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  • 1.
    Ackelman, Birgitta Helmerson
    et al.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Area Occupat Therapy & Phys Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sundholm, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kierkegaard, Marie
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Area Occupat Therapy & Phys Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hedborg, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Waldenlind, Elisabet
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ingela, A.
    Remahl, M. Nilsson
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Migraine patient school (MPS) - A structured multimodal educational programme for patients with high frequency and chronic migraine2019In: Cephalalgia, ISSN 0333-1024, E-ISSN 1468-2982, Vol. 39, p. 332-332Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aggarwal, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Landström, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Effekten av olika typer av fysisk aktivitet för patienter med diabetes typ 22020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a condition that is increasing in the world and targets the youth. There is much that the patients can do themselves to influence the disease in form of self-care, for example through physical activity. Aim The aim was to describe the effect of physical activity on adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Method This was a literature study in which 11 original articles with a quantitative approach had been reviewed and analyzed. Results Physical activity improved both bodily functions, biomedical markers and patients’ quality of life. The results were influenced by the type of exercise and intensity of physical activity they practiced. Hypoglycemic drug inhibited the good results of physical activity. Conclusion Physical activity was a effective form of treatment where the most favorable results were shown. The effect depended on the form of exercise, intensity and the patients’ compliance. As a nurse it can be important to motivate, inform and support the patients towards a healthier lifestyle.

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  • 3.
    Ali Muhumed Hashi, Nimo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Gacal, Idil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av avancerad bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women around the world, which can be painful and cause suffering. Living with advanced breast cancer means that the life expectancy is shortened as the disease progresses. The nurse's responsibility is to provide good care, support, and advice. For the women to be able to process the disease and get their potential questions answered.

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    Idil och Nimo- Examensarbete
  • 4.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sundberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av arbetsrelaterad stress2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Occupational stress is a global health problem that exists within the nurse profession as well as within many other occupations. Individuals who suffer continuous activation of the body’s stress response are subjected to an increased risk of physical and mental disease and - in the long term perspective - increased risk of an early death. When it comes to the nurse occupation, it isn’t just the nurse who is affected by occupational stress. Research has shown, for example, that there is a correlation between high workload for nurses and a lower patient safety. In this context Antonovsky’s theory about sense of coherence is useful as it has been known to increase a person's resilience towards stress. Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe nurses experiences of occupational stress. Method: A literature review with a descriptive design. Twelve scientific articles were included in total. Eight articles had a qualitative approach and four had a quantitative approach. The articles were searched for in the databases CINAHL and Medline via PubMed. Main findings: Nurses experienced that occupational stress was a common phenomenon. High workload was the most prominent aspect of stress experienced by nurses, one that reappeared in all the included studies. Stressors caused by organizational structure, for example imbalance in nurse/patient ratio, caused nurses to feel stressed. Emotionally and morally burdensome care situations contributed to nurses experiences of compassion fatigue and moral distress. Unsatisfying relations to doctors, patients and other nurses was a job stress perceived by nurses. Conclusion: Nurses experience many types of occupational stress. Occupational stress is a problem for nurses globally and nurses face challenges with upkeeping the quality of care and patient safety thereby. There is a need to reprioritize the distribution of resources in the public community in order to ensure nurses’ wellbeing and intent to stay within the profession – which lies in the interest of the society.

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter i palliativt skede inom kommunal hemsjukvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care means that the care is soothing and not curative, where the focus is on promoting quality of life, right into death. Palliative care varies in Sweden. Palliative care is a major area of ​​responsibility for district nurses employed in municipal home care.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe district nurses’ experiences of caring for patients in palliative stages in municipal home care.

    Method: The study used a qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, ten district nurses from municipal home care with experience of home-based palliative care participated. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The district nurses described that they experienced the work with palliative care as challenging, but also as positive and satisfactory. Being able to make a difference, having involved relatives and a specialized palliative team was stated as the biggest benefits in palliative care. The difficulties were the lack of co-operation, or if the patients’ relatives were not aware of the situation. The district nurses stated that they were satisfied with their way of dealing with their feelings and that most of them sought support from their colleagues in the first place. Often, more difficult emotions occurred when it came to the care of younger patients, or when children were involved.

    Conclusion: The district nurses in this study experienced the work with patients in palliative stages as challenging, developing and emotional, but it was very rewarding. Difficulties that were highlighted were, above all, a lack of co-operation and a more difficult emotional management when it came to caring for younger patients, or when children were involved. The study can lead to an increased understanding for different healthcare providers who come into contact with patients in palliative stages and it highlights the need for collaboration to be able to get improved patient care.

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  • 6.
    Andreassen Devik, Siri
    et al.
    Centre for Care Research Mid-Norway, Norway; Nord University, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Nurses’ experiences of compassion when giving palliative care at home2020In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 194-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Compassion is seen as a core professional value in nursing and as essential in the effort of relieving suffering and promoting well-being in palliative care patients. Despite the advances in modern healthcare systems, there is a growing clinical and scientific concern that the value of compassion in palliative care is being less emphasised.

    Objective: This study aimed to explore nurses’ experiences of compassion when caring for palliative patients in home nursing care. Design and participants: A secondary qualitative analysis inspired by hermeneutic circling was performed on narrative interviews with 10 registered nurses recruited from municipal home nursing care facilities in Mid-Norway. Ethical considerations: The Norwegian Social Science Data Services granted permission for the study (No. 34299) and the re-use of the data.

    Findings: The compassionate experience was illuminated by one overarching theme: valuing caring interactions as positive, negative or neutral, which entailed three themes: (1) perceiving the patient’s plea, (2) interpreting feelings and (3) reasoning about accountability and action, with subsequent subthemes.

    Discussion: In contrast to most studies on compassion, our results highlight that a lack of compassion entails experiences of both negative and neutral content.

    Conclusion: The phenomenon of neutral caring interactions and lack of compassion demands further explorations from both a patient – and a nurse perspective. 

  • 7.
    Anjie, Nan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Lu, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Nursing interventions to glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 8.
    Annelie, Kolling
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hur upplever vuxna med ADHD sitt dagliga liv?2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

     

    Background: There has been a significant increase in the use of stimulants medication in used for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The impairment could cause symptoms such as attention deficit, overactivity, impulsivity and lack of impulse control. These symptoms could contribute to significant difficulties in everyday life. Aim: The purpose was to describe how adults with ADHD experience their daily lives. Method: A descriptive literature study based on nine scientific articles. Main results: All participants described perceived symptoms as hyperactivity, impulsivity, inattention, oblivion, and the feeling of being disorganized. The symptoms affected the participant negatively in several areas of their life, such as the difficulty of starting and completing something but also maintaining a relationship. Most of the participants chose to medicate to get help with the symptoms but also needed to use strategies to help in everyday life. Some participants also described a need to self-medicate with alcohol and drugs. Conclusion: For people with ADHD, the experience of their disability is individual and needs to be addressed properly, that is, to meet them at their own level. When the healthcare system does not live up to this, the person is negatively affected. Society needs more knowledge and information so that all people, whether you have ADHD or not, can feel involved in the community. A higher knowledge would lead to less suffering, a greater understanding of how people with ADHD acts, improved nursing care and feeling of better involvement in their own care.

