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  • 1.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of London.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 61, p. 292-296Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on children's cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on children's cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on children's learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and children's learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more detail.

  • 2.
    Clark, Charlotte
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts, London School of Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The influence of noise on performance and behavior - 3 year update2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 458-467Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Distraction of Eye-Hand Coordination varies with Working Memory Capacity2013In: Journal of motor behavior, ISSN 0022-2895, E-ISSN 1940-1027, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present a study of the relationship between individual variation in working memory capacity (WMC) and visually guided hand control in the face of visual distraction. WMC was assessed with the automated operation span task. Hand control was measured by requesting participants to track a visual target with a hand-held touch screen pen. Tracking error increased when nontarget visual objects (distractors) appeared, especially in individuals with low WMC. High-WMC individuals are less impaired by distractors than their low-WMC counterpart, because they resume target tracking more quickly after distractor onset. The results suggest that visual distractors cause a momentary interruption to tracking movements and that high WMC attenuates this interruption by facilitating visual search.

  • 4.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Performance and fatigue perception during strenuous near work in persons with different levels of working memory capacity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nyberg, Fred J
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Growth hormone improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats2013In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH deficient rodents. In this study we report effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for ten consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptor, Igf1, and Igf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared to controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated to spatial memory, the difference between GH and steroid treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by AAS.

  • 6.
    Halin, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Effects of Sound on Proofreading: Can Task Engagement Shield from Distraction2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance on various cognitive tasks is impaired by task-irrelevant speech. The objective of this study was to manipulate the detrimental effects of task-irrelevant speech on a proofreading task, by increasing task engagement using an odd font (i.e. Haettenschweiler vs. Times). Texts were proofread in three different sound conditions (i.e. quiet, task-irrelevant speech and spectrally rotated speech). The participants searched for words (i.e. either content or function words) that were either misspelled or exchanged with contextually inappropriate words. Speech impaired detection of exchanged function words, but only when the text was written in Times, not when written in the odd font. Moreover, the participants missed fewer misspelled words in the speech condition, especially in Times, and they read more slowly in this sound condition. Taken together, these results indicate that proofreading behavior changes in the presence of task-irrelevant speech, to a more superficial/structural level of text processing (hence the improvement in detection of misspelled words), in comparison to the deeper/semantic level of text processing in the quiet condition (i.e., better detection of contextually inappropriate words). Greater task engagement (as indexed by the Haettenschweiler font), however, appears to protect the participant from the effect of sound on the ability to detect contextually inappropriate words.

  • 7.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Masked- and unmasked speech, effects recollection of semantically categorized words2012In: APCAM 11th annual meeting Minneapolis November 15 2012 (at the Hilton Minneapolis Hotel), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Buller påverkar kognition och minne2011In: Psykologtidningen, ISSN 0280-9702, no 5, p. 15-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Environmental noise and cognitive impairment in children2011In: Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise: Quantification of healthy life years lost in Europe. / [ed] L Fritschi, WHO Europe , 2011, p. 45-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    In memory of Jerry Singer2010In: APS Observer, ISSN 1050-4672, Vol. 23, p. 29-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise and cognition in children2011In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Health, Volume 4 / [ed] J.O. Nriagu, Burlington: Elsevier, 2011, p. 146-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Noise effects on children's cognition: WHO work on noise, Burden of Disease (BoD) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY)2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, London: Institute of Acoustics , 2011, Vol. 33, p. 469-476Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ökat brus i klassrum ger sämre inlärning hos elev2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, no 7, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Special issue on noise, memory and learning: editorial commentary2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 199-200Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Störande buller i arbetslivet: Kunskapssammanställning2013Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Keus, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom II: Recall of spoken words in English and Swedish heard at different signal-to-noise ratios2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 5091-5098Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment will be reported which assessed speech intelligibility and free recall of spoken words in Swedish (native tongue) and in English heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios (+3 and +12 dB), and with/without the spoken words being repeated back orally directly after presentation (shadowing). All participants encountered all experimental conditions. Twelve wordlists with 12 words each were generated in English as well as in Swedish. The words were chosen according to their ranks in category norms for the two languages, and no category was the same for the two languages. Blocks of counter balanced presentation orders, S/N-ratios and shadowing/no shadowing were generated. After each wordlist the participants wrote down the words they could recall. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity were taken. The basic hypotheses for the recall of the words were that working memory would be overloaded when the S/N-ratio was low, there was no shadowing and when the language was English. A low score on working memory capacity was expected to further enhance these effects. While writing this abstract data collection is still in progress but results will be presented at the conference.

