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  • 1.
    Bergh, Andreas
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Örebro, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kunskapsmätningar2015In: Utbildning, makt och politik / [ed] Sverker Lindblad & Lisbeth Lundahl, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015, 1, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Hume on pride and comparison2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    The Moral Sentiments in Hume’s Treatise: A Classificatory Problem2014In: Hume Studies, ISSN 0319-7336, E-ISSN 1947-9921, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 73-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Treatise, Hume writes several seemingly incompatible things about the moral sentiments, thus there is no general agreement about where they fit within his taxonomy of the perceptions. Some passages speak in favor of the view that moral sentiments are indirect passions, a few infavor of the view that they are direct passions, and yet a couple of explicit statements strongly suggest otherwise. Due to these tensions in Hume's text, we find at least five competing characterizations in the literature:

    • Moral sentiments are calm emotions.
    • Moral sentiments are calm direct passions.
    • Moral sentiments are calm versions of the indirect passions of love or hatred.
    • Moral sentiments are unique species of calm indirect passions.
    • Moral sentiments are indirect secondary impressions.

    This paper assesses each of these interpretations. When their virtues are brought together, a new interpretation of the origin of moral sentiments starts to emerge.

  • 4.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Differentiation And Access to Higher Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation And Access To Higher Education

    Education can be used to create a transition from one status to another, a way to create opportunities for citizens and societies. In this paper our focus is on groups that are created for one reason or another as a burden. There are people in society who are regarded as an expense and something that must be taken care of. A collection of individuals that despite large individual variations are lumped together under a common concept - the group with intellectual disabilities. This group has traditionally been prevented from attend to higher education for many reasons. The most obvious is the notion of an inability to assimilate and utilize higher education although it is generally accepted that there is a large span regarding intellectual capacity in this constructed homogenous group. If we instead choose to view human as beings where intellectuals variations is a rule rather than an exception the obvious question should be: how do we find the fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community? Instead the educational systems are created in accordance to current discourses and notions about human beings capacity and abilities that means that the system automatically includes and excludes. The educational system in that sense is a practice, an act in which discursive power is staged (Beronius, M. 1986, Olsson, U. 1997). In Sweden the current educational system does not give pupils diagnosed with intellectual disabilities access to higher education. In a previous paper Florin, K., Hedlund, E. and Akerblom, E. (2014), studied subjects' constructions in a project at the University of Gävle. The project was an experiment in which 14 individuals diagnosed as persons with intellectual disabilities were given the possibility of a three-year education at the University. The project is now depleted and a final report is published. The term “project” itself shows that the education was a test or a trial and not something that initially was assumed to be given in higher education. In this paper our aim is through a discourse analysis study if and how the construction of “the other” legitimize the existent of the project.

    Method

    Methodologically the contribution is based on discourse analysis (Foucault, M. 2003; Foucault, M. 2006). We are interested in how the construction of “the other” legitimizes the existence of the above mentioned project. By using discourse analysis it is possible to visualize the power in words and language and how it is staged in practices (Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). The focus here is not on what the words mean, but what they do (Derrida, J. 1998; Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). Our starting point is that policy bills are an expression and a part of current discourse, that is, manifestations which are made possible in and through discourses, in this case by the construction and the notion of "the other". (Hajer, M.A., 1995; Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., 2005)

    Expected Outcomes

    One expected outcome is that the constructions of the student in the project both legitimize the start and closure of the project. These students are constructed as being beyond what already is portrayed as "the other" e.g. students with dyslexia, cerebral pares, visual impairment, etc. The discourse does not allow the idea that people with intellectual disabilities are a natural part of higher education. Changes in education policy are a dynamic process in a context of interaction between agents and ideas, and in this, a number of problems, solutions and efforts are suggested. A contribution could be to see how different agents create the conditions in the current context that allows or prevents transitions in higher education. Another contribution could be to initiate a discussion about fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community.

    References

    Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., (2004) Policy and power: A conceptual framework between the old and the ´new´ policy idioms. Policy Science (2004), 37:339-356. Beronius, M. (1986). Den disciplinära maktens organisering- Om makt och arbetsorganisation. Lund: Arkiv avhandlingsserie 23.  Derrida, J. (1998). Of grammatology. (Corrected ed). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Florin, K., Hedlund, E.& Åkerblom, E. (2014). Life long learning for all. (ed.) İbrahim Yalin. International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education. Milano: Icoine. Foucault, M. (1993, 1971). Diskursens ordning Installationsföreläsning vid College De France Översättning Rosengren, M. Stockholm: Brutus Östlings Förlag Symposium, Originalets titel: L’ordre du discours. Foucault, M. (2003). Regementalitet i Fronesis Lag och ordning 14-15 Göteborg: Tidskrift föreningen Fronesis. Foucault, M. (2006). Biopolitikens födelse i Wennerhag, M & Unsgaard (red.) (2006) Fronesis Liberalism  22-23 Göteborg: Tidsskriftsföreningen Fronesis Hajer, M.A., (1995). The politics of Environmental Ddiscourse: Ecological modernization and a Policy Process. Oxford: Oxford university press. Hälsoinspiratörsprojektet (2014) Utveckling av högskoleutbildning för studenter med utvecklingsstörning 2011-1014. Gävle: Institutet för inkludering och optimalt lärande samt Nationella samverkansgruppen för livslångt lärande och arbete för personer med utvecklingsstörning. Olsson, U. (1997). Folkhälsa som pedagogiskt projekt: bilden av hälsoupplysning i statens offentliga utredningar. Uppsala:Uppsala Studies in Education No 72.

