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  • 1.
    Andersen, Niklas
    et al.
    Energi Funktion Komfort Skandinavien AB, Nacka, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Wind turbines’ end-of-life: Quantification and characterisation of future waste materials on a national level2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 999Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, wind power is growing fast and in Sweden alone more than 3000 turbines have been installed since the mid-1990s. Although the number of decommissioned turbines so far is few, the high installation rate suggests that a similarly high decommissioning rate can be expected at some point in the future. If the waste material from these turbines is not handled sustainably the whole concept of wind power as a clean energy alternative is challenged. This study presents a generally applicable method and quantification based on statistics of the waste amounts from wind turbines in Sweden. The expected annual mean growth is 12% until 2026, followed by a mean increase of 41% until 2034. By then, annual waste amounts are estimated to 240,000 tonnes steel and iron (16% of currently recycled materials), 2300 tonnes aluminium (4%), 3300 tonnes copper (5%), 340 tonnes electronics (<1%) and 28,000 tonnes blade materials (barely recycled today). Three studied scenarios suggest that a well-functioning market for re-use may postpone the effects of these waste amounts until improved recycling systems are in place.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Gullberg, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Hussénius, Anita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, USA.
    "We do science, we don't do gender!" Challenging science teaching education: Gender awareness in contructing knowledge of science and science teaching2015In: Feminist Pedagogy in Higher Education : Critical Theory and Practice / [ed] T. P. Light, J. Nicolas & R. Bondy, Waterloo, ON, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorklund, Anna
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research, Department of Sustainable development, Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 5.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm resilience center; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Social-Ecological Research Lens on Urban Resilience2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Social-Ecological Research has approached the city as a living ecosystem, an approach that really begun with the urban scholars of the early 1900s. But new developments in this line of research started during the 1990s to study various social-ecological relations in a web of life reaching far beyond the built environment of any city. Such research argues that it is in such social-ecological relations where the resilience of cities ultimately rests, for example in a food system consisting of the chain of activities connecting food producing ecosystems, processing, distribution, consump­tion, and waste management, as well as all the associated regulatory institutions and activities. Contrary to popular belief, it is in such social-ecological research traditions, where the most prolific authors on urban resilience are found.

  • 6.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre .
    Social-Ecological Urbanism and the Life of Baltic Cities2016In: The Nature of Cities, Vol. 2016Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Jane Jacobs critiqued modernist city planning in the now classic book The Death and Life of Great American Cities(1961). This book is now inspiring an urban renaissance. Jacobs proposed that a city must be understood as a system of organized complexity—in other words, as an ecosystem—and that any intervention in the urban fabric with a lack of such understanding is bound to result in unexpected surprises. Trained in zoology, Jacobs viewed the city much like a coral reef, where co-evolutionary dynamics between the coral organisms (the people) and the coral reef (the built environment) result in the emergence of a socio-spatial logic that can support various kind of functions and opportunities for people.

    First line of urban scholarship based on ecological thought

    Blueprint planning based on ideals such as Le Corbusier’s “The Shining City,” or Sir Ebenezer Howard’s “The Garden City,” Jacobs argued, is likely to fail since it lacks the critical understanding of the city as a complex socio-spatial system. Spatial morphology thinking (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) provided a precision and an analytical depth to the insights of Jane Jacobs. Density, accessibility and diversity are outlined as the main features of spatial capital for people in cities (Marcus, 2010), which are akin to insights in ecosystem ecology, where species diversity, species abundance and ecological connectivity are critical features.

  • 7.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Viola has an Acorn in her Pocket2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belton, Sophie
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raymond, Christopher M.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fostering children's connection to nature through authentic situations: the case of saving salamanders at school2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, no JUN, article id 928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how children learn to form new relationships with nature. It draws on a longitudinal case study of children participating in a stewardship project involving the conservation of salamanders during the school day in Stockholm, Sweden. The qualitative method includes two waves of data collection: when a group of 10-year-old children participated in the project (2015) and 2 years after they participated (2017). We conducted 49 interviews with children as well as using participant observations and questionnaires. We found indications that children developed sympathy for salamanders and increased concern and care for nature, and that such relationships persisted 2 years after participation. Our rich qualitative data suggest that whole situations of sufficient unpredictability triggering free exploration of the area, direct sensory contact and significant experiences of interacting with a species were important for children's development of affective relationships with the salamander species and with nature in an open-ended sense. Saving the lives of trapped animals enabled direct sensory interaction, feedback, increased understanding, and development of new skills for dynamically exploring further ways of saving species in an interactive process experienced as deeply meaningful, enjoyable and connecting. The behavioral setting instilled a sense of pride and commitment, and the high degree of responsibility given to the children while exploring the habitat during authentic situations enriched children's enjoyment. The study has implications for the design of education programs that aim to connect children with nature and for a child-sensitive urban policy that supports authentic nature situations in close spatial proximity to preschools and schools. 

  • 9.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    A Critical Perspective on the “Smart City” Model2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    As urban ecologists we support developing smoother traffic systems, providing citizens with more easily accessible information, and of course promoting citizen-participation and local democracy in political decision-making. However, and as is normally the common destiny when new models for sustainable development are appearing, investments in these “smarter” models run the risk of making people blind to problems that need more immediate concern. In short, governance is a matter of prioritizing among different goals. Governance is also about making sure that strong and powerful enterprises and business interests do not hijack the public debate

  • 10.
    Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Smart (Cyborg) City Needs Smarter Ecological Resilience Thinking2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Employing a sort of a cyborg worldview—meaning a living system of intertwined human and machine parts—the Smart City system is seen as contributing to urban sustainability with the basic assumption that ‘the Internet of Things’ serves social and public ends. These ends include economic benefits, improving efficiency and quality of life for people by optimizing control of infrastructures. In this view, urban residents are at the center of a city’s sustainability transformation, while at the same time serving as “data sources”, providing urban planners (central controllers of the cyborg) various sources of information about human behavior that may or may not be exploited. While various efficiency measures often are beneficial for society, at least in the short term, the discussions of resilience of such a cyborg is mostly entirely avoided.

