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  • 1.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Nordland, Bodø, Norway.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    A metasynthesis of research on mentor education: three emerging dimensions2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this meta-synthesis is to deepen the understanding and knowledge of research focusing on education for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). Altogether, 10 studies met the criteria for full inclusion and were synthesised. Three overarching dimensions were found as a final synthesis guiding the further development of mentor education: 1) Contextual dimensions, 2) Theoretical-analytical dimensions, and 3) Relational dimensions. The synthesis stresses the importance of a systematic, long-term and research-based mentor education that develops mentors’ (self-)understanding of teaching and mentoring, i.e. is well integrated in the educational context, has a balance of theoretical and practical components, includes rich possibilities for interaction and reflection and prepares for an evidence-informed mentoring.

    A REVISED AND EXTENDED VERSION OF THIS PAPER HAS LATER BEEN PUBLISHED AS OPEN ACCESS, SEE:  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0742051X1500030X

     

  • 2.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att kvalificera sig till mentor – perspektiv på kompetensbehov och utbildning av mentorer för nya lärare2015In: Psykologi i kommunen, ISSN 1892-3364, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har allt mer fokus och resurser riktats mot lärares kompetensutveckling. Ett område för satsningar har bl.a. varit mentorskap. Mycket har skrivits om mentorskap generellt och om nya lärare och deras behov speciellt, men vad vet vi om mentorers kompetensutveckling och lärande? Vilka kompetenser behövs och hur påverkar det utbildning av veiledere/mentorer?

    I denna artikel sätter vi fokus på kvalificering av mentorer för nya lärare och på den kompetens de kan behöva för att på ett medvetet och framgångsrikt sätt vara mentor för nya lärare. Vi kommer att diskuter vilka kompetenser mentorer kan behöva och hur det i sin tur kan påverka utbildning av veileder/mentorer – såväl till innehåll som till form. Vi kommer inte att gå närmare in på frågan i vilken mån mentorskap är positivt eller inte för nya lärare, eftersom vår bedömning är att det finns mycket forskning som på ett övertygande sätt visar på dess positiva effekter (se t.ex. Bjerkholt, 2012; Dahl et al., 2006; Ingersoll & Strong, 2011; Waterman & He, 2011), även om vissa frågetecken kan resas kring dess räckvidd, exempelvis för skolutveckling (Dahl et al., 2006). Vi tar utgångspunkt i den internationella forskningen på området men ger också konkreta exempel från ett nordiskt perspektiv, i synnerhet från Sverige och Finland. Vi inleder med en bakgrundsteckning kring vad tidigare forskning på området lyfter fram om mentorers professionella utveckling och lärande till att bli mentor.

  • 3.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    et al.
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Research on mentor education for mentors of newly qualified teachers: A qualitative meta-synthesis2015In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 48, p. 75-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this meta-synthesis is to deepen the understanding and knowledge of qualitative research focusing on education for mentors of newly qualified teachers. Altogether, 10 studies were included and synthesised. Four common themes emerged in the initial analysis: School and mentoring context, Theory and practice, Reflection and critical thinking and Relationships. Furthermore, three overarching dimensions were found as a final synthesis guiding the further development of mentor education: 1) Contextual dimensions, 2) Theoretical-analytical dimensions, and 3) Relational dimensions. The synthesis stresses the importance of a systematic, long-term and research-informed mentor education that develops mentors' (self-)understanding of teaching and mentoring.

  • 4.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Children´s Play as a Starting Point for Teaching Mathematics in Preschool2014In: POEM: Online Proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation contributes to the knowledge about how children learn about and explore mathematics in their everyday activities. Children´s mathematical encounters in play activities give them experiences as a base for education. The understanding of children’s mathematical encounters in play and teachers’ teaching is presented as teachable and learnable moments in ‘here-and-now’ situations. The data used for this study consists of video recordings of young children’s play in four Swedish preschools. In the presentation I use two examples to illustrate and discuss how children’s play can be a starting point for teachers’ teaching.  The results display that a teacher’s questions in play can support children’s explorations if the teacher observes, recognizes the mathematical content and asks questions.

  • 5.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies. Åbo Akademi, Finland.
    Matematiskt gestaltande i förskolan2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to study how mathematics is experienced and used in preschool children’s activities and how preschool teachers frame their teaching of mathematical content. The studies include analyses of children’s actions in different activities from a mathematical perspective and preschool teachers’ intentions with and their teaching of mathematics. Preschool teachers’ understanding of the knowledge required in this area is also scrutinised. The theoretical points of departure are variation theory and sociocultural theory. With variation theory the focus is directed towards how mathematical content is dealt with in teaching situations where preschool teachers have chosen the learning objects. The sociocultural perspective has been chosen because children’s mathematical learning in play often takes place in interactions with others and in the encounter with culturally mediated concepts. The theoretical framework also includes didactical points of departure. The study is qualitative, with videography and phenomenography as metholological research approaches. In the study, video observations and interviews with preschool teachers have been used as data collection methods. The results show that in children’s play mathematics consists of volume, geometrical shapes, gravity, quantity and positioning. The situations also include size, patterns, proportions, counting and the creation of pairs. The preschool teachers’ intentions, planning and staging of their goal-oriented work are that all children should be given the opportunity to discern a mathematical content. This also includes making learning objects visible in here-and-now-situations. Variation and a clear focus on the mathematical content are important in this context. One of the study’s knowledge contributions concerns the didactics of mathematics in the preschool. This relates to the teaching of mathematics and includes the knowledge that preschool teachers regard as essential for their teaching. This includes theoretical and practical knowledge about children and children’s learning and didactical issues and strategies. The conclusion is that preschool teachers need to have a basic knowledge of mathematics and the didactics of mathematics.

