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  • 1.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 2.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Lili
    National Engineering Laboratory for Soil Nutrient Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

  • 3.
    Ehl, Stefan
    et al.
    Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany; Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Holzhauer, Stephanie I. J.
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Entomology, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences I, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Phenology, mobility and behaviour of the arcto-alpine species Boloria napaea in its arctic habitat2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and alpine environments present extreme, but different, challenges to survival. We therefore studied the ecological adaptation of the arctic-alpine fritillary Boloria napaea in northern Sweden and compared these results with the eastern Alps. Using mark-release-recapture, we analysed phenology, mobility, activity patterns, change in wing condition and nectar sources. The phenology showed no protandry, but a longer flight period of the females. Wing conditions revealed a linear decay being quicker in males than females. The mean flight distances were higher for males than females (143 vs 92 m). In general, males were more flight active, while females invested more time in feeding and resting. The shortness of the flight period in the Arctic is apparently a particular adaptation to these harsh conditions, not even allowing protandry, and constraining all individuals to hatch during a short period. These conditions also forced the individuals to concentrate on flight and alimentation. In general, Arctic and Alpine populations of B. napaea show few differences, but the species seems to be even better adapted to the northern environments. Thus, the short temporal separation of these populations seems not to have been sufficient for a divergent adaptation in the southern mountains.

  • 4.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Biology Department, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Chemical Analysis Division, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Yeon, Jeh-Yeong
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

  • 5.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholm University.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

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