  • 17.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dålig akustik i klassrum ger sämre inlärning2012In: Vi hörs, ISSN 0787-9520, Vol. 2, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Acoustical conditions in the classroom I: Speech intelligibility and recall of spoken material heard at different signal-to-noise ratios.2013In: 42nd International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2013, INTER-NOISE 2013: Noise Control for Quality of Life, 2013, p. 4957-4964Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored speech intelligibility and free recall of word lists heard under different signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios. Pre-experimental measures of working memory capacity (WMC) were taken to explore individual susceptibility to the disruptive effects of noise. The thirty-five participants first completed a WMC-operation span task in quiet and later listened to spoken word lists containing 11 one-syllable phonetically balanced words presented at four different S/N ratios (+12, +9, +6, and +3). Participants repeated (shadowed) each word aloud immediately after its presentation and performed a free recall task of the words after the end of the list. The speech intelligibility function decreased linearly with increasing S/N levels for both the high-WMC and low-WMC groups. Recall and memory of the words decreased with increasing S/N levels only for the low-WMC group. Recall and memory for the high-WMC individuals was not affected by increased S/N levels. Our results suggest that impoverished acoustical conditions impair speech intelligibility and memory, but also that a high WMC may counteract some of the negative effects of speech noise.

  • 19.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Cognitive Performance and Restoration in Open-Plan Office Noise2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation presents four experimental studies (in four papers) with the overall aim to investigate the effects of office noise on cognitive performance and restoration. In the first two papers the focus was on the effects of different sound levels (i.e., the mean level from all sound sources at an office, such as speech, phones, people walking) on performance, fatigue and stress. In the last two papers the focus was on the effects of background speech, as this has previously been shown to be the most disturbing noise source in open-plan offices. Paper I demonstrated decreased word memory performance, increased fatigue and motivational deficits when the background sound level increased by 12 dB, from 39 to 51 dB LAeq. Paper II showed that the sound level effects were more pronounced for individuals with a hearing impairment. Unexpectedly, no effects were found of acute noise exposure on the participant´s stress hormone levels (Paper I and Paper II).

              Regarding effects of irrelevant speech, Paper III showed that cognitive performance decreased as a function of background speech intelligibility, the higher the intelligibility depicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI), the worse the performance. The results indicated that the STI-value must be less than 0.50, to avoid a negative influence on performance. Further, both Paper III and IV showed that performance is more impaired by background speech if the focal task requires episodic memory and rehearsal—such as word memory and information search. Interestingly, some tasks were insensitive for speech.

              The restorative effects of a break were addressed in Paper I and II (i.e., directly after the work sessions in noise). The break period differed in content between the participants. Paper I showed that a break with a nature movie with corresponding sound increased energy ratings compared to just listening to river sounds or office noise. Continued exposure to office noise gave the lowest ratings of motivation after the break. Paper II showed improved arithmetic performance and motivation after the break with a nature movie and decreased performance and motivation after continued noise exposure. For the hearing impaired participants, however, continued noise during the break increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not.

              Taken together, the current thesis demonstrates that open-plan office noise can have a negative impact on fatigue, motivation and performance. How much performance is impaired varies with the cognitive processes required by the tasks performed and hearing status. Moreover, continued noise exposure during a short break can further decrease motivation and subsequent performance.

  • 20.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Impaired Cognitive Performance Caused by Open-Plan Office Noise2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Open-plan office noise: cognitive performance and restoration2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Open-plan office noise: the susceptibility and suitability of different cognitive tasks for work in the presence of irrelevant speech2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 61, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to test which tasks are suitable for work in open-plan offices according to how susceptible they are to disruption produced by the mere presence of irrelevant speech. The tasks were chosen to tap fundamental capacities of office work involving: search for relevant information, remembering material, counting, and generation of words. The hypothesis was that tasks requiring semantic processing should be impaired by irrelevant speech. To determine the magnitude of performance decrease, two sound conditions (quiet, irrelevant speech) were compared. The results showed that tasks based on episodic short-term-memory and rehearsal of the presented material were more sensitive to disruption by irrelevant speech than tasks which did not require rehearsal or were based on long-term memory retrieval. The present study points to the inappropriateness of tasks, such as information search and remembering of material, for work environments within which irrelevant speech is ubiquitous.