  • 5.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lifelong learning for all?2014In: International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education / [ed] İbrahim Yalin, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a story about lifelong learning in a Swedish context. The need for lifelong learning is a recurring issue in the political discussions and media reporting. According to Delors (1996), lifelong learning is a prerequisite for modern society. A common way to discuss lifelong learning is to make a difference between formal, informal and non-formal learning. According to Dunn (2003), non-formal learning is about skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that people acquire in their daily lives. We on the other hand believe that all kinds of learning always include the above concepts and that the discussion of lifelong learning is about creating certain subject. Our aim is to visualize desirable subjects through discourse analyze (Foucault,1980). The empirical material consists of curricula and syllabi for a project at the University of Gävle in which individuals with intellectual disabilities are offered education at post-secondary level.

  • 6.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nihlfors, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Codification of present Swedish curriculum processes: linking educational activities over time and space2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Naiva förväntningar och kreativa lösningar kring "nätet" som examinationsverktyg2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Om elever som kränker eller mobbar andra : Om mobbning och kränkningar på nätet2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Larsson, Paula
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Incident-Level Analysis of 703 Retrospective Self-Reports of Ordinary Violence Recalled by 334 Swedes Aged 6 to 45 Years2015In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 30, no 12, p. 2129-2150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is wide variation in how exposure to violence is conceptualized. Perceptions of ordinary violence are linked to people's actual experiences, which may be direct, indirect, observed, or vicarious, and all through filters of gender, class, community, and culture. Event-recall interviews were conducted among a convenience sample of Swedish males (n = 132) and females (n = 202) aged 6 to 45 years. Respondents spontaneously recalled 703 events (averaging 2.3 events for males, 2.1 for females). For men, 93% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 2% female-on-female, and 2% male(s)-on-female(s). For women, 42% of events were male(s)-on-male(s), 19% female(s)-on-female(s), 24% male(s)-on-females, and 10% female(s)-on-male(s). Interviewee's roles differed. Of males, 17% were aggressors, 40% victims, and 43% observers. Of females, 12% were aggressors, 30% victims, and 58% observers. For males, there was a significant increase in degree of seriousness of events from junior-, to high school, to college. For females, events became more serious as interviewees progressed from aggressor to victim to observer. For males, violent events between strangers were significantly more serious than all other combinations of acquaintanceship. Most recently recalled events were the most serious for males (no effect for females). Participation in sports was linked to seriousness of events recalled by females, events being described as more serious by females who participated in sports, this effect being stronger for those females who participated in contact/collision and self-defense sports. The significant correlation between trauma and seriousness is nearly twice as strong for females which might be taken as an indication of stronger moral pathos.

  • 10.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Persson, Mariann
    Högskolan i Kristianstad.
    A shared responsibility model for the professional, interdisciplinary and scientific development of student teachers, practicum supervisors and teacher educators2014In: , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Jansson, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Socialisation in Correctional System and Doctoral Education: analyses of contemporary policy formation in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jansson, Joel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Targeted (re)-socialization in universities and prisons: a policy study concerning tutor and tutee2015In: Abstract book NERA 2015, 2015, p. 1-1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper present a sub-study included in a curriculum theory project on targeted socialization within two institutions of major importance for the Nordic welfare states enculturation, universities and prisons. We compare the relationship between supervisor/doctoral student and correctional contact persons/inmates. There are some apparent differences between these two contexts. Universities are mostly discussed in terms of socialization and learning, prisons more often as institutions where inmates are in need of re-socialization whether they approve or not. Students enter doctoral education as a result of a qualified meritocratic selection process, and success will produce holders of the highest exam possible. Inmates qualify for prison by being convicted for a crime in a court of law, and are deprived of their liberty as they are incarcerated. In addition, prison has a mixed purpose of being about retribution and deterrence, as well as rehabilitation. In this substudy we compare aspects of targeted (re)-socialization processes, from a curriculum theory perspective, regarding the two relationships mentioned above. In other words, the tutoring relationship between tutors and tutees in the contexts of doctoral education and inmate rehabilitation. We pay special attention to the transactions of knowledge, norms, values and identities offered in both cases. The empirical material consists of policy-texts on a national (laws for prisons/ probation, higher education and policy-texts concerning the correctional contact persons)-and a local level (enforcement plans, individual study planes and policy-texts concerning PhD supervision). Preliminary results of this sub-study is that the targeted (re)-socialization process of these two activities have both similarities and difference. This opens up for further research questions on how similarities are played out through the differences between the two institutions in objectives and contents (curriculum), educational forms (pedagogy) and assessment activities (evaluation).

