedagogic device is used to discuss ways of understanding what knowledge becomes valued in PE and which groups have better possibilities to assimilate this valued knowledge.

  • 46.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Redelius, Karin
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, GIH, Forskningsgruppen för pedagogik, idrott och fritidskultur.
    Exploring PE teachers' 'gut feelings': An attempt to verbalise and discuss teachers' internalised grading criteria2014In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 199-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that teachers’ grading is influenced by non-achievement factors in addition to official criteria, such as knowledge and skills. Some grading criteria are internalised by the teacher, who is sometimes unable to verbalise the criteria used and refers to what is called a ‘gut feeling’. Therefore, transparency, validity and reliability are problematic. The aim of this study was to explore which criteria physical education teachers consider important when grading. Such an exploration makes it possible to discuss how the verbalised criteria and the value they are given by the teachers can be understood. Four Year 9 teachers at different Swedish compulsory schools were interviewed using Kelly’s Repertory Grid technique. Among the verbalised criteria, four themes were identified: motivation, knowledge and skills, self-confidence and interaction with others. The teachers sometimes had difficulties predicting which criteria had relevance to the grades given, and the criteria considered important by the teachers were not always reflected in the grade. The verbalised criteria revealed teachers using grades to encourage such student behaviours that helped them to handle the classroom situation and to facilitate students learning. To become cognisant of and develop their grading, methods to verbalise their individual grading criteria were needed, and Kelly’s Repertory Grid technique is one possible option. The results provide discussion points about reasons for the way teachers are grading.

  • 47.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. the Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences.
    Meckbach, Jane
    The Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences.
    Redelius, Karin
    The Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences.
    Swedish PE Teachers’ Grading Practice in a Standard Based Grading System2015In: 20th annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE 24th - 27th June 2015, Malmö – Sweden: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS / [ed] Radman, A., Hedenborg, S., & Tsolakidis,E., 2015, Vol. 1, p. 153-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A standard based grading system is supposed to support equality and accountability. Nevertheless teachers sometimes refer to an internalized grading (Hay & McDonald, 2008; Svennberg, Meckbach & Redelius, 2014) and the validity of the grades have been questioned (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2008). Our aim is to explore Swedish PE teachers’ grading practice and what they value in the grades they have given their students.

    Four PE teachers in compulsory school were interviewed with the Repertory Grid (RG) technique. The RG technique can be used to reveal a person’s perception of a specific topic that the person is familiar with, by examining the similarities and differences between well-known elements (Fransella, Bell & Bannister, 2004). In the first step, the teacher was asked to select seven to eight students from a class that he or she was teaching and grading in PE. The students selected must represent all possible grades (Fransella et al., 2004). In the second step, the names of three of the students at the time were presented to the teacher who was asked in what way, relevant for the grades, two of the students were similar and different from the third (Fransella et al., 2004). In the third step the teachers were asked to rate the students on how they corresponded to the similarities and differences mentioned. The resulting grids were analysed with the programme WEBGRID5.

    Besides knowledge and skills all four teachers valued standard irrelevant criteria. Their rating of the students on the standard irrelevant criteria generally matched the grades given. Among the national standards mentioned there were differences in how they matched the given grades. Other national standards were not mentioned at all. It seems like some standards have been better implemented then others.

    The results indicate the need for a discussion of why it seems to be an urge to use standard irrelevant criteria such as motivation and effort that is stronger than the desire for compliance to the national grading criteria. Bernsteins’ interrelated systems of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment (2003) can contribute to the understanding. It is also important to discuss why some national grading criteria are easier for the teachers to implement then others.

    References: Annerstedt C, Larsson S. (2010). European Physical Education Review, 16(2), 97-115. Bernstein B. (2003). Class, codes and control. (Vol. 3) Towards a theory of educational transmission, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Fransella, F., Bell, R. & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd. ed.). Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex. Hay P, MacDonald D. (2008). Assessment In Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 15(2): 153-168. Svennberg L, Meckbach J, Redelius K. (2014). European Physical Education Review, 20(2), 199-214.