  • 11.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Brunifiering av Öjaren: Analys och framtida utsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The colouring of water in many lakes across the Northern hemisphere is increasing. This is also the case in Lake Öjaren in Sandviken municipality in Sweden. The lake is the main water source in Sandviken and has a high and increasing watercolour. This leads to more complex cleaning methods and higher costs for the society. This study focuses on the changing and increasing watercolour in the lake over a period from 1995-2015. The factors analysed in this study are those who is considered to have an effect on the watercolour in the lake.

    The reasons for increased brownification are different depending on which type of water body is studied. Climate, soil conditions and pollutants contributes in varying extent to brownification. Increased levels in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron are common reasons for brownification in Lake Öjaren and other water bodies, in Lake Öjaren increased levels of manganese are also shown to affect brownification.

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between the watercolour and the factors: iron, pH, COD, manganese, temperature and precipitation. The aim is also to investigate which actions are possible to apply to prevent increased watercolour.

    Water samples from Lake Öjaren between the years 1995-2015 have been the basis for the executed statistical analysis. Evaluating the correlation between the factors we have used Minitab 17 and calculated Pearson´s correlation coefficient. To further explain the relationship between the factors a principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed. Future scenarios and current trends have also been produced, in order to develop a better foundation for further studies.

    The correlation analysis reveals that the most significant connection with watercolour are iron, COD and manganese. The result of the PCA also corroborates this connection where three factors are the ones that are most co-variating.

    The trend and the future scenario for all the factors in Lake Öjaren are that they all are increasing and the watercolour is expected to be increasing by 63 % until year 2050. This scenario means that actions are needed to counteract the increasing colouring of the water.

  • 12. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kemi för de yngre åren2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 109-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är bakgrunden till att små barn är fascinerande av att leka Titt-ut,men som alla föräldrar vet så försvinner den lekens lockelse när barnet blir äldre. Barn utvecklas snabbt i de yngre åren, vilket skapar både möjligheter och begränsningar för hur lärande i naturvetenskap och kemi uppstår i förskolan och grundskolan. Det finns många skäl till att kemirelaterade aktiviteter bör introduceras i de yngre åren och i det här kapitlet diskuteras några av dessa skäl ur ett kemididaktiskt perspektiv. Kapitlet är uppbyggt kring några av de betydande framsteg som gjorts i den utvecklingspsykologiska forskningen under de senaste tjugo åren (Gärdenfors, 2006). Idag vet vi ganska mycket om hur våra hjärnor fungerar och utvecklas. Insprängt i denna beskrivning kommer jag att reflektera kring hur detta skulle kunna påverka valet av innehåll när det gäller naturvetenskapligt lärande för yngre barn. På slutet sammanfattar jag tankarna om innehåll med ett speciellt fokus på kemi.

  • 13.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Sustainable science policy - in whom shall we trust?2017In: A good life for all: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunnigham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 21-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of science as a provider of well-tested and trustworthy knowledgre in a sustainable society is discussed with respect to other social institutions: government and state bureaucracy, the market, the media and the public. In particular, societal pressures that threaten scientific endeavour are problematised with a slight bias towards examples from sustainability science. Global challenges of today transcend social institutions and therefore require novel modes of trans-institutional cooperation. Such modes of cooperation may produce unwanted clashes of institutional norms that imperil objective and mutually accepted norms need to be developed. The science policy for a democratic, sustainable society should strive for clear divisions among social institutions while encouraging suitable modes of cooperation to address global challenges to the sustainability of human life.

  • 14. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken samlar ett axplock av ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik från lärare och forskare med anknytning till Högskolan i Gävle (HiG). Den röda tråden är en vilja att göra ämnena mer tillgängliga samt stimulera utveckling av undervisning och lärande i dessa ämnen.

    Författarna till den här boken förenas av ett brinnande intresse för sina olika ämnen och en stark önskan att finna vägar till utveckling av undervisningen för att underlätta lärande och väcka nyfikenhet. Boken är skriven till dig som delar våra intressen. Vi hoppas att den ska inspirera till ytterligare utveckling av ämnesdidaktiken.

  • 15. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik2016In: Ämnesdidaktiska utmaningar– inom matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik / [ed] Mikael Björling, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2016, 1, p. 9-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    On Measuring Air Infiltration Rates Using Tracer Gases in Buildings with Presence Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems2016In: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium: Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, article id 875Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation and air leakage of a school building was investigated. Information was collected from the parameters of the mechanical ventilation system and from measurements of the local mean age of air using the homogeneous emission method. While the average local mean ages of air can be accurately measured by passive integrative samplers, the estimation of the average room specific air change rate by taking the inverse of the measured average local mean age of air did not give correct results. The main problem is that integrative sampling represents a linear averaging process that is inappropriate to capture the average of nonlinearly related properties. This problem is accentuated when the ventilation rates for different periods differ a lot. A simple computational model was developed to discuss the system behavior. A partial solution to the measurement problem is to actively sample the different populations of air change rates separately.

  • 17.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jönsson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Bagge, H.
    Building Physics LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Air infiltration into naturally ventilated apartments in multifamily dwellings2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 34-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the ACH for ten apartments in naturally ventilated multifamily dwellings for two cases inlet vent manipulations: i) fully opened inlet vents; and ii) fully closed and taped inlet vents. Even with fully opened inlet vents the resulting ventilation is rather poor. The average ACH is 0.26±0.16 h-1. All apartments fall in the lower quartile in terms of ACH when compared to other multifamily dwellings in Sweden. A method using two different tracers A and B is presented that allow for measurement of the partial flow from the stairway zone and the partial flow from other pathways into the apartment. On the average 10-20% of the airflow into a typical apartment in a naturally ventilated multifamily dwelling seems to originate from the stairway zone when the inlet vents are fully opened. By closing and taping the inlet vents, the airtightness of the apartments have been investigated. The average direct leakage flow, i.e. not from the stairway zone, is 17 m3/h but the variation is large. Layout B seems to leak the most, followed by A and then C.

