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  • 1.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Christina
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Hagberg, Jan
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Exhaustion and impaired work performance in the workplace: Associations with presenteeism and absenteeism2019In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 61, no 11, p. e438-e444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current levels of exhaustion and impaired work performance in a Swedish university setting.

    METHODS: In a study of 3525 employees, an ordinal logistic regression and general linear model was used to examine the association between presenteeism and absenteeism during the previous year and the current exhaustion and impaired work performance, respectively.

    RESULTS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, during the previous year independently increased the risk of having moderate or severe exhaustion. Presenteeism, absenteeism, and exhaustion remained positively associated with impaired work performance when health status and other confounders had been adjusted for.

    CONCLUSIONS: Presenteeism, but not absenteeism, was associated with exhaustion. Both presenteeism and absenteeism were the salient correlates of impaired work performance.

  • 2.
    Aho, Emmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personliga assistenters upplevelse av deras psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine how personal assistants experience their psychological contract and how the psychological contract was fulfilled against their supervisor or manager.A qualitative method was used and seven interviews were conducted with personal care assistants from various workplaces. The interviews were analysed with thematic analysis and resulted in five main themes. Expectations, personal but not private, what really stands in the contract, how people look at the profession and fulfilment. In conclusion, the main result was that the personal care assistants experienced that the internal psychological contract consisted of the relation to the supervisor or manager and the accessibility to the employer. The personal care assistants felt that the contents of the external psychological contract consisted of the work duties, employment security, working hours and the attractiveness of the profession. The majority of the respondents felt that the internal and external psychological contract was fulfilled. None of the respondents considered that the internal and external psychological contract was not fulfilled at all.  

  • 3. Arnemo, Ulf
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hansson, Stefan
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Karlsson, Mats
    Larsson, Bengt
    Rencrantz, Daniel
    Sigfridsson, Erik
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Wiehong
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: Challenges and opportunities for Swedish firms2016Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Neck, trunk, and upper arm posture variation during computer work at a sit-stand table in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and sedentary behaviors. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective intervention to promote changes in gross body posture, and thus reduce sitting. However, few studies have addressed to what extent sit-stand table usage affects posture variation in other body regions. The aim of this study was to examine neck, trunk and arm postures among office workers with access to sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; mean age 41 (SD9) years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables, which were then used for two months. Neck and trunk flexion, and right upper arm elevation (RUA) was recorded on three consecutive days, two hours/day, during the last week of table use. Minute-to-minute variability for the three postures during sitting (CWsit) and standing (CWstand) computer work was obtained for each participant. Job variance ratios (JVR) were calculated for the actual work, and for other combinations of CWsit and CWstand by simulation1.

    Results: CWsit and CWstand were performed for 72% and 28% of the time spent at the computer. Minute-to-minute variability was larger in CWsit than in CWstand for all three postures, and the difference CWsit-CWstand was largest for RUA [median 1.7 (IQR −0.2–1.7)º], followed by trunk [1.6 (0.9–3.0)º] and neck [0.9 (0.0–3.1)º]. During actual work, JVR was between 1 and 3 for most participants. Simulations suggested that maximum variability would occur at a combination of 40–80% CWsit and 20–60% CWstand.

    Conclusion: Neck, trunk and arm posture variation during computer work can be increased by manipulating proportions of time spent sitting and standing at a sit-stand table. The tentative “optimal” proportions reported here could be a benchmark for occupational health professionals.

  • 5.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Variation in upper extremity, neck and trunk postures when performing computer work at a sit-stand station2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 75, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent of upper arm, neck and trunk posture variation that can be obtained by combining seated and standing computer work, compared to performing only seated computer work. Posture data were recorded for two hours during each of three days of ordinary work from 24 office workers that had been using a sit-stand station for two months. Periods with sitting and standing computer work were identified using on-site observations, and posture means and minute-to-minute variance were determined for both. Expected minute-to-minute posture variability in different temporal combinations of sitting and standing computer work were determined by simulation, and expressed in terms of a Job Variance Ratio, i.e. the relative increase in variability compared to sitting-only work. For all three postures, mean values differed between sitting and standing computer work, and both showed a notable minute-to-minute variability. For most workers, posture variability was larger when combining sitting and standing than when sitting only, and simulations suggested to introduce more standing than what the worker currently practiced. The results indicate that introducing a sit-stand table could, for most office workers, have a positive effect on upper arm, neck and trunk posture variability.

  • 6.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Sao Carlos.
    Variation in upper trapezius and wrist extensor EMG among office workers during sit-stand table use in a real work setting2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Computer work is generally associated with constrained postures and low muscular demands. Sit-stand tables have been suggested as an effective initiative to change working postures during computer work, but the effect of this intervention on muscle activation has rarely been studied. The aim of this study was to document variation in shoulder-arm muscle activation among office workers using sit-stand tables.

    Methods: Twenty-four office workers (16 females, 8 males; age 41±9 years) participated. At entry, workers received sit-stand tables and ergonomics information, and then used the table for two months. Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and wrist extensors (RUT, LUT, RWE and LWE, respectively) was recorded during three consecutive days (two hours each day) in the last week of sit-stand table usage. Periods of computer work in sitting and standing positions (CWsit and CWstand, respectively) were identified by on-site observation, and synchronized with the EMG recordings. Variability (min-min SD across 1-minute bins, %MVE) was calculated for each EMG recording in CWsit and CWstand.

    Results: During the 62 minutes of EMG recorded during computer work, CWsit was performed for 72% and CWstand for 28% of the time. The mean minute-to-minute variability of trapezius EMG was larger (P<0.05) during CWsit (RUT 3.9 (SD between workers 1.6) %MVE; LUT 3.9 (SD 2.3) %MVE) than CWstand (RUT 3.0 (SD 1.5) %MVE; LUT 3.2 (SD 1.9) %MVE). The mean minute-to minute variability in RWE was also larger during CWsit (3.3 (SD 1.4) %MVE) than CWstand (2.9 (SD 1.3) %MVE). For LWE, variability did not differ between CWsit and CWstand.

    Conclusion: Sitting and standing computer work was associated with different extents of variation in shoulder-arm muscle activity. Thus, sit-stand tables may introduce beneficial exposure variation into the work of office employees.