  • 23.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Restoration at work: Effects of different sound exposures2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, London: Institute of Acoustics , 2011, Vol. 33, p. 532-539Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The effects of sounds on restorative processes2011In: Proceedings at the 9th Biennial conference on Environmental Psychology, September 26-28, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Work and restoration in open-plan offices during different sound exposures2010In: Proceedings at the 27th International Congress of Applied Psychology (ICAP), 13-16 June (CD) / [ed] V. Mrowinski, M. Kyrios & N. Voudouris, Melbourne, Australia: The Australian Psychological Society Ltd , 2010, p. 567-568Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Naula, Sanna
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Shall we silence cities and workplaces?: the effects of auditive and visual stimuli on perceived restoration likelihood2012In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012, INTER-NOISE 2012, 2012, Vol. 5, p. 3940-3951Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Performance, fatigue and stress in open-plan offices: the effects of noise and restoration on hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals2012In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, no 60, p. 260-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impaired and normal hearing individuals were compared in two within-participant office noise conditions (high noise: 60 L Aeq and low noise: 30 L Aeq ). Performance, subjective fatigue, and physiological stress were tested during working on a simulated open-plan office. We also tested two between-participants restoration conditions following the work period with high noise (nature movie or continued office noise). Participants with a hearing impairment (N = 20) were matched with normal hearing participants (N = 18) and undertook one practice session and two counterbalanced experimental sessions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with basic memory and attention tasks. We also measured physiological stress indicators (cortisol and catecholamines) and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The hearing impaired participants were more affected by high noise than the normal hearing participants, as shown by impaired performance for tasks that involve recall of semantic information. The hearing impaired participants were also more fatigued by high noise exposure than participants with normal hearing, and they tended to have higher stress hormone levels during the high noise compared to the low noise condition. Restoration with a movie increased performance and motivation for the normal hearing participants, while rest with continued noise did not. For the hearing impaired participants, continued noise during rest increased motivation and performance, while the movie did not. In summary, the impact of noise and restorative conditions varied with the hearing characteristics of the participants. The small sample size does however encourage caution when interpreting the results.

  • 28.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hartig, Terry
    Institute for Housing and Urban Research and the Department of Psychology.
    Attentional recovery: an overview of cognitive measures2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hongisto, Valtteri
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Virjonen, Petra
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.
    Cognitive performance during irrelevant speech: effects of speech intelligibility and office-task characteristics2013In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682x, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 307-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Arbetsmiljön i kontorslandskap: Arbetsmiljön i kontorslandskap rapport från ett Stockholmsföretag2012Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Buller i öppna kontorslandskap2010In: Audionytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 3, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Green, Anne Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dimberg, Kent
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    An experiment on noise and cognition in a simulated open-plan office2010In: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010, INTER-NOISE 2010, Lisbon, Portugal: Portuguese acoustical society , 2010, Vol. 4, p. 2827-2836Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive, emotional, and physiological effects of two background noise conditions (high noise: 51 LAeq and low noise: 39 LAeq) during work in a simulated open-plan office, followed by four restoration conditions (river movie with sound, only river sound, silence, and office noise) after the work period. Students (N = 47) went through one practice session and two experimental sessions, one each with the low and high noise conditions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with tasks involving basic working memory processes. We also took physiological measures of stress (cortisol and catecholamine) and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The results showed that the participants remembered fewer words, rated themselves as more tired and less motivated in high noise compared to low noise. The participants showed high levels of cortisol when they arrived to the experimental session and they had a significant (p <.001) decline in both noise conditions after two hours of work. An identical decline was shown in the norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). The restoration phase also indicated that the sound conditions may promote different restorative experiences. To conclude, the present study showed that noise level can be of importance for working memory performance and subjective feelings of tiredness and motivation in an open-plan office and that varying sound conditions may promote different restorative experiences.