  • 18.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kumlin, Anders
    Anders Kumlin AB.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Bengt Dahlgren AB.
    Local Determination of the Building Envelope Air Leakage2018In: Indoor Air 2018 / [ed] Michael Waring and Brent Stephens, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to determine the rate of local transport into the indoor air of a substance originating from the construction frame of a building has been devised and tested. In particular we demonstrate that a tracer located outside the air and vapour barrier in the construction frame of an office building can be detected in varying concentrations in the office indoor air. The tracer may either diffuse directly or follow with outside air leaking through the barrier. Cor-recting for the local air change rate yields an apparent emission rate as an estimate of the rate of local transport from the construction frame to the indoor air. Our interpretation is that high-er apparent emission rates predominantly reflect higher local air leakage rates through the air and vapor barrier. This information could be useful for interpreting office worker complaints and for decisions on renovation options. The tracer techniques used in the study are also more generally applicable to convert measured concentrations of indoor substances into apparent emission rates. Emission rates are more indicative of the location of pollution sources and may therefore be useful in other investigations of polluted buildings.

  • 19.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions2018In: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, p. 1079-1084Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

  • 20.
    Bren d'Amour, Christopher
    et al.
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Reitsma, Femke
    Department of Geography,Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Baiocchi, Giovanni
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Güneralp, Burak
    Center for Geospatial Science, Applications and Technology (GEOSAT), Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Erb, Karl-Heinz
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Creutzig, Felix
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Seto, Karen C.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 34, p. 8939-8944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.

  • 21.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the "Smart City" model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children’s learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 22.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience and Sustainable Development2017In: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, p. 28-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 2349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique socio-cultural setting to promote sustainable development in practice. Among others, this involves the nurturing of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Antropocene era, which is characterized by ongoing climate change and massive loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We explore the traditional campus setting, its role as a community for rejuvenating town planning and its role as a governance authority that may promote or retard sustainable development with an ecological focus. We explore the “sustainable” university and describe the campus as an ecosystem and how a resilient campus can be designed to meet the novel and critical challenges of the Anthropocene. We conclude by providing some policy recommendations for higher educational institutes to speed up their ambitions in the area of sustainable biosphere management.

  • 24.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on “smart cities”, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 25.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    No zero burden assumption in a circular economy2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 182, p. 352-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of previous studies on environmental problems caused by waste generation have focused on waste disposal issues without fully highlighting the primary reasons behind the problems. As a consequence, efforts to reduce these problems are usually directed towards the stakeholders that provide waste treatment and disposal instead of the stakeholders that contribute to waste generation. In order to detect connections between different problems of sustainability and to suggest measures which may contribute to their solutions, this study provides a simplified overview of the mechanisms behind waste generation and management. The results from the study show that the only way to eliminate problems of sustainability is to apply an upstream approach by dealing with the primary problems which occur in the early stages of the system (e.g. overconsumption of products, as well as use of finite resources, toxic materials, and non-recyclable materials). By dealing with these problems, the emergence of secondary problems would be prevented. Thereby, stakeholders who have the highest possibility to contribute to the sustainable development of the waste generation and management are the stakeholders from the origin of the product's life cycles, such as product developers, manufacturing companies, product users and policy makers. Different trade-off situations such as contradictions between economics, recyclability, energy efficiency, make it even harder to deal with issues of sustainability related to the system and to detect the stakeholders who may contribute to the development. One of the main conclusions from this study is that when transforming society towards a circular economy, the traditional view of separate systems for production and waste management must be changed. In order to refer to all problems of sustainability and also cover the top steps of the waste hierarchy, life cycle assessment of waste management should include manufacture and use of products ending up as waste. Waste entering the waste management system with “zero burden” by releasing the previous actors of the waste life cycle from any responsibility related to the environment (i.e. by shifting the total environmental burden into the waste management system), does not capture the problems with waste generation.

  • 26.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL.
    Åkeson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys .
    Ljunggren Söderman, M
    IVL.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL.
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Bridging the gap between the sustainability pillars2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough assessment of the sustainability performance of a product, a system, or a decision requires expertise on environmental, economic, and social aspects. In an assessment that involves researchers from different disciplines, communication is challenging because of different background knowledge, terminology, research traditions, etc.In the research program Towards Sustainable Waste Management, a new approach to interdisciplinary interaction was tested. The program included a group of researchers on life cycle assessment (LCA) and systems analysis of waste management. To this group, specialists in national economy, environmental psychology, and ethnology were linked in various projects. In each specific research project at least 20% of the budget was allocated to a waste LCA expert, who, through participating actively in the project, would be an interpreter, a two-way bridge between the disciplines. The first purpose of this LCA expert was to interpret the sustainability questions and to help make the research relevant for the overall purpose of the research program. The second purpose was to interpret the results of the specialists’ research and to help making the results useful for the overall program.Our experience demonstrates that this set-up forces the specialists and their interpreters/bridges to face the challenge of understanding each other. Establishing such an interdisciplinary interaction requires that the researchers share a mutual interest in trying to reach understanding. However, despite this interest and despite the significant resources made available for the participation, our collaboration was restricted by the fact that it can be difficult for the specialists to find suitable tasks in their projects for the LCA expert. The chance of the interaction being successful increases if the background knowledge of the researchers in the project overlaps, if they have similar research cultures, if they share a common interest in the research questions, and/or if the disciplinary scientists are accustomed to interdisciplinary collaboration.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energy and Waste Management2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management and energy systems are often interlinked, either directly by waste-to-energy technologies, or indirectly as processes for recovery of resources-such as materials, oils, manure, or sludge-use energy in their processes or substitute conventional production of the commodities for which the recycling processes provide raw materials. A special issue in Energies on the topic of “ Energy andWaste Management” attained a lot of attention from the scientific community. In particular, papers contributing to improved understanding of the combined management of waste and energy were invited. In all, 9 papers were published out of 24 unique submissions. The papers cover technical topics such as leaching of heavy metals, pyrolysis, and production of synthetic natural gas in addition to different systems assessments of horse manure, incineration, and complex future scenarios at a national level. All papers except one focused on energy recovery from waste. That particular paper focused on waste management of infrastructure in an energy system (wind turbines). Published papers illustrate research in the field of energy and waste management on both a current detailed process level as well as on a future system level. Knowledge gained on both types is necessary to be able to make progress towards a circular economy.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Nuclear power and resource efficiency-A proposal for a revised primary energy factor2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32-88); for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power) PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU) would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Perspektiv på biogas: En antologi om biogas som drivmedel med fokus på teknik, miljöpåverkan och samhällsnytta2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av utvecklingsprojektet BiogasMitt har Högskolan i Gävle sammanställt denna antologi om biogas. Målgruppen är studenter som läser energi- och miljöteknik på högskolenivå, men den kan också användas i uppdragsutbildning för tjänstemän och politiker som vill veta mer om biogas som samhällsföreteelse.