  • 13.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    AAC: ethical contexts and ethical dilemmas2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [ru]

    В статье анализируются профессиональные этические контексты и этические делеммы, возникающие как результат противоречий между этими контекстами и этическими принципами. Показано, что этический контекст ААС может быть понят как процесс развития двух противоположных тенденций: междисциплинарной интеграции этических кодексов и профессиональной этической специализации. Эти две тенденции нормируют отношения между специалистами различных профессий и ААС пользователем. Центральной ценностью этих отношений выступает «очеловеченная» коммуникация: понимающая, взаимная, эмпатийная, разделенная и др., развитие и формирование которой сопровождается возникновением целого ряда этических дилемм. В статье также анализируется подход к пониманию этических дилеммы в уникальном профессиональном опыте «встречи» с «со-бытием».

  • 14.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    AAC: ethics of unique communicative context2015In: Sotsial'no Psihologichni Problemi Tiflopedagogiki [Social-Psychological Problems of Typhlopedagogy], Institute of Special education at National Pedagogica University named after M. Dragomanov, Vol. 12, no 21, p. 92-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Development of AAC theory and practice has contributed to a powerful change of professional consciousness among AAC experts, bringing new requests and requirements to more complex issues among which ethics has been lifted up and mainstreamed. The aim of the present research is to enter the analysis of the core issues of fundamental professional ethical codes in the light of alternative and augmentative communication; to bring contribution into the “normative” integrated interdisciplinary fundamental ethical principles from the perspective of “meeting with unique AAC-user context”. The research methodology is built upon the study of scientific sources, systematized by international electronic data bases and includes an interdisciplinary approach to its collection. Phenomenology is the basic research methodology to analyzed data. A case study of the family context, where deaf parents are upbringing blind child, is taken as a representative part for the discussion. The primary determinant for the intervention strategy was defined as family-centered, based on conceptual principles of Enabling and Empowering Families and Effective help-giving in the early intervention program. Badiou’s theory of ethics and its dimensions of ‘truth’ as a ‘truth’ of the Event were used for the interpretation of ethics of a unique AAC context and developing a minimal model of a ‘basic values’. It has been shown that each professional community forms its own unique structure of minimal values. The structure of the values forms a meaningful basis for mutual understanding between professionals, family members and professional community in a wider perspective. The success of the AAC implementation as a new discipline is dependent on how all together researchers, professionals and the AAC-users could act ethically developing common understandings, beliefs and values.

  • 15.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. UCRS, Uppsala University, Sweden; Northern Arctic Federal University, Archangelsk, Russia.
    Critical factors of the poverty structure in families upbringing children with disabilities (pre-understanding situation in the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine)2015In: Banber - Bulletin of Yerevan University. Sociology, Economics, ISSN 1829-4545, Vol. 1, p. 42-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Crucial factors of poverty in families with children with developmental disorders2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [fi]

    This study was designed to study the structure of the critical factors of poverty in families with children with developmental disorders and the role of special education among them. The Ideology of the Soviet period legitimized "equality in poverty" through low but stable standard of living. The liberalization of government reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union increased economic polarization in the new independent societies. Poverty for families with children with developmental disabilities has become an apparent reality. Based on the study of basic and advanced research and interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of scientific texts, we have identified three critical factors (CF) that structure poverty in these families: CF of financial distress; CF of social "exclusion" and institutional practices of special education; CF of "human resources" and "family capital". The nature of the CF is multi-dimensional. Multidimensionality of each of the factors is manifested in the fact that each of them includes a number of sub-factors that exist at several levels at the same time: macro- (governmentality), meso- (social cultural and special education) and micro- (family); the relationships between sub-factors are complicated and individualized in each family. All of these factors are critical for understanding the holistic picture of disaster and hardship leading families with children with developmental disabilities to poverty. Among all the three critical factors, the dominant role is played by a factor of macro-level: governmentality. Special education in Moldova and Ukraine is rooted in the Soviet "defectological educational model", which during long time was shaped scientifically and practically by the principle of socialist humanism, constructing a context of social exclusion in the form of "defectological square", it became a symbolic result of unrealized "utopia." However, inclusive processes in European education, caused by neoliberal reforms and lack of a new theoretical thinking have put new questions regarding the role and the place of special education in structuring and reproducing poverty. Research in the applied problem continues.

  • 17.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Special education in different social context: search for new theoretical approaches2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is analyzing the problem of establishing new theoretical approaches to understanding the family role in up bringing and developing children with disabilities in the society of economic polarization, awakened by the collapse of the USSR and the following market transformation. It shows that economic and social order, established in the post-soviet countries, accelerated economic stratification and socio-cultural inequality, becoming a source of poverty in families with children with disabilities. Inequality of life chances, “double poverty”, reproduction of poverty risks are specific manifestations of economic differences in these families. Theories of human and family resources become powerful instruments of knowledge and understanding of changes taking place. The use of these theories in the areas traditional for these sciences, such as special pedagogy and psychology, significantly extends the analysis of the “new conditions” of family fostering, providing the way of “growing into civilization” for children with disabilities.