  • 7.
    Beard, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tedenlind, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kompetensbrist och Generation Y’s förväntningar utmanar IT-företag i arbetet med employer branding: Vikten av att bemöta förväntningarna för att attrahera och behålla personal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine, through qualitative method, how companies within the IT industry work with employer branding to respond to Generation Y's expectations. The study was conducted using eight semi-structured interviews with respondents from four different companies within the IT industry in Central Sweden. The collected data from the interviews was analyzed by means of inductive thematic analysis and four main themes emerged. The main themes were; A new generation with new expectations in the workplace, Importance of a strong organizational culture, Particularly regarding the IT industry and Continuously work with employer branding. The result showed that companies are aware of differences between different generations expectations and work actively with employer branding in order to fulfil the employees psychological contract. Furthermore, the result showed that companies faced many challenges in the dynamic IT industry and the fact that an employee's psychological contract and expectations change over time

  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Norstedt, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsgivarvarumärket inom en kommun: Vad är en attraktiv arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to, in collaboration with a municipality in Central Sweden, carry out a study on the municipality's work regarding their employer brand and the experience of an attractive employer. This has been examined from the perspective of the employer and the employees. The study was conducted with a qualitative method and was based on semi-structured interviews. Data was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. In the result, various themes emerged from each question. The themes that emerged regarding how the municipality works with its employer brand were the Municipality's brand and the overall Values. The themes that emerged about the issue of what characterizes an attractive employer according to the employees were Colleagues and supportive managers, Work environment and security, Personal development, Opportunity to influence, change and contribute, Staff welfare, Communication and structure, and Orientation. The themes that emerged according to the municipality's representatives were Supportive managers and communication, Personal development and the opportunity to influence, and Work content. The employer's and employees' perception of an attractive employer turned out to have many common themes. However, the employees highlighted additional themes. The themes present in the study for being an attractive employer matched well with the view of a strong employer brand, which strengthened the purpose of the study.

  • 9.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    Faculty of Health and Well-being, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of relocation to activity-based workplaces on perceived productivity: importance of change-oriented leadership2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Implementing Activity-based Workplaces (ABW) and the importance of participating in process activities2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Occupational and individual determinants of work-life balance among office workers with flexible work arrangements2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Björklund, Filip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Wikström, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Attityder gentemot mångfald: En jämförelse mellan en kvinnodominerad och en mansdominerad organisation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate and compare two organisations explicit attitudes towards diversity in the workplace, one female dominated and one male dominated. Workplace Diversity Survey was used to measure the attitude of individuals in a sample. The assembled results represented each organisation`s attitude towards diversity. The data was collected by administering the survey via e-mail and handing them out at a workshop. The result was analyzed in SPSS with an Mann Whitney U test to see if there were a significant difference. The findings indicated that there were no significant difference between these organisations attitudes. Potential factors that may have influenced the result is brought up in the discussion, as well as problems with the study and the instrument that were used.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Cervico-thoracic and cranio-cervical strength differences between women with and without neck pain and the diagnostic performance of neck-strength tests2019In: World Confederation for physical Therapy Congress 2019, Geneva 10-13 May, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cervical strength and stability is often addressed in rehabilitation of people with neck pain. These functions may be associated with emergence and retention of neck pain in cases where the neck strength does not meet daily demands. However, clear empiric support for these notions are lacking, partly due to a scarcity of well controlled dynamometry studies with large samples. First, clarification is needed whether neck strength is in fact reduced in people with neck pain and to resolve the diagnostic performance of neck strength tests.

    Purpose: To compare neck muscle strength of women with non-specific long-term neck pain and healthy controls. Also, to assess the diagnostic performance of neck strength tests by assessing their discriminative ability to discern women with and without neck pain.

    Methods: The study had a cross-sectional design with data on cervical strength derived from the baseline measurement of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). 80 women with long-term non-specific neck pain (NP) were compared with 40 healthy women (CON). The NP group was a subsample from the RCT selected so that there were no group differences (NP-CON) for body weight and physical activity. Cervical strength assessment included dynamometry of cervico-thoracic extension (CTE) and flexion (CTF) in sitting and cranio-cervical flexion (CCF) in standing, all performed with isometric maximum voluntary contraction (iMVC). Independent samples Mann-Whitney U test and T-test were used to assess group differences for iMVC of the tests. Diagnostic accuracy was further assessed with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve by plotting the true positive rate (sensitivity) as a function of the false positive rate (1 - specificity). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) with 95% confidence interval was used to determine discriminative ability of the tests. The optimal cut-off value to discern NP from CON with corresponding sensitivity and specificity was also determined.

    Results: Women with neck pain produced significant lower iMVC in CTE (28%), CTF (26%) and CCF (33%) (all p< 0.001). The ability of CTE, CTF and CCF to discriminate between NP and CON showed moderate accuracy (AUC 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73, respectively). The cut-off value of 165.7 N in CTE had a sensitivity of 0.725 and a specificity of 0.8. The corresponding values for CTF and CCF were 85.8 N (sensitivity 0.8; specificity 0.692) and 4.2 Nm (sensitivity 0.575; specificity 0.9).

    Conclusion(s): The neck pain group had less neck muscle strength than controls in all tests. The diagnostic performance of the neck strength tests, judged as discriminative ability to discern neck pain from control participants, were moderate. These results support earlier findings of reduced neck strength in people with neck pain. Also, neck strength tests may have a complementary value in the assessment of neck pain persons.

    Implications: The results highlights that impaired neck strength, both in global cervico-thoracic and deep cranio-cervical muscles, is most likely a characteristic of people with long-term neck pain. The study also shows that strength tests could be used with fairly good discriminative precision and may thereby be valuable assessment tools.

  • 14.
    Bohman, Tony
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bottai, Matteo
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Predictive models for short-term and long-term improvement in women under physiotherapy for chronic disabling neck pain: a longitudinal cohort study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e024557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To develop predictive models for short-term and long-term clinically important improvement in women with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain during the clinical course of physiotherapy. Design Longitudinal cohort study based on data from a randomised controlled trial evaluating short-term and long-term effects on sensorimotor function over 11 weeks of physiotherapy. Participants and settings Eighty-nine women aged 31-65 years with non-specific chronic disabling neck pain from Gavle, Sweden. Measures The outcome, clinically important improvement, was measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale (PGICS) and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), assessed by self-administered questionnaires at 3, 9 and 15 months from the start of the interventions (baseline). Twelve baseline prognostic factors were considered in the analyses. The predictive models were built using random-effects logistic regression. The predictive ability of the models was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with cross-validation using the bootstrap resampling technique. Results Factors included in the final PGICS model were neck disability and age, and in the NDI model, neck disability, depression and catastrophising. In both models, the odds for short-term and long-term improvement increased with higher baseline neck disability, while the odds decreased with increasing age (PGICS model), and with increasing level of depression (NDI model). In the NDI model, higher baseline levels of catastrophising indicated increased odds for short-term improvement and decreased odds for long-term improvement. Both models showed acceptable predictive validity with an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.75), respectively. Conclusion Age, neck disability and psychological factors seem to be important predictors of improvement, and may inform clinical decisions about physiotherapy in women with chronic neck pain. Before using the developed predictive models in clinical practice, however, they should be validated in other populations and tested in clinical settings.

