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  • 1.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Elfving, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Förskolans utegård: En fallstudie kring hur förskolepersonal använder förskolans utegård som en pedagogisk resurs2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning har varit att undersöka hur förskolepersonal kan använda förskolans utegård som ett verktyg i deras arbete med barn. För att närma oss detta har vi genomfört en fallstudie på en förskola med observationer och gruppintervjuer som metod för insamling av information. Resultatet visar att förskolepersonal använder sig av förskolans utegård utifrån olika syften beroende på om det är verksamhet på förmiddag eller eftermiddag. Under förmiddagen används utegården i huvudsak för att underlätta verksamhet inomhus och för att ge barn möjlighet att utveckla fantasi och lek samt för att tillgodose barns rörelsebehov. På eftermiddagen används utegården mer som en resurs för att genomföra planerade aktiviteter. Resultatet visar även att utegården uppskattas som ett extra rum av förskolepersonal. Utemiljön är ett rum som är viktig för att verksamheten ska fungera bra.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Strindefjord, Michaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Där leken inte hör hemma: En studie om hur förskollärare resonerar kring val av pedagogiska applikationer2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska skolsystemet, således också förskolan, står inför en digitaliseringsprocess där uppdragen i läroplanen kring att utveckla digital kompetens ska förtydligas. Skolverkets undersökningar har visat att förskollärare upplever att de inte har tillräckligt med kompetens inom detta område samtidigt som antalet datorplattor ökat kraftigt inom den svenska förskolan de senaste åren. Förskolebarn kommer i kontakt med de pedagogiska applikationer som dessa datorplattor innehåller och tidigare forskning visar att applikationernas utformning har inverkan på barns lärande och utveckling, vilket därmed blir en didaktisk fråga att som förskollärare förhålla sig till när dessa ska väljas till undervisningen. Förskolans läroplan består också av många andra uppdrag som förskollärare måste förhålla sig till i sina val, annars kan de pedagogiska applikationernas innehåll utgöra en dold läroplan, det vill säga förmedla ett innehåll som inte uttrycks i styrdokumenten. Föreliggande studie syftar därför till att genom intervjuer med åtta förskollärare, synliggöra hur förskollärare resonerar kring att välja ut pedagogiska applikationer till förskolans datorplattor. Ett särskilt fokus i studien riktas mot hur dessa resonemang stämmer överens med förskollärarnas olika uppdrag som förskolans läroplan beskriver. Det insamlade materialet har analyserats med hjälp av förskolans läroplan samt läroplansteori. Resultatet visar att förskollärarnas resonemang, kring att välja pedagogiska applikationer, till stor del stämmer överens med de olika uppdragen i förskolans läroplan. Både då förskollärarna beskriver att de väljer pedagogiska applikationer som stimulerar till samarbete, har barns intresse som utgångspunkt samt att de pedagogiska applikationernas innehåll ska gå i linje med likabehandlingsuppdraget. Det som skulle kunna utgöra en dold läroplan, är dels att pedagogiska applikationer som laddas hem från källor som förskollärarna upplever som tillförlitliga, inte granskas noggrant och dels en syn på att barns ålder begränsar deras inflytande över vilka pedagogiska applikationer som finns på förskolans datorplattor. Dessutom framkommer en syn på att de pedagogiska applikationer som väljs ut endast ska främja lärandet och åtskiljas från lek. Sammantaget kan det konstateras att det krävs god kompetens för att kunna välja ut pedagogiska applikationer som går i linje med uppdragen i läroplanen och samtidigt är av god kvalitet.

  • 3.
    Arnestål, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Åberg, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Kommunikationen som lätt glöms bort men säger mer än ord: Pedagogers erfarenheter och resonemang om barns kroppsspråk i förskolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I det dagliga samspelet med andra människor sker kommunikation på olika sätt. Gester, miner, kroppsuttryck och den verbala förmågan att kommunicera blir synlig även i förskolan. Tidigare forskning visar att kroppsspråket är viktigt för att kunna förstå en annan individ när ord inte säger hela sanningen i en dialog. Vikten av att skapa goda relationer mellan barn och pedagoger bidrar till förmågan att förstå varandras budskap. Den verbala kommunikationen är oftast mer uppmärksammad än den tysta och kroppsspråket glöms bort. Studien grundar sig i att intervjua pedagoger för att skapa en bild av vilket resonemang och vilka erfarenheter som finns på förskolan gällande barns kroppsspråk. Med syfte att granska och analysera pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns kroppsspråk visar denna studie på för vem och hur kroppsspråket spelar en viktig roll. Resultatet visar att det finns förståelse för vad kroppsspråk är även om det inte uppmärksammas i samma utsträckning när det verbala språket finns. Att bli sedd och förstådd är viktigt för alla, stora som små, och kroppen utstrålar mer än orden som sägs. Studien har bidragit till att uppmärksamma pedagogers erfarenheter och resonemang om barns användande av kroppsspråket på förskolan.

  • 4.
    Berglund, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Hansson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Tack för TAKK: En kombination mellan tecken och högläsning2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tecken som alternativ och kompletterande kommunikation (TAKK) är en metod som blir allt mer vanlig att använda i förskolan tillsammans med barn som har svårigheter i språket men även för de barn som inte har det. Metoden riktar sig mot hörande personer och innebär att det verbala språket förstärks med hjälp ut av tecken. Högläsning är en aktivitet i förskolan där arbetet med tecken ofta glöms bort, samt att de material som idag finns kring metoden i samband med högläsning är svårarbetat i verksamheten. Arbetets syfte var att skapa ett material i form av en flanosaga som kunde underlätta användningen av TAKK i samband med högläsning i förskolan. Utifrån arbetets syfte har en frågeställning formulerats kring hur materialet upplevdes i verksamheten av deltagarna. För att ta reda på frågeställningen skickades materialet ut till verksamma lärare som fick testa materialet med sin barngrupp.