  • 18.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Chiperi, Nadezhda
    State Pedagogical University named after I. Creangi.
    Parents with mental retardation and family resources: the narrative of social exclusion in the conditions of extreme poverty [the sample from Republic of Moldova]2014In: Scientific journal of the National Pedagogical Dragomanov University. Series 19: Special Education and Psychology, ISSN 2310-0893, no 26, p. 433-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article is analyzing a problem of family resources in the family of single father with mental retardation upbringing two adolescents in the conditions of extreme poverty. Research methodology based on the model of the case study qualitative research within the phenomenological “life world” and hermeneutics approaches. The study has gotten whole description of the father’s “life world” and its structural and essential elements constituting it. It is shown that family “life world” is structured by experience of coping with the extreme poverty within the context of strong social exclusion, and is controlled by the father’s family story and has class socio-economic nature. Family resources such as: health, education, social context and economic conditions of the family and its members are characterized as being affected by different type of limitations and dependence on external “donor’s” sources. The discussion is lifting up the moral-ethical problem of special education and “universal” values and what role should they play in the process of structuring essential elements of ” the life world”  experience in such families.

  • 19.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, department of special education.
    Conceptualizing literacy in AAC: some reflections2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Literacy is a concept which almost has taken over and included concepts like reading, writing and inter human social communication in general. However, it has only recently been integrated into the AAC-field of social work, special education and assistive technologies. This paper focusses on some key-questions regarding AAC and literacy, mentioning that the holistic approach of AAC in combination with a general linguistic theory as the one by Charles Peirce and, by that, creates more whole or holistic perspective for thinking and looking for answers on these questions. The social model created by Uri Bronfenbrenner is also very applicable. Even though a holistic approach demands openness on the behalf of the teacher or interventionist as well as of the user her/himself, it is important to remember the need for good methods and methodology, based upon good practical evidence.

  • 20.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    Literacy as a toll for socialization of AAC users2015In: Main Issues in Special Education : Scientific Methodical Journal, ISSN 1829-4294, Vol. 3, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    Sovremennaya sotsialjnaya rabota i traditsionnoje spetsialjnoje obrazovanije: "obsheje sotsialjnoje". Rossiya i Severnije strani. [Contemporary social work and traditional special education: "common social". Russian and Nordic countries]2015In: Sotsialjnaya rabota XXI veka: globaljnije vizovi i regionaljnaya practika [Social work 21 century: global challeges and local practice]: Monography / [ed] Danilova, R., Troshina, T. & Malik, L., Archangelsk, Russia: Northern Arctic Federal University named after M.Lomonosov , 2015, 1, p. 55-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Department of special education.
    Социальная политика в отношении детской «дефективности» в военно-революционный период и первую декаду Советской власти (1914–1927 годы): [Social policy of child "defectivity" during the war-revolutionary period and the first decade of Soviet power establishment (1914-1927)]2015In: Vestnik SAFU. Serija Gumanitarnye i sotsialnye nauki, ISSN 2227-6564, Vol. 1, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social policy in the field of child “defectivicy” during the war and the first years of Soviet power formation (1914-1920) was performed in conditions of the severe socio-political disaster. Multimilliondemographic losses of the future human resources in forms of bad health children, a high rate of child mortality, potentially not born children in the future decades etc. – are standing in the line with the other facts of the war-revolutionary circumstances of the historical period in focus. Analysis of the texts of the number of historical documents, which are relevant to the dominant political and scientific areas in this field, allowed to identify the essence of the social doctrine of the country of Soviets and its role in understanding the key actors of a new social policy in the field of “defective” childhood. The definition of child “defectivicy” got a rather wide interpretation. Among the traditional understanding of “defective/ sick child”, a new category of "defective” children has appeared – they were disadvantaged and homeless/street children and teens. Philanthropic and private forms of social care of “defective/sick” children, supported by the social policy of the Russian Empire, were nationalized. Instead those “new institutions” were established: the first prototypes of the soviet internat institutions (schools communes for morally-defective). Traditionally “defective/sick” and “new defective” children and teens were united in the “single army of morally-defective”. A new social doctrine of the country of Soviets, expressed by the principle of socialistic humanism, in practice (by different reasons), didn’t protect the right of the most socially vulnerable group of children to become full members of the new society. A scientific discourse of “care taking” appeared inside Curative pedagogy and Pedology. Defectology, took the place of scientific philanthropy and established the foundation of the scientific knowledge about “defective” children, becoming a crucial regulator of social political discussions of "care taking" about them during upcoming decades of the Soviet era.

  • 23.
    Kalinnikova Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Magnusson, Magnus
    Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Archangel, Russia.
    Bal, Natalia
    State Pedagogical University named after M. Tank, Minsk, Belarus.
    Developing Inclusive Infrastructure by Bringing AAC Knowledge for Special Education in Adjoining Countries to EU2015In: Journal of the Comenius Association, ISSN 2033-4443, no 24, p. 21-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AAC is an abbreviation for the concept Alternative and Augmentative Communication, a joint term for methods used to support and develop communication for individuals who are non-speaking or with severe communicative disabilities. From 2007 and onwards, universities in Sweden, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine have cooperated to develop strategies for integrating these methods into inclusive special education practice and education in each country. The report will present some results and ongoing activities. In Sweden AAC is well-known and methods are used in many inclusive settings. In Russia there are a number of habilitation settings where training in communicative AAC-methods are available and some national and international conferences have been administrated as well as reports published. In Ukraine, some activities are developed from one university in Kyiv and finally in Belarus, AAC is well integrated into the central curriculum on special education training of teachers and others in the country. The cooperation has been initiated from Sweden through projects financed by Swedish agencies and some support from international AAC agencies. The results show that developing new structures in the infrastructure takes time but that international cooperation between EU and adjoining countries support joint inclusive development.