  • 15.
    Branteström, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Alm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ombudsmäns upplevelser av work-life balance: En kvalitativ studie om upplevelsen av work-life balance bland ombudsmän vid ett fackförbund beläget i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the experience of work-life balance among ombudsmen within a trade union located in the midst of Sweden. The study was based on a qualitative method conducted through semi-structured interviews with 10 respondents. The results were analyzed by an inductive thematic analysis that generated three main themes; Personal circumstancesFlexible work arrangements and work load and The profession of ombudsmen. The result demonstrated that the majority of the respondents felt that they had a good experience of work-life balance. They argued that their working life and private life do not have a major impact on each other but stated that they on numerous occasions primarily had to prioritize commitments in their working life. The respondents expressed that their experience of work-life balance may periodically change due to workload and personal circumstances such as family situation and experience of the profession. They also argued that the flexible working arrangements along with the culture that characterize their profession have an impact on the experience of work-life balance.

  • 16.
    Butler, Andrew
    et al.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås, Norway.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Field Forest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarlöv Herlin, Ingrid
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Institutionen för landskapsarkitektur, planering och förvaltning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Ångman, Elin
    Institutionen för Stad och Land, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Foraging for identity: the relationships between landscape activities and landscape identity after catastrophic landscape change2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we deal with landscape activities in relation to changing landscape identity after a major wildfire in Sweden in 2014. The aim was to investigate the relationships between 22 landscape activities (before the fire) and 2 components (emotion and cognition) of landscape identity (before and after the fire). A total of 656 respondents living nearby the fire area participated in this study. Before the fire, a positive association was found between the activities of enjoying nature and foraging, and both components of landscape identity. This suggests that the more participants enjoyed nature and picked berries and mushrooms, the stronger their attachment to the landscape (emotion), and the more they remembered and reasoned about the landscape (cognition). Post fire, these relationships were found only between the two components of landscape identity and foraging. This implies a significant role of this type of activity for keeping alive' landscape identity.

  • 17.
    Bäckman, Pär
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Samba, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hot och våld inom akutsjukvård: Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hot och våld inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the experience with threats and violence towards nurses working in an emergency department, the respondents coping strategies and if the potential vulnerability to threat and violence, changed the behavior of the nurses. The study was conducted at an emergency department in a hospital in the middle of Sweden. By a strategic selection, 8 nurses, was picked out for the study between the ages of 25–55 years and with the experience of working in an emergency department at least for one year. The study was conducted with semi structured interviews, with audio recording that was transcribed verbatim and was analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis. From the analysis, a different set of themes was identified: “Vulnerability”, “Coping strategies” and “Changed behavior”. To the different themes there was subthemes. The result showed that the respondents experienced threats and violence on a daily basis. Clear routines and education about threats and violence were experienced as an important foundation in terms of preventing threats and violence. The social support from colleagues were significant in terms of coping after an incident.KEYWORDS: Threats,

  • 18.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oakman, Jodi
    Department of Public Health, Centre for Ergonomics and Human Factors, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activity in blue-collar workers: What is the role of job type, gender and psychosocial resources?2020In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 82, article id 102948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe occupational physical activity (OPA) and examine the role of psychosocial job resources among blue-collar workers. In a sample of 198 workers (57% male; mean age 44.9 (SD 9.9) year) from 7 companies in Denmark, two accelerometers (Actigraph) were placed on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 consecutive days, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire. The exposure to OPA significantly varied by particular job type, especially in male predominant occupations. Overall, psychosocial job resources did not affect the exposure to OPA. These findings suggest that workplace interventions aiming to prevent adverse outcomes of OPA among blue-collars workers ought to focus on task redesign and target work organizational factors related to specific job type.

  • 19.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Correction of bias in self-reported sitting time among office workers – a study based on compositional data analysis2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that excessive sitting has negative health effects. However, this evidence largely relies on research using self-reported sitting time, which is known to be biased. To correct this bias, we aimed at developing a calibration model estimating "true" sitting from self-reported sitting.

    Methods: Occupational sitting time was estimated by self-reports (the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and objective measurements (thigh-worn accelerometer) among 99 Swedish office workers at a governmental agency, at baseline and 3 and 12 months afterwards. Following compositional data analysis procedures, both sitting estimates were transformed into isometric log-ratios (ILR). This effectively addresses that times spent in various activities are inherently dependent and can be presented as values of only 0−100%. Linear regression was used to develop a simple calibration model estimating objectively measured "true" sitting ILR (dependent variable) from self-reported sitting ILR (independent variable). Additional self-reported variables were then added to construct a full calibration model. Performance of the models was assessed by root-mean-square (RMS) differences between estimated and objectively measured values. Models developed on baseline data were validated using the follow-up datasets.

    Results: Uncalibrated self-reported sitting ILR showed an RMS error of 0.767. Simple and full calibration models (incorporating body mass index, office type, and gender) reduced this error to 0.422 (55%) and 0.398 (52%), respectively. In the validations, model performance decreased to 57%/62% (simple models) and 57%/62% (full models) for the two follow-up data sets, respectively.

    Conclusions: Calibration adjusting for errors in self-reported sitting led to substantially more correct estimates of "true" sitting than uncalibrated self-reports. Validation indicated that model performance would change somewhat in new datasets and that full models perform no better than simple models, but calibration remained effective.