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  • 9.
    Arleving, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans hanteringsstrategier i mötet med anhöriga inom akutsjukvård2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Emergency care is an eventful area. Emergency clinics have stressful meetings and emergency situations. Patients who come to emergency rooms often have a relative with them. Relatives are often described as someone who should be involved in the care. Coping has a central role in this environment for both patients, relatives but also the staff.

    Aim: To describe nurses' experiences of meetings with relatives in emergency care. The methodological aspect was to examine the selection method of the selected articles.

    Method: Literature study with 9 articles examined.

    Results: Nurses' experiences of meetings with relatives in emergency care have proved to have several dimensions of a problem. Emergency clinics are described as a place that is hectic, the staff assess and help patients in a first stage. Emergency clinics are often built for a lower patient pressure than reality. The staff have poorer conditions for coping. The staff are exposed to threats and anger from relatives. Recent research indicates that relatives are also involved in the emergency rooms. The picture that was painted was that nurses often do not want to allow relatives to take the place they need. In the study, the good example of how an emergency department meets relatives and lets them participate is revealed. The emergency department shows what should be done. Coping needs more space.

    Conclusion: The nurse's ability for using their coping strategies are worse at emergency departments. The author sees that processing processes cannot be managed properly before the next difficult-to-handle situation comes. The work environment is thus an important factor that affects the nurse's coping and also affects the meeting with relatives in emergency care. Relatives can give the nurse increased and reduced stress at work. At the same time, relatives can support the nursing and provide information to the nurse, which is a great resource.

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  • 10.
    Asylbekova, Gulmira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences, Caring Science.
    Upplevelser av livskvalité hos patienter med bensår: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Omkring 100 000 svenskar beräknas lida av bensår vilka kräver långa behandlingstider och medför ekonomiska kostnader för samhället. Olika sjukdomstillstånd såsom trauma och försämrad blodcirkulation anses som riskfaktorer. Att leva med bensår kan ha negativ inverkan på människors dagliga liv. Det är viktigt för sjuksköterskor att informera patienterna kring behandlingen, ge stöd samt ha förmågan att bemöta dem med respekt och empati. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva hur patienter med bensår upplever sin livskvalitet samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna som ingick i de inkluderade artiklarna. Metod: Beskrivande litteratur studie som inkluderade tolv vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes fram i databasen Cinahl. Huvudresultat: Patienterna beskrev smärta som påverkade deras dagliga liv både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sömnproblem påverkade det psykiska måendet negativt. Rädslan för att skada sig begränsade patienterna fysiskt och man beskrev även känslan av skam, missmod, ensamhet, oro, ångest, depression och förlust av hopp. Bensår upplevdes tidssamt energikrävande och brister i kunskap hos sjukvårdpersonalen hade negativ påverkan på patienternas livskvalité. Undersökningsgrupperna varierade i antal från 5 till 247 deltagare, majoriteten var kvinnor, åldern var mellan 18 till 99 år. De flesta deltagarna hade haft venösa bensår, vilka varade mellan 6 veckor till 43 år. Slutsats: Att leva med bensår påverkade livskvaliteten. Relationen mellan sjuksköterska – patient hade stort betydelse för sårläkningen och välbefinnande. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskor har tillräcklig kunskap om denna patientgrupp samt att ge ett professionellt bemötande, stöd och information om en egenvård. 

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  • 11.
    Avermo, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Lindblom, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Personers erfarenheter av egenvård vid diabetes typ 22020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes is a growing worldwide problem. Risk factors for developing Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DMT2) include heredity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and obesity. An important cornerstone in the treatment of DMT2 is self-care. Aim: To describe people's experiences of self-care at Diabetes Mellitus type 2. Method: A descriptive literature study containing 14 articles with a qualitative approach, the database search was done in the CINAHL database. The articles were processed and then divided into main themes and subthemes. Result: The results showed that persons experience of good self-care was important for the management of DMT2. The results showed that social support was of great importance for people with the disease when managing self-care. Physical activity was also found to have a valuable influence on the individual's well-being at self-care of DMT2. Despite the motivation to change, there were also some obstacles with self-care. Diet, social events and blood sugar monitoring were described as challenging because these factors required new planning, examining and lifestyle. These obstacles resulted in feelings of guilt and hopelessness among some participants. Conclusion: Based on the results of the literature study it appeared that self-care in people with DMT2 could be challenging in many cases but that the support from other people could facilitate the self-care. An increased knowledge of these experiences of self-care can serve as a helpful tool and come to use by both people with the disease and the people around. Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus type 2, self care, experience

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  • 12.
    Axelson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hjälm, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Individens erfarenheter av att leva med en bipolär sjukdom: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that affects the state of mind of the individual and affects about 1–2,4% of the swedish population. The disease debuts around the age of 15–35 and the diagnosis is often set late. The disease has major consequences for the individual as well as for society.

    Aim: To describe individuals experiences of living with a bipolar disorder.

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design. Search for involved articles where performed in PubMed and psycINFO, which resulted in a total of 11 articles, of both qualitative and quantitative approach, which were analyzed using a thematic method

    Main result: Five themes were identified in the result, experience of bipolar disorder, experience of stigma and its work, experience of medical treatment and self-medication, the will to escape and coping resources and coping strategies. Living with a bipolar disorder was seen as a challenge for many individuals. Substance abuse were often described, related to a series of dissatisfaction with prescribed treatment. A problem related to a stigma over the disease were frequently expressed. The stigma were something that risked the individuals themselves, started to apply the prejudices to their own identity.

    Conclusion: Individuals perceive the bipolar disorder as strenuous related to; fluctuating emotions, stigma and medication. To deal with the disease, social support describes being important, as a sense of belonging served as a motivating power. The nurse where also described as having an important motivating role. The fact that the nursing relationship were based on respect and absence of stigma were described as a prerequisite for the nurse's work to promote the individual's health.

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  • 13.
    Belhamel, Fatima
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Se mig, hör mig, förstå mig: Depression hos äldre - en litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Depression är en psykisk sjukdom som påverkar stämningsläget. Den allvarligaste konsekvensen av depression är suicid. I Sverige förekommer suicid främst bland äldre (65+). Äldre faller i riskgrupp då de bär på flertal riskfaktorer som förlust av levnadspartner, polyfarmaci, ensamhet, dödsångest samt pension. Då äldre i världen ökar och depression hos äldre beräknas att bli den näst ledande orsaken till funktionsnedsättning , är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan utökar sin kompetens i syfte att främja hälsa och välbefinnande hos deprimerade äldre.

     

    Syfte: Syftet är att beskriva de omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskan kan använda sig av vid vård av äldre med depression.

     

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design baserad på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar som sammanställts. En litteratursökning genomfördes på databaserna PubMed och PsycINFO. 

     

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet utgjordes av underkategorierna sjuksköterskepatient relationen, sjuksköterske-ledd terapi, reminiscens (väcka minnen), stimulering till aktivitet samt samarbete med andra instanser.

     

    Slutsats: De omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskan kan använda sig av vid vård av äldre med depression är skapandet av en god sjuksköterskepatient relation, utforma terapeutiska möten i syfte att främja hälsa och välbefinnande, väcka minnen i syfte att finna en möjlig orsak till depressionen, stimulera den äldre till egenvård samt en god samverkan mellan andra inblandade instanser.

