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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Sören
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effect of Assembly Errors in Back-to-Back Gear Efficiency Testing2015In: Power Transmission Engineeing, Vol. December, p. 72-77Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Modelling of metal removal rate in titanium alloy milling2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium is one of fourth most abundant structural metal in earths soil. It is in a composition with other elements, forming titanium alloys. These alloys are used in many different areas, such as medical, energy and sports, but is most commonly used in aerospace applications. Titanium alloys have different solid phases, α, α+β and β depending on temperature and the amount of α and β-stabilizers.When machining titanium alloys, one of the most important factors to control is the temperature in the cutting zone. The built-up heat in the cutting edge of the tool, are connected to titanium alloys low thermal conductivity and high heat capacity, which means that the alloy has low heat conduction from the cutting zone. The temperature is strongly depending on the cutting speed, which is the relative speed difference between the cutting tool and the workpiece. Many studies and research work have been conducted surrounding this fact, focusing on the physical and chemical quantities, to model tool wear progression and how this affects the tool life and the metal removal. These models are often implemented and analyzed in finite element software providing detailed but time-consuming solutions.The focus for this work have been on developing a suitable tool life expectancy model, using design of experiments in combination with metamodeling to establish a model connecting cutting parameters and measured responses in terms of tool life, from a conducted milling experiment. This models where supposed to provide a platform for customer recommendation and cutting data optimization to secure reliable machining operations. The study was limited to focus on the common α+β titanium alloy 6Al-4V. The outcome and conclusion for this study, is that the tool life is strongly connected to the choice of cutting speed and the radial width of cut and that these parameters can be predicted by the two models that have been develop in this project. The models ensure the highest possible metal removal rate, to selected parameters.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Reducering av icke värdeskapande aktiviteter vid tillverkning av träemballage2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emballagefabriken manufactures packaging solutions made of wood and plywood. Low profitability prevails on the manual assembly department of the company, due to a long throughput time in the manufacture of the Plywood box. The production is performed in four steps and begins at the saw department followed by the printing department, then the cnc department and finally the assembly. The purpose of this work was to reduce the non-value-added activities that occurred in the production flow.

    To get an overview of the current situation, a material flow analysis was performed followed by a preliminary study that identified which activities were performed in each department. With this in mind, quantitative time studies of activities were conducted in parallel with qualitative observa-tions. Finally, all activities were classified in cooperation with production staff and production manager.

    The time studies resulted in a mapping of non-value-added activities, which were then analyzed. Finally, improvement proposals were put forward that the company could implement.

    The conclusion of the work showed that there was potential to reduce, and in some cases eliminate, non-value-adding activities.

  • 4.
    Jönsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Sebelius, Christoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av kolfiberchassi till GiGtechs fordon Reborn2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Shell Eco Marathon is a competition where the goal is to make a vehicle as energy efficient as possible. One team that compete in the competition is HiGtech, whose vehicle is using a frame of steel pipes. Because of that, their vehicle weight more than most of the competitors who uses carbon fiber monocoques. Therefore, in order to be able to compete with the best teams, a carbon fiber monocoque is required. The purpose with the thesis is to reduce the weight of HiGtech:s car and the goal is to develop a finished model for a monocoque. Included in the goal is also to develop a new steering function and engine bracket and new solutions for the wheels and brakes attachment to the vehicle.

    After a literature study, it was decided that the carrying details of the monocoque should be built by using a Sandwich construction to reduce the weight and factors that affects the strength was looked in to.

    Three concepts for the monocoque was developed using brainstorming, which was evaluated with results from Finite Element Analyses when the concepts was evaluated relative each other. After a winning concept was determined, it was further developed and dimensions and strength for the carrying details was set using Ansys ACP module where a safety against collapse could be determined.

    After the monocoque was developed, concepts for steering and engine bracket could be developed. The concepts was evaluated and a winning concept was chosen to be further developed and dimensioned. Solutions for the wheels and brakes attachment to the vehicle was made and dimensioned.