  • 20.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Calibration of self-reported physical behaviours among office workers: A compositional data analysis2019In: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, article id O.11.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate calibration models to predict objectively measured time spent sitting, standing and walking during office work from self-reported time-use compositions using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. Ninety-nine office workers (49 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated in an intervention study on relocation to activity-based offices. At baseline and at a 3-months follow-up, physical behaviours (sitting, standing and walking) at work were assessed for five days using a thigh-mounted accelerometer (Actigraph) and by self-report (IPAQ). The time-use composition of the three behaviours was expressed in terms of isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting accelerometry-based time-use from self-reported compositions were constructed using linear regression on baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. The accelerometer data showed that, on average, workers spent 69.9% of their day sitting, 23.7% standing, and 6.4% walking. The corresponding percentages for self-reports were 71.7%, 21.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. Non-calibrated self-reports were biased: the RMS errors obtained from the ILRs expressing sitting, standing and walking were 0.73, 1.09 and 1.05, respectively. Calibration models reduced these errors by 45% (sitting), 56% (standing), and 76% (walking). Validation of the calibration models using follow-up data from the same workers showed calibration remained equally effective; RMS errors were reduced by 55% (sitting), 58% (standing), and 75% (walking). In conclusion, calibration models for compositional time-use data were effective in reducing bias in self-reported physical behaviours at work, and the models remained effective when used on new data from the same workers. Calibrated self-reports may represent a cost-effective method for obtaining physical behaviour data with a satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 21.
    Degerstedt, Frida
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Enberg, Birgit
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keisu, Britt-Inger
    Umeå Center for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Inequity in physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden - a national registry study.2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions for children with Cerebral Palsy in Sweden from an equity perspective, considering sex, country of birth and geographical region.

    METHOD: This national cross-sectional registry study includes children with Cerebral Palsy aged 0-18 years who participated in 2015 in the Swedish national quality registry, the Cerebral Palsy follow-up program, CPUP. Comparisons and associations between physiotherapeutic interventions and sex, country of birth and geographical regions were conducted using Chi2 and logistic regression analysis, controlling for cognitive level, level of motor function, age group and dominating symptom.

    RESULTS: Of the 2855 participants, 2201 (79%) had received physiotherapy. Children born in Sweden had 1.60 times higher odds (95% CI 1.10-2.33) of receiving physiotherapy compared with children born in foreign countries. Distribution of physiotherapeutic interventions differed significantly between geographical regions. No associations between sex and physiotherapeutic interventions were observed.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate inequity in care in Sweden towards children with Cerebral Palsy born in other counties. Further, physiotherapeutic interventions were not equally distributed in different.

  • 22.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, result in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personal trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 23.
    Eisfeldt, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Sandersen, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av den psykosociala arbetsmiljön som man och minoritet inom förskole- och fritidsverksamheten.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how men in a subjective way experienced their psychosocial work environment in preschool and leisure activities, a profession that is dominated by women. Their subjective experience of their psychosocial work environment was based on their position as a minority and gender as a man. A qualitative study was conducted with eight semi-structured interviews in which the participants experiences of their psychosocial work environment were in focus. Finally, the collected material was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis. The main result showed that the men, on the basis of their gender and minority position, both perceived and suffered in their professional role. Several of the participants described experiences of discriminatory abuse, but many also experienced great benefits regarding positive discrimination in the workplace, recruitment opportunities and career opportunities. Furthermore, the result showed the importance of social support from management and colleagues.

  • 24.
    Ek, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Renheim, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kan arbetsmotivation påverka arbetstagares lojalitet gentemot arbetsgivare?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze which kind of work motivation was the strongest predictor to index for work loyalty. The sample was employees that worked at least part time (50%) and had been employed by the same employer for at least one year. The participants were women and men in the ages between 21 to 66 years. The survey was based on The Multidimensional Work Motivation Scale (MWMS) and five additional items about work loyalty from Tseng and Wu’s (2017) survey. The survey generated 95 survey responses of which 80 were complete. The analyses were carried out in IBM SPSS Statistics 24 and the results showed that the dimensionintrinsic motivationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty. Further analyses showed that the factor identified regulationwas the strongest predictor to work loyalty of the dimension intrinsic motivationassociated factors. A negative significant correlation was demonstrated between the dimension amotivationand work loyalty. Since employees are one of the most important assets to an organization, it is essential that HR work together with managers to promote employees’ intrinsic motivation to create loyal employees.

  • 25.
    Eliasson, Ingegärd
    et al.
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Fredholm, Susanne
    aDepartment of Conservation, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heritage Planning in Practice and the Role of Cultural Ecosystem Services2018In: Heritage & Society, ISSN 2159-032X, E-ISSN 2159-0338, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 44-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role of cultural ecosystem services in heritage planning by examining daily working processes at the municipal and county planning levels. The focus was on the cultural ecosystem service dimensions of cultural heritage, place identity, and aesthetic and existential values. Cultural ecosystem service dimensions are currently inadequately represented in research and application of the ecosystem service concept. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with public officials with formal assignments directly related to heritage planning. The results show that cultural ecosystem services are indeed considered in the planning processes, even though the respondents did not actually use the ecosystem service approach. Despite institutional and methodological constraints, respondents were found to aim for a broad planning approach involving dimensions of the landscape such as historic time depth, human use of the landscape, place identity, landscape views, and a strong integration between culture and nature. Thus, the results indicate a potential for integration of cultural ecosystem service dimensions into the ecosystem service approach by utilizing existing knowledge and practices within heritage planning at the local and regional levels. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 26.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Staff Working Life and Older Persons’ Satisfaction With Care: A Multilevel, Correlational Design2019In: Journal of Nursing Care Quality, ISSN 1057-3631, E-ISSN 1550-5065Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Roslund, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Svenska linjechefers upplevelse av sitt chefskap efter en centralisering av HR2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate line managers’ experiences of their managementship after centralization of the HR department, and the decentralization of tasks that are related to HR work. Through a qualitative study, eight interviews were conducted with line managers within an energy corporate group in Central Sweden. The focus was on the line managers' experiences, narratives and experiences of their managementship, after the organizational change that was implemented. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The result showed that the line managers felt factors such as cooperation, clear expectations, greater responsibility and also that the separation of managementship and leadership contributed to the changes that centralization brought, were perceived as positive. The importance of these factors with the decentralization of the tasks related to HR work has thus contributed to the line managers feeling that they are able to manage the increased demands placed on them as managers, and that they enjoy their managementship.