  • 6.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Play and Everyday Mathematics in Preschool2015In: 5th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book, 2015, p. 295-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to discuss play as an arena for mathematical learning and children’s everyday mathematics in preschool. The study focuses on what the children are doing in the play activities and how they express their everyday mathematics. Play can be a mathematical activity (Bishop, 1992) and children’s mathematical formation in play shows their everyday mathematics (Ginsburg, 2006). This paper discusses play and everyday mathematics from a sociocultural perspective (Vygotskij, 1990) and in relation to curriculum (National Agency, 2010, 2012). The empirical data is drawn from a larger study in Sweden (Bäckman, 2015) and video observation is used as a method to explore 4 year old children’s play and everyday mathematics. The examples used in this paper were chosen because they are common play situations in the participating preschools. The ethical considerations follow the rules from The Swedish Research Council (2011). The parents have given permission for the video observations and research to be conducted. The results of the analysis of children’s mathematical formation show two main categories: Exploring mathematics through play and children comparing mathematical experiences. Exploring mathematics through play consists of five sub-categories: experiencing volume, exploring geometrical shapes, discerning weight, discerning quantity and acting for positioning. The category children comparing mathematical experiences consists of four sub-categories: experiencing and comparing size, creating and comparing patterns, comparing proportions and counting and pair production. Implications for practice is that the preschool teachers should have knowledge to design a learning environment that support children’s mathematical exploring and learning through play.

  • 7.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teaching Mathematics in Swedish Preschool - Didactic Situations2014In: 24th EECERA Conference : ‘Us, Them & Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book, 2014, p. 94-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this paper is to present research about teaching in preschool and the meaning of education in the preschool context within the perspective of quality. More specific the research focus on teaching mathematics and didactical considerations.Teaching mathematics always consists of several components with teacher, children and the mathematical content as three major parts. One of these basic components includes preschool teachers' intentions, choices and actions in which the goal is to create opportunities for children's learning in mathematics. Another component is the children, with their own experiences, intentions and their own choices. A third component is the mathematical content of the teaching situation (Brousseau, 1997). Play is a keyconcept in mathematical activities (Bishop, 1992) and in teaching of a mathematical content (Brousseau, 1997).The research focus is on didactic situations and more specifically the social interaction in teaching so-called didactic contract (Brousseau, 1997). Didactic contract can be understood as the dilemma between the educational goals and the participants’ intentions. A case study illustrates didactic situations in one Swedish preschool.Permissions has been gathered from the parents. The ethical rules for researcher in Sweden have been followed.The findings show the teachers use of play aspects in didactic situations expands the learning opportunities. The didactic contract in teaching give learning opportunities for children. Preschool teachers use of play in didactic situations make the teacher's aware of the mathematical and didactic considerations in relation to context and thereby improve the teaching of mathematical content.

  • 8.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hammarberg, Annie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    The importance of preschool teachers’ knowledge for quality in early childhood education2014In: 24th EECERA annual conference ’Us, Them and Me: Universal, Targeted or Individuated Early Childhood Programmes’: Abstract Book, 2014, p. 54-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research objective is to explore the knowledge teachers in Botswana and Sweden, which is important and/or necessary when they teach mathematics and science in Early Childhood Education (ECE). The aim is to discern the basic teacher knowledge that might be global and knowledge shaped by culture. Previous research shows that Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) in early childhood includes didactical considerations in relation to culture and children’s experiences (e.g. Clements & Sarama, 2009). According to Shulman (1986) and later Grossman (1990) teachers’ subject knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge both influence teaching. The study involves one survey in Sweden with 64 preschool teachers and one survey in Botswana with 65 preschool educators.  We have also used focus groups interviews to gain deeper knowledge of certain issues.

    We follow the ethical rules for researchers in both countries. The considerations include informed consent and confidentiality. The knowledge base teachers need in preschool include pedagogical and didactical knowledge together with subject knowledge. Data shows that there is basic knowledge that is similar and maybe global when it comes to mathematics and science. However, some knowledge is shaped by culture, local traditions and expectations. To ensure quality education for the youngest children educated teachers with knowledge about content like mathematics and science is needed. Teachers also need knowledge about children and of the learning strategies they are using. Teacher knowledge also includes curriculum goals and how to implement curriculum in daily activities and play.

  • 9.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hammarberg, Annie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Eriksson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Preschool teachers and their professional knowledge: teaching mathematics in preschool2015In: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood' : Abstract Book, 2015, p. 272-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the knowledge preschool teachers need when they teach mathematics. The study focuses on how the knowledge from curriculum affect and is transmitted to teaching and how content is selected, valued and organised when they work with mathematics and documentation. Earlier research shows that the official curricula are important and have impact on how teachers organise the practice (Carr, 2007; Clements & Sarama, 2007). This paper is discussing preschool teacher’s professional knowledge in relation to mathematics and documentation and curriculum. Curriculum theory is used as frame factor in the analysis (Dahlberg et al., 2005; Lundgren, 1972; National Agency, 2010 & 2012). The empirical data drawn from a larger study in Sweden (Bäckman, 2015) include interviews with 19 Swedish preschool teachers. Focus was on their understanding of knowledge and strategies in teaching mathematics. Analyses also consist of frame factors like policy documents and the national preschool curriculum. The ethical considerations follow the rules from The Swedish Research Council (2011). The main findings of the analyses concerning preschool teachers' professional knowledge in relation to teaching mathematics are that policy documents and the national curriculum are strong frame factors and also support different educational strategies. The teachers want to design learning environments that supports children’s mathematical exploring and learning. In that work they used documentation as a strategy to organise the teaching. Children’s teachers need knowledge of the frame factors, both international and national, when they create participatory practice and learning opportunities for children.

  • 10.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: Exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence2015In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper highlights four tendencies in the media reporting of teachers and education: (a) recurring patterns of defining education in crisis, (b) mantling responsibility as exterior spokespersons for education and teachers, (c) excluding teachers’ and educational researchers’ knowledge and experiences in the media and (d) simplifying the notion of a good and bad teacher through stereotypes and dualistic frameworks that overlook task and relational complexity. In this paper, I explore how the simplifications of teachers and education that are often presented in the media can be interpreted as structural violence. In the light of these tendencies, research on structural violence helps to remind us that: (a) teachers are unwillingly forced into a paradoxical (in)visibility, (b) they are squeezed in-between two pressuring external demands, namely the complexities in their professional assignment that are politically steered and stereotypes of the good and bad teacher produced by, in this case, the media, (c) they risk wasting time and energy on addressing prejudices that have nothing to do with the specific work they are expected to do and (d) the logic of binary stereotypes is a power issue that brands teachers into a position of permanent failure.