    A honeycomb-core with a thickness of 25 mm is needed. Two layers of carbon fiber is needed on the frame around the geometry is needed, one layer on each side. On the bottom plate it is needed two layers on each side. This will give a safety on 2,5 against structural collapse and a mass on 8,7 kg. The engine mount will have a safety clearance of 12. The torque rod will have a saftey on 5. For the front wheelbarrowing the safety will be 4 and for the rear suspension the safety will be 2.

    Since the modell for the body is not compatible whit Inventor could the strenght of the body not be calculated with. The bottomplate could be optimized further, which should decrease the weight furhter.

  • 5.
    Larsson, Pontus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av ett internt produktionsflöde: En fallstudie hos ett tillverkande företags bättringsflöde i ett måleri2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Business efficiency enhancements are an important part of corporate survival, in recent decades, interest in efficient material flows has increased more and more. By constantly improving, companies save time and money. This work focusses on streamlining a production flow in a company.

    A literature study was conducted to highlight different key factors for an effective process, to create an understanding of different concepts and to lay the foundation for different types of analyzes later used in the study. In order to get an overall picture of the actual process to be studied, case study was used as a method which includes interviews and observations.

    Three proposals were dealt with by examining the key factors that emerged during the literature study, through the analysis of the interviews and the analysis of observations. Factors that were also considered were how these key factors relate to each other. The proposals were evaluated through a Pugh-matrix where one of the proposals emerged as the strongest, which is then recommended to use by the company. The recommended production flow is expected to reduce lead time from current production flows, which is 114 and 196 minutes to the new estimated lead time which is twelve minutes for each production flow. With the recommended production flow, both the transport and management of the part items decrease, and 4.25 people are released from the work stations, which means that these resources can be used to within other applications within the company and that more loading space for incoming goods is released.

  • 6.
    Lindström, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundkvist, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hantering av komponenter till hydraulsystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Hudiksvall there is a company that manufactures and develops hydraulic grippers for handling wood, scrap and building materials. The company's proprietary hydraulic cylinder was analyzed by the Institute for Applied Hydraulics in Örnsköldsvik (ITH). Their analysis showed that the hydraulic system contained a large amount of impurities. Pollution from manufacturing and assembly remained in the gripper's hydraulic system in deliverable products, indicating that faults occur in handling and cleaning of components. Therefore, there was a need to investigate whether the cleaning equipment used was able to clean components to the level required. Handling of cleaned components needed to be investigated to ensure that the products kept the cleanliness required until final assembly. The aim of the work was to propose measures and procedures to reduce the number and amount of pollution through better washing and management methods.

    A theoretical reference frame was created by literature study of relevant scientific articles and publications, in order to create a greater understanding of how the hydraulics are affected by contamination and how they could be avoided when assembling hydraulic components, even cleaning methods were studied.

    During the work, methods have been combined to carry out a mapping of handling in the process flow. The methods that have been combined, within a case study at the company, are status report, observations and process flow charts.

    The result of the observations, is that the cleaning equipment used failed to deliver the cleanliness needed. That the company, in its process flow, has long rest periods for readymade components in a dirty environment. The measures proposed by the project team were to replace the washing equipment and to keep the dustprotected components.

    Despite the use of a case study, can this work be a guide for other companies in similar situations, which implies some generalization of the work when the company in which the case study is conducted is believed to be a typical production of hydraulic cylinders.

    The conclusion of the work was that after replacing the cleaning equipment and through better and dustprotected storage, the company will be able to deliver grippers with a high level of cleanliness.