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  • 14.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Attityder till och kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Trycksår är ett omfattande och kostsamt problem för samhället, leder till smärta och lidande hos patienterna. Trots mycket vetenskaplig fakta om ämnet fortsätter prevalensen av trycksår att vara alltför hög. Många studier påvisar att det finns brister i både kunskap och attityder till trycksår och trycksårsprevention bland omvårdnadspersonal. Syfte: Att beskriva och jämföra vilka attityder till och vilken kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention det fanns hos omvårdnadspersonal inom två olika verksamhetsområden ortopedi och kirurgi. Metod: Deskriptiv och komparativ enkätstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Enkäter delades ut till 82 sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor inom två olika omvårdnadsenheter, ortopedi och kirurgi. Det var 41 personer som deltog i studien. Resultat: Samtliga var positivt inställda till trycksårsprevention. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader fanns mellan grupperna inom attityddelen. Inom kunskapsdelen fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna i temat Riskbedömning/instrument, där omvårdnadspersonalen inom kirurgi besatt en större kunskap. Inom resterande teman fanns inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Slutsats: I denna studie var attityderna till att arbeta med trycksårsprevention positiva, det fanns dock kunskapsbrist bland omvårdnadspersonalen inom vissa områden av trycksår och trycksårsprevention. Inom temat Förebyggande åtgärder fanns mest bristande kunskap, därför behövs utbildning där tyngdpunkten bör ligga på de bristande områdena inom trycksår och trycksårsprevention.

     

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  • 15.
    Berggren, Jenny Jacqueline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjöberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Effekten av yoga vid bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Being affected by breast cancer often causes great mental and physical stress and the problems persist in many cases after treatment is completed. Currently, there are only limited rehabilitation options for those affected. Previous research has shown that physical activity produces positive effects in people suffering from breast cancer. Yoga is a form of exercise that combines physical activity with meditative techniques and can be adapted to the conditions of the participant regardless of state of health. An increased knowledge of the effects of yoga can give nurses an understanding of how yoga can be used in rehabilitation to help those affected by breast cancer during the recovery process.  

    Aim: The aim of this literary review was to describe the effects of yoga in breast cancer, where the methodological aspect highlights the physical and psychological effects yoga has on people affected by breast cancer.

    Method: A descriptive literary review where twelve randomised controlled studies have been reviewed and complied to answer the purpose.

    Main result: The results showed more improvements in psychological symptoms than in physical symptoms. The result showed that yoga has a direct effect on fatigue and quality of life with a lasting effect after completion of treatment compared to control groups. The results for menopausal symptoms also showed a clear decrease after the yoga intervention. In contrast, sleep quality results showed improvement only if yoga was practiced at least twice a week.

    Conclusion: Although the outcome of the literature study produced a mixed result, the main result reflects the yoga's positive effects on the mental symptoms of people suffering from breast cancer. Increased knowledge of the effects of yoga can give nurses a better understanding of how yoga can be used in rehabilitation with the aim of providing an improved quality of life for the specific patient group.

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  • 16.
    Bergh, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sievers, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom den psykiatriska slutenvården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:Within the psychiatric inpatient care in Sweden, about one in five patients are cared for against their will, according to the Act on Psychiatric Forcible Care (LPT). Suffering from mental illness and being subjected to obsessive-compulsive care is a life-changing event for patients. It is desirable to improve coercive care and reduce the incidence of coercive measures. To be able to do that, and to be able to provide the best possible care as a nurse, a deeper understanding of patients experience of coercion is required.

    Aim: To describe patients experiences of coercion in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on 13 scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: The results were presented in five categories and showed that many patients have similar experiences of compulsive care. Coercion was often described as the right measure to protect the patient or others, but many patients felt that it was performed incorrectly. Negative experiences mentioned were lack of information and communication, not being able to participate in their own care or being treated as a diagnosis by the staff. However, responsive, empathetic and helpful staff, adequate information on illness and treatment, the sense of participation and autonomy as well as a pleasant external environment and flexible rules were described as positive experiences and favorable to the recovery process.

    Conclusion: Patients often described both good and bad experiences of compulsive care. In order to provide the best possible care, and to minimize the risk of coercive measures, it is important for the nurse to know and understand patients' experiences of compulsive care. Then the patients suffering can be reduced and their recovery can be promoted.

     

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  • 17.
    Berglund, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Primärvårdssköterskors reflektioner av kamratlärande i primärvården: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary care is estimated to be the definite basis in health care. At the same time, large pension departures await among existing healthcare personnel, which means reduced resources to mentor students. One step in meeting this is that the primary care in a region in central Sweden decided that peer learning should be implemented at all healthcare centers for nurse- and districtnurse students.Purpose: The purpose was to describe district nurses' reflections on peer learning in primary care.

    Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide developed by the author. The analysis was done with qualitative content analysis.

    Headresults: In the result, the theme emerged: A positive and developmental challenge that describes the primary care nurses' shared reflections of peer learning in primary care based on the three categories that emerged. In the Prerequisites for introducing peer lerarning category, primary care nurses reflected on the prerequisites for practicing peer learning. The category is about the supervisors' competence, the attitude towards peer learning of both co-workers and students, as well as descriptions of when resources have decreased. The nurses' reflections of the learning environment for the students are described in the category The learning environment of peer learning. It describes the supervisor's role in peer learning, about how students become a natural part of other professionals 'everyday lives, and reflections on students' development with peer learning. The Working Methods used in peer learning category describes the primary care nurses' experiences of preparation, the actual execution of peer learning and challenges, and how they envisioned their future peer learning.

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that primary care nurses experienced peer learning in primary care as a positive developmental challenge, which can facilitate continued implementation of peer learning in primary care under the right conditions.

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  • 18.
    Bergman, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Rosén, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av att ha drabbats av Hjärtinfarkt eller Takotsubo: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When someone suffers a serious illness that can be life-threatening, there is usually a change in life. The experience of a myocardial infarction or takotsubo can be both frightening and foreign not only to the affected, but also to their loved ones. Myocardial infarction is a disease that affects many people and is one of the most common conditions of our time. Takotsubo is a recent diagnosis that can be misinterpreted as a myocardial infarction. It is valuable to have an understanding and knowledge of the illness and life of the people affected by illnesses, including those of their relatives and health care professionals. Aim: The purpose was to describe women's experiences of having suffered from myocardial infarction and takotsubo. Method: A descriptive literature study based on eight scientific articles with a qualitative approach and one study with a mixed approach. A total of nine articles. The articles were searched via CINAHL and PubMed through Medline. Results: The most common experiences among the women were denial of the symptoms and they did not see themselves in the risk group of suffering from heart disease. Fear of being considered hypochondriacs and poor experience of care led to a delay in seeking care. The women experienced differences in care skills, between different healthcare institutions. The women felt gratitude for surviving and realized the need for lifestyle changes. Most of the women experienced anxiety about being affected by a heart attack again. Conclusion: The women were not expected to suffer a myocardial infarction or takotsubo. The women as well as health care workers did not perceive the symptoms as a myocardial infarction or takotsubo, which led to delayed care. The women also experience uneven quality of care. The women experience a great change in life and that their fears and anxieties will always be present. Keywords: Myocardial infarction, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Experiences, Women.

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  • 19.
    Bergström, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Linda
    Anestesi- och intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenhet av att perioperativt vårda patienter med långvarig smärta: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Patients with persistent pain is in need of a structured treatment. Studies showed insufficient postoperative pain treatment.

    Aim: This study aimed to describe nurse anesthetists and critical care nurses experience in caring perioperative nursing patients with long term pain.