  • 11.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Between curriculum complexity and stereotypes: Exploring stereotypes of teachers and education in media as a question of structural violence2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper highlights four tendencies in the media reporting of teachers and education: a) recurring patterns of defining education in crisis, b) mantling responsibility as exterior spokespersons for education and teachers, c) excluding teachers’ and educational researchers’ knowledge and experiences in the media, and d) simplifying the notion of a good and bad teacher through stereotypes and dualistic frameworks that overlook task- and relational complexity. In this paper I explore how the simplifications of teachers and education that are often presented in the media can be interpreted as structural violence. In the light of these tendencies, research on structural violence helps to remind us that: a) teachers are unwillingly forced into a paradoxical (in)visibility, b) they are squeezed in-between two pressuring external demands, namely the complexities in their professional assignment that are politically steered and stereotypes of the good and bad teacher produced by, in this case, the media, c)  they risk wasting time and energy on addressing prejudices that have nothing to do with the specific work they are expected to do, and d) the logic of binary stereotypes is a power issue that brands teachers into a position of permanent failure.

  • 12.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    O Conceito de pluralidade no currículo nacional sueco: Estudando a imortancia de livros didacticos teóricos de formaciao de professores para interpretar e contestar as diferentes facetas de violencia no trabalho diaros de professores [The Notion of Plurality within the Swedish National Core Curriculum: Studying the importance of theoretical text-books at Teacher Educations to interpret and contest the various faces of violence in teachers’ everyday work]2014In: Revista Científica e-curriculum, ISSN ISSN 1809-3876, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1634-1668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One aspect within the National core curriculum at Teacher Educations in Sweden is the foundation of democracy that sets the frames for organizations and human conditions. Within this core curriculum plurality is indirectly given a central role and in relation to this the importance to contest various forms of violence such as discrimination and other forms of violation. Drawing on ambitions to contest violence in education the paper challenges ideas that teacher students only need to rely on evidence-based theoretical methods in their future profession. This is accomplished by analyzing and comparing theories of plurality as described in three text-books used in courses at one Teacher Education in Sweden. The textbooks express three different theoretical discourses of approaching social challenges regarding violence, plurality in education, and teacher expectations. Hence, since violence is played out in a variety of ways the logic of evidence based research is insufficient as comes to handle plurality

  • 13.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Två förhållningssätt till teorier i relation till lärares demokratiska uppdrag att motverka våld2015In: Kontroversiella frågor: Om kunskap och politik i samhällsundervisningen / [ed] Ljunggren, Carsten, Unemar, Ingrid & Englund, Tomas, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, 1, p. 115-134Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Why not simply use the best theory?: A critical discourse analysis of the notion of plurality in three texts used at a teacher education institution in Sweden2014In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 156-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on ambitions to contest violence in education the paper challenges ideas that teacher students only need to rely on evidence-based theory in their future profession. This is accomplished by analyzing and comparing theories of plurality as described in three text-books used in courses at one Teacher Education in Sweden. The textbooks express three different theoretical discourses of approaching social challenges regarding violence, plurality in education, and teacher expectations. Hence, since violence is played out in a variety of ways the logic of evidence based research is insufficient as comes to handle plurality.

  • 15.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Roma in Europe: Policies and Roma Voices : Exploring and Comparing the Voices of Roma People Expressed on Three Roma Advocacy Webpages2015In: Educational Internationalisation: Academic Voices and Public Policy / [ed] Olson, Jennifer R., Biseth, Heidi and Ruiz, Guillermo, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2015, p. 149-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Evidence is not enough for developing democratic values: on the role of theory in teacher education2014In: Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 148-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Promoting social justice in Swedish Teacher Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher Professionality and Sensing: Engaging in Dialogue About Professionality and Ethics Without a Foundation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    (Re)positioning the Democratic (Ethical) Identity of the Teacher Educator within Global Policy Discourses of Compliance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher Education (TE) in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland, as well as many other countries, has come, to be closely regulated by the state. In this study we conducted a comparative critical discourse analysis of four policy documents, two documents in each country. We tested our hypothesis that the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator has been diminished in recent policy documents. Our critical discourse analysis to date has confirmed the accuracy of this hypothesis and indicated that the paradigm shift in this regard has been rapid and substantive. The findings have implications for the democratic (ethical) dimension of teacher education generally and for education’s role as a social and political shaper of contemporary democratic society.

  • 20.
    Elm Fristorp, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Johansson, IngeBarn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Avdelningen för förskollärarutbildning och förskoleforskning/Section for Early Childhood Education, Stockholms universitet.
    Professionellt lärande i förskolan - med utgångspunkt i hållbar utveckling2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken handlar om deltagarorienterat och kollaborativt lärande för hållbar utveckling i förskolan. Efter en presentation av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna får läsaren ta del av konkreta exempel på aktiviteter i förskolan. Dessa har fokus på olika aspekter av hållbar utveckling och hur det går att använda såväl språk och kommunikation som IKT, matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik i arbetet.

  • 21.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Can school leaders make a difference in the protection of children’s rights against violence? : A Critical Discourse Analysis of Different leadership strategies at boarding school in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Digital Dilemmas in Dilemmatic Space(s): Analysis of a Digitalized Society2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse digital society from the perspective of dilemmatic space. The theoretical frame offers new ways of making sense of the digital society, and may provide new perspectives on how to manoeuvre (or not) in it. The theoretical framework is applied in relation to three themes of digitalised society: (a) the blogosphere and social networking communities (SNC), (b) file sharing, network control and surveillance; and (c) educational school context. These themes have been chosen in order to illustrate the different aspects of a digital society and to show how the theoretical framework operates when different aspects of these themes are placed in the foreground or background, i.e. emphasised or downplayed.

  • 23.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Symposium Practices of Mentoring (Part III): ICT Mentoring Practices and the Potential Impact of Teacher Standards2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium is the third part of a triple symposium, entitled “Practices of Mentoring”. In part 1, practices of mentoring in Australia, Finland, Norway and Hungary are studied within the theory of practice architecture. Part 2 introduces innovative practices for teacher induction which have been developed in the European PAEDIEA project.  In part 3, chaired by Göran Fransson, the focus is shifted to using ICT in mentoring and problematizing the impact of teacher standards on mentoring practices.