     

    Metoden som användes för att undersöka hur deltagarna uppfattade materialet var en enkät som utformades med hjälp av en hemsida vid namn Surveymonkey, enkäten innefattade både ”slutna” och ”öppna” frågor. Resultatet av de ”öppna” frågorna visade att deltagarna upplevde att materialet bidrog till ett intresse hos lärarna kring att vilja fortsätta arbeta med TAKK i sin undervisning i förskolan samt blev en ögonöppnare för de personer som inte var bekanta med att använda metoden. Det framgick även i enkätundersökningen att många upplevde materialet som ett lätt verktyg att arbeta med i samband med läsning och att de upplevde att barnen uppskattade kombinationen av att lyssna på en saga samtidigt som tecken användes. Enligt lärarna visade barnen ett tydligt intresse för att själva delta i utformningen av de tecken som sagan innehöll genom att själva utföra tecken och visade också en vilja att lära sig dem utantill.

  • 5.
    Biamba, Cresantus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Developing Teaching and Learning in a Management Education Course: Key Issues, Effective Strategies2017In: International Journal for Innovation Education and Research, ISSN 2411-2933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways of improving student learning in an educational management course. The course had traditionally been taught in a face-to-face model, in multiple sections, at the university. The first part of the paper begins by given a general overview of some key ideas about student learning. It describes some of the common teaching and learning models and theories relevant to higher education. The second part examines how we might use different methods of teaching to improve student learning in the management education course. The paper shows that a more constructively aligned teaching and learning environment would lead students to adjust their learning approaches in a way that a deeper situational learning approach and a less surface situational learning approach would be employed in their study, despite their pre-existing individual differences in the preferred learning approaches.

  • 6.
    Biamba, Cresantus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Implementing Education for Sustainable Development and Pedagogical Challenges in teacher training programme2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ESD has a transformational role since it aims at encouraging the transformation of education and reorientation of societies in order to reach sustainable development (UNESCO, 2014). Teaching and learning for ESD are encouraged to promote critical thinking, to imagine the future and make decisions in order to empower learners to take action towards building a sustainable society. Pedagogy makes the connection between teaching and learning and is therefore crucial for education’s contribution to sustainable development. This paper examines pedagogical approaches that promote sustainability and how teachers might be empowered to improve pedagogic practice for diverse learners and in challenging context. It explores pedagogical contents of ESD, and the pedagogical challenges educators face when the ESD paradigm is put into practice particularly across different disciplines in the context of teacher education in a developing country. The methods employed included documentary analysis, interviews and observation. The findings are based on interviews with student teachers after their teaching practice placement, as well documentary evidence.  The paper also suggests ways in which educators can address difficulties when trying to infuse the ESD paradigm into teacher education programmes.

  • 7.
    Biamba, Cresantus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Integration and education of immigrant children at Swedish schools: A case study of two schools2017In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of immigrant children has emerged as a pressing yet controversial issue in public debates around the world over the past two decades. Education of immigrant children is one of the numerous pedagogical phenomena that continue to arouse questions concerning the efficiency of dealing with them. This study examines the education of immigrant school children in Sweden, focusing on Swedish instruction, cultural awareness, parent participation, and teacher preparation for working with immigrant students. Data collection involved interviews with teachers at two schools and with immigrant children. A qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with immigrant students explain the different challenges posed by the integration process of immigrant children in schools. Based on the findings the study offer recommendations in order to improve the academic and social integration of immigrant children.

  • 8.
    Blom, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sundström, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Dramaundervisningens möjligheter i förskolan: En studie baserad på ett material med temat självkänsla2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bäckman, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Bose, Kabita
    University of Botswana.
    Teaching of Mathematics and Science in Preschools: A Comparative Account of Botswana and Sweden2017In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Cananau, Iulian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, English.
    Sims, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Teaching Literature, Implementing Multicultural Education2017In: Kunskap, motstånd, möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 297-316Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Demokratidilemman i läraruppdraget: att arbeta för lika villkor2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Läraruppdraget idag är komplext. Lärare förväntas jonglera såväl kunskapsförmedling som frågor kring socialisation och likabehandling. För att hantera detta komplexa arbete behöver läraren kunna förstå och värdera sina val i relation till olika syften. I boken berörs bland annat följande frågor: - Vilka dilemman brottas lärare med i sitt arbete med likabehandling? - Hur kan dessa dilemman förstås med utgångspunkt i forskning om våld? - Med avseende på våldets komplexitet – vilka handlingsstrategier finns att tillgå? Boken riktar sig främst till blivande och yrkesverksamma lärare. Den ger en repertoar av användbara begrepp och presenterar olika perspektiv som kan vara till stöd i det praktiska arbetet i skolan.

  • 12.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    «Who» Is Teacher Education?: Approaching the Negative Stereotypes of Teacher Education2016In: Curriculum: Decanonizing the field / [ed] João M. Paraskeva & Shirley R. Steinberg, Peter Lang , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Biffi, Elisabetta
    University of Milano-Bicocca Department of Human Sciences for Education Milano.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Montà, Chiara Carla
    Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca Scienze Umane per la Formazione Riccardo Massa Roasio.
    Children’s right not to be subjected to violence – a comparative discourse analysis of educational policy between Sweden and Italy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to protect children from violence is clearly formulated in the Children’s Right Convention (CRV). For example, the right of children to be protected from:” /…/all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child is clearly stated in Article 19 of the CRC, which was ratified by Sweden in 1989 (United Nations, 1989). The right of children not to be subjected to various forms of violence is also emphasized in other international treaties signed and/or ratified by the Swedish state (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon). In order to assure this right, the Swedish legal framework (Prop., 2009/10:232) stipulates that the subjection of children to violence should be avoided at all cost. Italy assures the right of a childhood free from violence thanks to its legal framework as well. Italy’s legal framework is made up of the international documents previously cited, the CRC (ratified in 1991 with the LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176. Italy’s legal framework is also made up of national laws, in particular by the founding one: the Constitution. Art. 3. This article is used as a base for the creation of national policy to prevent the subjection of children to violence.

    In this study, the word violence is used in a broad sense to cover the numerous situations in which people are at risk of being physically and psychologically damaged (Hamby and Grych, 2013), such as in cases of discrimination, bullying, violation, or harassment (cf. Greeff and Grobler, 2008; Parkes, 2007). The ambition to oppose and counteract violence through juridification in schools has increased in Sweden through the introduction of the Discrimination Act (SFS, 2008:567) and the paragraph regarding the treatment of others in the Education Act (SFS, 2010:800, paragraph 6). For what concerns the treatment of others and discrimination, Italy refers to the National Plan for educating to the respect of others (Rispetta le differenze. Piano nazionale per l’educazione al rispetto). This plan aims at promoting the values stated in the 3rd article of the Constitution by educating and training students, teachers and families.