  • 7.
    Loikkanen, Joona
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hemgren, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av erosionsnötning på material till bergborrningsverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik Mining and Rock technology is a company that focuses on rock drilling. They offer a complete product line for mining and three specific products are top hammer-, down-the-hole- and rotary bits. These drill bits are subjects to erosion when drilling due to the discharge of rock cuttings out of the hole. The cuttings are removed with a fluid, often water or air which combined creates the erosive media. Erosion is a phenomenon that slowly wears materials and if not prevented can cause failures on the products. The main objective with this study is to identify how erosion resistant the steel materials, which the products are made of, are relative each other and what the damages can be in the microstructure. The goal with this study is to create a baseline with information so better material choices can be made in the future.

    The method used in this paper is an erosion test based on ASTM G76 standard. The test equipment used fulfilled the standard with minor deviations. Specimens from seven different steels were manufactured with sizes of 25·20·5 mm, and heat treated to get the correct hardness values. Five samples were manufactured for each type of steel to get a good reliability. The parameters that were used were particle velocity of 50 m s-1, a particle flow of 2.0 g·min-1, an impact angle of 30º and a test time of 10 minutes in total per sample. The weight loss was measured every two minutes. The erosive particles chosen were sieved angular aluminum oxide with a nominal size of 50 micrometers. The loss of weight was noted for each sample and a mean loss was calculated and later converted to volume loss per gram erosion media. One sample of each steel type was investigated in a scanning electron microscope, to identify what type of wear mechanism that occurred in the micro structure.

    The results showed that the steel type AISI 4140 had worn the least. EN36C had the highest loss of volume. This result is not ensured due to deviations in the results. AISI 4140 had among the lowest hardness values and EN36C the highest. That means that the hardness did not correlate with the erosion in this study. The mean erosion rate was even for all the steel types, and the erosion had created a pit in the surface that looked the same on all specimens. The scanning electron microscope showed that the wear mechanisms found were of plowing and cutting character which is typical for ductile materials such as steel. 

    The conclusion of this investigation is that AISI 4140 could be chosen when erosion is an issue. It needs however more testing time in the erosion tester to confirm the results.

  • 8.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Bar mill cost benchmarking in the European Union, North America and Eastern Europe2017In: Stahl und Eisen (1881), ISSN 0340-4803, Vol. 137, no 11, p. 115-121Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Comparative analysis of expenses for section rolling mills in different European and American countries2018In: Chernye Metally, ISSN 0132-0890, no 9, p. 69-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benchmarking is a method to compare similar plants. Several problems arise in the evaluation of the similarity. Therefore the actual benchmarking was divided into three areas, the European Union, North America and Eastern Europe. The transformation cost was compared for new mills rolling 750,000 t/a. The costs are of the same order in the different areas. The advantage of low hourly wages in Eastern Europe is lost due to the larger mill crew. Higher mill capacity give lower cost. This is a threat to many EU-located bar mills. A model to calculate the transformation cost as a function of the capacity was developed. The model give fairly good predictions. Comparison of the calculated cost to the costs of the investigated new mills show sufficient conformity. The weakest point is the estimation of the capital cost, which is not technologically determined. This is probably the main reason for deviations in transformation costs shown for similar plants.

  • 10.
    Madeleine, Wedlund
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonathan, Bergman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Decision support model for selecting additive or subtractive manufacturing2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a manufacturing method where components are produced by successively adding material to the product layer by layer, unlike traditional machining where material is subtracted from a workpiece. There are advantages and disadvantages with both methods and it can be a complex problem to determine when one method is preferable to the other. The purpose of this study is to develop a decision support model (DSM) that quickly guides the end user in selecting an appropriate method with regards to production costs. Information is gathered through a literature study and interviews with people working with AM and CNC machining. The model takes into consideration material selection, size, times, quantities, geometric complexity, post-processing and environmental aspects.

    The DSM was formulated in Microsoft Excel. The difference in costs between each method in relation to quantity and complexity was made and compared to the literature. The AM model is verified with calculations from the Sandvik Additive Manufacturing. The margin of error is low, around two to six percent, when waste material isn’t included in the calculations. Unfortunately, verification of the CNC model hasn’t been performed due to a lack of data, which is therefore recommended as future work.