  • 48.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meckbach, Jane
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Redelius, Karin
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swedish PE teachers struggle with assessment in a criterion-referenced grading system2018In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 381-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of education, the international trend is to turn to criterion-referenced grading in the hope of achieving accountable and consistent grades. Despite a national criterion-referenced grading system emphasising knowledge as the only base for grading, Swedish physical education (PE) grades have been shown to value non-knowledge factors, such as students’ characteristics and behaviour. In 2011, a new national curriculum was implemented which attempts to deal with the problem by prescribing specific knowledge requirements with a clear progression as the only basis for different grades. The aim of the present study is to explore the impact of the new knowledge requirements on what teachers consider important when assigning grades. It is also to discuss what non-knowledge-related aspects (if any) teachers continue to look for and why these seem to remain resilient to the reform. The Repertory Grid technique was employed to interview the teachers before (2009) and after the implementation (2013). During the interviews, the grading of 45 students was discussed, which generated 125 constructs. After the implementation, there was a near doubling of knowledge constructs, half as many motivation constructs and an almost total elimination of constructs based on confidence and social skills. While motivational factors were still considered valuable for the award of a higher grade, clear criteria seemed to be important, but too limited for the teachers’ needs. In order to understand the persistence of motivational factors, we discuss the results in relation to Bernstein’s interrelated message systems of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. We emphasise the need to discuss how valid grades can be achieved and, at the same time, give value to the regulative discourse in order to realise the overarching national goals of values and norms in education and PE. 

  • 49.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. The Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meckbach, Jane
    The Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Redelius, Karin
    The Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences (GIH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    To Grade or not to Grade Motivation and Effort: Swedish PE Teachers’ Grading Practice in Relation to National Grading Standards2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description

    There has been an international trend to turn to standard-based grading in order to obtain accountable and consistent grades. Countries have different solutions to meet the challenge to find a balance between curriculum regulation and providing space for adjustment to local context and student populations (Kuiper & Berkvens, 2013). In Sweden a national standard-based grading system has been in use for the last 20 years. Nevertheless, the validity of grades has been questioned in Sweden as elsewhere. PE teachers’ internalized criteria or gut-feeling (Annerstedt & Larsson, 2010; Hay and MacDonald, 2008; Svennberg, Meckbach & Redelius, 2014), as well as standard irrelevant factors such as motivation and effort (Chan, Hay & Tinning, 2011; Larsson, Fagrell & Redelius, 2009), have been identified to influence the grades. Curriculum regulation has been employed in Sweden to improve the validity of the grades and the grading standards have been reformed in 2011 (Swedish National Agency for Education [SNAE]) to make clear that only specified knowledge requirement are to be considered when grading. But will the implementation of more specific standards be enough to keep the teachers’ judgment focused on knowledge only?

    Our intention is to study PE teachers’ alignment with national grading criteria when exposed to a government’s attempt to prescribe the knowledge requirements for different grades. More specific, this is done by enlightening the teachers’ use of nonachievement standard irrelevant factors before and after the implementation of more specific standards and more support. The results will be discussed in light of Bernstein’s three interrelated message systems of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment (2003). Several scholars have discussed assessment as an important message system of what count as important knowledge and the influence of assessment on learning (Chan et al., 2011; Hay and Penney, 2013; Redelius & Hay, 2009; Thorburn, 2007). To better understand teachers’ grading practices, we are also interested in how the interrelation works in the other direction—how curriculum and pedagogy influence assessment and grading. We take a starting point in our study of the teachers grading practice before and after the implementation of more specific grading standards and relate the results to the Swedish national curriculum and Bernstein’s definition of a pedagogic discourse. The official message in the Swedish curriculum is that both knowledge and values and norms are important in order to reach the overarching goals of education and the goals for PE (SNAE, 2011). However, only knowledge is to be graded and no attention is to be given to values and norms in the grades. To bring light to the influence of values and norms in the teachers pedagogic work we turn to Bernstein’s (1996) pedagogic discourse that comprise both an instructional discourse, which creates specialized skills (knowledge), and a regulative discourse that creates order and relations (values and norms). In Bernstein’s (1996) concept of the pedagogic discourse, the instructional discourse is embedded in the regulative discourse, with the regulative discourse being the dominant of the two. They are to be considered as one inseparable discourse (Bernstien 1996). Applied in a classroom situation this is illustrated by Lund and Veal (2008): “Student teachers know that if they lose control of a class from a managerial standpoint, desired learning will not occur” (p. 503).

     