  • 33.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Green, Anne Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Open-plan office noise: Cognitive performance and restoration2011In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 373-382Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Effects of Irrelevant Background Speech Masked by Noise on Writing Performance2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown impairing effects of irrelevant speech on cognitive capabilities as, for example, reading and listening comprehension. Yet, so far research has paid little attention to how these distracters can influence text production. The aim of this study is to investigate how speech intelligibility in terms of different Speech Transmission Index (STI) values influence writing performance. The expectation is that background sound with higher STI values (i.e., when it is easier to hear what is said in the speech signal) will be more detrimental to the writing process. Moreover, the expectation is that persons with high working memory capacity (WMC) will be less distracted than persons with low WMC. In an experimental within-subjects design college students (N ~ 48) are asked to write short essays (5 minutes per essay) in the software program ScriptLog in 5 different STI conditions. Across the conditions, irrelevant background speech masked by white noise is manipulated in terms of different STI values. The essays are based on different pictures presented on a computer screen. At the beginning the participants are asked to do a working memory task (size-comparison span). The results will be presented at the conference. This study contributes to further knowledge of how different acoustical conditions influence cognitive language production processes, which is important in schools and office environments.

  • 35.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Effects of speech on writing: Is there a right-ear disadvantage?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown, with tasks specifically designed for well-controlled laboratory research, that task-irrelevant speech is more distracting when it is presented to the right ear (as right-ear presentation has privileged access to the left hemisphere that plays a dominant role in language processing). This is called the right-ear disadvantage. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the right-ear disadvantage generalizes to more applied, less well-controlled, tasks. Students were asked to write short stories while they were hearing task-irrelevant sound, either normal or spectrally-rotated speech, which they were to ignore. The sound was either presented to the right or to the left ear. The participants produced less written text when they were exposed to normal speech in comparison with rotated speech. However, this difference was just as large when the sound was presented to the right as to the left ear. In all, the semanticity of speech seems to disrupt output writing processes, but there was no evidence of a right-ear disadvantage with this task, probably because writing is not an experimentally controlled task. This study shows that the applied consequences of right-ear disadvantage are limited.

  • 36.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljudmiljöns betydelse för klassrummet som lärmiljö2011In: Lärandets grunder: teorier och perspektiv / [ed] Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Experimentell metodik för beteendevetare2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Sweden.
    Norman, Kerstin
    Örebro University, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Hagman, Maud
    Karolinska Institutet, NASP, Sweden.
    Herlin, Rose-Marie
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wigaeus-Tornqvist, Eva
    Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Sweden.
    Stress, energy and psychosocial conditions in different types of call centres2010In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 9-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres.

    A cross sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1183 operators from 28 call centres, in Sweden both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location.

    The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy (“worn out”) and 47% in high stress/high energy (“committed under pressure”). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy (“committed without pressure”) were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support.

    Time pressure in combination with lack of support and influence should be seen as a potential high risk situation for the development of a “worn-out” state among call centre operators. Management should make use of this knowledge in order to promote a long lasting efficient and healthy call centre work.

  • 39.
    Landström, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Buller2010In: Arbets- och Miljömedicin: En lärobok om hälsa och miljö / [ed] Christer Edling, Gunnar Nordberg, Monica Nordberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 3, p. 221-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Free Recall of Auditory Stimuli Presented in Degraded Listening Conditions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine if degraded listening conditions affect free recall of auditory presented stimuli. The result showed that a long reverberation time (RevT) decreases free recall performance. More detailed analyses revealed that memory of words presented in the beginning of the list were more impaired by the unfavorable listening conditions, which is in agreement with earlier findings. In addition, the relationship between working memory capacity and the effects of degraded listening conditions was studied. People who made many invention errors in the operation span test performed significantly more false recall in low S/N. These findings give support for the hypothesis that degraded stimuli activate more candidate words, and people who make those specific errors have problem to suppress those candidates.

  • 41.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Overheard cell-phone conversation is more disturbing than consistent irrelevant speech, when performing office work2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how work performances of 58 participants at an upper secondary school in Sweden were affected by exposure of an overheard cell-phone conversation and a traditional conversation respectively. The main hypothesis of the study was that the cell-phone conversation was likely to disturb the subjects more than the regular conversation, and that the distraction would be more noticeable when the participants performed tasks of greater complexity.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis that overheard cell-phone conversations disturbs people more than regular conversations. The study could not demonstrate that the distraction is greater when people perform tasks of more complex character even if the result went in that direction. The author argues that studies like this should have an important scientific value in the debate about open plan office environment, where employees are constantly exposed to other people’s conversations.