    The conclusion of the study is that AM will not replace any existing manufacturing method anytime soon. It is, however, a good complement to the metalworking industry, since small, complex parts with few tolerances benefits from AM.

    An investigation of existing solutions/services related to the study was also performed with the ambition that the DSM can complement existing solutions. It was found that while there are many services that helps companies with implementing AM through consulting, few provides any software to assist the company. Regarding the question if AM is profitable for certain products, only one software fulfilled that demand, though it didn’t provide any actual costs. The DSM therefore fills a gap among the existing services and software.

  • 11.
    Rahim, Nadir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Wall, Karl Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av modulbaserad bärande ram till kabinhissar: tillhörande Cibes Lift skruvhissar2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cibes Lift manufacture screw driven stair, platform and cabin Lifts. Among the company´s ambition is to lower their manufacturing costs and expand their cabin model range following a high demand; particularly from the private sector.

     

    The purpose of this work is to design a frame easily adaptable to several cabin sizes. The objective is to design a modular frame in accordance with the EU Machinery Directive and with a maximum cost of 5500 SEK.

     

    The redesign began with an analysis of the cabin frames, currently in use by the company; in the form of observations, practical load tests and the application of the Finite Element Method (FEM). Interviews and observations were performed at the subcontractor´s facilities, in order to identify production resources availability. Two frame concepts were designed by using a creativity technique and evaluated through the evaluation method VDI2225. Thereafter, using CAD began the creation of the Best Functional Concept; where components were dimensioned using Finite Element Analysis and Strength calculation to meet the objectives; (namely a frame in accordance with the EU Machinery Directive with a maximum cost of 5500 SEK).

     

    The result is a modular frame built from one standardized back piece module and five different floor modules; featuring different floor areas. The frame complies with the associated EU Machinery Directives and is almost entirely constructed of cold-formed steel profiles, so manufacturing can be performed using the current subconttor resources. The frame expected cost is of SEK 4800; calculated based on one back piece module plus the largest size floor module. The cost is based upon a purchase quantity of 500 back piece modules and 100 floor modules per year. When comparing this calculated cost to the current frame cost, the estimated price reduction is of 280%.

     

    As a conclusion, we have managed to design a modularized frame using standardized parts reducing the number of single pieces by approximately 58% when compared to the company current cabin Lift construction.

  • 12.
    Sjöberg, Sören
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Machine Design.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Machine Design.
    Analysis of the effect of different running-in processes on efficiency2018In: Proceedings of The 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology - NORDTRIB 2018 / [ed] Prof. Staffan Jacobsson, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Stangmark, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Konceptstudie av fjärrstyrd maskin för slipning av lock till kärnkraftsreaktor.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The nuclear power plant of Forsmark is a complex industry bound to follow strict regulations concerning safety and the environment. Work on the reactors of the power plant demand these regulations to be followed, not the least for the workers own sake. It is especially the radiation which is wanted to be avoided utmost. During maintenance of the reactors when the reactor lids are removed the sealing grooves are inspected and cleaned. As of today, this is a time consuming job done manually and is eventually something needing automation. This thesis work will take the first step by a concept study of a remote-controlled grinding machine.

     

    As a basis for this work lies a literature review within the subject of grinding. Observations have been made on location to identify the present situation. Parts of the environment have been virtually drawn up from blueprints to allow a more detailed overview. By utilizing tools for product development the fundamental function of the grinding machine has been identified. A possible solution has emerged fulfilling the established requirements and requests.

     

    The result shows the approximate dimensions and form of the grinding machine, different components required for the operation of the grinding machine and also proposals for how the grinding machine would run. The conclusion is that the grinding machine has been developed with priority towards the most vital functions and is fully possible to further develop into a working prototype.