    Method 

    To enable the teachers to verbalise the explicit as well as the implicit criteria they use when grading, the Repertory Grid (RG) interview technique was employed. The RG technique can be used to reveal a person’s perception of a specific topic that the person has experienced and is familiar with by examining the similarities and differences between well-known elements (Fransella, Bell & Bannister, 2004). For instance, even if the teachers find it difficult to express what they find important to get a high grade they can still tell the difference between a student with a high grade and another student, if it is their own students that they know well. George Kelly (1955), who first developed the technique, believed that our behavior can be understood through personally constructed patterns that we use to explain how the world works. These patterns are called constructs, and they enable us to predict our surroundings and choose a direction of our behavior. The method helps us to reveal not only the presence of standard irrelevant constructs but also their content. Three PE teachers, one woman and two men, were interviewed in 2009 and in 2013, before and after the implementation of the new curriculum. Each of them was grading a class of students, 15 to 16 years of age, in different compulsory schools. All grades were represented in the class they were teaching and they had all received a teacher education in PE. In total, 45 students were discussed during the six interviews. The RG interviews lasted for about 90 minutes. In the first step, the teacher was asked to select seven to eight students from the same class that he or she was teaching and grading in PE. The selected students must represent all possible grades (Fransella et al., 2004). In the second step, the names of three of the students at a time were presented to the teacher who was asked in what way, relevant for the grades, two of the students were similar and different from the third (Fransella et al., 2004). By letting the teachers generate their own constructs around a topic they are familiar with, the risk to direct the interview with questions based on another precondition than their own is minimized. The RG interviews generated 125 constructs about aspects that teachers thought were relevant for grades in PE.

     

    Results

    The use of national grading standards in Sweden illustrates how professional judgment is not reliant on the stated standards only. The results indicate that more specific criteria guide the teachers to pay less attention to what Hay and Penney (2009) label “irrelevant factors such as students’ dispositional and behavioral characteristics” (p. 398). Standards seem to be important but not enough. All three teachers still valued standard irrelevant criteria that reflect the norms and values in the curriculum and the goals for the subject. The standard irrelevant criteria used by the teachers also put focus on their concern of the impact of the regulative discourse on the students learning.

    Since the regulative discourse is always present in the pedagogic discourse (Bernstein, 1996) and values and norms are important goals of the curriculum and of the PE subject, it can cause confusion in teachers’ interpretation of the alignment of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in a grading system in which the regulative discourse is not to be graded. Future research is needed about how to achieve valid grades while simultaneously acknowledge the need to give value to the regulative discourse. Grades are often regarded as a reward for achieving knowledge requirements in the curriculum, but what are the rewards for achieving norms and values?

    References

    Annerstedt, C. & Larsson, S. (2010). ‘I have my own picture of what the demands are ... ’: Grading in Swedish PEH - problems of validity, comparability and fairness. European Physical Education Review, 16(2), 97-115.

    Bernstein, B. (1996). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique. London, England:Taylor & Francis Ltd.,

    Bernstein, B. (2003). Class, codes and control. (Vol. 3) Towards a theory of educational transmission. London, England: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

    Chan, K., Hay, P. & Tinning, R. (2011). Understanding the pedagogic discourse of assessment in Physical Education. Asia-Pacific Journal Of Health, Sport & Physical Education, 2(1), 3-18.

    Fransella, F., Bell, R. & Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd. ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.

    Hay, P. & MacDonald, D. (2008) (Mis)appropriations of criteria and standards-referenced assessment in a performance-based subject. Assessment In Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 15(2): 153-168.

    Hay, P., & Penney, D. (2009). Proposing Conditions for Assessment Efficacy in Physical Education. European Physical Education Review, 15(3), 389-405.

    Hay, P. & Penney, D. (2013). Assessment in Physical Education: a sociocultural perspective. London: Routledge.

    Kelly, G. (1955). The Psychology of Personal Construct. A Theory of Personality (Vol. 1). New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.

    Kuiper, W., & Berkvens, J. (Eds.). (2013). Balancing curriculum regulation and freedom across Europe. CIDREE Yearbook 2013. Enschede, the Netherlands: SLO.

    Lund, J.L. & Veal, M. (2008). Chapter 4: Measuring Pupil Learning – How Do Student Teacher Assess Within Instructional Models?. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27(4), 487-511.

    Redelius, K. & Hay, P. (2009). Defining, acquiring and transacting cultural capital through assessment in physical education. European Physical Education Review, 15(3), 275-294.

    Redelius, K., Fagrell, B. & Larsson, H. (2009). Symbolic capital in physical education and health: to be, to do or to know? That is the gendered question. Sport, Education & Society, 14(2), 245-260.

    Svennberg, L., Meckbach, J. & Redelius, K. (2014). Exploring PE teachers’ ‘gut feeling’: An attempt to verbalise and discuss teachers’ internalised grading criteria. European Physical Education Review, 20(2), 199-214.

    Swedish National Agency for Education. (2011). Curriculum for the compulsory school system, the pre-school class and the leisure-time centre 2011. Stockholm: Author.

    Thorburn, M. (2007). Achieving conceptual and curriculum coherence in high-stakes school examinations in Physical Education. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 12(2), 163-184.

  • 50.
    Svennberg, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Redelius, Karin
    Swedish School for Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    PE Assessment Policy and Enactment in Sweden2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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