    Antologin är sammansatt av följande delar:

    Del 1 En kunskapssammanställning om biogas. Denna del är en bearbetad version av en större systemanalys för Gästrikeregionen som Högskolan tagit fram med stöd av forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö. I bearbetningen har vissa delar valts och kompletterats med ny text. Studien i sin helhet är publicerad på BiogasMitts hemsida och skriven av Ola Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson. Texten publicerad här är bearbetad av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 2 Varför kommunerna är viktiga för framväxten av biogas. Denna del baseras på en presentation framförd vid seminariet ”LNG och LBG i Gävleborg och Dalarna?” som hölls i Stora gasklockan i Gävle torsdagen den 29 september av Ola Eriksson. Föredraget har dokumenterats i löpande text och anpassats till antologins format av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 3 Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad i boken “Natural Gas” editedby Primoz Potocnik. Författare är Ola Eriksson.

    Del 4 Improvements in environmental performance of biogas production from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad som ett bidrag till konferensen World Renewable Energy Congresss om hölls i Linköping 8-12 maj 2011. Huvudförfattare är Ola Eriksson. Medförfattare är Mattias Bisaillon, Mårten Haraldsson och Johan Sundberg.

    Del 5 Energianalys av Svensk Växtkrafts biogasanläggning i Västerås. Denna del återger i sin helhet ett examensarbete som handletts av Ola Eriksson. Författare är Jenny Liljestam Cerruto.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge: environmental and economic life cycle performance2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 175, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Integrated waste management as a mean to promote renewable energy2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 61, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to both increase resource efficiency (material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal) and to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources (waste is renewable in itself to a large extent as it contains paper, wood, food waste etc.). The paper presents the general outline and results from a comprehensive system study of future waste management. In the study a multifunctional waste management system integrated with local energy systems for district heating and electricity, wastewater treatment, agriculture and vehicle fuel production is investigated with respect to environmental impact and financial economy. Different waste technologies as well as management strategies have been tested. The treatment is facilitated through advanced sorting, efficient treatment facilities and upgrading of output products. Tools used are the ORWARE model for the waste management system and the MARTES model for the district heating system. The results for potential global warming are used as an indicator for renewable energy. In all future scenarios and for all management strategies net savings of CO2 is accomplished. Compared to a future reference the financial costs will be higher or lower depending on management strategy. 

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on waste incineration as part of the energy system show that waste management and energy supply are highly dependent on each other, and that the preconditions for the energy system setup affects the avoided emissions and thereby even sometimes the total outcome of an environmental assessment. However, it has not been previously shown explicitly which key parameters are most crucial, how much each parameter affects results and conclusions and how different aspects depend on each other. The interconnection between waste incineration and the energy system is elaborated by testing parameters potentially crucial to the result: design of the incineration plant, avoided energy generation, degree of efficiency, electricity efficiency in combined heat and power plants (CHP), avoided fuel, emission level of the avoided electricity generation and avoided waste management. CO2 emissions have been calculated for incineration of 1 kWh mixed combustible waste. The results indicate that one of the most important factors is the electricity efficiency in CHP plants in combination with the emission level of the avoided electricity generation. A novel aspect of this study is the plant by plant comparison showing how different electricity efficiencies associated with different types of fuels and plants influence results. Since waste incineration typically have lower power to fuel ratios, this has implications for further analyses of waste incineration compared to other waste management practises and heat and power production technologies. New incineration capacity should substitute mixed landfill disposal and recovered energy should replace energy from inefficient high polluting plants. Electricity generation must not be lost, as it has to be compensated for by electricity production affecting the overall results.

  • 33.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hästkrafter och hästnäring – hållbara systemlösningar för biogas och biogödsel: Explorativ systemanalys med datormodellen ORWARE2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of horses in Sweden is increasing and according to estimated statistics from Swedish Board of Agriculture, there are an estimated amount of 360,000 horses in the country. These horses are found in different types of activities (agriculture, trail riding, trot and canter, etc.) and they generate large quantities of horse manure. Horse manure consists of feces, urine and bedding material which various bedding materials used to various amount. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest for horse manure be subject to anaerobic digestion and thereby produce biogas has increased with the increased interest in biogas as a renewable fuel.