    There are several studies conducted in Italy and Sweden about how this particular right is approached in policy (Francia and Edling, 2016, Edling and Francia, 2017, Biffi, 2017). Although, children’s right not to be subjected to violence is given attention in many countries today it is still a question of negotiation as concerns how these rights are materialized in each country’s educational policy as well as why they are described as important to consider. Whereas Sweden is described as a highly secular (previously protestant) and individualistic country, Italy is pictured as a non-secular, catholic country premiering the collective (see Meyer, 2014; Integrationsverket, 2005).  

    Against this background, it becomes of interest to compare how two different countries like Sweden and Italy approach children’s right not to be subjected to various forms of violence by analysing educational policy that presents motifs and directives for teachers in different stages. In Italy, the plan for the 2016-2019 teacher training in chapter 4.6 (Piano per la formazione dei docenti 2016-2019) declares that teachers have to be trained in order to teach them how to promote respect for others in their classrooms in order to prevent violence.

    Method

    The following questions are asked: 1. How do the different policy documents in Sweden and Italy describe and explain teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence in school? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences between the countries as regards the question above? If so what kind of similarities and/or differences? To conduct a comparative study, both linkages and differences need to be taken into account. Linkages are created by posing similar questions to the material analysed and differences imply awareness that all comparisons always contain cultural and contextual differences and contestations that need to be addressed (e.g. No´voa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003). As regards linkages, Kazamias (2001) points to the need to use theoretical concepts as lenses to make more 200 coherent comparisons (p. 446) – in this case theoretical understandings of violence. This paper is based on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of educational policy highlighting teachers’ responsibilities to promote children’s right not to be subjected to violence. Based on Fairclough (1992, 2000, 2001), we argue that CDA facilitates an understanding of the dialectical relation between discourse and social practice. Following Fairclough (2000), the interpretation of the data encompasses three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing analysis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    Expected outcomes

    The study aims to distinguish how teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence towards children is expressed and motivated by the various policy documents. The comparison makes it possible to discuss plausible similarities and differences between the countries as well as discuss cultural and political explanations for the findings that can help combat child violence. 

    References

    Biffi, Elisabetta. (2017). Protecting minors against violence: from strategy to practice. Education Sciences & Society. 1, 47-64. Fairclough, Norman. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman. London: Longman. Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Francia, Guadalupe, & Edling, Silvia. (2016). Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school. Childhood, in process. Greeff, P., & Grobler, A. (2008). Bullying during the intermediate school phase. Childhood 15(1), 127-144. Hamby, Sherry , & Grych, John (2013). The Web of Violence Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kazamias, Andreas M. . (2001). ‘Re-inventing the Historical in Comparative Education: Reflection on a Protean Episteme by a Contemporary Player’. Comparative Education, 37(4), 439-450. LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176 Ratifica ed esecuzione della convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo, fatta a New York il 20 novembre 1989. (GU n.135 del 11-6-1991 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 35-), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; The European Convention of Human Rights; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, and the Treaty of Lisbon. Linee Guida Nazionali -art. 1 comma 16 L. 107/2015- Educare al rispetto: per la parità tra i sessi, la prevenzione della violenza di genere e di tutte le forme di discriminazione Linee di orientamento per la prevenzione e il contrasto del cyberbullismo nelle scuole -art. 4 L. 71/2017- Meyer, Erin. (2014). The cultrure map. Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. NY: PublicAffairs US. Nóvoa, Antonio , & Yariv-Mashal, Tali (2003). Comparative Research in Education: A Mode of Governance or a Historical Journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438. Parkes, Jenny. (2007). The multiple meanings of violence. Children's talk about life in a South African neighbourhood. Childhood 14(4), 401-414. Prop. (2009/10:232). Strategi för att stärka barnets rättigheter i Sverige. Stockholm. SFS. (2008:567). Diskrimineringslag. SFS. (2010:800). Skollag.

  • 14.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala universitet.
    Newly arrived pupils and violence: a CDA analysis of political advices regarding strategies and responsibilities for various actors in Swedish education2017In: Education Sciences and Society, ISSN 2038-9442, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 137-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Convention of the right of the Child (CRC) it is stated that all children should be protected from all kinds of violence. However war, social conflicts and climatic catastrophes have placed immigrant children at risk to object for violence. The purpose of this paper is to study how Sweden politically advice actors within the educational field to approach newly arrived pupils in education by placing it in relation to research about violence. What is particularly payed attention to in the policy document is need to oppose the following risks: b)being in risk of exclusion, c) facing perceptions of assimilation, and f) a lack of clear responsibilities amongst the actors assisting the immigrant children. A fuzziness of responsibilities is at time created with concepts such as “the school should”.

    Education for the Other is the most dominant strategy emphasizing that the newly arrived child’s needs in education should be recognized as well as the importance to distribute what is lacking to promote the pupil’s development. The advices do not say anything about the content of knowledge required amongst various actors in order to do analysis of processes.

  • 15.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Private or public good?: Exploring violent acts at a boarding school in Sweden from a children’s right perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Division of Education, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Publicor private governance of School violence: A leadership perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question/objective

    Starting from a social justice perspective within the field of leadership (Shields 2007, 2010) this paper aims to contribute in understanding various conceptions of leadership in relation to violent cases at a Swedish boarding school.  More specifically the paper asks the following question: How do leaders in various positions describe their responsibilities as leaders in relation to violent cases that took place at a Swedish boarding school?

    Methodological framework:

    The paper is based on a Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis (CDA) (1992, 2000, 2001) of different educational and media documents concerning cases of violence at a boarding Swedish schools. This analysis involves following three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing anal- sis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    The expected conclusions/results

    This study shows that school violence is perceived both as a public or a private matter. When school violence is conceived as a private matter, the leaders point out the necessity of protecting and honoring the privacy of the school. In these cases pupils’ education is considered as a private good and therefore the competency to deal with violent acts is considered as a “family” outside the governance of the public
Based on the libertarian conception of childhood. On the contrary when the school violence is described as a public matter, the leaders claims for government intervention to protect the rights of children as stipulated in Swedish national steering documents and in national and international legislation on children’s rights.