     

    The aim of the symposium is to contribute to a discussion of novice teachers’ professional development with the added dimension of mentoring in ICT-rich environments and the potential impact of teacher standards on those mentoring practices. This aim will be achieved by addressing the issue from different perspectives to get a broad picture of the challenges and opportunities. Questions that arise from the presentation include: What are the benefits of ICT as a medium to facilitate mentoring or learning to be a mentor? How does ICT as the learning object shape the mentoring practices? What is the potential risk of teacher standards fostering coaching rather than mentoring?

     

    The symposium consists of four presentations. The first presentation focuses on mentoring teachers in Scotland who are inexperienced in ICT, and are implementing iPads into the classroom. The second paper examines a Norwegian mentor’s experiences of providing professional development using ICT (i.e. Facebook) as the medium to facilitate the mentoring practice. The third paper presents ICT as the mentoring medium in a mentoring course for the mentors of NQTs in Sweden. The final paper concludes with a comparative analysis of standards for the registration of teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden. A word frequency and contextual analysis problematise the teaching standards and their potential to promote coaching rather than mentoring.

     

    These four papers contribute to the mentoring debates that focus on: the use of ICT, teaching ICT skills and the role of the teacher.Mentoring for newly qualified teachers is a common phenomenon in many countries and research on mentoring has been from a variety of perspectives. Considering the manifold of technological resources and social networking sites (SNS) currently available, an apparently under-researched topic is ICT in the mentoring of novice teachers – both as the content and as a medium for mentoring or mentor training.

     

    The use of modern technologies to overcome distances in communication and mentoring has given rise to terms such as e-mentoring and online mentoring (Butler, Whiteman & Crow, 2012). Technology-enhanced mentoring can be used as a complement to face-to-face-mentoring but can also be used as the main communication source with its pros and cons for interaction (Butler et al., 2012). However, challenges to the mentoring practice are equally recognised: ICT changing the learning process (Alvarez, Guasch & Espasa, 2009; Helleve, 2007); and the impact of paralinguistic cues in body language being absent (Price, Richardson & Jelfs, 2007). Another issue presented for consideration is how mentoring takes place when the learning object is ICT. This kind of question has to been seen against the backdrop that an increasing number of researchers in recent years have stressed the importance of including subject-matter issues in the research of mentoring novice teachers (Ulvik, Smith & Helleve, 2009; Donna & Roehrig, 2011). It remains important to analyse how: the mentoring of novice teachers is facilitated by ICT; the practices of mentoring are enacted to teach ICT skills; and the potential influence teaching standards have in redefining mentoring into a coaching endeavour.

     

    This project comprises examples from Australia, Scotland, Sweden and Norway, but it is also of key significance for many other countries where ICT and the mentoring of novice teachers may be used as a tool for professional development.

    References

    Alvarez, I., T. Guasch and A. Espasa. 2009. University teacher roles and competencies in online learning environments: a theoretical analysis of teaching and learning practices, European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 321–336. Butler, A. J., Whiteman, R. S. & Crow, G. M. (2012). Technology’s role in fostering transformational educator mentoring. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education 2( 3), 233-248. Donna, J.D. & Roehrig, G. (2011). Taxonomy of Beginning Science Teacher Challange: The Importance of Context-Specific Induction. Paper presented at The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference, April 8 – April 12, New Orleans, USA. Helleve, I. 2007. In an ICT‐based teacher‐education context: why was our group ‘the magic group’?, European Journal of Teacher Education, 30:3, 267-284. Price, L., Richardson, J. T. & Jelfs, A. (2007). Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education. Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 1–20. Ulvik, M., Smith, K. & Helleve, I. (2009). Novice in secondary school – the coin has two sides. Teaching and Teacher Education 25 (2009) 835–842.

  • 24.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Web-based Education for Mentors of Newly Qualified Teachers: Challenges and Opportunities2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project concerning a web-based (online) course for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). Research on mentor education in general is actually quite sparse (cf. Iucu & Stingu, 2013; Wang & Odell, 2002). In an overview of mentor education for mentors of NQTs (Aspfors & Fransson, re-submitted), it was found that only ten articles had been published on the subject in peer-reviewed scientific journals and that only two of them focused on mentor education facilitated by web-based software, technologies and pedagogies (McCrary & Mazur’, 2008; Sinclair, 2003). In this study, a mixed-method approach of questionnaires and interviews was used to collect the data. The major benefits of the web-based mentor course were found to be that it (a) facilitates distance studies, (b) allows people to study at their own pace, (c) makes it possible to listen to the recorded web-based lectures more than once, and (d) facilitates reflection. The initial technical concerns and discomfort with web-based interaction was mainly overcome during the course. The conclusions are that mentor-related content can be mediated in web-based form, that the teaching of such a course requires competence in mentoring and in the design and facilitation of online learning and the ability to deal with technical challenges that arise.

    References

    Aspfors, J. & Fransson, G. (Re-submit). [details removed for peer review] Article re-submitted to international peer-reviewed journal. Iucu, R. & Sting, M. 2013. Training Induction Mentors: alternative policy scenarios of Romanian educational system. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 76, 931–934. McCrary, N.E. & Mazur, J.M. (2010). Conceptualizing a narrative simulation to promote dialogic reflection: using a multiple outcome design to engage teacher mentors. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(3), 325–342. Sinclair, C. (2003). Mentoring Online about Mentoring: possibilities and practice. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 11(1), 79–94. Wang, J. and S. J. Odell. 2002. Mentored Learning to Teach According to Standards-Based Reform: A Critical Review. Review of Educational Research, 72(3), 481–546.

  • 25.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Resources and Support for Principals’ Assessment of Newly Qualified Teachers During a Teacher Registration Reform2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In July 2011 a teacher registration reform (TRR) and a probation year for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) came into effect in Sweden (Government Bill, 2010/11).