    Methods: Semistructured interviews with 15 nurse anesthetists and critical care nurses, based on clinical vignettes. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The study results revealed five categories being prepared, that healthcare is complex and knowledge-intensive, to have a professional collaboration, to feel inadequate and to respond to the patient. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses experiences showed that a clear plan and clear pharmaceutical prescriptions gave the nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses the opportunity to prepare. This together with a more informed and involved patient improved postoperative pain treatment. By giving extra time to patients with persistent pain, their experience of pain, worry and anxiety diminished. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses asked for training in pain treatment and a better contact with the pain clinic. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses argued that it was important to have a good collaboration with the doctors to optimize and start the pain treatment on time. Specialist nurses experienced that patients with long-term pain were at risk of being undertreated. In cases where pain relief failed, feelings of frustration and powerlessness were described.

    Conclusion: Throughout all the nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses experiences of caring for patients with persistent pain, it was necessary to have a clear and detailed plan for the patient's pain treatment which would extend perioperative and further to the care department or home care. With planning and preparation, the conditions for a better care of patients with persistent pain increased.

     

     

     

     

    Keywords: nurse anesthetists, experience, critical care nurse, persistent pain, long lasting pain, postoperative care.

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  • 20.
    Bergström, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Murén, Saana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors reflektioner kring sin roll och förutsättningar att ge god omvårdnad vid palliativ hemsjukvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Bakgrund: Allt fler palliativt sjuka patienter vårdas i hemmen vilket leder till ett ökat behov av palliativ vård i hemsjukvården. Distriktssköterskan har ett övergripande ansvar över dessa svårt sjuka patienter och deras närstående.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur distriktssköterskor som arbetar i den kommunala hemsjukvården reflekterar kring sin roll och förutsättningar att ge god omvårdnad vid palliativ hemsjukvård.

    Metod: Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio distriktssköterskor. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes.

    Huvudresultat: Distriktssköterskorna såg arbetet med palliativ vård som sin mest prioriterade arbetsuppgift och kände ett stort ansvar över dessa patienter. Att bygga upp en relation med patienten och närstående tidigt i vårdförloppet samt kontinuitet var en förutsättning för god vård. Distriktssköterskorna beskrev ett väl fungerande samarbete med palliativa teamet, något som ofta saknades från hälsocentralerna. Arbetet var tidskrävande och i kombination med kravet på tillgänglighet ledde detta till en känsla av stress och otillräcklighet. Stöd från kollegor ansågs värdefullt då regelbunden handledning saknades. Kunskapsbrist hos omsorgspersonal försämrade omvårdnaden och försvårade distriktssköterskans arbete. Samtliga distriktssköterskor såg behovet av förbättring inom den palliativa vården och en önskan om ett speciellt palliativt team samt ett hospice framkom.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av studien är att det ansvarsfyllda och tidskrävande arbetet ledde till en känsla av otillräcklighet hos deltagarna. Det framkom en stark önskan från samtliga deltagare om förbättring i den palliativa vården i form av special team och hospice.

     

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  • 21.
    Birgisdóttir, Dröfn
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Oncology and Pathology, Institute for Palliative Care, Lunds University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Tommy
    Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Caring Sciences, Palliative Research Center, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Oncology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, University of Gothenburg Institute of Clinical Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fürst, Carl J.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Oncology and Pathology, Institute for Palliative Care, Lunds University, Lund, Sweden.
    Losing a parent to cancer as a teenager: Family cohesion in childhood, teenage, and young adulthood as perceived by bereaved and non-bereaved youths2019In: Psycho-Oncology, ISSN 1057-9249, E-ISSN 1099-1611, Vol. 28, no 9, p. 1845-1853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate levels of perceived family cohesion during childhood, teenage years, and young adulthood in cancer-bereaved youths compared with non-bereaved peers.

    METHODS: In this nationwide, population-based study, 622 (73%) young adults (aged 18-26) who had lost a parent to cancer 6 to 9 years previously, when they were teenagers (aged 13-16), and 330 (78%) non-bereaved peers from a matched random sample answered a study-specific questionnaire. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Compared with non-bereaved youths, the cancer-bereaved participants were more likely to report poor family cohesion during teenage years (odds ratio [OR] 1.6, 95% CI, 1.0-2.4, and 2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.5, for paternally and maternally bereaved youths, respectively). This was also seen in young adulthood among maternally bereaved participants (OR 2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-4.1), while there was no difference between paternally bereaved and non-bereaved youths. After controlling for a number of covariates (eg, year of birth, number of siblings, and depression), the adjusted ORs for poor family cohesion remained statistically significant. In a further analysis stratified for gender, this difference in perceived poor family cohesion was only noted in females.

    CONCLUSION: Teenage loss of a parent to cancer was associated with perceived poor family cohesion during teenage years. This was also noted in young adulthood among the maternally bereaved. Females were more likely to report poor family cohesion. Our results indicate a need for increased awareness of family cohesion in bereaved-to-be families with teenage offspring, with special attention to gender roles.

  • 22.
    Bjurbo, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Att befinna sig i ett ingenmansland på en akutmottagning och ändå känna tillit till akutsjukvården: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med sköra äldre patienter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    The full text will be freely available from 2020-12-31 18:25
  • 23.
    Bjurlefält, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenhet av debriefing inom akutsjukvården.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:

    In our everyday lives worldwide, people are affected regardless of gender and age by accidents, deaths and other traumatic events. Some professions involve a greater risk of being exposed to traumatic events. Examples of these are ambulance, emergency personnel, police and health care personnel, primarily in emergency care. These events can sometimes become overpowering. One way to counteract burnout and post-traumatic stress symptom (PTSD) in healthcare professionals is to carry out debriefing talks. This is done with the healthcare staff who has participated in a traumatic event.

     

    Aim:

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of debriefing in healthcare professionals in emergency care in connection with traumatic events in their professional practice.

     

    Method:

    Literature study that contains a total of 10 scientific articles, five of which are qualitative and five are quantitative.

     

    Results:

    The study results show that debriefing is perceived as a positive tool when it comes to unloading after a traumatic event for the healthcare staff in emergency care. The main factors raised in the study are time and place for debriefing, debriefing impact on the communication between the healthcare staff, the choice of debriefing leader and the need for well-designed guidelines for debriefing.

     

    Conclusion:

    The present study demonstrates that debriefing should be regarded as an effective tool for counteracting mental illness in the healthcare staff and that debriefing also reinforces communication between the various professional occupational groups in emergency care. The study also shows that well-designed guidelines are important for achieving the purpose of the debriefing.

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  • 24.
    Björklund, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Shumina, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld mot äldre anses vara en enstaka eller upprepad handling som orsakar skada eller smärta hos en äldre person. Personer som blir gamla kan behöva ökad hjälp av andra människor för att klara sin vardag. Äldre personer med multipla sjukdomar blir lätt beroende av vårdpersonalen. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie bestående av nio artiklar, tre med kvantitativ ansats samt sex med kvalitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev att mötet med en våldsutsatt äldre väckte många känslor, där känslan av maktlöshet och otillräcklighet var mest påträffad. Sjuksköterskor var överens om att det finns ett behov av att hjälpa vårdpersonal att hantera misshandel och försummelse av äldre. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver nya riktlinjer och utbildning gällande rapportering samt hur man vårdar de våldsutsatta äldre. Genom att införa fler resurser kan man minska arbetsbelastningen för varje enskild sjuksköterska och på så sätt minska på den arbetsrelaterade stress som kan leda till misshandel och försummelse.