    This result of the study indicates that systemic violence at the boarding school in question can be interpreted as a part of a socialization culture of privileged classes aiming to educate leaders that can maintain and reproduce power positions and privileges in the Swedish society. Four different discourses of child violence emerged in the analysis, namely: (1) violence is created because some few people break the rule, (2) the victims of violence don’t behave properly, (3) boy scams happen but are harmless, and (4) because quarrels are part of family (the private) life. The study provides with examples of a hidden curriculum that endorses leadership models that are not compatible with the development of democracy and diversity in the Swedish society. Taken account that a considerable percentage of boarding school students will have power positions in different areas of the Swedish society in the future, it is important to reflect on the possibilities for democratic, and hence non-violent, socialization the models of leadership presented in this study promote. 

  • 17.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sensing as an ethical dimension of teacher professionality2016In: Journal of Moral Education, ISSN 0305-7240, E-ISSN 1465-3877, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 46-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the ethics of alterity and the ethics of dissensus, this study addresses how teacher professionality can be understood in relation to the notion of sensing. Both these ethics indicate a desire to oppose various forms of violence in society. The author challenges the assumption that all that is needed to oppose violence is the moulding of a proper moral character. According to Lévinas’ and Ziarek’s writings on sensing the Other, education alone will not overcome power dynamics and the unconscious distancing between people. Instead, these aspects need to be continuously addressed by teachers. Rather than trying to find the best ethical theory, we contend that theories cannot replace the critical judgement of teachers, which necessarily presumes a more widened view and more thoughtful choices in their ever-changing practices.

  • 18.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Student teachers’ task perceptions of democracy in their future profession – a critical discourse analysis of students’ course texts2018In: Australian Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 1835-517X, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 82-97, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The education system is still important for establishing and maintaining democracy in society. In relation to this, it is reasonable to suggest that teachers’ different interpretations of their mission to teach for democracy will influence their teaching practices. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on student teachers’ task perceptions as a dimension of their professional role to teach for democracy in school. An analysis of Swedish student teachers’ course texts written as an assignment during a course focusing on democracy is conducted using critical discourse analysis as an analytical tool. The task perceptions are described according to two main discourses: as narrow and broad approaches to teaching for democracy. These two approaches are further analyzed in terms of two corresponding strategies for teacher professionalism: outside-in professionalism and inside-out professionalism. The result partly confirms earlier studies of student teachers, where narrow approaches to democracy have been found to be most common.

  • 19.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Democracy and Emancipation in Teacher Education: Discursive positioning of teacher educators’ democratic assignment2017In: Discourse. Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, ISSN 0159-6306, E-ISSN 1469-3739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How democracy and emancipation thread throughteacher education is currently under theorized and there is a paucity of cross-nationalstudies examining the problem. In this study we draw from a number of theoreticalframeworks for their discursive positioning of democracy and emancipation in teachereducation and what we are calling teacher educators’ democratic assignment (Bingham, Biesta & Rancière, 2010, Dewey 1959/16;Freire 1972). The framework allowed us identify key words which we then usedfor a limited content analysis of policy documents in two European countries,Sweden and the Republic of Ireland, in two separate timelines 2000/2002 and 2010/2012.Our findings indicate that, despite significant cultural and contextualdifferences between the two education systems, key words linked to democracyand emancipation have significantly decreased in policy documentation in bothcountries in this timeline. This prompts our hypothesis that a paradigm shifthas occurred in the discursive positioning of teacher educators’ democraticassignment. The findings suggest a deeper discourse analysis of the four documentsis needed as the next phase in the research design. The findings haveimplications, well beyond two nation states, for contemporary democratic issuesin teacher education and society that require collective consciousness andaction. 

  • 20.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Exploring the notion of critical thinking in relation to teacher educator’s professional judgment within Teacher Education in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    The changing democratic (ethical) dimension in Teacher Educator’s professional identity?: A comparative critical discourse analysis of policy documents regarding teacher educator’s democratic (ethical) identity in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden2014In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report on findings from a larger critical discourse analysis of official policy documents, in relation to the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden. The study framed with critical theory positions teacher education within competing discourses of education. The research methodology examines the hypothesis that in the last decade there has been a paradigm shift in the way policy documents regard the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator (teacher).  In an earlier study we completed a historical contextual overview and a preliminary comparative word count of four policy documents, two documents from each country, at the start of this century and more recently. The study reported in this paper consists of a comparative initial textual analysis  in relation to the same four policy documents. Findings indicate a substantive paradigm shift in both countries from a predominantly progressive (pragmatic) discourse in the early years of this century to a more essentialist (technocratic) discourse  in  recent times. The study raises concerns not only about the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator but also about the contemporary role for  education  as a social and political shaper of values (democratic) and emancipation.

  • 22.
    Elm, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    "Det är något i luften!" - barns meningsskapande om luft2017In: Didaktik i omvandlingens tid: Text, representation och design / [ed] Insulander, Eva; Kjällander, Susanne; Lindstrand, Fredrik; Åkerfeldt Anna, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 105-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns lärande i förskolan är nära förbundet med ett socialt sammanhang, med en tonvikt på resurser och barns riktande av sitt intresse. Det handlar om lärande som inte är mätbart utifrån universella jämförande måttstockar, men som kan påvisas. det handlar samtidigt om att som förskollärare synliggöra det lärande som hela tiden äger rum då barnen skapar mening om de företeelser som deras uppmärksamhet riktas emot. I kapitlet följer vi förskollärares arbete tillsammans med barnen på en förskoleavdelning då ett naturvetenskapligt innehållsområde om luft behandlas.

  • 23.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Documentation between local professionalism and accountability – a case from the Swedish preschool2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of pedagogical practise has become a vibrant issue through its relationship with educational policy- and government in many national contexts. Documentation is also regularly used as a tool for local, collegial development, not necessarily driven by the external demands for accounting educational outcomes. Against this background, the practise of documentation could be related to different modes of teacher professionalism; outside-in-professionalism, characterized by teachers as responding to external and standardized demands, and inside-out-professionalism characterized by teachers  as responding to complexity and change, through qualified judgment.   