    It required newly qualified teachers and pre-school teachers to do a “probationary year” under the guidance of a mentor. Between July 1 2011 and July 1 2014 principals or pre-school managers were responsible for assessing whether the NQT were to be registered or not. The principals were expected to perform this assessment by following the national standards (competence profiles) developed by the Swedish National Agency for Education, the issuing authority. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss (1) sources of support for assessment and (2) to what extent these supported the principals in the assessment of the NQTs. Data is drawn from a questionnaire answered by 248 principals, completed in 2014 within the research project “Head teachers working conditions and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers (the RAOL-project)”

    The TRR is another example of travelling policies in a globalized world, in this case with origin in Scotland and Canada. Some contextual policy learning adjustments (Lingard, 2010; Waldow, 2009) were made regarding the standards, but almost no adjustments regarding the structure and focus of the reform. As a consequence, parts of the reforms have been adjusted or withdrawn at several occasions. One major policy retreat was made in June 2013 when the Minister of Education, the Presidents of two teacher unions, representatives of The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions and The Swedish Association of Independent Schools made a joint statement to withdraw the assessment of NQTs. Hence, the implementation of the Swedish TRR and the assessment of NQTs can be viewed as an example of policy borrowing and the challenges encountered when reforms are implemented prior to a completed policy learning processes. From July2014 the assessment ceased to be part of principals’ task.

    Thus, this paper offers unique data from a specific time period with particular tasks and working conditions for principals. Swedish research on how principals assess and evaluate teachers' skills is largely absent, but similar international research indicates the need to explore how such assessments are performed. For instance, Kimball & Milanowski (2009) found that head teachers vary their evaluations over time and in relation to subjective values, and that their evaluations seem to be based on intuition and instinct rather than carefully formulated and objective criteria.

    Recent studies show that the working conditions for principals are intense with fragmented working days during which many quick decisions have to be made (Day, 2000; Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013).  Research on school leaders' working conditions (e.g. Swedish Work Environment Authority, 2011; Ludvigsson, 2009; Schools Inspectorate, 2010) raise questions on how working conditions affect the assessment of NQTs, and how the assessment affects working conditions and the principal’s role and self-image (Federici, 2013). Principals operate in the intersection of different interests, expectations, tasks and roles (Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013; Törnsén & Ärlestig, 2014), which affect the psychosocial work environment. Interestingly, changes in the professional role were being handled differently by the principals depending on their career stage (The Swedish Research Council, 2011).

    Even though the main data reported here is Swedish, in times of policy travelling the results are of importance in a wider European perspective to help understand principals’ working condition and roles.

    Methods (max 400 ord)

    In June 2014, 644 principals were invited to answer a questionnaire and 249 responded, yielding a response rate of 38,5%. This may be considered relatively low, however, at this time it was generally known that the assessment would be phased out which probably reduced responsiveness. It should be noted that a similar questionnaire of principals conducted in December 2013 in another Swedish research project had a response rate of 31% (n = 106), wherein our response rate at a later stage can be considered relatively good.

    Three clusters of principals representing different municipals located in different regions in Sweden were invited, selected to ensure a diverse sample. The web questionnaire was sent to all primary, secondary and upper-secondary schools in three regions: a metropolitan area (1 municipality), major regional centre (8 municipalities) and rural locations (15 municipalities).

    The survey focused the following areas: school context, working conditions, assessment of the NQTs, support available for the principal, cooperation, the principals’ strategies in observation and assessment, issues regarding the reform and reform implementation. A typical type of response alternatives were 5-point likert scale. Some other appropriate scaling was also used as well as open questions.  

    The analysis of the quantitative data has been performed with the SPSS-software, in a first step through crosstab analysis. The questions analysed in this paper regard sources of support for assessment and principals’ use of these sources.

     

    Findings

    The analysis focused firstly on internal resources for assessment such as degrees from the national school leadership programme, experience of evaluating work performance from other professions etc.

    Secondly, outside support included interpersonal resources such as (a)school owner/administrative level, (b)fellow principals, (c)the NQTs appointed mentors, (d)teacher staff; and material resources such as (e)national/local competence profiles.

    The analysis of support indicated, for instance, that 69% of the principals reported low or no support from owner/administrative level in the assessment of the NQTs, that is, the management of the public or private school. 71% of the principals did not cooperate with other principals regarding the design of the assessment, while 7% say that they did, to a high or very high degree.

    A slightly higher proportion of support (10%) from fellow principals was reported regarding the actual assessment practice, a higher proportion of support (36%) from school staff and the highest (69%) from experienced mentors.

    12% of the principals report some form of training in assessment, which can be related to the fact that 40% of principals report that they, to a very high degree, report sufficient knowledge of conducting lesson observations, which is mandated in the assessment.

    No significant differences appear when data is related to principals’ gender or type of school (private or public). In sum, principals receive most support from their employees, which makes them which makes their assessment practice largely free from external control, for good or bad. The issue will be analyzed further.

    In terms of TRR, the centrally distributed competency profiles seem to be of relatively low use for assessment support in comparison to local collaboration with employees. This is an example of how policy becomes enacted rather than implemented, (cf. Ball et al, 2012) depending on principals’ local work conditions and organization.

    References (max 400 ord)

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge.

    Day, C. (2000). Leading schools in times of change. Buckingham: Open Univ. Press.

    Federici, R. A. (2013). Principals’ self-efficacy: relations with job autonomy,

    job satisfaction, and contextual constraints. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28:73–86

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

    Kimball, S.E. & Milanowski, A. (2009). Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making Within a Standards-Based Evaluation System. Educational Administration Quarterly. Vol. 45. No. 1. February 2009. 34–70.

    Lingard, B. (2010). Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling, Critical Studies in Education, 51(2), 129-147

    Nihlfors, E. & Johansson, O. (2013). Rektor - en stark länk i styrningen av skolan. [The Principal – a strong link in the Governance of School]. Stockholm: SNS förlag.

    Swedish School Inspectorate (2010). Rektors ledarskap. En granskning av hur rektorer leder skolans arbete mot ökad måluppfyllelse. [The Principals Leadership. Inspection of how priciplas leads the schools towards increased goal-fullfilment]. Skolinspektionen: Stockholm.

    SOU. 2008. Legitimation och skärpta behörighetsregler [Swedish Government Official

    Report 2008:52. Registration and stricter qualifying rules]. Stockholm: Ministry of

    Education and Research.

    Swedish Work Environment Authority (2011). Rektorers arbetsmiljö. En tillsynsinsats genomförd av Arbetsmiljöverket (AV), distriktet i Göteborg under 2009 och 2010. [Principals working condition. An inspection by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, Gothenburg region 2009-2010] ISG 2011/100102. Göteborg: Arbetsmiljöverket.