  • 28.
    Fager, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Lyng, Adrian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Mirror, mirror on the wall, tell us if the structure is likable?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine, through the areas decisions making, accountability, variation in the work tasks, the organizations routines and job descriptions, the employee’s assessment of their current organizational structure. Furthermore, the study examined if the employee’s wanted bigger opportunities for decision making and accountability, more variation in the work tasks and clearer routines and job descriptions compared to their current organizational structure. A digital questionnaire was distributed to 110 employees. 73 of the employees chose to participate. A quantitative study was used, and the descriptive data was examined. Four separate paired sample t-tests were performed for the purpose of the two problem statements. The result was non-significant within all four tests. Individual items indicated that the employees assessed the organizational structure as both flat and hierarchic. 

  • 29.
    Fredriksson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Chefers förutsättningar till stressförebyggande arbete: En intervjustudie i kommunal verksamhet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Fredriksson Malin (2019). Managers requirements for stress prevention - a qualitative study in municipal context. Project work in Health at work 15 credits, University of Gävle.  Stress is an increasing problem in Sweden and municipal organizations are workplaces where it´s common. The first line manager has an important role in stress prevention, but factors in the organizations might affect their possibility to focus on this problem.  The purpose of this study was to examine municipal first line managers experience of organizational requirements of stress prevention in the workplace and how to improve these requirements. Qualitative interviews were made with first line managers in a Swedish municipal organization and analyzed with Qualitative content analysis. The result revealed that the managers experiences was that the organization offered resources like education, social and organizational support from HR and occupational health service, policies and good structure in the occupational health work. Economic pressure, constant changes and structures in the organization that the manager cannot have an impact on, and the managers own workload were demands that made the work with stress prevention harder. Unclear structures in the information flow and lack of communication about stress is also factors that might affect stress prevention in the organization

  • 30.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviour in ‘blue-collar’ workers: A systematic review of accelerometer studies2019In: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 16, no 11, p. 1060-1069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This systematic review assessed evidence on the accelerometer-measured sedentary and physical activity (PA) behavior of nonoffice workers in “blue-collar” industries.

    Methods: The databases CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus were searched up to April 6, 2018. Eligibility criteria were accelerometer-measured sedentary, sitting, and/or PA behaviors in “blue-collar” workers (≥10 participants; agricultural, construction, cleaning, manufacturing, mining, postal, or transport industries). Data on participants’ characteristics, study protocols, and measured behaviors during work and/or nonwork time were extracted. Methodologic quality was assessed using a 12-item checklist.

    Results: Twenty studies (representing 11 data sets), all from developed world economies, met inclusion criteria. The mean quality score for selected studies was 9.5 (SD 0.8) out of a maximum of 12. Data were analyzed using a range of analytical techniques (eg, accelerometer counts or pattern recognition algorithms). “Blue-collar” workers were more sedentary and less active during nonwork compared with work time (eg, sitting 5.7 vs 3.2 h/d; moderate to vigorous PA 0.5 vs 0.7 h/d). Drivers were the most sedentary (work time 5.1 h/d; nonwork time 8.2 h/d).

    Conclusions: High levels of sedentary time and insufficient PA to offset risk are health issues for “blue-collar” workers. To better inform interventions, research groups need to adopt common measurement and reporting methodologies.

  • 31.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    et al.
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in blue collar workers: a systematic review of accelerometer studies2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    Department of Forensic Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Movement behavior profiles and obesity: a latent profile analysis of 24-h time-use composition among Danish workers2019In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives

    An element of obesity prevention is increasing total physical activity energy expenditure. However, this approach does not incorporate the balance of various movement behaviors—physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep - across domains of the day. We aimed to identify time-use profiles over work and leisure, termed ‘movement behavior profiles’ and to investigate their association with obesity.

    Subjects/methods

    Eight-hundred-and-seven workers completed (a) thigh accelerometry and diaries to determine their 24-h composition of behaviors (sedentary and standing, light physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at work and leisure, and time in bed) and (b) obesity measurements. Movement behavior profiles were determined using latent profile analyses of isometric log-ratios of the 24-h composition, and labeled according to animal movement behavior traits. Linear models were applied to determine the association between profiles and obesity.

    Results

    Four profiles were identified, labeled as “Chimpanzees” (n = 226), “Lions” (n = 179), “Ants” (n = 244), and “Koalas” (n = 158). “Chimpanzees” work time was evenly distributed between behaviors while their leisure time was predominantly active. Compared to Chimpanzees, “Lions” were more active at work and sedentary during leisure and spent more time in bed; “Ants” were more active at work and during leisure; “Koalas” were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent similar time in bed. With “Chimpanzees” as reference, “Lions” had least favorable obesity indicators: +2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6, 3.4) %body fat, +4.3 cm (1.4, 7.3) waist circumference and +1.0 (2.0, 0.0) Body Mass Index (BMI), followed by “Koalas” +2.0 (0.4, 3.7) %body fat, +3.1 cm (0.1, 6.0) waist circumference, and +0.8 (−0.30, 1.94) BMI. No significant differences were found between “Chimpanzees” and “Ants”.

    Conclusions

    Movement behavior profiles across work and leisure time-use compositions are associated with obesity. Achieving adequate balance between work and leisure movement behaviors should be further investigated as a potential obesity prevention strategy.

  • 33.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dumuid, Dorothea
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Vij, Akshay
    Institute for Choice, University of South Australia, North Sydney, Australia.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Korshøj, Mette
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity: A latent profile analysis of 24-hour time-use composition among Danish workers2019In: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, article id O.11.4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Obtaining a balance between exercise and recovery is an established approach in Exercise Science to improve aerobic capacity. However, it is unknown how different 24-h time-use profiles depicting a balance between physical behaviors (i.e. physical activities, sedentary behavior and sleep) across main domains of the day are associated with aerobic capacity. We aimed to identify such 'physical-behavior (PB) profiles' and to investigate their association with aerobic capacity. Methods Workers (n=807) participated in thigh-accelerometry to determine 24-h time-use composition of physical activity, sedentary and standing during work and leisure, as well as time in bed. Åstrand submaximal cycle ergometer test was used to estimate aerobic capacity. The PB profiles were determined using latent profile analysis of isometric log-ratios representing the 24-hour composition. Linear models were applied to determine the cross-sectional association between physical-behavior profiles and aerobic capacity. Results Four PB profiles were identified that were labeled based on animal traits; Chimpanzees (n=226), Lions (n=179), Ants (n=244), and Koalas (n=158). Compared to Chimpanzees (at work, in mins; sedentary=197, standing=145, physical activity=117; and at leisure in mins; physical activity=114, standing=121, time in bed= 440); Lions were more active at work, sedentary at leisure and spent more time in bed; Ants had more physical activity at work and similar physical activity and time in bed at leisure; Koalas were more sedentary at work and leisure and spent more time in bed. Compared to Chimpanzees, Koalas had lower aerobic capacity (mlO2/kg/min): -3.7 (95%CI -6.0,-1.5), followed by Lions -3.6 (-5.5,-1.7) and Ants -1.8 (-3.7,- 0.1). Conclusions Physical-behavior profiles based on 24-h time-use composition are associated with aerobic capacity. Obtaining a balance between physical behaviors at work and leisure may be a promising approach for improving aerobic capacity.

