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  • 1.
    Bäckström, Linn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Sonnesjö, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    "Jag förstod aldrig varför man slår ett barn": - En narrativ studie om sju individers berättelser om våldsutsatthet i barndomen och deras senare våldsutövning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze narratives of violence and explore how this relates to one's own violence. By means of the theory of differential associations and social learning theory, the development of violent behavior was understood and interpreted. Through a hermeneutic approach, seven life stories from the Stockholm Life-Course Project, were interpreted, where child maltreatment and own use of violence had occurred. The main results showed that the individuals experienced that the childhood had characterized their lives and that they developed a behavior of violence. The violence has been interpreted for strategic purposes but also of pure instinct. The results were problematized with the previous research. The study's conclusion is that exposure to child maltreatment constitutes a risk factor for developing violent behavior. However, the relationship is complex and no causal statements can be made based on our research method and our sample.

  • 2.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Universitetssjukvårdens forskningscentrum, Örebro.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Dåligt stöd för att psykiska sjukdomar ökar bland unga (DN Debatt)2019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 21 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Socialstyrelsen presenterar en katastrofal ökning av psykisk ohälsa bland unga och tolkar det som en reell ökning av psykiska sjukdomar. Vilket leder till rubriker med ord som epidemi. Men slutsatsen håller inte rent vetenskapligt. Vi måste ta signalerna från unga på allvar, men risken för en medikalisering av normala livserfarenheter är uppenbar, skriver tre forskare.

  • 3.
    Engström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Bremberg, Sven
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Socialstyrelsens snabba slutsatser är bristfälligt underbyggda (slutreplik): slutreplik DN Debatt 22/52019In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 29 majArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    SLUTREPLIK DN DEBATT 22/5. Olivia Wigzell och Thomas Lindén från Socialstyrelsen har kommenterat vårt inlägg när det gäller psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga. Det framkommer inte något nytt i deras svar som i stort sett repeterar innehållet i myndighetens rapporter i ämnet under senare år, skriver forskarna Ingemar Engström, Sven Bremberg och Sofia Wikman.

  • 4.
    Ericsson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Stengård, Isabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Att mötas över myndighetsgränser: En kvalitativ studie av samverkan mot brott i nära relation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how officials of the social services and the police perceived inter-organizational collaboration. More specifically inter-organizational collaboration as a method in the work against intimate partner violence. The study also aimed to examine how they perceive the authorities' roles in such cooperation. In order to investigate this, semi-structured interviews have been carried out with officials from both authorities. The interviews were conducted both in the preliminary stage and after a collaborative project against intimate partner violence. The study's result showed that the idea of cooperating against this type of problems has a strong support among the officials of both authorities. Factors that are perceived as the most important for effective collaboration are a clear division of responsibilities between the actors; to have the collaboration on an institutional level, instead of interpersonal, administrative coordination and ensuring that the collaboration has sufficient resources. The result also showed that the officials of the two authorities had a clear conception what constitutes as their professional role. That clear conception can create an uncertainty within the actor when he or she is expected to act in a manner that is not in line with his or her perception of the role.

  • 5.
    Fix, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Lundberg, Lisen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Ett nej är ett nej, en hund fattar det: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om ungdomars förståelse för samtycke och våldtäkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Floberg, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Erixon, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    "De jagar egentligen alla hål i sin kropp och själ": Att avhålla sig från våldsbejakande islamistisk extremism - ett kvalitativt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: They are searching for the holes in their bodies and souls – desistance from violent Islamic extremism, a qualitative approach.   This essay aims to provide a deeper understanding and insight into why individuals choose to leave violence-promoting Islamist environments. The choice of method has been qualitative. The essay consists of four semi-structured interviews with key informants. The interview material has been transcribed and coded individually by both authors. The study has taken an integrated theoretical approach where the main framework consists of a life course perspective supported by Hirschi’s theory of social bonds, Merton’s theory of strain and Sutherland’s theory of differential associations. The main findings show that possible turning points with regards to desistance related to violence-promoting Islamist environments primarily consists of aspects related to belonging and social contexts. In other words, this essay shows that social relations are an integral part with regards to desistance. The findings closely correspond to those of previous studies within the field. The findings are supported by the study’s theoretical framework where pro-social community interactions strengthen the social bonds to society through differential associations, this in turn leads to a decreased amount of strain.   