    This study has aimed to highlight the environmental impact of different ways to treat horse manure from a system perspective. Special attention has been focused on the involve­ment of different types of litter/bedding material and how it affects the effective­ness of various treatment processes. The treatment methods investigated are

    1. Unmanged composting
    2. Managed Composting
    3. Large-scale incineration in a waste fired CHP plant
    4. Drying and small-scale combustion
    5. Solid state anaerobic digestion
    6. Liquid state anaerobic digestion with and without thermal pre-treatment

    Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative, but they still point to large-scale incineration as an environmentally sound method. An excep­tion is the contribution to climate impact where digestion in different forms are preferred. Based on the study of various bedding materials, paper pellet appear as an interesting alternative to move forward with.

    The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden; University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Avfallsprevention i stålindustrin: Exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med extern granskning av forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering kom det fram att mer fokus borde läggas på att beskriva åtgärder som träffar högt upp i avfallshierarkin, d.v.s. att undvika att avfall uppkommer, återanvändning och återvinning. Denna rapport utgår från detta önskemål och beskriver hur återvinning och prevention av interna restproduktflöden inom stålindustrin kan gå till och ger exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology. Underlag till denna studie är ett studiebesök på SMT i Sandviken, samtal med Lotta Lind som arbetade som restproduktingenjör och granskning av textdokument som miljörapport och ett tidigare utfört examensarbete. Rapporten är en syntes utifrån dessa källor.

    I rapporten redovisas vilka problem och lösningar som finns för rent metallavfall som skrot, spånor och stofter, metalloxider som gasreningstoft och glödskal, metallhydroxidslam, slagger och blyhaltigt avfall. Det rena metallavfallet återanvänds redan till 100 % i processen, ofta internt men ibland av extern aktör. För metalloxider i form av glödskal finns det en fungerande återvinningsprocess utan för SMT, men planer finns på att göra investeringar för att SMT själva skall kunna ta hand om avfallet. Metallhydroxidslam deponeras men det finns långt gångna planer för hur processer och rening skall ändras så att slammet skall kunna återvinnas. Även för slagg, som är det till mängden mest betydelsefulla avfallet, finns planer för hur den nuvarande deponeringen skall kunna minskas drastiskt till förmån för återbruk och återvinning av materialet som exempelvis konstruktionsmaterial på deponier. Blyhaltiga avfall har visat sig kunna värmebehandlas så att blyet kan återvinnas. Resultatet blir att värdefullt och miljöfarligt bly recirkuleras inom SMT och de rester som blir kvar skulle kunna klassas om till icke-farligt.

    Samtliga exempel på avfallsprevention bygger på tankar om ökad recirkulering, extern avsättning för uppkomna restprodukter och minskad mängd restprodukt per mängd prima vara producerad. Förutom betydande miljömässiga fördelar uppvisar många av förändringarna goda ekonomiska resultat efter relativt kort tid.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Biogas i Gästrikeregionen - BiG: En systemanalys2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I södra Sverige finns en tämligen väl utbyggd infrastruktur för biogas (Gasföreningen, 2009). Totalt finns över 92 tankställen för personbilar och 30 tankställen för tunga fordon i landet. Gävleborgs län kallas ibland för ”stopplänet” eftersom det finns, eller kommer snart att finnas, fordonsgas såväl söderut, norrut som västerut. Förutom en lokal användning av biogas i regionen så passerar en betydande del av de bilburna semesterfirarna vårt län på väg till fjällen eller sommarvisten. En del av dessa vill kunna tanka biogas här.

    Undersökningar utförda på uppdrag av Gästrike Avfallshantering AB 1999 gav vid handen att det fanns för lite slakteriavfall för att göra rötning lönsamt. Några år senare ställdes frågan på nytt om vilken sorts biologisk behandling man borde ha och då valdes kompostering framför rötning p.g.a. teknikkrångel på andra ställen. Dessutom visade undersökningarna inte på någon större efterfrågan på biogas.

    Målet har varit att i en systemanalys ge en samlad bild av förutsättningarna (fysiska och icke-fysiska) för etablering av biogas i Gästrikeregionen. Systemanalysen har utförts i flera delar:

    1. Aktörsanalys
    2. Teknik- och omvärldsbevakning
    3. SWOT-analys
    4. Teknisk systemanalys

    Resultaten visar att det i regionen, eventuellt med stöd av omgivande regioner, finns möjligheter att röta avfallet. Anläggningarna är tekniskt sett bättre idag, det borde gå att få tag på tillräckligt med substrat som ger tillräckligt med gas och det finns efterfrågan på gasen.

    För att detta skall ske så måste kommunerna (förvaltningar, bolag, kommunalförbund) jobba samlat och klara av att hantera alla olika brickor i biogasspelet. Nästa lika viktiga är lantbrukarna som skulle kunna få fram stora mängder substrat samtidigt som de är viktiga för återförningen av rötrest till åkermark. Dessvärre noterar vi vissa samarbetssvårigheter mellan lantbrukare och kommun.

    Vad krävs då för att det skall bli någon biogasproduktion i regionen? Listan över kriterier som behöver vara uppfyllda för att biogasproduktion skall komma till stånd kan göras oändlig men vi har i denna studie försökt vaska fram några huvuddrag. Vi har redan betonat vikten av regional samordning inom kommunsfären och i synnerhet kommuner visavi lantbruket. Det handlar om förtroendeskapande åtgärder och det handlar om letter-of-intent och avtal för att säkra substratleveranser och avsättning för rötrest och biogas. Priset på fossil energi liksom den nationella energi- och miljöpolitiken påverkar på mer än ett sätt hur snabbt utvecklingen sker. Lokaliseringsfrågan är också en nöt att knäcka där vi i denna studie visat att det finns för- och nackdelar med både Forsbacka och Duvbacken. Det som avgör det hela är ifall det går att räkna hem en satsning ekonomiskt. Affärsmässigheten bedöms av Gävle Energi i en separat studie (dock med andra geografiska gränser).