    Swedish Research Council (2011). Rektor – En forskningsöversikt 2000-2010. [Principals – a Research overview 2000-2010]. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie. 2011:4. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Törnsén, M. & Ärlestig, H. (red.) (2014). Ledarskap i centrum: om rektor och förskolechef. [Leadership in the center: about principals and pre-school managers]. Malmö: Gleerup.

    Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden, Comparative Education Vol. 45, No. 4, November 2009, 477–494.

  • 26.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Gallant, Andrea
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Shanks, Rachel
    University of Aberdeen .
    Standards for Newly Qualified Teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden: a Comparative Analysis of Focus and Rationales2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards for newly qualified teachers to gain full registration in Australia, Scotland and Sweden are analysed in a comparative perspective regarding the focus and rationales as teacher standards are “neither neutral nor impartial” (Down, 2012, p. 77; cf. Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Lim, 2012). NVivo has been used for comparative qualitative content analysis with a focus on the meaning-making entities in the standards. The analysis indicates that the emphasis is mainly on applied learning with references to ‘demonstrate, draw on, know how to, be able to use’. The applied focus is on the performance of both teachers and their students alike. The overall tenet is that teaching and learning standards promote technical approaches towards teaching and learning, hence the emphasis on competence. This could potentially result in coaching practices being adopted to facilitate quantifying when standards have been achieved. A standard could equally be read as a goal (to be achieved). Another key finding is the similarity of Scotland’s (in terms of language usage and emphasis) and Australia’s teacher standards. Neither standards document appears to have anything that differentiates it culturally or that caters for the specific needs of the country in a globalised world. The Swedish standards, however, appear to have different and nuanced standards which reflect cultural differences and are connected to its national needs. With regards to ICT-skills, these are most explicitly addressed in the Australian standards (sections 2.6, 3.4 and 4.5), are referred to in the Scottish standards (sections 2.1.4, 3.1.3 and 3.2) while being implicit in the Swedish standards.

    References

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge. Down, B. (2012). Reconceptualising Teacher Standards: Authentic, Critical and Creative, pp.63-80. In B. Down and J. Smyth (eds.) Critical Voices in Teacher Education, Explorations of Educational Purpose. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Lim, L. (2012) Ideology, class and rationality: a critique of Cambridge International Examinations’ Thinking Skills Curriculum, Cambridge Journal of Education 42 (4) pp.481-495.

  • 27.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Before learning: exploring the foundation of an educational relationship2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Challenging classroom situations: How teachers sustain their commitment to students against the odds2015In: EARLI 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores sources of commitment in teachers who have maintained a high level of commitment despite challenging classroom situations. Teacher commitment is important for student success, but can be challenged by negative teacher-student relationships. Eight teachers with a sustained level of commitment for over 15 years were selected for interviews. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed and accounts where the teachers reported on some kind of problem with student behaviour were analysed. Three main sources of commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships were indicated: reconceptualization of problems into intellectual challenges, a sense of professional responsibility for students in problems and confidence after student success against the odds. Learning from those teachers who have managed to maintain their commitment to students despite relational challenges provides important clues to sources of and conditions for commitment.

  • 29.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring challenging teacher-student relationships in teachers’ lives and how these may elicit commitment2014In: AARE Conference Proceedings 2014 / [ed] Margaret Baguley, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on data from a larger research project conducted in a European country: a longitudinal study of choices and values in teachers' work trajectories. It is based on unique material, namely interviews on ten occasions via email with 87 graduates from a Teacher Education programme regarding their work as teachers, spanning from their graduation in 1993 up to present day. This paper reports results from one of the studies dealing specifically with teacher commitment, and focuses on the meaning of teacher-student relationships for teacher commitment. Positive teacher-student relationships are vital for student learning (Cornelius-White, 2007). Teachers invest emotionally in their work and engage in their students, and if they are to be effective in helping their students learn they must be able to deal with such challenges in a successful way (Day & Gu, 2007) and committed to student learning (Gu, in press). Even if commitment is linked to the individual, it is mediated by the context (Day, Sammons, Stobart, Kingston, & Gu, 2007; Sammons et al., 2007). This paper explores sources of teacher commitment in challenging conditions. 87 informants answered interview questionnaire on ten occasions, annually for the first four years and then at intervals. The questions related to their lives and work. For an overview of the material see (Lindqvist, Nordänger, & Carlsson, 2014). In this paper, the main focus lies on two questions asked during the third year of data collection: In question 3:3 informants were asked to describe one student that had caused them trouble during their last school year, and in the next, 3:4, to describe one student that have given them much joy during the same period. Surprisingly many described the same student in their answers to both questions. The analysis aims to explore features that elicit commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships. Preliminary results point to three sources of commitment in challenging teacher-student relationships: First, to conceptualize problems as challenges stimulates the informants' intellectual capacity. Second, to help a student in trouble is viewed as central in their professional responsibility, and third, to witness students' progress strengthens their self-confidence. Commitment is important for student success and for teacher retention, and to get a deepened understanding of sources of commitment can help all teachers teach and students learn.

  • 30.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Relational underpinnings and professionality: A case study of a teacher’s practices involving students with experiences of school failure2015In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 589-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relational features of the educational environment, such as positive teacher-student relationships, are important for students’ academic success. This case study explores the relational practices of a teacher who negotiates educational relationships with students who have a history of school failure. “Gunilla”, a secondary school teacher working in the Swedish “Introduction Programme” (for students who have not been accepted in national upper secondary school programmes) and identified as a successful instructor for students who have failed at school, was selected for the study. The data consists of two semi-structured interviews eliciting the informant’s stories of practice and the researcher’s contextual observation. Results show how relational practices create an emotionally safe school climate. In the initial phase of the teacher-student relationship the main purpose of the activities is to establish trust and repair the students’ self-image so that they can view themselves as successful learners. This requires professional closeness and the teacher distancing herself from a stereotypical teaching role, in order to display humaneness and empathy. The findings contribute to understanding how relational features in the everyday school context help students to learn and how school psychologists can be part of this endeavour.