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  • 25.
    Björklund, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Shumina, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld mot äldre anses vara en enstaka eller upprepad handling som orsakar skada eller smärta hos en äldre person. Personer som blir gamla kan behöva ökad hjälp av andra människor för att klara sin vardag. Äldre personer med multipla sjukdomar blir lätt beroende av vårdpersonalen. Syfte: Att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av misshandel av äldre personer inom äldreomsorgen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie bestående av nio artiklar, tre med kvantitativ ansats samt sex med kvalitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev att mötet med en våldsutsatt äldre väckte många känslor, där känslan av maktlöshet och otillräcklighet var mest påträffad. Sjuksköterskor var överens om att det finns ett behov av att hjälpa vårdpersonal att hantera misshandel och försummelse av äldre. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver nya riktlinjer och utbildning gällande rapportering samt hur man vårdar de våldsutsatta äldre. Genom att införa fler resurser kan man minska arbetsbelastningen för varje enskild sjuksköterska och på så sätt minska på den arbetsrelaterade stress som kan leda till misshandel och försummelse.

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  • 26.
    Björklund, Ove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    FRÅN LIVSLEDA TILL LIVSMOD : Unga människors erfarenheter av arbetslöshet och stödåtgärder2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to increase our understanding of what it is like to live as an unemployed young person, by looking at young people’s narratives. An additional aim is to explore and describe how unemployed young people’s experiences of participating in a support project can be understood from a caring science perspective. The overall questions addressed in the dissertation are: What does living in unemployment mean to a young person? How can a resource center for unemployed young people provide care? The dissertation includes a compilation of four scientific articles and an introductory chapter; it has a descriptive design and a hermeneutical approach. The dissertation starts from four meta-concepts used in caring science: human being, health, caring, and the world. These meta-concepts are the mainstays of the dissertation, at the same time as they give the research themes their caring science framework. The informants were 15 unemployed Finnish young men, aged 18-27 years, and 12 unemployed Finnish young women, aged 18-26 years. All had been out of work for between two and six months. The data were gathered by means of semi-structured interviews. The interviews were examined using content analysis and hermeneutic interpretation. To increase understanding of the dissertation’s themes as related to caring science, empirical results from the four studies were connected to elements of caring science theory taken from Katie Eriksson’s caritative caring theory. In summary, the results pertaining to the young men’s and women’s experiences of unemployment can be likened to a kind of suffering or weariness of life. Activities at the resource center for unemployed young people were characterized by Eriksson’s caring science concepts of tend, play and learn. Tending was revealed in how the young people were made to feel appreciated and accepted as the persons they were and are. The concepts play and learn were revealed in how the unemployed young people were given opportunities to express their dreams for the future and to dare to see other perspectives. At the resource center, positive caring powers could be identified – powers that worked together to enable the transition from suffering and weariness of life to a feeling of zest and the courage to face life. It can be established, in summary, that unemployment affects young people’s health. Not only for the unemployed individual, but also for society at large, it should be of great value to characterize the everyday life and reality of the unemployed at an early stage, and to move those who are suffering into a caring context in order to, if all goes well, replace weariness of life with the courage to face life.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Unemployment may increase feelings of lacking context in Life: Experiences narrated by Young Finnish Women2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Björklund, Ove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Nyström, L.
    Hope and Faith in the Future. Young Unemployed Finnish Women´s Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market ProgramManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Björkman, Annica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Giving advice to callers with mental illness: adaptation among telenurses at Swedish Healthcare Direct2019In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1633174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) and its features as a complex system.

    Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 SHD telenurses, covering their experiences and skills when encountering and advising callers with mental illness. Complexity science was used as an a priori theoretical framework to enhance understanding of the complex nature of telenursing.

    Results: SHD was described as a complex system as nurses were constantly interacting with other agents and agencies. During these interactions, dynamic processes were found between the agents in which the nurses adapted to every new situation. They were constantly aware of their impact on the care-seekers, and perceived their encounters with callers with psychiatric illness as "balancing on a thin line". SHD was also described as both an authority and a dumping ground. The openness of the system did not give the nurses possibility to control the number of incoming calls and the callers' intentions.

    Conclusions: These new insights into SHD have important implications for organization developers and nursing management in terms of overcoming linear thinking.

  • 30.
    Blad, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Forslin, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårds- och anestesisjuksköterskors upplevelser av sin arbetsmiljö vid ett sjukhus som saknar akutkirurgi - en intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Hospital care is changing and the requirements for specialist nurses are changing. The amount of patient transports from smaller hospitals are increasing and the routes are longer. The experience of the nurses work environment has proved to be important, not least with regard to the experience of patient safety. 

    Aim: To describe how intensive care and anesthesia nurses experience working in a hospital without emergency surgery, from a work environment perspective. 

    Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted with intensive care nurses (n = 6) and anesthetic nurses (n = 5). The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. 

    Main results: Through the analysis six categories emerged. 1. To experience the importance of following guidelines 2. That collaboration and personal knowledge within the hospital facilitates the workload 3. Experience of the current assignment 4. To see the importance of nearby care 5. The cooperation with other hospitals and 6. Experience of access to resources and competence. The anesthetic and intensive care nurses experienced that it was important to follow guidelines. The fact that collaboration and personal knowledge within the hospital can facilitate the workload was another experience that was described. They experienced a satisfaction with the current assignment, although a desire to get extended assignments was described. The importance of having nearby care was described and the distance to the nearest emergency hospital was described as a problem. The collaboration with other hospitals was sometimes described to work well and sometimes a struggle preceded the collaboration. The experience of access to resources and skills was described and it emerged that the lack of resources could create frustration. 

    Conclusion: Positive experience of current assignments. In emergency situations where severely injured or sick patients entered the hospital, frustration was experienced with the lack of resources that existed.

    Keywords: Intensive Care Nurse, Nurse anesthetist, Work Environment

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  • 31.
    Blom, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet; Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    Efverman, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sleep during pelvic-abdominal radiotherapy for cancer: a longitudinal study with special attention to sleep in relation to nausea and quality of life2020In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep, nausea, psychological distress, and a lowered quality of life are common during radiotherapy for cancer. There is a lack of studies on the relationship between radiotherapy-induced nausea and sleep. This longitudinal study analyzes data from 196 patients who underwent pelvic-abdominal radiotherapy for cancer.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate sleep parameters weekly before, during, and after radiotherapy in relation to nausea and other patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, psychological distress, and quality of life.

    METHODS: Patients (n = 196, 84% women; mean age, 63 years; 68% had gynecological tumor, 28% had colorectal tumor, and 4% had other tumors) longitudinally answered questionnaires before, during, and after their radiotherapy over the abdominal and pelvic fields.

    RESULTS: Poor sleep was experienced by 30% of the participants, and sleep (quality and difficulty falling asleep) improved during and after treatment compared with baseline. Experiencing nausea during treatment was associated with worse sleep quality during radiotherapy. Baseline anxiety was associated with worse sleep quality before, during, and after treatment. Poor sleep was associated with worse quality of life.

    CONCLUSION: Nausea, more than a number of other variables, is a possible predictor of poor sleep in patients during radiotherapy for cancer.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The results indicate that effectively managing nausea may be important for sleep quality, and possibly quality of life, in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer. More research is needed before recommendations for practice can be made.