    Although documentation is regularly employed as a tool for local, collegial development, the responsibility for documentation commissioned by educational authorities remains an assignment, coming with consequences for how to relate this self-initiated local documentation to the demands of the educational authorities. The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the tension, between documentation based in inside-out-professionalism and outside-in-professionalism, by means of a case study from the Swedish preschool.  Our research questions reads: how do external demands of documentation impact on the collegial conditions of documenting practise? How do professional conditions of documenting impact on the external demands of documentation?

    Our analytical point of departure proceeds from the assumption that documentation is shaped from certain positions, interests and perspectives (Vallberg Roth 2012), including the crossing between different interests and logics within educational institutions.  A qualitative case study of one preschool setting in which a long term documentation has been performed, using CoRe (pedagogical content representation) has been adapted as an approach for teaching science, in a practice based research collaboration project, will be related to intentions from the municipality. The gathering of data includes participant observations in preschool and interviews with participating preschool teachers, at municipal briefings, interviews with responsible parties representing the local preschool as educational agency, and by collection of documents. 

    The expected outcomes of our study indicate that preschool teachers are acting between norms of designing documentation from their professional and local interests and that of adapting to the interests of the educational agencies. The first norm is based in their collegial self-defined needs (in collaboration with the researchers) for teaching science in preschool, mainly by teaching science and technology themes, paying attention to preschool children’s responses to science and technology content.  The second norm is characterised by accounting for national goals in the national syllabus, in ways corresponding with the national school system.  The preschool teachers respond to this latter assignment through (professional) deliberations, aiming to deliver material from their everyday work to the agency, while simultaneously keeping the integrity of their own work as separated from the assignment of the agency. These local deliberations and decisions will further be analysed in terms of the dynamic between the two modes of professionalism mentioned above, in light of the local policy context.      

    Our project shed light on conditions shared with several European countries regarding possibilities for sustainable teacher development within broader contexts of demands for accountability impacting on teachers professional work.   

  • 24.
    Elm Fristorp, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Tecken på lärande - att fånga barns meningsskapande inom naturvetenskap2016In: Naturvetenskap i ett förskoleperspektiv / [ed] Susanne Thulin, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokkapitlet är ett bidrag till att förstå barns lärande inom naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden i förskolan på ett sätt som kompletterar, och kanske utmanar, andra perspektiv. Det designorienterande perspektivet på lärande som presenteras i kapitlet innebär att lärande ses som en social, kommunikativ och teckenskapande aktivitet. Ett antagande i detta synsätt är att barn (och vuxna) hela tiden bearbetar och uttrycker sin förståelse kring naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden genom att skapa egna kombinationer av tecken - med hjälp av olika medier - i en omskapande (eller transformativ) process.

  • 25.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institution för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Uppsala universitet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institution för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Melander, Helen
    Uppsala universitet, Fakulteten för utbildningsvetenskaper, Institution för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Shadow Education Enlightened by Comparison2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades regular education worldwide has increasingly been supplemented by organized out of school tutoring, which in international research is often referred to as shadow education (Bray, 2014). The emergence of shadow education has been attributed to factors like high-stake testing, educational performance as a capital merit and the shortcomings of regular education (de Castro & de Guzman, 2010). The availability, use and outcome of measures, comparisons and ranking are some of the drivers and motives for shadow education. On the one hand, shadow education can be seen as an offshoot of the evidence movement and a quest for educational knowledge appearance. On the other hand, different forms of private and supplementary education have a long history in many countries. However, changes at the education agora have been identified. In Sweden, we note the increase of both suppliers and buyers and a shift from selection and exclusion to election and inclusion. Today’s education is inscribed in global educational discourses that include ideas and programmes of governance, quality assurance and accountability. Nevertheless, education is culturally embedded in the social and historical context of national educational systems and local educational practices (Waldow & Steiner- Khamsi, 2012). Accordingly, in order to explore shadow education in Sweden, its practices and consequences, it needs to be contrasted with practices in other cultural contexts. We compare practices of shadow education in Sweden with those in Russia and Canada/France as they appear on websites and in various documents. These cases vary in terms of language, political-, cultural- and educational context and history. Simultaneously, they make comparisons possible through the occurrence of equivalents. The overall aim is to compare how supplementary education shadows regular education. Our research question addresses how teaching, learning and identities are constructed and negotiated in supplementary education in various national contexts. We draw on two theoretical perspectives – curriculum theory and ethnomethodology – to investigate how knowledge, norms, values and identities are articulated in supplementary education. Through these approaches and comparisons of practices in Sweden, Russia and Canada/France, theoretical and empirical contributions are made about educational appearances and activities at today’s education agora.

  • 26.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 27.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sund, Louise
    Mälardalen University.
    What does research tell us on the interrelation between justice, sustainability and teacher education?2018In: / [ed] Nordic Centre of Excellence ”Justice through Education in the Nordic Countries” (NCoE JustEd), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate social sustainable development in society (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015). At the same time previous research indicates that institutions of teacher education are an important arena for preparing future educators to create deep understanding and help address justice issues in social sustainable development within every day practice and on structural levels (McDonald, 2005; Apple, 2011; Kaur, 2012).

    In order, to develop new knowledge about the interrelation between justice, sustainable development and teacher education this contribution introduces a research overview about how justice issues are understood in peer review articles on social sustainability in teacher education.

    Frasers’ three-dimensional conception of justice based on the interrelation between the redistribution economic resources, the recognition of cultural differences and the political representation of different groups in society (1995; 1997; 2000; 2010) is used as theoretical starting point for the study.

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus databases is used as methodology. The concepts “sustainability”, “sustainable development”, “justice” and “teacher education” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles published in English, Swedish, Spanish or French during the period 2015-2017 are selected. Based on Fraser’s three justice dimensions, the reading of the data focuses on:

    • How justice issues are conceptualized in the selected articles?

    • Which research methodologies are used to study justice the selected articles?

    Focusing on Frazer’s’ theory of justice, the research review introduced in this paper contributes to develop new theoretical starting points for the study of sustainable development in teacher education. The findings contribute to new insights in how the relationship between following fields of research can be grasped: Sustainable development (SD); Education in Sustainable Education (ESD), Research on Justice in Education and Research on Teacher Education

    References

    Apple, W.M. (2011) Global Crises, Social Justice, and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education62(2) 222–234.