  • 7. Gallo, Carina
    et al.
    Fowlin, Julaine
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Gaining a Global Criminal Justice Perspective: A Computer-Supported Collaboration Between Students in Sweden and the United States2018In: Journal of Criminal Justice Education, ISSN 1051-1253, E-ISSN 1745-9117, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 531-550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) can globalize a criminal justice curriculum. It draws on a project where criminology students in Sweden and the United States collaborated in an online environment. We describe the design of the project and use student reflections to identify successes and challenges. The results show that for a CSCL to be successful, instructors need to be intentional about academic, psychological, and interpersonal aspects of the collaboration, as they are all interrelated. The students experienced challenges, for example, related to the workload. However, in most cases, the perceived benefits outweighed the challenges. The students reported an improved understanding of criminology theory and enhanced critical thinking skills. We argue that CSCL can improve the affordability and accessibility of global learning. Without having to travel, the students entered a virtual space where they could learn together with students and faculty from another country.

  • 8.
    Georgieva, Irina
    et al.
    Independent Researcher, Bulgaria.
    Whittington, Richard
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Forensic Department Brøset Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Norway; Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Norway; University of Liverpool, UK.
    Lauvrud, Christian
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Forensic Department Brøset Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Norway.
    Steinert, Tilman
    Ulm University, Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy I, Germany; Centres for Psychiatry Sued Wuerttemberg, Ulm University, Germany.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Lepping, Peter
    Centre for Mental Health and Society, Bangor University, UK; Mysore Medical College and Research Institute, India; Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board, Liaison Psychiatry, Wrexham Maelor Hospital, UK.
    Duxbury, Joy
    Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
    Snorrason, Jon
    University Hospital of Iceland, Department of Psychiatry, Iceland.
    Mihai, Adriana
    University of Medicine and Pharmacy Tg Mures, Romania.
    Lauge Berring, Lene
    Psychiatric Research Unit, Denmark; Faculty of Health, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Gowda, Raveesh
    Department of Psychiatry, Mysore Medical College and Research Institution, India.
    Vesselinov, Roumen
    University of Maryland, USA.
    International variations in mental health law regulating involuntary commitment of psychiatric patients as measured by the Mental Health Legislation Attitudes Scale (MHLAS)2019In: Medicine, Science and the Law, ISSN 0025-8024, E-ISSN 2042-1818, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 104-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research illustrated that the laws regulating involuntaryplacement and treatment of persons with mental health problems arevery diverse across countries. International studies comparingsatisfaction levels between countries are rare. We compared the opinionsof professionals and family members about the operation of the nationalmental health law regulating forcibly admission and treatment ofpsychiatric patients in eleven countries: Ireland, Iceland, England &Wales, Romania, Slovenia, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Norway andIndia. An online survey design was adopted using a Mental HealthLegislation Attitude Scale (MHLAS). This brief 9-item questionnaire wasdistributed via e-mail to psychiatrists, general practitioners, acute andcommunity mental health nurses, tribunal members, police officers and family members in each collaborating country. The levels ofagreement/disagreement were measured on a Likert- scale. Data wereanalysed both per question and with regard to a total MHLAS ‘approval’score computed as a sum of the 9 questions. We found that respondentsin England & Wales and Denmark expressing strongest approval for theirnational legislation (76 and 74% respectively), with those in India andIreland expressing the least approval (65 and 64% respectively). Almostall countries had a more positive attitude in comparison with Ireland onthe admission criteria for involuntary placement and the way people aretransferred to psychiatric hospitals. There are significant variationsacross Europe and beyond in terms of approval for how the nationalmental health law framework operates in each country.

  • 9.
    Grünbaum Berg, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Ferry, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Kvinnlig prostitution: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av medias rapportering om orsaker till kvinnlig prostitution2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research has been to investigate how during 2018 media have described causes of female prostitution and how these descriptions relate to earlier research on female prostitution. In order to fulfill the aims of the study a qualitative content analysis was carried out on 17 articles from Aftonbladet and DN. The result of this investigation has shown that newspaper articles express several different reasons for female prostitution that can be related to earlier research on prostitution. However there is an overstatement of causes with compelling character. Based on the sensational journalism theory, it is understood that these types of articles are overrepresented as they contain greater measure of sensation and higher news value. The results of the study are discussed from the theoretical agenda-setting perspective. It has been interpreted that the public's beliefs about causes of female prostitution are affected by reports in media about compelling causes.