  • 31.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher-student relationships matter: relational dimensions of teacher commitment to students2014In: Teachers matter - but how?, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Direct and indirect educational relationships: Developing a typology for the contribution of different categories of school staff in relation to students’ educational experiences2015In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 56-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results from a research project exploring the relational interplay between school staff and students, its functions and complexity in the secondary school context. School relationships (between students and different kinds of staff) are more or less indirectly related to educational content: subject matter as well as norms and values. In the teacher–student relationship, the teaching and learning of subject matter largely defines the relationship, whereas for school support staff, the relationship to such content is fairly distant. However, they all have in common that these assigned functions are created for the purpose of enabling the education of our youth. In this article, a case study from a secondary school is used to develop a typology for understanding the relevance that content may have in these different types of relationships. We also explore the sometimes unpredictable ways in which content can emerge as relevant. A year-long case study was conducted during the 2012–2013 school year at a secondary school that had recently been renovated and in which work had been done to improve the educational environment. Multiple data sources were used, including document analysis, mapping, contextual observations and interviews. Official statistics, newspaper articles and school quality reports were used to contextualize the case. In this article, interviews with different categories of school staff and students formed the main source of data. The different assigned functions of the staff were categorized as: educators, education professionals (e.g. counsellors) and education support professionals (e.g. caretakers). Although the latter were often indirectly connected to content, they could also have relevance through the relationships that they developed with students. Here, there is a point in separating the staff´s assigned function as officially described and their relation to students as played out in practice. Two examples illustrate how members of staff diverge somewhat from their assigned functions in informal places and spaces to facilitate the educational experience of the students. It is argued that in a school for all students, this flexibility in school relationships can improve students’ relations to content and school success.

  • 33.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Highlighting indirect functions: implications of using an ecological understanding for exploring safe educational environments2015In: Abstract book, 2015, p. 10-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an ecological whole-school perspective different parts of the educational environment are viewed as in constant relation to others. This means that everyone involved condition, and are conditioned by, each other’s actions in multiple continuous processes. If one function fails the consequences affects others who share their environment. The purpose of this presentation is to use an ecological approach to understand ways in which staff who is only indirectly involved in education can contribute to the educational environment. In discussions of educational environments the teachers, students and content often take center stage. Hansen’s examination of Dewey’s educative environment focuses on the classroom, however, education is underpinned by indirect functions such as care takers, cleaners and canteen staff that facilitate students’ educational experiences by attending to students’ need of nutrition and a clean and safe school environment. Dewey argued that the environment consists of relevant features for the given situation, discriminating it from the surroundings that are irrelevant. Thus, the indirect functions cannot be viewed as surroundings, but constitute part of the educational environment albeit often overlooked or viewed as peripheral. As illustrated by a case study in a Swedish secondary school these staff members, by their presence alone as adults in the corridors and other places in the school, contributed to a safe environment. Moreover, at times they collaborated with other professions, as well as went beyond their intended functions, for the best of the students. For example, cleaners who witnessed bullying reported it to the teachers. The care takers took some students under their wings and asked them to help mend broken things around the school, thus providing them with meaningful relationships that strengthened the students’ bond with the school. However, the municipal management cut back on costs for care takers, despite protests from the principal, and the care takers were replaced by a weekly service visit operated centrally. This can be framed as an atomistic logic of schooling, disregarding the actual function of support staff in the educational environment. We argue that an ecological perspective can provide fruitful insights that can be used for promoting safe educational environments.

  • 34.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Navigating middle ground: a spatial perspective on the borderlands of teacher-student relationships in secondary school2014In: Interpersonal Relationships in Education: From Theory to Practice / [ed] David Zandvliet, Perry den Brok, Tim Mainhard and Jan van Tartwijk, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, 2014, p. 57-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Trygga möten i skolans mellanrum2014In: Elevhälsa, ISSN ISSN 2000-5296, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Using a Spatial Perspective to Explore the Creation of Safe School Environments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Rytivaara, Anna
    University of Tampere, Finland.
    Learning from challenges: teachers’ stories of turnaround in relationships with students2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore how contradictions and tensions evolve in teachers' stories of their students with whom they experience challenging yet rewarding relationships. 87 teachers were asked about students who caused trouble and also about students who gave them joy over the last school year. Out of the ten who described the same student as both causing much trouble and giving joy the five most challenging stories were selected for narrative analysis of content and structure.  Students were described with negative as well as positive characteristics, and their problems were narrated as located outside of the student. Teachers positioned themselves as positive and caring adults, and worked with other adults to turn the situations around. The presented conceptualizations from the stories can help teachers reconsider challenging students and manage such situations better.

  • 38.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Education Support Professionals and the atomistic logics of school governance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Grannäs, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Ljungquist, Sarah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Berättelsen som forum för kontroversiella frågor2015In: Kontroversiella frågor: Om kunskap och politik i samhällsundervisningen / [ed] Ljunggren, Carsten; Unemar-Öst, Ingrid & Englund, Thomas, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, 1, p. 149-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies. Stockholm University, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences.
    Studying the process of educational design: revisiting Schön and making a case for reflective design-based research on teachers' 'conversations with situations'2014In: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper discusses Donald A. Schön’s views on design and how itcould inform design-based research (DBR) on teachers’ use of technology ineducation. It argues that the rich affordances of digital technologies and teachers’and students’ situated designs with such technologies in complex and changingeducational contexts make viewing design as rational problem-solving problematic.Instead, it is suggested that adopting Schön’s view of design as a reflectiveconversation with the situation in DBR approaches has the potential of informingboth research on the use of digital educational technologies and teachers’ situateduse of such technologies. The paper then presents suggestions as to howSchön’s ideas for research on teachers’ situated practices could contribute to theorydevelopment in DBR. Finally, some of the possibilities and challenges of thereflective DBR approach suggested in this paper are discussed.

  • 41.
    Kemmis, Stephen
    et al.
    Charles Sturt University, Australia.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    University of Nordland, Norway.
    Edwards-Groves, Christine
    Charles Sturt University, Australia.
    Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: supervision, support and collaborative self-development2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 43, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines contested practices of mentoring of newly qualified teachers within and between Australia, Finland and Sweden. Drawing on empirical material collected in a variety of studies, we demonstrate three archetypes of mentoring: supervision, support and collaborative selfdevelopment.

    Using the theory of practice architectures, we show (1) that the three forms of mentoring identified represent three different projects: (a) assisting new teachers to pass through probation, (b) traditional mentoring as support or (c) peer-group mentoring; and (2) that these three projects, also involve and imply quite different practice architectures in the form of different material-economic, social-political and cultural-discursive arrangements.