  • 32.
    Blomqvist, Nicklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Bergsten, Ellen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Att bemöta patienter med förvrängd verklighetsuppfattning: En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2018, mental illness was the most common reason for inpatient care for men and women aged 15–44. What is central to a mental illness is that people who fall ill lose their normal perception of reality. The formation of a therapeutic relationship is a major part of the care of mentally ill patients and for such a relationship to arise, the treatment can be part of it. The nurse has a responsibility to care for patients and to have a good attitude towards care when mentally ill patients are vulnerable, this to make them more likely to dare to open up and be able to actively participate in the treatment.

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of what affects the interaction with a distorted perception of reality.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design.

    Main result: The results showed that the response was affected by several aspects. Commitment, relationship building and organization affected the approach of patients with distorted perceptions of reality on different levels. Being there for the patients and being open in communication led to an improved relationship. Furthermore, the importance of having enough time and education is emphasized to communicate with these patients.

    Conclusion: Attendance is a central part of psychiatric care. Training and competence in the workplace empowers nurses and gives them a good basis for meeting patients. An equal, open approach to patients strengthens the relationship between patient and nurse and provides the conditions for good care. Further development of nurses’ experiences can provide better conditions for nurses to treat and care for mentally ill patients.

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  • 33.
    Broberg, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Lidström, Sophie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Kvinnor med bröstcancer och deras erfarenheter av fysisk aktivitet vid fatigue: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most usual form of cancer affecting women and is usually treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Breast cancer and its treatment are known to cause many symptoms and side effects, which fatigue is one of the most common. Fatigue affects women's everyday lives, social life and many experiences reduced quality of life. Being physically active prevents many diseases, an active lifestyle can increase well-being and contribute to an improved quality of life. The nurses is responsible for promoting and maintaining health which they can accomplish by informing, supporting and motivating the women to perform self-care during and after cancer treatment. Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to describe which experiences women with breast cancer have of physical activity while they suffer fatigue. Method: Descriptive literature study based on 12 quantitative scientific articles identified by database searches using MEDLINE on PubMed and CINAHL. The articles are reviewed with review templates and summarized along similarities and differences. Results: The women experienced that physical activity had a good effect on reducing fatigue. Regular training was an important factor for good effect and more demanding exercise proved to have better results than lighter exercise. The result shows that resistance training and high-intensity interval training have a very good effect on fatigue when the symptoms of fatigue increase during chemotherapy. Physical activity had a good effect on fatigue for up to three months after treatment. Conclusion: Women experienced that physical activity of different types reduced their fatigue, physical activity should be offered as part of breast cancer treatment since many of the women suffer from fatigue. 

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  • 34.
    Brundin, Philip
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Marcus, Ekenberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av livet samt livskvalité efter en hjärtinfarkt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjärtinfarkt är en vanlig sjukdom, som drabbar både män och kvinnor. Syretillförseln till hjärtat minskar, vilket försämrar hjärtats vitala funktion. Hjärtinfarkt kan påverka människans hälsa och livskvalitet ur olika aspekter. Det behövs mer kunskap om detta.

    Syfte: Att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av livet samt livskvalité efter en hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie. Sökningar av artiklar gjordes i databasen Cinahl. Studiens resultat grundar sig på tio utvalda vetenskapliga artiklar, varav sju kvantitativa, två kvalitativa samt en mixed method.

    Resultat: I studiens resultat framkom att hjärtinfarktpatienters erfarenheter av sin livskvalitet kan delas upp i två huvudkategorier, nämligen negativ samt positiva erfarenheter av sin livskvalitet. Många patienter upplever en kraftig trötthet, psykiska besvär i form av oro/rädsla samt fysiska begränsningar. Vissa patienter kan känna tacksamhet för att de faktiskt fortfarande lever, samt att det framkommit hur viktigt det är med coping. De negativa erfarenheterna delades upp i underkategorier trötthet/sömnbrist, psykisk påverkan, social påverkan samt fysiska begränsningar. Motsvarande delades de positiva erfarenheterna upp i underkategorierna hopp/tacksamhet samt copingstrategier.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visade på hur patienters erfarenheter speglade deras livskvalitet efter drabbad hjärtinfarkt. Erfarenheterna kunde efter analys delas upp i två olika huvudkategorier, positivt samt negativt. I denna studie beskrivs hur patienternas vardag påverkas av diagnosen hjärtinfarkt och hur den influerar på dennes livskvalitet. Det mest påtagliga som uppkom från resultatet var de olika begränsningar som patienterna ansåg påverka deras livskvalité.

    Vårdpersonal kan med fördel ta del av denna studie för att i fortsatt omvårdnadsarbete kunna se patienten i centrum och identifiera dennes behov för att upprätthålla en bra livskvalitet. 

     

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  • 35.
    Bylund-Grenklo, Tove
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Oncology Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Werkander-Harstäde, Carina
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Växjö, Sweden; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sandgren, Anna
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Växjö, Sweden; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Benzein, Eva
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Kalmar; Center for Collaborative Palliative Care, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden .
    Östlund, Ulrika
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle; Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Dignity in life and care: The perspectives of Swedish patients in a palliative care context2019In: International Journal of Palliative Nursing, ISSN 1357-6321, E-ISSN 2052-286X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: How patients preserve their sense of dignity in life is an important area of palliative care that remains to be explored. Aims: To describe patients' perspectives of what constitutes a dignified life within a palliative care context. Methods: Twelve palliative care patients were interviewed about their views on living with dignity. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: What constitutes a dignified life during end-of-life care was captured by the theme 'I may be ill but I am still a human being' and presented under the categories 'preserving my everyday life and personhood', 'having my human value maintained by others through 'coherence' and 'being supported by society at large'. Conclusion: Patients' sense of dignity can be preserved by their own attitudes and behaviours, by others and through public support. Health professionals need to adopt a dignity-conserving approach, for which awareness of their own attitudes and behaviours is crucial. 

  • 36.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Self-reported competence in female and male nursing students in the light of theories of hegemonic masculinity and femininity2020In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In most parts of the world, nursing historically has been considered an occupation for women. Gender stereotypes are associated with the nursing profession.

    AIM: The aim was to describe and compare the self-reported competence in female and male nursing students. The students were also compared according to their different background college educations. The theoretical framework of hegemonic masculinity and femininity was used.

    DESIGN: A cross-sectional design with a questionnaire was used at two points in time, 2012 and 2017.

    METHODS: Nursing students completed a questionnaire on graduation from a three-year university nursing program from 12 universities/university colleges in Sweden. In total, 1,810 students were participating, 1577 female and 227 male students. The Nurse Professional Competence scale was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: There were statistical significant differences in the self-reported competence between female and male students (t-tests and ANOVAs). These differences are in agreement with the patterns of hegemonic masculinity and femininity. Female students estimated their competence in giving value-based nursing care as higher than male did. Male students estimated their competence in development and leadership higher than female did.

    CONCLUSION: The pattern of hegemonic masculinity and femininity could be identified. This indicates a difference in power between female and male students.

    IMPACT: The study addresses the self-reported competence of female and male nursing students. The results indicated that male students possibly looked on themselves as superior to the female students. In order to change the image of nursing as a woman's work, the self-images should be discussed in nursing education as well as in college education. Women interested in development, research and leadership and men interested in nursing care and administration must feel that nursing is a suitable profession for them. The stereotypical image of nursing as a women's work is a barrier to nurses' professional development.