  • 42.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Israelsson, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Speech Intelligibility and Recall of Spoken Material Heard at Different Signal-to-noise Ratios and the Role Played by Working Memory Capacity2013In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Lené, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Background noise means process interference in counting performance2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 540-545Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper examined the effects of different background sounds on counting performance. Two experiments were carried out to test how counting performance was affected by four background noise conditions: spoken numbers, numbers played backwards, names of occupations and a silent control condition. The hypothesis was that the condition with spoken number noise should have strongest negative effect on counting performance. The results from Experiment 1 gave no support for the hypothesis, since no significant difference between conditions was found. Experiment 2 used a more complex counting task and a faster presentation rate of the background sounds. The condition with spoken number noise showed largest effect on counting performance, and performance in the control condition was better than all background sound conditions. The results are in line with the theory of interference by process.

  • 44.
    Marsh, John E
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hughes, Robert W
    University of London.
    Cognitive control of distraction: How does task engagement modulate the effects of between-sequence semantic similarity?2013In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society: Volume 18, November 2013, 54th Annual Meeting, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom .
    Pilgrim, Lea
    University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linköping University, Sweden .
    Hemispheric specialization in selective attention and short-term memory: A fine-coarse model of left- and right-ear disadvantages2013In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 4, no 976Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Beaman, Philip
    University of Reading.
    Jones, Dylan
    Cardiff University.
    Auditory distraction eliminates retrieval induced forgetting: Implications for the processing of unattended sound2013In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 368-375Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Jones, Dylan
    Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma, Balearic Islands, Spain.
    Auditory distraction compromises random generation: Falling back into old habits?2013In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 279-292Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Matheson, M.
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Clark, C.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Martin, R.
    Instituto de Acustica, Madrid, Spain.
    van Kempen, E.
    Centre for Environmental Health Research, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
    Haines, M.
    The Sax Institute, Sydney, Australia.
    Lopez-Barrio, I.
    Instituto de Acustica, Madrid, Spain.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Stansfeld, S.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children’s episodic memory: The RANCH Project2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 244-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children's performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months) completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children's episodic memory.