  • 24.
    Kalinnikova-Magnusson, Liya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies (UCRS), Uppsala University, Sweden; Northern Arctic Federal University, Archangelsk, Russia.
    [Structure of poverty in families with children with developmental disabilities (pre-understanding situation in  the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine)]2015In: Pictures of poverty in societies under transformation / [ed] Liya Kalinnikova-Magnusson, Silvia Belibova, [Chisinau]: - , 2015, p. 28-56Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Kalinnikova-Magnusson, Liya
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala Center for Russian and Eurasian Studies (UCRS), Uppsala University, Sweden; Northern Arctic Federal University, Archangelsk, Russia.
    Belibova, SilviaState Pedagogical University named after Ion Creanga, Chisinau, Moldova.
    Pictures of poverty in societies under transformation2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Dialogical Practise in Stockholm2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Konstruktionen av ungdomars syn på religion och samhälle i International Civic and Citizenship Education Study2015In: Det postsekulära klassrummet: mot ett vidgat religionskunskapsbegrepp / [ed] David Carlsson & Peder Thalén, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2015, p. 39-54Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Om betydelsen av lärarens vägledning och omdöme2015In: Kontroversiella frågor: Om kunskap och politik i samhällsundervisningen / [ed] Ljunggren, Carsten, Unemar Öst, Ingrid & Englund, Tomas, Lund: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2015, 1, p. 135-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Place and conditions for democratic action in multicultural NGO encounters2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Religions constructed as similar or different by teachers of religious education from a citizenship education perspective2015In: British Journal of Religious Education, ISSN 0141-6200, E-ISSN 1740-7931, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 240-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically explore and theoretically discuss Swedish religious studies (RE) teachers’ understanding of religions as similar and different. In Sweden, RE is a mandatory subject and presents all the world’s major religions to students. Teachers of RE therefore need to relate to the various relations between the religions. A qualitative interview study with Swedish RE teachers (n  = 7) in Swedish secondary schools was performed to determine how they conceptualise religion and present ‘religion’ to their students. The teachers (m = 3; f = 4) were chosen from schools with a variety of ethnically homogenous and heterogeneous compositions of students. The teachers’ conceptions of ‘religion’ can be described according to two main categories: as something universal or as something dependent on the cultural context. These two main orientations are described more closely in this paper. The teachers’ conceptions are also discussed from the perspective of possible consequences for educating citizens in the Swedish school system. It is suggested that RE teachers’ conceptions of religions as similar and different facilitate and constrain identification and encounters with others as religious subjects.

  • 31.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Teacher education for democratic participation: the need for teacher judgement in times of evidence-based teaching2014In: Citizenship, social and economics education, ISSN 1478-8047, E-ISSN 2047-1734, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 175-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to national and international policy, teachers' work is supposed to be guided by reliable evidence in order to be effective and achieve the set goals. The purpose of this article is to problematise evidence-based approaches for teacher education by highlighting the occurrence of dilemmas in teachers' work connected to the assignment of educating democratic citizens. The article is a critical theoretical discussion that takes its departure in the teaching paradox of supporting students' initiatives to act as critical citizens. In order to address the current trend of anchoring teacher education in evidence-based methods, Swedish policy documents are used as a point of reference and are read through the lens of the teaching paradox and the need for teacher judgement. The analysis shows that policy texts fall short when it comes to the assignment to support students to take part in society as critical citizens. It is concluded that teacher education could gain from theoretically based case studies of dilemmatic everyday situations in which teaching for democratic participation is visible.

  • 32.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    The Church of Sweden as a (Contested) Actor in a Multi-religious Society: A Case Study of the Imam Debate in Public and Church Media2015In: Journal of Dialogue Studies, ISSN 2054-3131, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 87-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden can be characterised as a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. One of the most prominent actors in interreligious relations is the Church of Sweden. However, such involvement is also open to criticism, both within the church and in public debate. Different expectations concerning cooperation with the Swedish Muslim community became visible in the public media and in the national church media when a congregation in Stockholm engaged an imam for a multi-religious youth project. This paper examines the arguments relating to the mission of the church as a church for Swedish people in a pluralistic society, and discusses some of the consequences of these arguments for interreligious relations and dialogue. The material is based on articles published in Swedish public media and Swedish church media between March and September, 2011. The debate, analysed through five sub-themes, focuses on the borders of what should be included and excluded by a national church in a multi-religious society and the national church’s responsibility for caring for religious minorities. The paper concludes with a discussion about issues of power regarding the church as an initiator of dialogue, and how different actors are represented in the media.

  • 33.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    The Value of RE for Citizenship Education According to Swedish RE-Teachers – multiculturalism and individual thinking2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of Religious Education (RE) in Sweden is to teach about religion and to present a comprehensive view of different traditions. However, this assignment can be interpreted in different ways by different RE teachers with different consequences for the education of citizens. In this contribution RE-teachers are considered as socialization agents representing an important part of the enacted curriculum. The purpose of this contribution is to explore Swedish RE teachers’ notions of citizenship education in relation to RE as a subject in the compulsory school, with special reference to education for democratic citizenship. A second purpose is to analyze possible implications for civic social action. In order to explore how teachers interpret their assignment, a semi-structured interview study was carried out and data were categorized according to content analysis. The theoretical point of departure was based on the pragmatic analysis of (potential) moral political consequences. A (preliminary) categorization of the teachers’ responses was developed according to the following themes: learning democratic values from religions; learning to cope with differences; learning for correcting prejudices; acquiring tools for a personal political.