  • 37.
    Chen, Chen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Ning, Zhou
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    The effect of patient education interventions on stoma patients: - A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 38.
    Chen, Jian Hua
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Björkman, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zou, Ji Hua
    Department of Nursing, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Self–regulated learning ability, metacognitive ability, and general selfefficacy in a sample of nursing students: A cross-sectional and correlational study2019In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 37, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The healthcare sector is fast-growing and knowledge-intensive, and to meet the demands associated with it, nursing students must have high levels of self-regulated learning (SRL), metacognition, and general self-efficacy (GSE). In this cross-sectional, correlational study, data were collected from 216 nursing students through a questionnaire. The aims were: 1) to describe the levels of SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE among second- and third-year nursing students; 2) to explore the relationships between the SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE of second- and third-year nursing students; 3) and to compare SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE between second- and third-year nursing students. Nursing students had moderate levels of SRL ability and metacognitive ability, but lower levels of GSE. Positive relationships between SRL ability, metacognitive ability, and GSE were observed. Third-year nursing students had a higher level of SRL ability but lower levels of GSE, compared to second-year students. In terms of metacognitive ability, no significant differences were observed between the student batches. Interventions are required for the improvement of nursing students’ SRL ability, metacognitive ability, and GSE.

  • 39.
    Chi, Cheng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Wenbo, Tang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetesThe effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetes: – A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 40.
    Chunyi, Tang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Qiongwei, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life among nursing home residents: – A questionnaire study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Ciping, Zhang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Enhui, Huang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Nurses’ experience of workplace violence: A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 42.
    Croné, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Emanuelsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Personers erfarenheter av livet efter ett hjärtstopp2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the report from the CPR-register 8663 cardiac arrests were reported in Sweden in 2018 and 1482 successful resuscitations was performed. In the event of a cardiac arrest the brain is suffering from hypoxia and without adequate treatment the person may suffer permanent brain damage, or in worst case it could cause death. The nurse has responsibilities when it comes to care giving, and through increased understanding for peoples experiences of life after a cardiac arrest there is an opportunity to provide better individual treatment.

    Aim: To describe people´s experiences after surviving a cardiac arrest.

    Method: A literature study with a descriptive design and a thematic analysis method. 15 scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach were retrieved from the databases MEDLINE through PubMed and CINAHL.

    Result: The survivors often experienced loss of memory and cognitive difficulties after a cardiac arrest. Information and support from the care givers seemed to be important factors for the survivors so they could feel safe and secure. It also seemed that the physical abilities had deteriorated and going back to work was not obvious after acardiac arrest. Many of the personal roles were lost, and the survivors had a though experience adapting to a new identity. At the same time the survivors felt grateful that they had survived and many realized that they had a second chance of life.

    Conclusion: To suffer from a cardiac arrest is a life changing event that often leaves thes urvivors with feelings of fear and anxiety but also with gratefulness that they had survived. There is an unintentional change of physical functions, roles and identity and this can be hard to handle for the survivors. Through individual treatment, the nurse may strengthen the survivors´ sense of coherence which leads to increased health of thesurvivors.

    Keywords: Cardiac arrest, Experiences, Health, Sense of coherence

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  • 43.
    Dahlberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Dahlqvist, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta familjecentrerat i relation till barn inlagda på sjukhus2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta familjecentrerat i relation till barn inlagda på sjukhus
  • 44.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Residents’ use and perceptions of residential care facility gardens: a behavior mapping and conversation study2020In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 15, no 1, article id e12283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To describe the gardens and their use by individuals living at residential care facilities (RCFs) with high ratings on restorative values.

    Background

    Being outdoors has been described as important to older people's well‐being. Use of outdoor gardens may increase residents’ well‐being through experiences of restorative qualities such as being away and fascination. Thus far, there has been little research on restorative experiences of gardens in the care of older people.

    Design

    A descriptive design using behaviour mapping observations integrated with qualitative field notes and recorded conversations.

    Methods

    A criterion sampling of two gardens (out of a total of 87) was made based on residents’ ratings of restorative values; the two with the highest values were chosen. Eleven residents at the two RCFs took part. Data were collected through behaviour mapping observations, field notes and conversations on five occasions in the respective facilities during residents’ visits to the garden.

    Results

    The observations revealed that the main uses of the gardens were to socialise and relax. The conversations also showed that the garden stimulated residents’ senses and evoked memories from the past. These restorative values were interpreted as a sense of being away and fascination. Not having opportunities for outdoor visits was reported to result in disappointment and reduced well‐being.

    Conclusions

    The findings showed that two basic gardens with different characteristics and views could stimulate residents’ senses and evoke memories from the past; this supports the call for residents to be able to spend time in gardens to promote their well‐being.

    Implications for practice

    First‐line managers, nurses and healthcare staff in the care of older people should consider that regular opportunities to spend time outdoors may promote older people's well‐being through feelings of being away and fascination.

  • 45.
    Dannison, Phawlay
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Rezaei, Mustafa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med typ 2 diabetes.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus typ 2 (DMT2)är en av den vanligaste sjukdomarna och den ökar mer och mer på grund av ohälsosam livsstil. Faktorer som höjer risken för att utveckla DMT2 är livstillfaktorer som till exempel tobak, minskad fysisk aktivitet, stillasittande liv, matvanor och fetma. Sjukdomen behandlas med hälsosam kost, fysisk aktivitet och medicinering.

    Syftet: Syftet med studie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av att leva med DTM2.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en beskrivande design som bygger på 13 kvalitativa artiklar.

    Resultat: personerna upplever en psykologisk påverkan som visar sig som oro, rädsla, nedstämdhet och oro över framtiden. Personerna upplever också olika sociala begränsningar. Egenvården som främst består av medicinering, kost och fysisk aktivitet upplevs som mycket viktig. Kunskap och stöd av närstående och vårdpersonalen upplevs som viktig.

    Slutsats: Personer med DMT2 känner sig nedstämda och upplever oro. Genom att få stöd från närstående och vårdpersonal underlättas personernas självhantering av sjukdomen. Personerna upplever att umgänget med andra personer minskas på grund av sociala begränsningar. Olika copingstrategier samt egenvård spela stor roll för personer med diabetes typ 2. Mer kunskap inom området vore önskvärt för att ge ett adekvat bemötande.

    Nyckelord: diabetes mellitus typ 2, dagligt liv, upplevelser.

     

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  • 46.
    Edlund, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Wiklander Palmertz, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Upplevelser av icke farmakologisk smärtlindring hos patienter med cancerdiagnos2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det vanligast förekommande symtomet hos patienter diagnosticerade med cancer är smärta, detta resulterar i fysiskt och psykiskt lidande hos den drabbade. Smärta är en obehaglig sensorisk och känslomässig upplevelse förenad med vävnadsskada eller beskriven i termer av sådan skada. Cancersmärta finns i flera olika former och därför finns ingen standardiserad behandling utan behandlingen sker med hjälp av olika metoder samt olika metoder i kombination. Smärtan kan behandlas med hjälp av farmakologiska och icke farmakologiska behandlingsmetoder.  

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva cancerpatienters upplevelser av icke farmakologisk smärtlindring.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes som en deskriptiv litteraturstudie. 