  • 10.
    Hoff, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Sten Åsenius, Cassandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    ”Vi måste göra det tillsammans”: En processutvärdering av det brottsförebyggande samverkansarbetet i Stockholms län2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on an evaluation of the crime prevention work that is being done in partnership between municipalities and the local police in Stockholm county. The purpose was to provide an overview of the work and point out focus areas for further development. The evaluation is based on quantitative content analysis of official documents written for the local crime prevention work and interviews with the local police and the crime prevention coordinators at the municipalities.

     

    One of the most prominent results was that analysing the causes of crime and establishing measurable goals for the effect of crime prevention is found difficult. The municipalities in the form of political self-governing agencies were also found difficult to collaborate with. Decisions, which are made at the top levels, take a very long time since it’s a very bureaucratic organisation. However, effective communications within the organisations helped spread knowledge, which strengthened the work. The conclusion was made from the prominent results that these factors all had the ability to affect the works legitimacy.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    ”Sanningen ska göra er fria”: En kvalitativ studie om prästers möte med häktade och fängslade människor i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This current study investigated priests, in the church of Sweden, working in custody and/or prison. Do priests experience any change in the prisoners’ lives during the time they are held in prison? The qualitative study consists of semi structured interviews with five priests. They were interviewed during summer 2019. The study shows that all of the priests experienced that many of the prisoners changed attitudes concerning their lives and their situation. They expressed the desire of another kind of life. Unexpectedly the study also shows the change the priests undertook, working with the prisoners. The priests expressed feelings about deeper spirituality and a sense of rich meaningfulness. The study shows that the priests experienced that almost all of the prisoners had a strong wish of living a non-criminal life. The road to this life is the one which consists of many new and constant contacts with a socially accepted environment.

  • 12.
    Jonsson-Lindberg, Patricia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Elers Zander, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Konstruktionen av brottslingar i kriminalpolitiska program: En kritisk diskursanalys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Construction of culprits within criminal policy programs: A critical discourse analysis.

    The purpose of this study was to make visible discourses within criminal policy before the elections of 2018 through analysis of the established political parties ́ criminal policy programs. Method qualitative content analysis was used to bring out categories, later analysed with Fairclough ́s critical discourse analysis. Constructions of culprits as “foreigner”, “in gang”, “organized”, “young”, “male” and “non-ethical Swedish” emerged. Other groups were crime victims identified as “children”, “juveniles”, “elders”, “females” and “entrepreneurs/business owners”. The crimes observed were honor crimes, terrorism, crimes of violence (especially domestic violence), sexual offences and internet-based crime. The constructions may create a skewed interpretation of criminality and feelings of “us and them”. This may lead to “them” labelled as the criminals and “us” as their potential victims. The discourses in the programs therefore risk sustaining unequal power configurations in society.

  • 13.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Drug discourses in Russian parliamentary debate2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Former prisoners’ narratives about employment and unemployment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Formerly imprisoned polydrug users’ narratives about unemployment2019In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 336-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding how formerly imprisoned drug users perceive the possibilities and problems associated with entering the job market is important as it could help the reintegration of these individuals into society. The aim of this study was to explore formerly imprisoned polydrug users’narratives about unemployment.

    Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 former prison inmates with extensive prior drug use. The interviews were coded and analysed using a categorical-content, narrative analysis approach.Results: The interviews revealed that although the respondents did not regard themselves as having been unemployed, some mentioned stress during periods in which they lacked a legal occupation. The participants also talked about the importance of being committed to one’s work and described that it was not only employment in itself that was important, but also being able to value or appreciate their employment. Most respondents argued that they had never been dismissed from work because of their drug use, but descriptions of workplace deviance were common in the interviews, e.g. stealing, selling drugs, burglary, using drugs at work.

    Conclusions: The respondents seemed to lack an identity as either unemployed or employed, which may constitute a problem when they enter the job market in the future.

  • 16.
    Lilja, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Perceptions about firesetting among Swedish high school students2019In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTFires in school buildings are a major problem in Sweden. However, there is lack of research about juveniles? attitudes to this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate how high school students in Sweden discussed arson and firesetting. Semi-structured interviews and focus group interviews were conducted with 32 high school students (aged 14?15). It was found that although most students argued that playing with fire were common phenomena in their schools, deliberate firesetting was said to be less common. In contrast to previous research the students in this study argued that both girls and boys were equally involved in firesetting and fire play. There was a consensus that arson was a serious problem and a problem that should be prevented.