  • 34.
    Lillejord, Solvi
    et al.
    Knowledge Centre for Education, Norway.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Proitz, Tine
    University College of Buskerud and Vestfold, Norway.
    On Systemic Research Reviews’ and the Politics of Knowledge in Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Popkewitz, Thomas
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    A review of the field of international comparisons of school performances and their educational and political impact over time2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Popkewitz, Thomas
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    International Comparisons of School Results: A Systematic Review of Research on Large Scale Assessments in Education2015Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Systemic Review of Research on International Comparisons of School Results2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Aasen, Petter
    Högskolan i Buskerud och Vestfold.
    Forsberg, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Preface2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, p. 27012-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Popkewitz, Thomas S
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Internationella jämförelser av skolresultat2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med denna systematiska forskningsöversikt är att beskriva och analysera forskning om internationella jämförelser av skolresultat genom storskaliga studier (International Large Scale Assessments, ILSA). Hur är kunskapsläget och vad kännetecknar forskningsfältet? Vilken relevans har forskningen? Vad betyder systematiska forskningsöversikter för kunskapsutveckling och expertis inom utbildningsområdet? Vår genomgång inriktades på OECDs forskningsprogram PISA (Programme for Individual Study Assessment), och IEAs (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement ) två program TIMSS ( Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study) och CIVED/ICCS ( International Civic and Citizenship Education Study) till vilka sammanlagt närmare 9000 publikationer kunde knytas. I olika steg filtrerades publikationerna så att vi slutligen erhöll studier som kunde klassificeras som primärforskning av internationell komparativt slag i ”peer reviewade” vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Dessa studier kodades med fokus på argument och belägg. Det kartlagda forskningsfältet syntetiserades sedan inom avgränsade fområden. Vi identifierade vissa sätt att resonera inom forskningsfältet - som resonemangs-stilar där vissa slutledningar är giltiga men inte andra. Möjligheter och begränsningar att översätta den aktuella forskningen till praktisk verksamhet undersöktes dels med avseende på vad som skrevs i de aktuella publikationerna, dels genom specialundersökning av den gråzon där PISA-resultat översattes till ranking av utbildningsystem och strategier för förbättringar av dessa system. Slutsatser drogs om hur den valda modellen för forskningsgenomgångar fungerade. Vidare diskuterades premisser och konsekvenser av systematiska forskningsgenomgångar och hur de kan utnyttjas.

  • 40.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Popkewitz, Tom
    University of Wisconsin-Madison.
    Vad kan vi lära av internationella jämförelser av skolresultat?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En systematisk genomgång av forskning om internationella skolresultat har utförts och två frågor ställts: Vilka resultat kan forskningen visa på? Vad leder systematiska forskningsgenomgångar inom utbildningsområdet till för kunskap?

    En s.k. Systematic Research Review (SRR) har genomförts i enlighet med de principer som internationellt utvecklats för att uppnå systematik och transparens. Detta kräver tydliga kriterier för att finna relevant forskning och bestämma vilka publikationer som ska ingå eller uteslutas.

    Arbetet med att göra en SRR är tidskrävande för stora internationella forskningsprogram som PISA, TIMSS och PIRLS. Via sökmaskiner identifierade vi drygt 11 000 artiklar. Detta reducerades stegvis, exempelvis för PISA-studier från 4 406 till 849 utifrån bestämda kriterier. Den utvalda gruppen analyserades i sin tur och kvar blev en mindre grupp om 357 texter.

    Preliminära resultat är att vissa studier med stor politisk genomslagskraft hamnar helt utanför det vetenskapliga fältet, en begränsad del bygger faktiskt på internationella jämförelser, samt forskning som söker förklara skolresultat gör det ofta utifrån elevers sociala och kulturella tillhörighet.

  • 41.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Molstad, Christina
    Forsberg, Eva
    A Game of Thrones: Scientific Facts Travelling by a Corpus of PISA-research2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Pröitz, Tine
    Högskolan i Buskerud och Vestfold.
    Román, Henrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Wermke, Wieland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Curriculum versus Didaktik revisited: towards a transnational curriculum theory2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, article id 27014Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Pröitz, Tine S.Román, HenrikWermke, WielandUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Curriculum versus Didaktik revisited: towards a transnational curriculum theory: A special issue of Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, NordSTEP2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue collects papers presented at the Fifth Nordic Curriculum Theory Conference that took place at Uppsala University, Sweden, on 23 and 24 October 2013. Around 60 researchers from all the Nordic countries gathered to discuss the challenges presented by the emergence of curriculum theory over the past 20 years. This issue is devoted to approaches which theorise curriculum from both novel and revitalised perspectives. In doing so, it aims to elaborate on analytical instruments for the understanding of our object of study in a globalising world. There have been explicit expressions of desire for a transnational curriculum theory which might satisfy a need for devices that contribute to an under- standing of how public education is reshaped, at a time when earlier reference frames, such as the nation state systems which took a Westphalian form, are undergoing transformation within highly interdependent transna- tional spaces. This issue presents, in particular, approaches that on the one hand provide possible analytical as well as empirical means which have the potential to sharpen our arguments and deepen the discussion on curriculum from a transnational perspective. On the contrary, the ap- proaches illustrate the value of curriculum theory to other fields of research, such as comparative and international education.