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Hållbar konsumtion och hållbar avfallshantering - vad är det?: Diskussion kring dagsläget och framtiden : Dokumentation från seminarium och workshop på Högskolan i Gävle den 18 mars 20102013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I samarbete med forskare inom forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering inbjöd forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö till en heldag om avfall och konsumtion. Inbjudan riktades till kommuner, länsstyrelser, företag och organisationer i Gävleborg och Dalarna. Under förmiddagen hölls ett antal olika föredrag och presentationer med en avslutande paneldebatt. Eftermiddagen bjöd på en workshop med gruppvisa diskussioner kring vilka styrmedel som skulle fungera regionalt och lokalt samt kring avfallsminimering (avfallsprevention). Forskningsseminariet ägde rum torsdagen den 18 mars på Högskolan i Gävle.

    Syftet med seminariet var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning till branschfolk samt att fånga upp vilka styrmedel som kan vara aktuella på lokal respektive regional nivå, men även diskutera mekanismer för att åstadkomma avfallsminimering. Dokumentationen av seminariet följer programmet.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Regional avfallshantering: Slutrapport från projekt finansierat av Forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje svensk kommun är skyldig att upprätta en avfallsplan som redogör för hur avfallet som uppkommer i kommunen skall omhändertas. Den nuvarande avfallsplanen för Gästrikeregionen (som omfattar kommunerna Gävle, Sandviken, Hofors, Ockelbo och Älvkarleby) gäller för perioden 2011-2020. Avfallsplanen arbetades fram under 2009-2010 med Högskolan i Gävle som deltagare. I anslutning till detta utvecklingsarbete har högskolan arbetat med ett antal frågeställningar med koppling till avfallsplanen:

    • Miljöbedömning av avfallsplanen
    • Förebyggande av avfall
    • Människors beteende avseende sortering
    • Fastighetsnära insamling
    • Minskning av fossila koldioxidutsläpp
    • Energiberäkningar för material som lämnas via återvinningscentraler
    • Förutsättningar för och konsekvenser av en övergång från kompostering till rötning av matavfallet

    Projektet har pågått under 2009-2010 med Ola Norrman Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson som utförare. Utredningen har genomförts genom intervjuer, litteraturstudier, personlig kommunikation och ett publikt seminarium.

    Resultaten visar att en miljöbedömning av en avfallsplan är en komplex och omfattande uppgift. Bedömningen bör göras utifrån nuläget och beskriva de framtida konsekvenserna av de mål och åtgärder som planen föreskriver. Projektet har genom ett välbesökt seminarium också visat att samhället ännu inte funnit formerna för att arbeta med förebyggande åtgärder. Att på bästa sätt hantera ett uppkommet avfall är en sak, att förhindra dess uppkomst en annan. För produktionsavfall finns det goda exempel, medan det för konsumtionsavfall är betydligt svårare.

    Beteendevetenskapliga studier inom området visar att det är en utmaning att utforma information på ett sådant sätt att den når alla typer av mottagare och får dessa att agera i enlighet med infor-mationen. Vi människor tänker mer i termer av att återanvända och sortera olika slags material, snarare än att fundera på vad som är förpackning eller ej. Sortering av avfall är något folk i regel förväntar sig ska vara enkelt att utföra och det måste vara bekvämt. Införande av fastighetsnära insamling är ett sätt att underlätta och i de kommuner där det införts har mängderna återvinningsbart material ökat kraftigt samtidigt som mängderna brännbart restavfall minskat markant. Ett ökat insamlingsarbete för kommunen skall vägas mot minskat bilåkande till återvinningsstationer och återvinningscentraler samt minskade transporter till förbränning och därmed associerade utsläpp. Då återvinning generellt är bättre för miljön än förbränning uppstår vinster även i behandlingsledet. Studien visar också att avfall kan transporteras långa sträckor till återvinningscentraler utan att på något sätt hota den miljövinst som görs genom att avfallet materialåtervinns eller energiutvinns.

    Vid en övergång från kompostering till rötning tillkommer nya bioråvaror och denna studie visar på några av de faktorer man måste ta hänsyn till vid kapacitetsberäkningar. Detta är av yttersta vikt då mängder och gaspotentialer ligger som grund för de investeringskalkyler som upprättas och kan vara avgörande för om en biogasanläggning alls byggs. Men det är inte bara biogas som produceras utan även en biogödsel som bör komma in i kretsloppet. Studien redovisar svar från lantbrukare kring frågor om leverans av gödsel och användning av biogödsel liksom intresset för delägarskap i en framtida anläggning. Studien ger också några svar på frågor kring hur sorteringsinformationen bör förändras.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    Svensk avfallshantering: Diskussion kring dagsläget och branschens forskningsbehov : Dokumentation från workshop på Högbo bruk 19 Januari 20052013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö inbjöd i samarbete med Högskolan i Gävle till en eftermiddag och kväll med workshop-diskussioner kring var avfallshanteringen i Sverige står idag och vilka frågor som behöver få en lösning framöver. Workshopen ägde rum onsdag 19 januari 2005 kl. 12-21 på Högbo Bruk i Sandviken.

    Syftet med workshopen var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning (frågeställningar, kompetenser och idéer för framtiden) till branschfolk samt att tillsammans lokalisera vilka frågor som engagerar mest och där vi kan göra en gemensam insats. I konkreta termer vill stiftelsen hitta kompletterande forskning till den verksamhet som redan bedrivs vid Högskolan i Gävle och som i enlighet med Stiftelsens och Gästrike Återvinnares önskemål är inriktad på människors och företags attityder, kunskaper och göranden.

    Dokumentationen följer workshopens program så som det genomfördes. Bilagorna är upplagda enligt följande:

    Bilaga 1 är en kopia av programmet.

    Bilaga 2-8 innehåller det underlag som användes vid de olika presentationerna.

    Bilaga 9 innehåller en förteckning över de personer som deltog på workshopen.

    Bilaga 10 innehåller det förslag som Leif Magnusson lade fram angående grundandet av Föreningen Avfallsforskning.