  • 34.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Time-based data in occupational studies - the whys, some hows and the remaining challenges in Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA)2019In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marklund, Staffan
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Insurance Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboagye, Emmanuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Presenteeism as a predictor of disability pension: A prospective study among nursing professionals and care assistants in Sweden2019In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 453-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine how presenteeism affects the risk of future disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants (assistant nurses, hospital ward assistants, home-based personal care workers, and child care assistants). A specific objective was to compare health and social care employees with all other occupations.

    METHODS: The study was based on a representative sample of working women and men (n = 43 682) aged 16-64 years, who had been interviewed between 2001 and 2013 for the Swedish Work Environment Survey conducted every second year since 1989. Information on disability pension was obtained from the Social Insurance Agency's database (2002-2014). The studied predictors were related to disability pension using Cox's proportional hazard regression with hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) and selected confounders were controlled for. The follow-up period was 6.7 years (SD 4.2).

    RESULTS: Health and social care employees with frequent presenteeism showed a particularly elevated risk of future disability pension after adjusting for sex, sociodemographic variables, physical and psychosocial working conditions, and self-rated health symptoms. In the amalgamated occupational group of nursing professionals and care assistants, the impact on disability pension of having engaged in presenteeism four times or more during the prior year remained significant (HR = 3.72, 95% CI = 2.43-5.68).

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that frequent presenteeism contributes to an increased risk of disability pension among nursing professionals and care assistants as well as among all other occupations.

  • 36.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effects of moving into an activity-based office on communication, social relations and work demands – A controlled intervention with repeated follow-up2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 66, article id 101341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When organizations adopt activity-based workplaces (ABWs), improved interaction is a common goal. Yet, few controlled longitudinal studies have been conducted on the effects of ABWs on interaction, social relations and work demands. The aim of this natural intervention study was to investigate the effects of moving into an ABW on satisfaction with communication, on social relations (i.e., social support and social community) and on work demands (i.e., quantitative demands, emotional demands and work pace) 3 months and 12 months after the relocation. The study included four offices which relocated into an ABW and one control office that did not. Questionnaire data from 408 respondents were analyzed with linear mixed models. Satisfaction with communication and the sense of belonging to a community had decreased 3 and 12 months after the relocation. Work pace was not affected while small, mostly short-term, negative effects on social support, quantitative demands and emotional demands were only observed among employees who had moved to ABWs from private offices. Differences between office sites were also observed. The results suggest that, to avoid negative outcomes, organizations moving to ABWs should focus on solving difficulties in locating colleagues at the office and on supporting particularly workers from private offices in adopting activity-based working.

  • 37.
    Halling, Bengt
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Division of Ergonomics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH.
    Lyckström, Martin
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Application of a sense of coherence-based leadership for productivity and health at Scania2019In: International Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics, ISSN 2045-7804, E-ISSN 2045-7812, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 179-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to explore if sense of coherence (SOC) theory can be used in human factors ergonomics (HFE) practice as a leadership approach to decrease the rate of sick leave and rehabilitation cases and increase work attendance among assembly personnel without impeding productivity. Via three studies carried out at the Swedish truck manufacturer Scania, we investigated the company's key performance indicators and documented meetings with managers during the intervention. The results show that SOC can be used in HFE practice and that productivity, quality and attendance at work increased, while rehabilitation cases decreased. Our conclusion is that a health promotion approach among managers is essential in a lean organisation that aims to reduce waste in the company and optimise human capability and thereby productivity. SOC theory can support the creation of workplaces that are high performing and healthy, starting with concerns for the people creating the output.

  • 38.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte D.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain : determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 8, p. 1099-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aimed to identify sub-groups of workers with different trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletalpain over 1 year, and to investigate the extent to which the identified trajectories are associated with personal, occupational,lifestyle, and pain-related factors at baseline.

    Methods

    Data on 981 blue- and white-collar workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012–2014). The numberof days on sick leave due to pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year. Latent class growthanalysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. A web-based questionnaire at baselinewas used to assess personal, occupational (physical and psychosocial), lifestyle, and pain-related factors. Multinomial regressionmodels were constructed to determine associations between baseline factors and trajectories of sick leave (referencingno sick leave), with adjustment for potential confounders.

    Results

    Four distinct sub-groups were identified, with trajectories of sick leave due to pain ranging from no sick leave(prevalence 76%; average 0.5 days/year) to some days and increasing sick leave due to pain over 1 year (2%; 89 days/year).The increasing trajectory of sick leave was associated with higher perceived physical exertion, more time in manual work,less social community and influence at work, less leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and more severe symptoms (e.g.,multisite pain, low back pain intensity, and pain interference).

    Conclusions

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain. The sub-group with increasingsick leave due to pain was associated with several modifiable physical and psychosocial factors at work and outside work,which may have implications for prevention.

  • 39.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dencker-Larsen, Sofie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jorgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Are trajectories of neck-shoulder pain associated with sick leave and work ability in workers? A 1-year prospective study2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no e022006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesThe study aimed to determine the extent to which latent trajectories of neck–shoulder pain (NSP) are associated with self-reported sick leave and work ability based on frequent repeated measures over 1 year in an occupational population.

    MethodsThis longitudinal study included 748 Danish workers (blue-collar, n=620; white collar, n=128). A questionnaire was administered to collect data on personal and occupational factors at baseline. Text messages were used for repeated measurements of NSP intensity (scale 0–10) over 1 year (14 waves in total). Simultaneously, selfreported sick leave (days/month) due to pain was assessed at 4-week intervals, while work ability (scale 0–10) was assessed using a single item (work ability index) at 12-week intervals over the year. Trajectories of NSP, distinguished by latent class growth analysis, were usedas predictors of sick leave and work ability in generalised estimation equations with multiple adjustments.