  • 17.
    Lundqvist, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Svedjewik, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    ”Ser jag någonting i registren, då stoppar jag”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om svenska polisens arbete med fordonsstopp2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine what experience Swedish police officers have of traffic stops and on which premises they decide to control a vehicle in traffic. Through semi structured interviews with five police officers, it appeared that they generally had difficulties in answering questions regarding their experience of traffic stops. The results indicate that these experiences seem to facilitate the work for the policemen, simultaneously the experiences appear to result in unwanted behaviour. Their experiences are that the work have developed through the years. Beyond delinquency, there seems to be no clear premises regarding decision making in traffic stops. Despite that the participants stated similar premises, among others; traffic violence, intelligence information and the feeling that something doesn't feel right. Associated with traffic stops the selection for decision making is done by general profiling and something that police officers refers to as building blocks. However, there were different opinions regarding what have formed their premises.

  • 18.
    Paulsson, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Frälsningens makt: En kvalitativ studie om frälsningens inverkan på upphörande med brottslighet i Colombia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the importance of salvation in desistance from crimein a group of criminals, and what keeps them from turning back to crime. In order toanswer the study’s questions, semi-structured interviews were conducted with redeemedand non-redeemed prisoners and former prisoners in Colombia. Based on the interviews,a thematic analysis was made covering the underlying causes of crime, the reason forsalvation and the reason for not turning back to crime. All interviewees agreed thatsalvation became a turning point in their lives as they decided to change. Financial andsocial support in various forms and God is described by the interviewees as the reason fornot turning back to crime. In conclusion, it seems that a combination of God and materialthings are required for not turning back to crime, and that the interviewees made an activechoice to stop committing crimes.

  • 19.
    Rudh, Liselott
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Krigare, Eva-Catarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Insatser för unga lagöverträdare i Sverige: Vilka påverkande insatser används och varför?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to find out if the influential arrangements that is given to convicted delinquents between 15-17 years old is practised because they have evidence or if it is based on other grounds. The research questions were answered with the help of a questionnaire and interviews. The questionnaire was sent to all 290 local authorities whereof 52 answered the questions. The result indicated difficulties to get information regarding which arrangements that is being used, the local authorities have various ways of working and the programs and/or routines they use make it hard to access statistics. The most common influential arrangements were programs made by the local authorities themselves, which brings difficulties with the evidence of treatment effects. Interviews were carried out with three persons from social services who work with delinquents. The results showed that the choices were made on the basis of guidelines if there were any available, otherwise out of a feeling or experience. The conclusion was that there often seems to be a consideration regarding the evidence of treatment effects when arrangements are chosen, but that the choice many times still occur based on other premisses.  

  • 20.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Measuring gender differences in exposure to domestic abuse in Sweden - taking account of coercive control, impact of violence and patterns over time2019In: Resisting state-corporate crimes and facing repression: Toward a theory of insurrection, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controversy over gender differences in exposure to domestic violence (DV) seems to be a never-ending story. Researchers on one side of the debate argue that men and women are equally victimized (gender symmetry), while researches on the other side of the debate argue that women are victimized to larger extent, and with greater severity (gender asymmetry). Evidence for gender symmetry is based mainly on quantitative data from a plentitude of surveys measuring gender differences in perpetration and exposure to intimate partner violence. The asymmetry perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes investigation of contextual factors (e.g. the impact and meaning of violence) but have been based on studies that to a lesser extent include both men and women. Hence, there are conceptual and methodological differences between studies that find gender symmetry and those that propose gender asymmetry. We will present a survey performed to measure the prevalence of exposure to DV among men and women in the municipality of Gävle, Sweden. The presentation will highlight the significance of coercive control, temporal aspects, and impact of violence in measurement and understanding of gender differences in exposure to DV. Results from the survey suggest that women had been more exposed than men to all types of violence measured (psychological, sexual, physical, economicalmaterial, latent violence and negligence), that female exposure were more often repeated, and lead to more severe consequences than did male exposure to DV. We also found that having children with the perpetrator, which was more common among women, was a stronger predictor of negative consequences than any single type of violence. We will also present results concerning children of DV victims and experiences of help seeking and reporting violence.