  • 41.
    Farah, Hussein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Björnholm, William
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Mohamud, Abdirahim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Miljöbyggnad och hållbart byggande: En fallstudie på Almvägen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability in the construction and real estate sector has gained more attention in recent decades. In Sweden, the parliament and the Government work on a global and nation level to achieve increased sustainability in the construction industry. Today, the construction and real estate sector is responsible for many of the world's environmental problems such as pollution, marine exploitation and waste. In order to achieve higher sustainability, an environmental certification of building can be done, which means a transparent assessment of sustainability of a building. Today, there are over 500 environmental classification systems in the world. Among the systems, is Miljöbyggnad the most used system in Sweden with more than 1100 certified buildings by 2018. Miljöbyggnad is a Swedish certification system that is designed and adapted to Swedish conditions. The system contains various indicators aimed at encouraging low energy use, good indoor environment and a good choice of materials.

    This thesis aims at studying in what degree Miljöbyggnad is used in Sweden and whether the system can be used to reflect the building's sustainability. Furthermore, the purpose is to check whether the number of sustainable buildings in Gävle is in line with the “Gäle kommuns” forecast by assessing a "non-certified" building, Almvägen, in Gävle. Research methods in this degree project was a combination of site visits, computer simulations, questionnaires, mathematical calculations, environmental engineering manuals and literature studies via databases, books and other types of reports. In addition, the authors have also conducted various qualitative interviews with a politician, representatives from the municipality of Gävle and AB Gavlegårdarna.

    The reference case is a multi-family house located in the neighborhood Almvägen, owned by AB Gavlegårdarna. The result clearly showed that the multi-family house achieved the grade SILVER according to Miljöbyggnad´s requirements and criteria. Furthermore, the interview showed that Miljöbyggnad was considered a good tool for achieving increased durability in the construction industry.

    However, Miljöbyggnad does not cover social and economic sustainability to a large extent as environmental sustainability. What is most focused on the system is environmental improvements, that is, the ecology, which results in an unfair saturation of the building's sustainability. On the other hand, the systems are constantly evolving and updated continuously, which may mean that there is room for improvement to also measure the social and economic sustainability of the building to the same extent.

  • 42.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Thomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL.
    Stemarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olof
    IVL.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Regeringen måste satsa på resurseffektivt samhälle2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2013-04-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Regeringen förbereder en avfallspolitisk proposition. Den kommer förhoppningsvis att klargöra vem som ska ha ansvaret att samla in våra förpackningar. Men fokus borde också ligga på hur vi kan gå mot ett samhälle där resurser används så effektivt som möjligt, skriver forskare på miljöområdet.

  • 43.
    Gordon, Line
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crona, Bea
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; WorldFish, Jalan Batu Maung, Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia.
    van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Leonard N Stern School of Business, Center for Sustainable Business, New York, NY, United States.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Global Economic Dynamics and the Biosphere Program, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship.2017In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 100201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere

  • 44.
    Gren, Åsa
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; The Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berghauser-Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How smart is smart growth? Examining the environmental validation behind city compaction2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart growth (SG) is widely adopted by planners and policy makers as an environmentally friendly way of building cities. In this paper, we analyze the environmental validity of the SG-approach based on a review of the scientific literature. We found a lack of proof of environmental gains, in combination with a great inconsistency in the measurements of different SG attributes. We found that a surprisingly limited number of studies have actually examined the environmental rationales behind SG, with 34% of those studies displaying negative environmental outcomes of SG. Based on the insights from the review, we propose that research within this context must first be founded in more advanced and consistent knowledge of geographic and spatial analyses. Second, it needs to a greater degree be based on a system's understanding of urban processes. Third, it needs to aim at making cities more resilient, e.g., against climate-change effects.

  • 45.
    Guven, Huseyin
    et al.
    Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Wang, Zhao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Ozturk, Izzet
    Istanbul Technical University, Civil Engineering Faculty, Environmental Engineering Department, Ayazaga Campus, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Life cycle assessment of upgrading options of a preliminary wastewater treatment plant including food waste addition2018In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 145, p. 518-530, article id S0043-1354(18)30691-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a beneficial tool to evaluate the performance of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and to compare different upgrading options. The main objective of this study is to investigate the environmental impact of upgrading options of a preliminary WWTP in Istanbul, Turkey. The preliminary plant currently consists of mechanical treatment units and various upgrading options including primary treatment and high-rate activated sludge system (HRAS) process as well as the addition of food waste to wastewater were compared. Results showed that the baseline scenario (S0) had worse performance than all future scenarios (S1-3) except for climate change. The scenario of adding food waste to wastewater (S3) has the best performance in climate change, terrestrial acidification, terrestrial ecotoxicity and fossil depletion. Increased addition of food waste was also tested in the sensitivity analysis, and major improvements were obtained especially in climate change and terrestrial ecotoxicity.

  • 46.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Anaerobic digestion of horse manure: renewable energy and plant nutrients in a systems perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In horse keeping horse manure is produced, which can be utilized as a fertilizer or considered a waste. Horse manure constitutes a resource in terms of both plant nutrients and energy. In addition energy policies and objectives aim at replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. The interest to improve resource recovery of horse manure increases due various incentives for renewable vehicle fuels, legal requirements on management of manure, and environmental impact from current horse manure management.

    This thesis aims at describing horse manure management in a life cycle perspective. This is made by (1) identifying factors in horse keeping affect­ing the possibility to use horse manure as a biogas feedstock and to recycle plant nutrients, (2) analysing factors in anaerobic digestion with influence on methane potential and biofertilizer nutrient content and (3) comparing the environmental impact from different horse manure treatment methods. Literature reviews, systematic combining, and simulations have been used as research methods.