  • 42.
    Kurkiala, Jacob
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Kurkiala-Nyman, Pia
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Söderberg, Patrik
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Kyheröinen, Joni
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Youth, Citizenship and Democracy: Findings from a youth survey in two Nordic regions2015In: Differences, Inequalities and Sociological Imagination: ESA 12th Conference, Abstract Book, European Sociological Association (ESA) , 2015, p. 1283-1284Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are significant differences between young people regarding political interest and engagement because of different social and economic conditions. Further, an active citizenship may be impeded by a societal development where life conditions deteriorate more for some groups than for others. At the same time, the reluctance among economically marginalized groups to participate in the procedures of democracy remains when the meaning of an active democratic citizenship is perceived as limited. Research shows that there is a need for further research in the field, in particular more qualitative studies to complement the various national and international longitudinal quantitative studies such as IEA: Cived and ICCS.

    Every third year in the Nordic countries, a comprehensive longitudinal youth survey is conducted which follows up national youth policy. The target groups for the study are young people aged 13-16. The survey focuses on young people’s views on questions concerning democracy and participation, citizenship, health, enjoyment of school, leisure activities, work, and future plans.

    This study focuses on young people’s democratic and civic competence in two Nordic regions: Gävleborg (Sweden) and Ostrobothnia (Finland). Based on the longitudinal youth surveys studying young people’s skills, capacities, and opportunities for active democratic citizenship, in order to further assure the quality of education and youth policy work in the surveyed regions, the research study’s overall objectives are to:

    a) Compare youth survey results from two regions in Sweden and Finland as well as make comparisons over time, focusing on the importance of social sustainability, particularly gender, age, and diversity aspects; and b) Deepen understanding of young people’s opportunities, circumstances, and knowledge of active democratic citizenship. The samples are 2,207 students (14-15 years old) from Sweden and 1,718 students (15-16 years old) from Finland.

    One example from the initial analysis is: if the students want to have a say in what they learn in school. They answered 70% (SWE) and 46% (FIN) want it, but only 37% (SWE) and 7% (FIN) answered that they get it. The result is interesting in terms of PISA results, but also for how the pupils enjoy school.

  • 43.
    Masoumi, Davoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Bourbour, Maryam
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Teacher expending pen: ICT integration in Teacher Education Programs2015In: EDEN 2015 ANNUAL Conference: Expanding Learning Scenarios : Opening Out the Educational Landscape, 2015, p. 120-120Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Nordänger, Ulla-Karin
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Lindkvist, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Andrae Thelin, Annika
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    ”Väg-skäl” – En longitudinell studie av val och ideal i lärares yrkesbanor2015In: Resultatdialogen 2015, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, p. 149-159Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    et al.
    Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Mittuniversitet.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Oslo, Norway.
    Uptake and Use of Digital Technologies in Primary and Secondary Schools: a Thematic Review of Research2015In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, no 4, p. 103-121Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is a review of international research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools. The aim was to provide a credible and clear picture of current research, together with some wellinformed suggestions as to how future research could develop. Two strategies were used: (1) identify themes within current research that indicate important lessons to be learned in relation to the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary schools, and (2) based on these lessons, identify which knowledge-gaps need to be closed and in the light of this suggest directions for further research. It is concluded that a rather complex and fragmented picture of the uptake and use of digital technologies emerges from the literature review.

    Three specific suggestions for research on the uptake and use of digital technologies in primary and secondary school are provided: (1) the outcomes of technology use in relation to different levels in the educational system, e.g. arenas of implementation and realization, (2) digital practices that are  longitudinal and information-rich and that go beyond existing knowledge, and (3) initiatives for a renewal of theoretical and methodological approaches when designing and analyzing studies within the field.

  • 46.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Dagerman i The New York Review of Books2015In: Arbetarbladet, ISSN 1103-9027, no 25 juniArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Stig Dagerman på förstasidan i New York! Bengt Söderhäll i Dagermansällskapet i Älvkarleby, skriver om en nyväckt nyfikenhet på författaren.

  • 47.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Den kenyanska mästaren: Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o: "Floden mellan bergen" Översättning: Philippa WikingFörord Mikaela Lundahl"Om icke vetekornet"Översättning: Torsten Hansson Förord Stefan Helgesson"Djävulen på korset" Översättning: Alexander Muigai Förord Stephan LarsenSamtliga romaner ges ut av Modernista2014In: Arbetarbladet, ISSN 1103-9027, Vol. Del 2, no 7 oktoberArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingress: Förlaget Modernista ger nu ut tre romaner av Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o. En skildrare av ockupationens och förtryckets anatomi, skriver Bengt Söderhäll som ser världen annorlunda efter att ha läst Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o.

  • 48.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    En dagens dikt2015In: Arbetarbladet, ISSN 1103-9027, no 7 augArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi sitter här,   

    du och jag,  

    blicken oftast ner i backen,  

    muggen intill eller i handen,  

    kroppen vädjande,  

    gesten och minen ursäktande.  

    __

    Vi sitter här,  

    du och jag,  

    för spottstyvrar,  

    för dagsransonen,  

    för livet.  

    __

    Vi sitter inte där,  

    du och jag,   

    vi hade tur,  

    påkostade av de många,   

    somliga av oss välbeställda   

    innan vi föddes.  

    __

    Vi skulle kunna sitta där,  

    du och jag,  

    om inte försynen,  

    andras uppoffringar,  

    tillfälligheterna  

    spelat oss i händer.  

    __

    Låt oss sätta oss  

    både här och där,  

    du och jag,  

    jag och du,  

    med öppna anleten,  

    som vore vi   

    varandra.  

    5 augusti 2015

    *

    Fotnot. Att skriva dessa rader hjälpte mig att andas igen, säger författaren Bengt Söderhäll, plågad av veckans händelser, ”av att somliga av oss hetsar mot folkgrupp, som vore det 1933 och långt innan Katarina Taikon och Rosa Taikon satte ner foten”.

  • 49.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Je suis ta soeur et ton frère / Jag är din syster och jag är din bror2016Other (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Kraften i detta får mig att glömma potatiskastrullen: Ny bok: Varje dag är tjuvens dag av Teju Cole i översättning av Ragnar Strömberg, Natur & Kultur2015In: Arbetarbladet, ISSN 1103-9027, no 26 marsArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
12 1 - 50 of 59
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