  • 44.
    Skott, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Bergh, Andreas
    Örebro universitet.
    Differentieringsfrågan under 70 år av skol(forms)reformer2015In: Utbildning, makt och politik / [ed] Sverker Lindblad & Lisbeth Lundahl, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015, 1, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Sutherland, Helen
    et al.
    University of Kingston, London, United kingdom.
    Sundberg Kimhag, Kia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    How can students develop reflective learning and practice during a short visit to view another country´s educational system?2015In: 25th EECERA Annual conference ‘Innovation, experimentaiton and adventure in early childhood': Abstract book, 2015, p. 163-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research aims are to find: patterns of change in students practice and learning, demonstrate the value of model developed and impact of model on students' practice. This model developed over six years consists of: setting visits, lectures and reflection - reflective learning journals and discussions with home and host lecturers. This model is unique and innovative. It uses reflection to support deeper level learning (Moon, 2001) and develop student’s professional thinking (Pollard and Tann, 1994). Reflective models, such as Ghaye and Ghaye were used to support students’ reflections (William et al, 2004). An action research/case study approach has been applied for this qualitative study with data gathered in the form of evaluative feedback questionnaires. "Construct categories/characteristics for coding" was used to analyse the data (Robson, 2002:355) identifying key themes and patterns: Value, Methods, Traits/Characteristics and Impact. Applicable ethical guidelines of CODEX have been followed with informed consent gained from students returning their evaluative feedback. 164

    Students could choose not to submit feedback. The data was anonymised. The results and outcomes of this model demonstrated an impact on the students’ learning with the availability of lecturer support from the host and visiting country. This enhanced the students’ learning opportunities as lecturers were able to clarify and support students’ comparisons, learning experience and reflections. The outcome and impact of using this model has challenged and developed the students’ pedagogical understanding, thinking, perspectives and practice of early years’ provision, with students demonstrating that they have reflected and evaluated their own philosophies, beliefs and practices.

  • 46.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Approaching the space issue in Nordic curriculum theory: National reflections of globalization in social studies/citizenship textbook pictures in Sweden, England and Germany2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 27011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on globalisation in Nordic curriculum theory by investigating the issue of space. It puts forward an increased interest in the practical levels of schooling and argues globalisation should be investigated not only as a policy phenomenon, but also as instructional matter in different contexts. It presents two perspectives of space, a container and a relational perspective. A distinction between the two perspectives contributes to an understanding of how the world is constructed at different levels of curriculum. The article tests its argument with an explorative social studies and citizenship textbook study in the national contexts of Sweden, England and Germany. It can be shown that all cases differ in their portrayals of globalisation and in the constructions of space related issues.

  • 47.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Salokangas, Maija
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Autonomy in education: theoretical and empirical approaches to a contested concept2015In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 1, no 2, article id 28841Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy is a widely used concept in education policy and practice. The etymology of the concept derives from the Greek autonomos ‘having its own laws’ (Oxford Dictionaries, 2015). As such, the debates around the concept circulate around individuals’ or groups’ ability and capacity to self-rule, and the governance and/or constraints, which limit such a capacity. However, autonomy has also been widely contested in philosophy, and as suggested by Rawls (1980), for example, the concept has been defined in a variety of ways. In educational research too, the concept has been debated from varying viewpoints, as, for example, scholars engaged in education history (Smaller, 2015), education sociology and policy (Ball, 2006; Apple, 2002), legal issues (Berka, 2000) and pedagogy (Reinders, 2010; Little, 1995) have all problematised and defined its meaning in relation to education.

    When applied to educational practice, this nuanced and complex concept may indeed mean a variety of things. Take school-level autonomy as an example. Schools are complicated social systems in which multiple actors operate in different roles, and in which one's scope of action may affect the decision-making capacity of that of others. The question of who in a school community may possess autonomy (e.g. the teachers, the principals, or the learners) has fundamental implications for the ways in which the school operates. Also, the matters over which the members of the school community enjoy autonomy have important implications for what school autonomy means in practice. If we consider teacher autonomy more closely, it becomes apparent that teacher autonomy is often understood in terms of a dichotomous pairing of constraint vs. freedom (Wermke & Höstfält, 2014). It could be argued that teacher autonomy is always about constraint, and drawing from Gewirtz's and Cribb's (2009) work, we suggest focussing on the ways in which autonomy is constrained, as well as the matters over which autonomy is enjoyed and by whom. Therefore, teacher autonomy should be distinguished from other forms of autonomy, for example, school or local autonomy. Indeed, increased school autonomy, or local autonomy, as witnessed, for example, in relation to the Friskola movement in Sweden or Academies movement in England, does not automatically grant to teachers an increased scope of action (Kauko & Salokangas, 2015; Salokangas & Chapman, 2014; Wermke & Höstfält, 2014).