    ResultsSick leave increased and work ability decreased across all NSP trajectory classes (low, moderate, strong fluctuating and severe persistent pain intensity). In the adjusted model, the estimated number of days on sickleave was 1.5 days/month for severe persistent NSP compared with 0.1 days/month for low NSP (relativ risk=13.8, 95% CI 6.7 to 28.5). Similarly, work ability decreased markedly for severe persistent NSP (OR=12.9,95% CI 8.5 to 19.7; median 7.1) compared with low NSP (median 9.5).

    ConclusionSevere persistent NSP was associatedwith sick leave and poor work ability over 1 year amongworkers. Preventive strategies aiming at reducing severepersistent NSP among working populations are needed.

  • 40.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Calibration of self-reported time spent sitting, standing and walking among office workers: a compositional data analysis2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 17, article id 3111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed and evaluated calibration models predicting objectively measured sitting, standing and walking time from self-reported data using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. A total of 98 office workers (48 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated. At baseline and three-months follow-up, time spent sitting, standing and walking at work was assessed for five working days using a thigh-worn accelerometer (Actigraph), as well as by self-report (IPAQ). Individual compositions of time spent in the three behaviors were expressed by isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting objectively measured ILRs from self-reported ILRs were constructed using baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. Un-calibrated self-reports were inaccurate; root-mean-square (RMS) errors of ILRs for sitting, standing and walking were 1.21, 1.24 and 1.03, respectively. Calibration reduced these errors to 36% (sitting), 40% (standing), and 24% (walking) of those prior to calibration. Calibration models remained effective for follow-up data, reducing RMS errors to 33% (sitting), 51% (standing), and 31% (walking). Thus, compositional calibration models were effective in reducing errors in self-reported physical behaviors during office work. Calibration of self-reports may present a cost-e_ective method for obtaining physical behavior data with satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 41.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Niklas, Krause
    Departments of Epidemiology and Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured sitting and standing in workers: Cross-sectional relationship with autonomic cardiac modulation2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 4, article id 650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive sitting and standing are proposed risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), possibly due to autonomic imbalance. This study examines the association of objectively measured sitting and standing with nocturnal autonomic cardiac modulation. The cross-sectional study examined 490 blue-collar workers in three Danish occupational sectors. Sitting and standing during work and leisure were assessed during 1–5 days using accelerometers. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were obtained during nocturnal sleep as markers of resting autonomic modulation. The associations of sitting and standing still (h/day) with HR and HRV were assessed with linear regression models, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity. More sitting time during leisure was associated with elevated HR (p = 0.02), and showed a trend towards reduced HRV. More standing time at work was associated with lower HR (p = 0.02), and with increased parasympathetic indices of HRV (root mean squared successive differences of R-R intervals p = 0.05; high-frequency power p = 0.07). These findings, while cross-sectional and restricted to blue-collar workers, suggest that sitting at leisure is detrimental to autonomic cardiac modulation, but standing at work is beneficial. However, the small effect size is likely insufficient to mitigate the previously shown detrimental effects of prolonged standing on CVD.

  • 42.
    Hallman, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Time-use composition of physical behaviors at work and sick-leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    There is limited knowledge on the influence of physical behaviors at work such as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on sick leave due to pain. Studies addressing this relationship using valid objective measures of physical behaviors are scarce. The aim was to determine the prospective association between time-use compositions of physical behavior at work with sick leave trajectories due to musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods

    Data on 981 workers were analyzed in the DPHACTO cohort (2012-2014). Physical behaviors at work were assessed objectively at baseline using accelerometers, and the resulting time-line of exposure at work was classified as sitting, standing, low- (LIPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The number of days on sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain was reported using text messages at 4-week intervals across 1 year (14 waves in total). Latent class growth analysis was used to distinguish sub-groups with different trajectories of sick leave. Associations between time-use in physical behaviors and sick leave trajectories were determined using multinomial regression analysis with adjustment for age and gender. Compositional data analysis was used to account for the co-dependency of different behaviors.

    Results

    We identified four distinct trajectories of sick leave due to pain over one year as follows: no days (prevalence 76%), few days-increasing (19%), some days-decreasing (3%), and some days-increasing (2%). Spending more time in sitting relative to the other behaviors was associated with a reduced likelihood of few days-increasing sick leave (class 2 p<0.001), while time in LIPA was associated with an increased likelihood of some days-increasing sick leave (class 4 p=0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found that the time-use composition of physical behaviors at work was associated with sick leave trajectories due to pain over 1 year. Reducing time in occupational physical activities in favor of sitting may be useful for preventing sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain.

  • 43.
    Hammarström, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Sunnerhage, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Varför statligt anställda tjänstemän väljer att stanna i organisationen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att utifrån teorin job embeddedness undersöka vilka anledningar anställda inom den offentliga sektorn med tjänstemannabefattning anser viktiga för att stanna kvar på sin arbetsplats. Studien genomfördes kvalitativt genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med nio stycken tjänstemän från tre olika myndigheter i Sverige. Materialet analyserades genom en teoristyd tematisk analys med tre förutbestämda huvudteman baserade på de tre dimensionerna i teorin job embeddedness. Det första temat benämndes som passform vilket representerar hur väl arbetstagaren passar in i organisationen. Det andra temat var relationer vilket beskriver de mänskliga relationerna på arbetsplatsen. Tredje temat benämns som uppoffringar vilket beskriver de risker arbetstagare skulle behöva stå inför om de bytte arbetsplats. Studien visade att valet att stanna kvar på en myndighet var en blandning av flera influenser såsom utvecklingsmöjligheter, interpersonella relationer och ett arbete som fungerar med privatlivet.

  • 44.
    Hassel, Lotta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Helén
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Varför arbetar högskolestudenter under studietiden: Hur påverkas den psykosociala situationen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate why some college students choose to only study during their education time and others to work in parallel with their studies. The aim was also to find out whether there was any difference between the two groups regarding health, tiredness, stress and economic. The participants consisted of students at universities in Sweden (n = 3437), of which 57,9 % were women and 42,1 % were men. The study's measuring instrument was a questionnaire that consisted questions about if and why the student worked or not during their education time. Self-assessment answers for health, tiredness, sleep, stress and economy. The results were analyzed and showed that it was economic reasons for why student worked in parallel with the studies. There was a significant difference between the groups how they experienced their financial situation, where working-class students stated their finances as inferior. However, there was no significant difference between the groups in the perception of health, sleep and stress. A significant gender difference in the results showed that women experienced more stress, bad sleep and ill health. Finally, the results of the study and suggestion for further research were discussed.