  • 21.
    Sturup, Joakim
    et al.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm Region, Police Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rostami, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology. Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Mondani, H.
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gerell, Manne
    Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Edling, Christofer
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden; Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Increased Gun Violence Among Young Males in Sweden: a Descriptive National Survey and International Comparison2019In: European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, ISSN 0928-1371, E-ISSN 1572-9869, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 365-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This population-based time-trend study examines gun violence rates among males in Sweden during the years 1996 to 2015 and compares the rate in Sweden to other Western European countries. Data were collected from six registries and are presented descriptively per 100,000 inhabitants. The risks among males in Sweden increased considerably in both lethal and non-lethal gun victimization and perpetration. Among males aged 15 to 29 there was a five-fold increase in risk for victimization in lethal and non-lethal gun violence during the 20-year observation period. In a comparative perspective the rate of gun homicide victimization among males 15 to 29 years was higher in Sweden compared to other Western European countries, while the risk for males over age 30 was at an average level. Based on the results of this study we conclude that gun violence among young males in Sweden has been on the rise and is at a high level compared to other Western European countries. The development of gun violence in Sweden can be characterized as endemic, prevalent in both population and socially vulnerable areas.

  • 22.
    Vestling, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Jansson, Rebecka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Tolkens prestation – en oviss destination?: En kvalitativ studie om förhörsledares upplevda rättssäkerhet i att använda tolk vid polisförhör2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether interrogators within the various police departments experienced legal certainty in using interpreter at interrogation. The material for the study was collected through six qualitative, semi-structured interviews with interrogators who had experience in interrogation where interpreter participated. The result was presented through a qualitative content analysis. Previous research within the current subject, communication theory and Merton's theory of strain formed the basis for the analysis of the interview material. The results showed that the experiences of the interviewees were that legal certainty is affected by police interrogations where an interpreter participates. Furthermore, we could deduce this into five different aspects. These were thematised to the interpreter's role in the interrogation context, the interpreter's way of attending, the interpretation of the interpreter, the lack of communication, and the background of the interpreter.

  • 23.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Att förebygga hot och våld i svenska statliga myndigheter: en jämförelse mellan två perspektiv på säkerhetsarbete2019In: / [ed] Nordisk samarbejds for kriminologi, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våld och hot i arbetslivet är inte enbart ett arbetsmiljöproblem utan även ett demokratiproblem. Hantering av arbetsrelaterat våld och hot regleras i arbetsmiljölagen och Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter. Arbetsgivaren är ansvarig för det förebyggande arbetet som ska utföras i samarbete med skyddsombud och medarbetare. En utgångspunkt i arbetsmiljölagen är att kartlägga de risker som finns i verksamheten. Betoningen av den stabila, formella sidan av arbetsmiljöarbete sker dock ofta på bekostnad av en utveckling i form av arbetstagarmedverkan. Styrning som inte tar kontextuell hänsyn till arbetstagare eller klienter medför negativa konsekvenser. Strategier som inte harmonierar med det faktiska arbetet och regler som hämmar kreativitet och anpassning innebär en begränsning - inte bara för de scenarion vi i förebyggande syfte kan föreställa oss, utan också för att vi berövas en källa till tillit, diversitet och innovation. Den här artikeln beskriver hur två perspektiv hämtade från fältet ”resilience engineering” kan komplettera kriminologin för att användas för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras på olika arbetsplatser i syfte för att förebygga hot och våld.

  • 24.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Att skapa kunskap för att förebygga hot och våld i statliga myndigheter: En jämförelse mellan två perspektiv på säkerhet.2017In: FALF KONFERENS 2017: Arbetslivets utmaningar  i staden och på landsbygden, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2010 knivskars en kvinnlig vårdare till döds av en intagen klient på ett LVU-hem. Två chefer dömdes till i hovrätten till villkorlig dom för arbetsmiljöbrott genom vållande till annans död därför att rätten ansåg att cheferna inte gjort en tillräcklig riskbedömning (2010-B-2098). Det var inte knivdådet i sig som betraktades vara ett brott, utan straffbarheten låg i att arbets-givaren inte har förebyggt risken i tillräckligt hög grad.  Vissa samhällsfunktioner, till exempel förvaring och internering av klienter, kan inte fullgöras om inte arbetstagarna utsätts för vissa former av risker som kan leda till ohälsa eller olycksfall. Den verksamheten är inte kriminell i sig, förutsatt att riskbedömningar kontinuerligt genomförs och åtgärder vidtas i förebyggande syfte. Det som är straffbart enligt arbetsmiljölagen 8§ är att underlåta att göra en noggrann riskbedömning av verksamheten. Varje arbetsgivare har enligt alltså enligt arbetsmiljölagen (AFS 2001:1) ansvar att bedriva ett systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. I det systematiska arbetsmiljöan-svaret ingår att det ska finnas en arbetsmiljöpolicy som beskriver hur arbetsförhållandena ska vara för att ”ohälsa och olycksfall i arbetet ska förebyggas och en tillfredsställande arbetsmiljö uppnås” (5§).