  • 49.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science. Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Personalrestaurangen som måltidsarena: uppfattningar om och attityder till maten och måltiden på arbetsplatsen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary in EnglishLennernäs M, Nyberg M Jahncke H, Ljung R. Staff Restaurant as a meal arena – perceptions of and attitudes towards food and meal at work. Kristianstad University and Gävle University in cooperation with the National Centre for Meals, Sweden, 2012.BackgroundWorking life and family life has changed in many ways during the last 50 years. Rules of the Organization of working hours are examples of such changes. Also more meals are eaten outside the home. Food choice and timing of meals affect health and well-being, and probably also work performance. Other factors than individual preferences are known to influence food choice and meal context at work. It might be structural factors such as working hours, meal breaks, the supply of food and also opportunities for self storage and cooking of food. Also the physical environment that surrounds the meal in the staff restaurant and staff place might affect the catering experience, social relations and the possibility of recovery during meal breaks.Aim and designA cross-sectional study was carried out to examine meal experiences at three different work places including attitudes to, and satisfaction with, staff restaurant and dining room (staff room). Other questions concerned the degree of own control over working meals. The overall objective of the study was to gain knowledge-base for the training of catering staff and unions and employers that influence over the breaks (timing and duration), place, space and atmosphere in connection with meals at work. This report also provides a brief literature review of safety legislation (physical meal environment and breaks) and also public health aspects in relation to meals at work.Work places and subjectsThree companies participated, a manufacturing base, a regiment (armed forces), as well as a regional hospital. The intention was to study the meal at work in different social environments and different activities. A total of 724 completed questionnaires were collected, the response rate was 78 %.MethodsQuestionnaires were distributed to persons who were in place at the time of the questionnaire's award, or distributed by contact persons internally. Physical measurements of noise and light conditions were done in staff restaurants when they were empty and also when they had most meals guests during the day. The questionnaire's 20 question areas included multiple choice questions, scales with seven increments as well as open questions. Survey questions concerning the physical meal place also stress and experiences in relation to the meals at work originates from established questionnaires in environmental psychology. Catering questions were designed inspired by FAMM (Five Aspect Meal Model), the Association Key hole criteria document for caterers (service types/categories and basic concepts), the National Food Administration's administrative report "good food at work", as well as Tellström & Jönsson definition of gastronomy. General questions about working times, meal times, lifestyle and health were added. A question about Diurnal Type was included. Attitudes and experiences were assessed by using9scaled questions from 1 to 7 with the endpoints “Are not at all satisfied to Very satisfied”; “Not at all” to “A very high degree”, “No control at all to Completely self-monitoring”. Low value is interpreted as a negative attitude, high value as a positive attitude.AnalysisData from the survey and the results from light and noise measurements in the staff room was imported to the statistical programme SPSS for in-depth analyses of statistically significant differences for any selected questions. Data is organized and interpreted according to the thematic analysis which includes seven aspects:Time (working hours, meal breaks, pauses); Room (where to eat – staff restaurant or staff room, physical environment, including the measurement of light and noise, planning in relation to the room); Product – food (including self-monitoring, values and planning in relation to the product). Meeting (colleagues, catering and service personnel). Logistics and planning. Atmosphere (subjective catering experience) and finally, Food, lifestyle and health.ResultsEmployees in industry and Defense (Regiment) worked during the day and a full-time basis, at the hospital had 69% work daytime, 6% had scheduled work night, 25% of circadian cycles, night hours. The majority (95%) had meal breaks with an opportunity to leave the work place (the rest had a meal pause). 13% spent less than 20 minutes at a working meal. 20-30 minutes was most common in the Industry, more than 45 minutes was the most common to the armed forces and 31-45 minutes at the hospital. One third of all had low control over the duration of their meal break. The shortest food breaks and minimum control was reported by industry.SummaryThe natural meal environment has a major impact on the choice of place to eat and catering experience. In the survey, staff experienced better recovery in staff rooms. Staff felt more happy, bright and has "loaded battery" better after a meal in the staff room compared to Staff Restaurant. Flavors and variety in the menu is more important than e.g. local or eco-labelled food. The taste is the most important factor for satisfaction in the staff restaurant. There was a large discrepancy between how important taste was estimated to be, and how tasty the food was perceived in staff restaurants. Participants have low self-control over the possibility to eat in desirable society or in isolation or when they are hungry. Environmental factors and culinary sensations, with the greatest impact on satisfaction with the meal, need to be improved, as well as service and friendliness from the catering staff. The cooperation between meal researchers and environmental psychologists resulted in a broader analysis of how the catering environment affects meal experiences and satisfaction with working meals.Conclusions and future recommendationsPeople need food and rest to hurricane work. Energy from foods and meals, as well access to psychological detachment from work probably counteracts stress disorders and also promotes health and cognitive performance. The most striking outcome of the study was the lack of recovery during meal pauses, and especially in the staff restaurant ambience. The study also shows that employees have a relatively low control over the opportunity to eat in privacy or in10desirable companion, and even low control over the length of the meal and the opportunity to eat when hungry. Other concerns were the queues and poor logistics in the staff restaurant, but also in the staff room at the hospital.Food in the workplace is an important issue for the company because as the lack of recovery might lead to poor work performance and contribute to long term stress disorders. Furthermore, inappropriate eating habits leading over time to ill health and reduced work performance.Keywords: Workplace, meals, staff restaurant, atmosphere, recovery, detachment, stress, noise, dining room, food service, restitution

  • 50.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Expectations Modulate the Magnitude of Attentional Capture by Auditory Events2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11, p. e48569-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events? We combined the cross-modal oddball distraction paradigm with sequence learning to address this question. Participants responded to visual targets, each preceded by tones that formed a repetitive cross-trial standard sequence. In Experiment 1, with the standard tone sequence …-660-440-660-880-… Hz, either the 440 Hz or the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by one of two deviant tones (220 Hz and 1100 Hz), that either differed slightly (by 220 Hz) or markedly (by 660 Hz) from the replaced standard. In Experiment 2, with the standard tone sequence …-220-660-440-660-880-660-1100-… Hz, the 440 Hz and the 880 Hz standard was occasionally replaced by either a 220 Hz or a 1100 Hz pattern deviant. In both experiments, a high-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a low-pitch standard, and a low-pitch deviant was more captivating when it replaced a high-pitch standard. These results indicate that the magnitude of attentional capture by deviant sound events depends on the discrepancy between the deviant event and the expected event, not on perceived local change.

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