    Huvudresultat: Resultatet visar att en majoritet av de patienter som behandlats med akupunktur och taktilmassage har positiva upplevelser. En stor del av patienterna beskriver både en smärtlindrande upplevelse och andra positiva upplevelser som återkommer i resultatet är bland annat lindring av andra fysiska symtom. Flertalet patienter upplevde också en ny form av energi efter behandlingen och ett ökat välbefinnande. Dock upplevde en liten del av patienterna motsatt effekt av behandlingen där de fysiska symtomen tilltog i styrka samt upplevelsen av effekt uteblev efter behandling. 

    Slutsats: Smärta är en central känsla och upplevelse för denna patientgrupp, det är vanligt att smärtan drabbar patienten både fysiskt och psykiskt. Det framkom i föreliggande litteraturstudie att patienterna hade både positiva och negativa upplevelser av akupunktur och taktilmassage, majoriteten av patienterna hade dock positiva upplevelser. Upplevelserna behandlade både smärtlindrande effekt men även god effekt på andra symtom som denna patientgrupp är drabbad av i olika utsträckning. Detta bekräftar att icke farmakologisk smärtlindring kan vara en viktig del i behandlingen av patienter diagnosticerade med cancer.  

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  • 47.
    Eidhagen, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Cerna Leiva, Elcias Kevin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid behandling av diabetes mellitus typ 22020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many people around the world. Diabetes mellitus is divided into two types; type-1 and type-2. People with Diabetes Mellitus type 2 have a greater risk of complications as they age if they have an unhealthy lifestyle, such as smoking, obesity and malnutrition. Previous research has shown that patients do not always receive clear information about their diagnoses, how they can best manage their conditions, and what lifestyle changes they may need to make. The nurse's objective is to promote or maintain health, prevent ill-health and strengthen well-being.

    Aim The aim of this study has been to describe the care nurses can provide to patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

     

    Method A descriptive literature study that identified 10 articles through the databases Medline via PubMed. These articles have been analyzed and thematized for this literature study. 

    Results It showed that the nurse has an important role in supporting the patient to follow the treatment program prescribed by other caregivers, eg by a doctor or dietician. The nurse experienced that they promoted health of patients in different ways. The results have been compiled under one main heading, Stimulate for better health and four sub-headings; Motivate for better nutrition, Motivate for increased physical activity, Diabetes education - support and inform and Support for self-care.

    Conclusion The nursing care that nurses can apply to patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 are to motivate to better diet, motivate to physical activity, stimulate to better health and provide diabetes information. In addition, the nurse should regularly review the information patients receive to ensure it is appropriate. Continuous education and training in counseling for the nurse, would improve the motivational work that is part of the nursing care of diabetes mellitus type-2.

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    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder vid behandling av diabetes mellitus typ 2
  • 48.
    Eivergård, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden; Department of Health Care Science, Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Livholts, Mona
    Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Aléx, Lena
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Nursing Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    The Importance of Being Acceptable - Psychiatric Staffs' Talk about Women Patients in Forensic Care2019In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, women comprise about ten percent of those sentenced to psychiatric forensic clinics in Sweden. Those who are sentenced to forensic care because of offending and violent behaviour have already taken a step away from the usually expected female behaviour. On the other hand, there are many women in forensic care who have not committed crimes, but who instead self-harm. Studies have identified a gender bias in diagnosing and care in psychiatric settings, but there are few studies conducted on women in forensic care. The present study therefore examined how the situation of women patients and female norms are expressed in the staff's talk about these women during verbal handovers and ward rounds at a forensic clinic in Sweden. The aim was to explore how psychiatric staff, in a context of verbal handovers and ward rounds, talk about women who have been committed to forensic psychiatric care, and what consequences this might have for the care of the patients. The content of speech was examined using audio recordings and a method of analysis that was inspired by thematic analysis. The analysis identified that the staff talked about the women in a way that indicates that they expected the women to follow the rules and take responsibility for their bodies in order to be regarded as acceptable patients.

  • 49.
    Ekh, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Häggström, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Patienters upplevelser och erfarenheter av digital vård.: En litteraturstudie.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Samhället är under ständig utveckling, inte minst när det gäller teknologin och digitala lösningar. Digital vård har funnits sedan 1950-talet men har fortsatt utvecklas. Idag har de flesta patienter varit i kontakt med den digitala vården på ett eller annat sätt. För att kunna utnyttja de digitala hjälpmedel som finns är god kommunikation och ett gemensamt språk av betydelse.

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva patienters upplevelser och erfarenheter av digital vård. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar, 5 med kvalitativ ansats och 7 med kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: Studiens resultat visade på både styrkor och svagheter i att söka vård digitalt, även användandet kring digitala hjälpmedel. Det som framkom tydligast var patienternas upplevelse av tillgängligheten, tack vare tekniken som möjliggjorde uppföljningar både när det gällde att vårda patienter i hemmet och modet att utföra egenvård. Kommunikationen var kärnan som ledde till ökad trygghetskänsla hos patienten. Svagheter som framkom var teknikens sårbarhet,  uppkopplingar som inte fungerade eller andra problem med de tekniska hjälpmedlen och att patienten inte kunde nå sina vårdare, bidrog till oro.  

    Slutsats: Det framkom i studien att upplevelserna av digital vård skiljde sig hos de olika patientgrupperna. Det som utmärkte sig tydligt var den yngre generationen, de kände en större tillförlitlighet i användandet av digital kommunikation. En annan utmärkande patientgrupp var de som valde att vända sig till sin religion för vägledning i hälsofrågor iställetför till vårdpersonal.

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  • 50.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitet; Karolinska institutet.
    Lindblad, Marléne
    Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College; KTH.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Nursing students’ perception of the clinical learning environment and supervision in relation to two different supervision models – a comparative cross-sectional study2019In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 18, article id 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Knowledge concerning nursing students’ experiences of the clinical learning environment and how supervision is carried out is largely lacking. This study compares nursing students’ perceptions of the clinical learning environment and supervision in two different supervision models: peer learning in student-dedicated units, with students working together in pairs and supervised by a “preceptor of the day” (model A), and traditional supervision, in which each student is assigned to a personal preceptor (model B).

    Methods

    The study was performed within the nursing programme at a university college in Sweden during students’ clinical placements (semesters 3 and 4) in medical and surgical departments at three different hospitals. Data was collected using the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher evaluation scale, CLES+T, an instrument tested for reliability and validity, and a second instrument developed for this study to obtain deeper information regarding how students experienced the organisation and content of the supervision. Independent t-tests were used for continuous variables, Mann-Whitney U-tests for ordinal variables, and the chi-square or Fischer’s exact tests for categorical variables.

    Results

    Overall, the students had positive experiences of the clinical learning environment and supervision in both supervision models. Students supervised in model A had more positive experiences of the cooperation and relationship between student, preceptor, and nurse teacher, and more often than students in model B felt that the ward had an explicit model for supervising students. Students in model A were more positive to having more than one preceptor and felt that this contributed to the assessment of their learning outcomes.

    Conclusions

    A good learning environment for students in clinical placements is dependent on an explicit structure for receiving students, a pedagogical atmosphere where staff take an interest in supervision of students and are easy to approach, and engagement among and collaboration between preceptors and nurse teachers. This study also indicates that supervision based on peer learning in student-dedicated rooms with many preceptors can be more satisfying for students than a model where each student is assigned to a single preceptor.

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