    The results show that horse keeping activities such as feeding, indoor keeping, outdoor keeping and manure storage affect the amount and charac­teristics of horse manure and thereby also the possibilities for anaerobic digestion horse manure. Transport affects the collected amount and spread­ing affects loss of nutrients and nutrient recycling. Simulation results in­dicate the highest methane yield and energy balance from paper bedding, while straw and peat gave a higher nutrient content of the biofertilizer. The highest methane yield was achieved with a low rate of bedding, which in the cases of woodchips and paper is also preferable for plant nutrient recycling. Still, results indicate the best energy balance from anaerobic digestion with a high ratio of bedding. The environmental impact assessment indicates a reduction in global warming potential for anaerobic digestion compared to incineration or composting.

  • 47.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    From waste problem to renewable energy resource: exploring horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable energy system requires, according to energy policies, reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, increased ratio of renewable sources of energy and more efficient use of energy. Horse manure could be regarded as waste, but also as a resource for renewable energy and plant nutrients. This thesis explores the potential of horse manure as a renewable energy source, and its possibilities to support and contribute to energy and environmental objectives. To do this, data was collected from literature, simulations, study visits and interviews.

    A number of horse keeping activities were identified in the assessment of horse manure as a feedstock for energy and as a plant resource: feeding, indoor housing, outdoor keeping, manure storage, fertilizing and transport, all with effect on amount and content of horse manure. Results indicated that choice and amount of bedding are important for both energy performance and plant nutrient content in the biofertilizer. Operational conditions such as long hydraulic retention time and high temperature had less impact for horse manure as a biogas feedstock. Anaerobic digestion resulted in the lowest global warming potential compared to incineration and composting, while large-scale incineration reduced primary energy demand, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. In a subsequent simulation, anaerobic digestion had lower potential environmental impact than unmanaged composting, regarding all chosen environmental impact categories in the study. Experiences from energy companies suggest that horse manure can be used in small quantities in co-incineration, with suitable incineration technology, but odor was mentioned as a problem. Farm-scale incineration required continuous maintenance and monitoring and mixing with pellets. As a feedstock for anaerobic digestion horse manure was regarded as suitable for plug-flow processes while stirred processes experienced more technical problems leading to increased cost for plants. With adaption of horse manure to the energy recovery technology to be used, and adaption at energy conversion plants to homogenous materials, this not yet fully utilized bioenergy resource has potential to contribute with renewable energy to the energy system, and thereby also reduce environmental impact from horse manure treatment

  • 48.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 65, p. 506-518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible.

  • 49.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    A review of potential critical factors in horse keeping for anaerobic digestion of horse manure2016In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, p. 432-442Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping horses causes environmental impacts through the whole chain from feed production to manure. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is currently 360,000 and is continuing to increase. This result in increasing amounts of horse manure that has to be managed and treated, which is currently done using practices that cause local, regional, and global environmental impacts. However, horse manure and its content of nutrients and organic material could be a useful fertiliser for arable land and a substrate for renewable energy production as biogas. The aim of the paper is to identify and describe potentially critical factors in horse keeping determining the amount (total mass) and characteristics (nutrient content and biodegradability) of horse manure, and thus the potential for anaerobic digestion. A systematic combining approach is used as a structural framework for reviewed relevant literature. All factors identified are expressed as discrete choices available to the horse keeper. In all, 12 different factors were identified: type and amount of feed, type and amount of bedding, mucking out regime, residence time outdoors, storage type and residence time of manure in storage, spreading and soil conditions, and transport distance and type of vehicle fuel used. Managing horses in terms of these factors is of vital importance in reducing the direct environmental impacts from horse keeping and in making horse manure attractive as a substrate for anaerobic digestion. The results are also relevant to environmental systems analysis, where numerical calculations are employed and different biogas system set-ups are compared to current and other treatments. In such assessments, the relevance and importance of the critical factors identified here and corresponding conditions can be examined and the most promising system set-up can be devised.

  • 50.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energi och växtnäring från hästgödsel: Förbehandling, rötning och biogödselavsättning2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of horses in society is increasing and today, according to Swedish Board of Agriculture, there are approximately 360,000 horses in Sweden, where three-quarters are found in urban or near-urban environments. All these horses will, according to calcula­tions, give rise to a total amount of manure of up to 1.4 million tons per year. If this manure is digested efficiently, this corresponds to an annual biogas production of 641 GWh, which is almost half of all biogas produced in Sweden in 2010. Although there are some practical limitations on how much of the potential that can be exploited, there is nevertheless a significant potential for increased use of renewable energy. By collecting manure and digesting it, three environmental benefits can be achieved:

    1. Emissions from conventional management where the manure is piled and stored, or spontaneously composted, are avoided
    2. Anaerobic digestion of manure produces biogas that can be used to generate elec­tricity and heat and, after upgrading (purification and pressure increase), as vehicle fuel; thereby fossil fuel emissions are reduced
    3. The resulting digestate can be used in agriculture, thereby replacing chemical ferti­lizer which provides additional environmental benefits

    Despite all these possibilities there are some obstacles and gaps in knowledge. This report is a systematic review of the state of knowledge about horse manure management, pre­treatment methods, digestion methods of horse manure, as well as aspects of the prolifer­ation of bio-fertilizer from horse manure. This part is mainly qualitative descriptions while subsequent reports present indicative calculations of the environmental benefits of different ways to design the management.

    The conclusions are that there are many factors that point to extract energy from horse manure, e.g. there are significant amounts of manure relatively close to urban areas, the straw bedding materials provide a supplement in biogas production, there is plenty of land for spreading digestate, and an improved horse manure management is also a good water protection measure. Drawbacks are that the digestion of horse manure is relatively untested and it is difficult to assess how increased waste management costs affect the horse industry. Another conclusion is the general lack of knowledge of horse manure from an environmental perspective at a level required for reliable environmental assess­ments. Nevertheless we hope to be able to propose system solutions which to a greater extent than previously should prove to work technically and be economically feasible. If these systems are translated into practical reality, environmental gains can be made through reduced environmental impact, reduced eutrophication, increased biodiversity and reduced use of finite resources.

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