    Fraser, N. (1995) From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Post Socialist' Age New Left review 1(212):68-93 · July 1995

    Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus: critical reflections on the "postsocialist" condition. London: Routledge.

    Fraser, N. (2000). Rethinking Recognition. New Left review 3 May-June 2000-2 p. 107-120

    Fraser, N. (2010). Scales of Justice, edited by Nancy Fraser, Columbia University: Press.

    Kaur, B. (2012) Equity and social justice in teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 28 (2012) 485e492

    Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771.

    McDonald, M. (2005). The integration of Social Justice in Teacher Education. Dimensions of Prospective teacher’s opportunities to learn. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 56, No. 5, November /December 2005 418-435

    McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia.

  • 28.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    A theoretical contribution to research on ‘teacher induction policies’ and ‘mentoring policy’2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012;). For instance, Mullen (2012) writes that: “While some theorists think of coaching as a type of mentoring, others see the exact reverse – that is, mentoring as a type of coaching” (p. 9). Further, in the educational field a clear line is seldom drawn between ‘mentoring’ practiced in  initial teacher training and the ‘mentoring’ of newly qualified teachers. This may mean that the same phenomenon is described in different ways, or that different descriptions are applied to the same phenomenon.

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematize how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’.

    Perspective(s) or theoretical frame­work

    In this study, a sensemaking perspective is used to acknowledge the processes of sensemaking and negotiation of meanings. According to Weick (1995), sensemaking involves three specific elements: a frame of past moments and understandings, cues of the present moment of experience and a connection in-between, Accordingly, ‘the content of sensemaking is to be found in the frames and categories’ (p. 111) that summarize past experiences. Thus, how the concept of ‘mentoring’ or the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’ is made sense of in individual or specific contexts is a result of negotiations of meanings.

    Methods and data

    The data for this conceptual paper comes from strategically chosen journal articles as examples of how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in different national and cultural educational contexts. A content analysis is performed to identify the various meanings of mentoring and the contexts in which it is used (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Arguments and con­clusions

    The analysis shows that major challenges in (accurate) sensemaking can be due to:

    (a)   language transformation (notions and concepts from one language are transformed into another language, most often into English, which can result in a change of meaning)

    (b)  context transformation (sensemaking of context specific circumstances may be difficult)

    (c)   context insensitivity (mixing up different ‘mentoring contexts’)

    (d)  phenomenon insensitivity (mixing up different phenomena, e.g. ‘coaching’, ‘mentoring’, etc.

    In certain contexts, some of these issues may be of minor relevance, whilst in others they may be vital for achieving (accurate) sensemaking.

    The paper draws attention to the importance of acknowledging linguistic, conceptual and contextual dimensions of ‘mentoring’ in the sense-making process in order to achieve stringency and coherence in research, for instance when research overviews are conducted to frame own research.

    References:

    Kemmis, S., Heikkinen, H., Fransson, G., Aspfors, J. & Edwards-Groves, C. (2014).  Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: Supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 43, 154–164

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Mullen, C.A. (2012). Mentoring: An Overview. In S.J. Fletcher & C.A. Mullen (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education (pp. 7–23). London: SAGE.

    Sundli, L. (2007): Mentoring – A new mantra for education? Teaching and Teacher Edu­cation. 23(2). pp. 201–214.

    Weick, K. (1995): Sensemaking in Organisations. Thousand Oaks. California: Sage Pub­lications.

  • 29.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Conceptual and contextual confusion? Making Sense of the Concept of “Mentoring” and the Accurate “Context”2018In: AERA-conference-deposit, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts, and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012).

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematise how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’. I first discuss how the concept of mentoring can be used in different contexts and then conduct an in-depth analysis of how the results from one specific article (Aspfors & Fransson, 2015) are used by others. More precisely, I analyse how this article is cited and quoted by other scholars.

  • 30.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Manoeuvring in a digital dilemmatic space: making sense of a digitised society2016In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although an increasingly digitised society offers a variety of options, it also implies challenges, risks and dilemmas for citizens, organisations and corporations. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse digital society from the perspective of dilemmatic space. The theoretical frame offers new ways of making sense of the digital society, and may provide new perspectives on how to manoeuvre (or not) in it. By taking dilemmas as the starting point, aspects such as uncertainty, plurality, options, challenges and decision making are in focus, as are processes of power, negotiation, identity formation, positioning and manoeuvring.The theoretical framework is applied and exemplified in relation to three digitised society themes: (a) the blogosphere and social networking communities (SNC), (b) file sharing, network control and surveillance, and (c) education. These themes have been chosen in order to illustrate the different aspects of a digital society and to show how the theoretical framework operates when different aspects of these themes are placed in the foreground or background, i.e. emphasised or downplayed. This implies that the unknown and unexpected must be taken into account, and that this involves having to manoeuvre in new, changing and ever present dilemmatic spaces.

  • 31.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Online (Web-based) Education for Mentors of Newly Qualified Teachers: Challenges and Opportunities2016In: International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, ISSN 2046-6854, E-ISSN 2046-6862, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project concerning a web-based (online) course for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). 

    Design/methodology/approach – A mixed-method approach with questionnaires and interviews was used to collect the data.

    Findings – Positive attitudes towards online education were discerned and initial concerns about the use of technical tools were dissipated during the course. It was found that the mentoring related content of the online course could be mediated. The most significant difference in the participants’ meaning making and ability to ‘connect theory and practice’ with ‘concrete knowledge’ was between those with experience of mentorship before or during the course and those without.

    Research limitations/implications – The study focuses on one cohort of mentor participants (n=18) attending one mentor education course.

    Practical implications – The paper contributes to the value of online education for mentors of NQTs and includes some practical recommendations for mentor education providers.

    Originality/value – This paper reports on an under-researched area. Research on professional development programmes for mentors in general is limited, and even more so when it comes to online education for mentors.