  • 14.
    Sundlöf, Tom
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Svärdström, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Haveriutredning av flissåll-1 vid BillerudKorsnäs i Gävle2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the production site in Gävle, Sweden, BillerudKorsnäs produces liquid carton for packaging food and beverages and liners used in cardboard boxes. For this manufacturing process pulp is used that is extracted from wood chips. In the production process the wood chips are separated in two different sieves, Sieve 1 and Sieve 2. During several years, Sieve 1 has had a record of failures of bolted joints and cracks in welded components. The aim of this investigation is to increase the production availability of Sieve 1, with the goal to identify the causes behind the frequent failure record, and then present actions to increase the life span of the mentioned components.  The methods used in this investigation is initially consisting of collecting data in order to get the basic knowledge and understanding of the sieve and its problems. Thereafter the theory that involves the use of bolted joints and welds to understand general construction principles about the mentioned areas. To be able to apply these theories an inspection of sieve 1, has been necessary to identify constructional shortcomings. The other sieve, Sieve 2, has not had the same failure record. Therefore the differences between the two sieves has been evaluated.  The methods has resulted in the identification of some shortcomings regarding the bolted joints and its clamping lengths, and the paint coating that the whole construction is covered with. Another aspect is the friction in the contact areas of the bolt threads and under the bolt head, which in some cases may lead to that the applied torque does not give enough pretension to the bolt.  Adjacent to the welds where cracks occur, unfavorable dimensional transitions are detected where stress concentrations can occur. These flaws along with a suspected overload due to chip masses that add extra weight to the construction are considered to be the underlying causes of the frequent damage history and thus the inferior availability.  The measures estimated to increase accessibility are to increase the clamping length in screw joints, design all screw joints without any paint layer in its contact surfaces. Reduce the risk of overload by avoiding chip masses in the construction. Enable a more even production between the sieves. Design without sudden dimensional transitions.

  • 15.
    Tatar, Kourosh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Estimation of the in-plane vibrations of a rotating spindle, using out-of-plane laser vibrometry measurements2016In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 72-73, p. 660-666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for estimating the in-plane vibrations of a rotating spindle using out-of-plane laser vibrometry measurements is described. This method enables the possibility to obtain the two orthogonal radial vibration components of a rotating spindle. The method uses the fact that the laser vibrometer signal is a total surface velocity of the measurement point in the laser direction.

    Measurements are conducted on a rotating milling machine spindle. The spindle is excited in a controlled manner by an active magnetic bearing and the response is measured by laser vibrometer in one of the two orthogonal directions and inductive displacement sensors in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. The work shows how the laser vibrometry crosstalk can be used for resolving the in-plane vibration component, that is the vibrations in the laser vibrometer cross direction. The result is compared to independent measurement signals from the displacement sensors.

    The measurement method can be used for vibration measurements on rotating parts, for example, where there is lack of space for orthogonal measurements.

  • 16.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Private person.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Blomqvist, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    A Longitudinal Comparison of Sustainability Learning between Men and Women in Engineering and Nursing Programmes2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, Higher education institutions have been engaging with sustainability, many focussing on environmental ones. In this context, two phenomena have arisen that have, usually, been studied separately: (1) engineering schools have been at the forefront of sustainability efforts; and (2) women have tended to be more concerned about of environmental sustainability than men are. This paper is aimed at analysing the differences in perception between engineering students and nursing students at the University of Gävle, Sweden. Engineering and nursing programmes are practice-oriented with different foci on sustainability and usually being dominated by male and female students, respectively. The data for this article were based on two surveys carried out during 2010 and 2013, in which the same students answered the same questions at the beginning and at the end of their studies. Principal component analysis and regressions were carried out to analyse the survey answers. The results show that engineering programmes and gender affect actions positively. The results also show that engineering students increased their sustainability performance significantly more than nursing students. To improve environmental sustainability, it is important to promote the presence of women in engineering schools, and at the same time, social science oriented programmes (such as nursing) could learn from the efforts and action taken by engineering schools, so that sustainability is taught and learnt in a more holistic way.

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