  • 45.
    Hedblom, M.
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenås, H.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blicharska, M.
    Natural Resources and Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adler, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore .
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Mikusiński, G.
    Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan, Sweden; School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg, Sweden .
    Svensson, J.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, S.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandström, P.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, D. A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang, Singapore.
    Landscape perception: linking physical monitoring data to perceived landscape properties2019In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the landscape affect not only people’s well-being but also how people perceive and use the landscape. An increasing number of policies have highlighted the importance of conserving a landscape’s recreational and aesthetical values. This study develops and evaluates a model that links people’s perceptions of a mountain landscape to physical monitoring data. Using a questionnaire, we revealed how respondents working with the Swedish mountains characterise the Magnificent Mountain landscape (as defined by Swedish policy objectives) and translated these characteristics into data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS). We found 14 potential indicators that could be derived from the existing NILS physical monitoring data and which could be used to monitor changes in the landscape values as perceived by people. Based on the results, we suggest how to simultaneously utilise field sampling of physical data and field photos to provide temporal information about landscape perception.

  • 46.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Resource Management, Umea, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Iravani, Behzad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Div Appl Acoust, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lundstrom, Johan N.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Monell Chem Senses Ctr, Philadelphia, PA USA.;Univ Penn, Dept Psychol, 3815 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.;Stockholm Univ, Brain Imaging Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reduction of physiological stress by urban green space in a multisensory virtual experiment2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 10113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stress is an increasing global health problem in cities, urban green spaces can provide health benefits. There is, however, a lack of understanding of the link between physiological mechanisms and qualities of urban green spaces. Here, we compare the effects of visual stimuli (360 degree virtual photos of an urban environment, forest, and park) to the effects of congruent olfactory stimuli (nature and city odours) and auditory stimuli (bird songs and noise) on physiological stress recovery. Participants (N = 154) were pseudo-randomised into participating in one of the three environments and subsequently exposed to stress (operationalised by skin conductance levels). The park and forest, but not the urban area, provided significant stress reduction. High pleasantness ratings of the environment were linked to low physiological stress responses for olfactory and to some extent for auditory, but not for visual stimuli. This result indicates that olfactory stimuli may be better at facilitating stress reduction than visual stimuli. Currently, urban planners prioritise visual stimuli when planning open green spaces, but urban planners should also consider multisensory qualities.

  • 47.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundström, Johan N.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Monell Chemical Senses Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Stockholm University Brain Imaging Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sounds of Nature in the City: No Evidence of Bird Song Improving Stress Recovery2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 8, article id 1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise from city traffic is one of the most significant environmental stressors. Natural soundscapes, such as bird songs, have been suggested to potentially mitigate or mask noise. All previous studies on masking noise use self-evaluation data rather than physiological data. In this study, while respondents (n = 117) watched a 360 degrees virtual reality (VR) photograph of a park, they were exposed to different soundscapes and mild electrical shocks. The soundscapesbird song, bird song and traffic noise, and traffic noisewere played during a 10 min recovery period while their skin conductance levels were assessed as a measure of arousal/stress. No significant difference in stress recovery was found between the soundscapes although a tendency for less stress in bird song and more stress in traffic noise was noted. All three soundscapes, however, significantly reduced stress. This result could be attributed to the stress-reducing effect of the visual VR environment, to the noise levels being higher than 47 dBA (a level known to make masking ineffective), or to the respondents finding bird songs stressful. Reduction of stress in cities using masking with natural sounds requires further studies with not only larger samples but also sufficient methods to detect potential sex differences.

  • 48.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosoltechnology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Validity of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 180-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To describe the development of a computer-based risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, and assess its face validity, content validity, and internal consistency.

    Methods

    The risk assessment method contained a questionnaire for the worker, an evaluation form for the evaluator, a section of follow-up questions based on the worker's responses, and a section for recommended changes, including an overall risk assessment with respect to daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work postures, respectively. Forty-eight trained evaluators used the method to perform 224 workplace evaluations. Content validity of the method was assessed by the completeness and distribution of responses, and internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's rank correlation between items and indices, and exploratory factor analysis.

    Results

    The proportion of missing values in items was generally low (questionnaire: 0–2.3%; evaluation form: 1.4–4.1%). In the questionnaire, items about double vision, migraine and corrective lenses had limited information content. Cronbach's alpha and item-index correlations for the indices frequency of eyestrain, intensity of eyestrain, visual symptoms, lighting conditions, frequency of musculoskeletal discomfort and intensity of musculoskeletal discomfort were satisfactory. Based on the factor analysis, suggestions for improving some of the indices were made.

    Conclusion

    Our findings suggest that this computer-based method is a valid instrument for assessing risks in the visual work environment. By incorporating subjective ratings by the worker as well as objective measurements of the work environment, it provides a good basis for recommendations with respect to daylight, lighting, work surfaces/material, and work object.

    Relevance to industry

    Visual environment factors, such as glare, can cause eyestrain, headache and musculoskeletal discomfort. This method satisfies the need of a valid tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment. It contains both worker's ratings and objective measurements, and is designed to be used in different types of work.

  • 49.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess postures andmovements of the trunk and upper arm during paper mill work, and to determinethe extent to which they differ depending on method of assessment. For each oftwenty-eight paper mill workers, postures and movements were assessed duringthree full shifts using inclinometer registration and observation from video. Summary metrics for each shift, e.g.,10th, 50th, and 90th posture percentile, were averagedacross shifts and across workers. In addition, the standard deviation between workers,and the standard deviation between shifts within worker were computed. The resultsshowed that trunk and arm postures during paper mill work were similar to otheroccupations involving manual materials handling, but the velocity of armmovements were lower. While postures determined by inclinometry and observationwere similar on a group level, substantial differences were found betweenresults obtained by the two methods for individual workers, particularly for extremepostures. Thus, measurements by either method on individuals or small groupsshould be interpreted with caution.

  • 50.
    Helgadottir, Bjorg
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Intervent & Implementat Res Worker Hlth Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Gavle, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Gavle, Sweden..
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 622-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA >= 6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

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