  • 32.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Studieteknik och studentkompetens2016In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Tomas Hansson, Stockholm: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, p. 42-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Så kan osäkerheten vändas2018In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 3, p. 56-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework to understand how principals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

    The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

    A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

    Theoretical framework

    The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

    The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

    Methods/methodology

    The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

    Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

    Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

    Expected outcomes/results

    Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

    The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

    Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

    References

    Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

    Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

     Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

    Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

    Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

    Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

    Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

    LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

    Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

    Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

    Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

    leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

    Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

  • 35.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Gallant, Andrea
    Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Shanks, Rachel
    School of Education, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
    Human elements and the pragmatic approach in the Australian, Scottish and Swedish standards for newly qualified teachers2018In: Journal of educational change, ISSN 1389-2843, E-ISSN 1573-1812, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 243-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher standards are used in many countries, but it has been argued that there is a disconnection between the standards and teachers’ everyday practices. Mega-narratives about teachers' practices have been recognised as powerful for educational change and when implementing and legitimising standards. In this comparative study, the standards for newly qualified teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden are analysed in order to determine the extent to which they contain human elements, here framed as contextual professionalism, and/or paradigmatic knowledge (Olson and Craig, 2009. This comparison facilitates an exploration of how teachers' work is envisaged in the respective countries and what is expected or required from newly qualified teachers.  The results indicate that the Australian and Scottish standards emphasise paradigmatic knowledge in teaching, whereas the now abandoned Swedish standards emphasise contextual professionalism in teaching.

  • 36.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts2018In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the prac- tice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capi- talise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

  • 37.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitert.
    Lundin, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svensson, Lars
    Högskolan Väst.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mittuniversitetet.
    On the Swedish National Grade School for Digital Technologies in Education – GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctorial students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.

    Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors.

  • 38.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

  • 39.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?2018In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 2155-2177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as good or less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schools responded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one of their teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one who used ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachers did and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes were identified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and one non-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’ ‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’, ‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogical skills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of their teachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes. Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching and learning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themes relating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the same teacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

  • 40.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Policy Narratives VS. The Actual Use of Digital Technologies. Practices That Never Meets?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often great faith is given to the use of digital technologies to facilitate and transform teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. Especially prominent are such a belief in various policy papers on a wide international level of supranational organizations such as the United Nations, OECD, or the European Union (Egea, 2014; Scheurmann & Pedro, 2009, Bassi, 201; cf. OECD 2015;) as well as at national levels (eg. Akcaoglu, 2015). Policy documents often mention digital technologies in terms of their ability and potential to improve and transform educational activities. Such statements can both be seen as part of a political rhetoric in order to push for change, as well as a belief that such claims are reasonable.

    Expressions of the reasonable to include digital technology and the use of IT in schools' activities appear in the various trans-national studies that aim to create a picture of the use of digital technologies in various European countries. Several such studies have been conducted in recent years (cf. OECD, 2015; Fredriksson, Gajek & Jedeskog, 2009; Blamire, 2009). Many of these studies have the aim to create a form of benchmarking process on the use of digital technologies in schools. The rhetoric of how digital technology can transform teaching and learning is also stressed by private operators offering services that in a simple way seems to be able to solve schools' problems with the use of digital technology and related applications (see eg. Grimaldi, 2013).

    However, educational contexts are complex and multidimensional. With scarce financial and human resources, teachers and other school staff is to deal with a variety of requirements, goals and expectations that are not always compatible with each other. In addition, a variety of complex relationships and positions as well as norms, traditions and values ​​of what teaching and learning is and should be, and how it ought to take shape. According to Säljö (2010) research focusing the uptake and use of digital technologies in schools are not always clear and seldom indicate success (e.g. Hammond, 2013; Krange & Ludvigsen, 2009). The outcomes are far from straightforward when digital technologies are introduced either in general or in specific subjects or contexts of learning.

    Aim

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss differences in how digital technology is expected to be used for learning in schools in, on one hand, various policy documents and evaluations, and on the other hand, the use that is reported in research. In that sense, evaluations are seen as evaluations-as-policy, rather than ‘objectice’ search for knowledge.

  • 41.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Curriculum, Didaktik, and Professional Teaching: Conceptual Contributions from the Intersections of Curriculum Studies in an Age of «Crisis» in Education2016In: Curriculum: Decanonizing the Field / [ed] João M. Paraskeva & Shirley R. Steinberg, New York: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Enacting democratic relations in everyday teaching: comparing teachers’ practices from preschool to high school2017In: Citizenship Teaching and Learning, ISSN 1751-1917, E-ISSN 1751-1925, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 341-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies fostering democratic citizens is an important goal of education and  includes experience of democratic relations. But how do teachers interpret and carry this out? Are there differences between the levels of schooling, and if so, what? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed to elicit practical arguments (Fenstermacher and Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities and teaching democracy ‘as a way of life’ in the spirit of Dewey. For example, the task of fostering quality in relations, such as empathy, was only discussed by preschool teachers, whereas the task of balancing equal relationships was addressed by all the informants at all levels. It also became clear that the progression of democratic learning runs parallel with addressing ever-present relational issues of a democratic nature.

  • 43.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Alterator, Scott
    La Trobe University, Australia.
    Professional border territory negotiations between teachers and social pedagogues – a case study2018In: NERA 2018 - 46th Congress: Educational Research: Boundaries, Breaches and Bridges: Abstracts, 2018, p. 424-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to a growing teacher shortage in most Nordic countries, and calls to “let teachers be teachers”, other professional groups with varying backgrounds and training are being introduced in schools. This measure is expected to let teachers focus primarily on core tasks, for example teaching and grading, and leave more peripheral tasks to members of other professional groups. In everyday practices, such changes in their professional work environment entails, to some extent, professional boundary negotiations. This paper examines such negotiations in a case study, in order to trace some emerging professional boundaries and potential boundary crossings between teachers and so called social pedagogues.

    Professions provide important services to the society based on discretionary work that requires university based training and licensing (e.g. Evetts, 2009). In Sweden, focus has been placed on formal grading as the most apparent task over which only teachers have jurisdiction, which is also in line with an increased focus on accountability in schools (Englund & Solbrekke, 2015). Professional action in education has been analysed using the concept of professional territory, which consists of the school staff's conceived task perception, the social transactionand the appropriated physical space where interaction takes place (Grannäs & Frelin, 2017).

    A case study was conducted in a newly built primary school (grades F-6). The staff teams consisted of three teachers and one social pedagogue responsible for around 90 students. The social pedagogues had occupational training although not a university degree. Three school visits and four interviews with two primary teachers and two social pedagogues were conducted. For this paper, interviews with a teacher and a social pedagogue working in the same team were analysed with attention to instances of negotiation and blurred boundaries, here conceptualized as professional border territories.