    I Arbetsmiljöverkets allmänna råd om tillämpningen av föreskrifterna anges att en viktig utgångspunkt i arbetsmiljöpolicyn är de risker som finns i verksamheten Fokus för den här studien är hur dessa risker identifieras i statliga myndigheter där krävande klientkontakter är vanligt förekommande.I studien beskrivs två perspektiv på säkerhet, stabil och habil. Perspektiven används som verktyg för att analysera hur arbetsmiljölagen implementeras i statliga myndigheters arbete med att göra riskbedömningar för att förebygga våld och hot. Ett genomgående fokus för analysen är en eventuell närvaro av ett arbetstagarperspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. Kännetecknande för det stabila perspektivet är standardisering av säkerhetsarbetet. Målsättningen är att arbetstagare ska avvika från rutiner i så liten utsträckning som möjligt. Inom det habila perspektivet är arbets-tagarperspektivet centralt för att säkerhetsarbetet ska vara adekvat i relation till hur arbetet ser ut i praktiken. Först beskrivs arbetsmiljö-lagstiftningen som anger hur säkerhetsarbetet ska gå till. Därefter analyseras en gruppintervju med tio huvudskyddsombud från olika statliga myn-digheter för att undersöka hur huvudskyddsombuden upplever att lagstiftningen fungerar i det dagliga arbetet. Analysen görs med riktad innehållsanalys. En genomgång av arbetsmiljölagstift-ningen visar att arbetsgivare uppmanas att utnyttja arbetstagares kunskaper och erfarenheter. Huvudskyddsombuden vittnar dock om att arbetstagares möjligheter till input i säkerhetsarbe-tet saknas i praktiken och att arbetstagarnas faktiska möjlighet till deltagande i säkerhetsarbetet därmed inte motsvarar arbetsmiljölagens syfte. Orsakerna till detta härleds till organisatoriska aspekter samt till en konflikt mellan två olika styrningsideal

  • 25.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Om skolattacken i Finland:: ”Hårdare tag i skolan, ger oönskad effekt”2019In: SVT Opinion, no 02-oktArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    “Research on preventing violence at school is about simple things, such as safeguarding relationships and making sure that both yourself and others are doing well. According to the research, there is support that a systematic work environment work in everyday life can prevent violence ”, writes Sofia Wikman.

  • 26.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Criminology.
    Violence and risk assessments in state agencies in Sweden – comparing two perspectives2017In: The European Group for the Study of Deviance and Social Control 45th Annual Conference: Uncovering Harms: States, Corporations and Organizations as Criminals, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Act, the primary responsibility for ensuring a safe and healthy work environment is placed with the employer. The current project aims at studying state agencies in the light of this responsibility. The authorities that was analyzed in this project - for example the Social Insurance Agency, the Migration Board and the National Board of Institutional Care has in common that their clients’ personal welfare is affected by the decisions made by these authorities. The analysis is based around of how to create knowledge about violence and threats in risk assessments in government agencies.

    The common occurrence of negative decisions in these authorities is a known risk factor for producing threats and violence aimed at the public officials responsible for the decisions. At the same time these are authorities whose performance and impartiality is vital to maintain a democratic society. This project aims at providing a deeper understanding of how the knowledge that forms the base for the risk-assessment of threats and violence in these authorities is gathered and produced.

    Since the explanatory models for violence at work must be sought in complex causal relationships involving both the individual and surrounding systems, it has been relevant to look for inspiration in the knowledge produce by other research traditions. Two perspective from safety science perspective that I call stabile and habile did assist the systematic charting of the correlations between exposure to violence at work and the situational conditions that contribute to producing incidents of threats and violence.

    One result of the study is that safety management has so far paid relatively little attention to the habile perspective and thus the aim of the Swedish Work Environment Act is not fulfilled.

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