    Moreover, the teacher autonomy debate has been influenced by and reflects wider global education trends and international comparisons. Indeed, autonomy has been a central concept in education policy in Nordic countries (Frostenson, 2012) as well as elsewhere (Caldwell, 2008; Glatter, 2012). Recently, this could be seen, for example, in relation to ‘PISA envy’, and the ways in which Finland's consistent success in PISA has been explained, at least partly, through its highly educated and autonomous teaching workforce (Lopez, 2012; Stenlås, 2011). However, as the contributions in this issue highlight, international comparisons concerning teacher autonomy must remain sensitive to the national and local contexts in which teachers operate, and consider what autonomy actually means for teachers in those settings (Salokangas & Kauko, in press; Wermke, 2013).

    It is these complexities, inherent in the concept of autonomy, as well as its practical applications, that this edited collection was set to discuss and offer contributions to varied discourses concerning this important, widely debated, and contested concept. The special issue is divided into two sections. The first section presents three invited essays that offer theoretical perspectives on autonomy. The first two, by Gerald Dworkin and Evert Vedung, respectively, are not educational per se, but offer important conceptual contributions to the discussion. The third essay by Magnus Frostenson discusses the multidimensionality of the concept with a focus on education and teaching. The second section comprises empirical studies that discuss the concept of autonomy in different national and local contexts. The articles report on research conducted in Norway (Christina Elde Mølstadt & Sølvi Mausethagen), Germany (Martin Heinrich), Sweden (Sara Maria Sjödin, Andreas Bergh, Ulf Lundström) and England (Ruth McGinity).

  • 48.
    Wermke, Wieland
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    Salokangas, MaijaTrinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Autonomy in education: theoretical and empirical approaches to a contested concept: Special issue to Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy (NordSTEP)2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomy is a widely used concept in education policy and practice. The etymology of the concept derives from the Greek autonomos ‘having its own laws’ (Oxford Dictionaries, 2015). As such, the debates around the concept circulate around individuals’ or groups’ ability and capacity to self-rule, and the governance and/or constraints, which limit such a capacity. However, autonomy has also been widely contested in philosophy, and as suggested by Rawls (1980), for example, the concept has been defined in a variety of ways. In educational research too, the concept has been debated from varying viewpoints, as, for example, scholars engaged in education history (Smaller, 2015), education sociology and policy (Ball, 2006; Apple, 2002), legal issues (Berka, 2000) and pedagogy (Reinders, 2010; Little, 1995) have all problematised and defined its meaning in relation to education.

    When applied to educational practice, this nuanced and complex concept may indeed mean a variety of things. Take school-level autonomy as an example. Schools are complicated social systems in which multiple actors operate in different roles, and in which one's scope of action may affect the decision-making capacity of that of others. The question of who in a school community may possess autonomy (e.g. the teachers, the principals, or the learners) has fundamental implications for the ways in which the school operates. Also, the matters over which the members of the school community enjoy autonomy have important implications for what school autonomy means in practice. If we consider teacher autonomy more closely, it becomes apparent that teacher autonomy is often understood in terms of a dichotomous pairing of constraint vs. freedom (Wermke & Höstfält, 2014). It could be argued that teacher autonomy is always about constraint, and drawing from Gewirtz's and Cribb's (2009) work, we suggest focussing on the ways in which autonomy is constrained, as well as the matters over which autonomy is enjoyed and by whom. Therefore, teacher autonomy should be distinguished from other forms of autonomy, for example, school or local autonomy. Indeed, increased school autonomy, or local autonomy, as witnessed, for example, in relation to the Friskola movement in Sweden or Academies movement in England, does not automatically grant to teachers an increased scope of action (Kauko & Salokangas, 2015; Salokangas & Chapman, 2014; Wermke & Höstfält, 2014).

    Moreover, the teacher autonomy debate has been influenced by and reflects wider global education trends and international comparisons. Indeed, autonomy has been a central concept in education policy in Nordic countries (Frostenson, 2012) as well as elsewhere (Caldwell, 2008; Glatter, 2012). Recently, this could be seen, for example, in relation to ‘PISA envy’, and the ways in which Finland's consistent success in PISA has been explained, at least partly, through its highly educated and autonomous teaching workforce (Lopez, 2012; Stenlås, 2011). However, as the contributions in this issue highlight, international comparisons concerning teacher autonomy must remain sensitive to the national and local contexts in which teachers operate, and consider what autonomy actually means for teachers in those settings (Salokangas & Kauko, in press; Wermke, 2013).

    It is these complexities, inherent in the concept of autonomy, as well as its practical applications, that this edited collection was set to discuss and offer contributions to varied discourses concerning this important, widely debated, and contested concept. The special issue is divided into two sections. The first section presents three invited essays that offer theoretical perspectives on autonomy. The first two, by Gerald Dworkin and Evert Vedung, respectively, are not educational per se, but offer important conceptual contributions to the discussion. The third essay by Magnus Frostenson discusses the multidimensionality of the concept with a focus on education and teaching. The second section comprises empirical studies that discuss the concept of autonomy in different national and local contexts. The articles report on research conducted in Norway (Christina Elde Mølstadt & Sølvi Mausethagen), Germany (Martin Heinrich), Sweden (Sara Maria Sjödin, Andreas Bergh, Ulf Lundström) and England (Ruth McGinity).

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