    Preliminary results: In the first year in operation of the school, the teachers and social pedagogues have had to negotiate continuously, as situations have emerged in the professional territory. This regards for example the matter of who should “check in” the students in the department in the morning. The time and place just before classes start can thus be viewed as one professional border territory. Another such territory is during seat work, when the social pedagogue tried to steer clear of helping students with their work and tend to matters of order. A third is during emergent conflicts, where the person who was present first, either the teacher or the social pedagogue, attended to the matter even if this was the social pedagogue’s task. When new professional groups enter schools their potential contribution to the educational environment, along with the risks that may ensue for educational relationships, need investigation.

    References:

    Englund, Tomas, & Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal. (2015). Om innebörder i lärarprofessionalism. Pedagogisk Forskning i Sverige, 20(3-4), 168-194.

    Evetts, Julia. (2009). New Professionalism and New Public Management: Changes, Continuities and Consequences. Comparative Sociology, 8(2), 247-266. doi: 10.1163/156913309x421655

    Grannäs, Jan, & Frelin, Anneli. (2017). Spaces of student support -comparing educational environments from two time periods. Improving schools, 20(2), 127-142

  • 44.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Principals’ experiences of changed relationships withnewly qualified teachers during the teacher registration reform2018In: International Journal of Educational Management, ISSN 0951-354X, E-ISSN 1758-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Changing school environments through the eyes of the students2018In: AERA abstract repository, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Purpose This paper draws on socio-material and spatial theories to open up new possibilities for understanding how school practices are in play: the interior of the school buildings, the outside playground and different artefacts being part of the school environment. More specifically, we have used a spatial perspective for analyzing students’ photo stories describing spaces that supports and impede their learning as well as safe and unsafe spaces in a newly opened school.

    2. Theoretical framework In discussions about educational practices, cognitive, social and cultural concepts tend to dominate. These concepts are often based on notions about humans using various kinds of tools and that social interaction is played out in a context. Notions like this can easily obscure the significance of material objects (Fenwick, Edwards, & Sawchuk, 2011). A sociomaterial perspective entails viewing interactions in school as more than social processes, but materializing processes in and with material objects. This involves envisioning, enacting and experiencing education in relation to its material, social and discursive aspects (Mulcahy, Cleveland, & Aberton, 2015). Stables (2015) argues that there is a need to regard the school environment as “part of the life story of its users”. School environments are appropriated by their users who respond to their environment in different ways.

    3. Methods The case school, Maple Grove, is a newly opened secondary school. The fieldwork was conducted over the course of one school year (Yin, 2009). The main data used in this paper consists of students’ photo stories. According to Banks (2007), visual research methods are appropriate for the study of youth and their contexts.

    4. Data sources Digital stories (using the software Sway) was collected by means of classroom assignments. Combinations of images (photographs, screenshots etc.) and texts supported the socio-material analysis.

    5. Results Preliminary results show variations in both the areas that students view as safe and unsafe, and the reasons for their choice of area. This means that one area may be depicted as safe by one student, but unsafe by another. They also pointed to various social and physical features that affected their learning environment. Students also point out vital places in school buildings that neither architects nor school staff could foresee in the original design.

    6. Conclusion A conclusion that can be drawn is that the school administration and staff need to be sensitive to the views of the students in the transition from design to dynamic practice.

  • 46.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Compensatory conditions in the corridor: comparing staff work in (secondary) schools designed in two different time periods2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we set out to explore how the physical, social and conceived conditions in schools can facilitate or disrupt support work aimed at improving student learning and preventing social exclusion (cf. Frelin & Grannäs, 2013). This is accomplished by comparing student support practices in the common areas of two newly renovated secondary schools built in two different time periods. The focus is on teachers’ and other school staff’s enactment of curriculum and policy reforms in their endeavours to improve students’ learning conditions and well-being (cf. Ball, Maguire, & Braun, 2012; Mulcahy, 2016). This enactment takes place in a designed school environment, where teachers and support staff appropriate spaces for educational purposes in different ways (cf. Stables, 2015). The interview and observational data come from two qualitative case studies, one complete (2012-14) and one ongoing (2015-16), using a spatial analysis perspective. Physical, social and conceived aspects of space are considered (Frelin & Grannäs, 2014, 2015). The case schools, located in two municipalities, were originally built in the 1910s (Lönnhaga) and the 1960s (Tallvik). Both schools serve mixed to low SES communities and have organized student support functions in the schools’ corridors, cafeterias, recreation areas and other common spaces. These functions are for example school host, student coach and student welfare officer. The organization, function and physical layout of the schools differ and represent the pedagogical and architectural ideas of the periods in which they were built. Preliminary results show variations in the physical conditions for support work in terms of number of storeys, transparency (e.g. stone or glass walls) and layout (enclosed or open spaces), how the staff respond to these conditions (e.g. stationary in offices or mobile in corridors) and the kind of contact staff have with the management (e.g. whether or not they are used as substitute teachers). In contrast, the task perception among the support staff as a whole is similar in both schools. It is interesting to see how the staff respond creatively to the physical school environments, designed in different time periods and rebuilt in response to policy reform, in order to carry out their tasks (cf. Blackmore et al, 2011; Mulcahy, 2016; Stables, 2015).

  • 47.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring the Support Function ”School Host” as Equalizer of Educational Opportunity in the School Environment2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a spatial perspective is used to explore the support work of school hosts in the common areas of the school environment aimed at equalizing educational opportunities and preventing social exclusion. Recent investments in student support staff are aimed at improving student care and boosting students’ academic performances. Interviews from two case schools, complemented by observations and documents, were compared in order to determine how the hosts relate to physical, conceived and social spaces in schools. Results show ways in which spatial aspects such as the physical layout of the school enable or limit their work. Their actions are the outcome of the relations between the school environment and their task perceptions. Moreover, they draw upon established relationships.

  • 48.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Professional territories in open learning environments: – examining collaborations between teachers and social pedagogues2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Relationell pedagogik i korridoren?: ett rumsligt och relationellt perspektiv på skolans relationsarbete2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    The role of dataveillance software in school leaders’ surveillance of teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
123 1 - 50 of 115
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