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  • 1.
    Attorps, Iiris
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Kellner, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    School-€“University Action Research: Impacts on Teaching Practices and Pupil Learning2017In: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, ISSN 1571-0068, E-ISSN 1573-1774, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 313-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe a design and implementation of a school–university action research project about teaching and learning biology and mathematics in primary school. Nine teachers in grades 1 to 6, in collaboration with two researchers, were using content representation (CoRe) in learning study (LS)-inspired cycle as pedagogical tools when planning, implementing, and reflecting on lessons and pupil learning. By using pre- and post-tests, the teachers acquired knowledge about pupil subject-specific knowledge and learning. Some examples are given on how the tools in the project influenced the teaching practices and pupil learning. This research design brought together university and school practitioners to work collaboratively in a professional learning community, which developed teaching and learning in biology and mathematics.

  • 2.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Sun, Tao
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ni, Xiangying
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; anterbury Christ Church UniversityCanterburyUK.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Clear-cuts are temporary habitats, not matrix, for endangered grassland burnet moths (Zygaena spp.)2019In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnet moths (Zygaena spp.) are day-flying Lepidoptera considered indicative of species-rich grasslands. In the present study, our aim was to clarify whether clear-cuts are habitat, supporting habitat or matrix for three species of Zygaena. We did so by sampling these species with sex pheromones on 48 clear-cuts, varying in amount of host and nectar plants, in southern Sweden. To compare the efficiency of such sampling, we also conducted transect walks on these clearcuts. Overall, host-plants on clear-cuts best explained the abundance of Zygaena spp. recorded, better than nectar-plants or connectivity with nearby grasslands. These results indicate that clear-cuts with an abundance of host plants are used as a fully functional habitat, and not a supporting habitat in the sense of only providing nectar. There is no support in these results for considering clear-cuts as an inert matrix. With about half the work-effort, pheromone traps recorded 100 times more Zygaena spp. as transect walks. The poor correspondence between observations during transects walks and pheromone trap catches suggest Zygaena spp. being difficult to monitor by transect walks. In contrast to grasslands, clear-cuts are short-term in nature requiring repeated recolonization, indicating the importance of permanent grasslands. However, clear-cuts are important temporary insect habitats due to their great acreage, and suitable management can increase the time they remain a habitat.

  • 4. Birkedal, Sven
    et al.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Hultengren, Svante
    Fritz, Örjan
    Dagfjärilar en fältguide2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna nya fältguide till svenska dagfjärilar beskrivs drygt 180 arter, underarter, former och tillfälliga besökare. Boken är rikt illustrerad och fjärilarna åtföljs av fotografier på hane, hona och undersida jämte grafiska bilder över utbredningar och flygtider. Boken är den tredje i Naturcentrums serie om växter och djur i Sverige. Tidigare har "Lavar - en fältguide" och "Mossor en fältguide" utgivits.

    Ett kort inledande avsnitt beskriver bokens tillkomst, hur den är uppbyggd, terminologi, litteratur samt lite om fjärilsskådning. Därefter följer bokens huvuddel som utgörs av artbeskrivningarna och ca 1.000 illustrationer ledsagar läsaren. Boken, som omfattar 200 sidor, är framtagen av Sven Birkedal, naturälskare och fotograf från Åhus. Fjärilsforskaren Nils Ryrholm har stått för kompletterade texter och beskrivningar, vetenskaplig granskning, utbredningskartor, flygtider, m. m.

  • 5.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 99, no 13, p. 5662-5670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 6.
    Calamnius, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundin, Mikael
    Harmångers Machine & Marine, Stocka, Sweden; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fjälling, Arne
    Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Königson, Sara
    Institute of Coastal Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pontoon trap for salmon and trout equipped with a seal exclusion device catches larger salmons2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 7, article id e0201164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing seal populations of the Baltic have led to more frequent interactions with coastal fisheries. The motivation for seals to interact with fishing gear is high. It provides high densities of fish. A successful means of mitigating the conflict is the pontoon trap. Seal visits here have been frequent. Seals have access to most parts of the trap system including the middle chamber, which is an overhead environment. Concerns have been raised about seals possible entanglement in this specific part of the trap. As a means of keeping seals from entering the middle chamber, two different Seal Exclusion Devices (SEDs) were tested. A diamond mesh SED and a square mesh SED, which was rotated 45. The aim was to compare the functionality of the different SEDs with respect to seal deterrent abilities and catch composition. The hypothesis tested were (i) that seals would not be able to enter the middle chamber, (ii) that the catch would increase and (iii) that the SED would deter larger fish from swimming into the middle chamber. Catch data and underwater film were collected. Larger salmons were caught in traps equipped with SEDs. The SEDs did not affect the number of caught fish or the total catch per soak day. © 2018 Calamnius et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 7.
    Carpio, A. J.
    et al.
    University of Cordoba, Spain; IREC (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM)Instituto de Investigación en Recursos CinegéticosCiudad RealSpain.
    De Miguel, R. J.
    University of Cordoba, Spain.
    Oteros, J.
    Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL)Technische Universität München/Helmholtz CenterMunichGerman.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Tortosa, F. S.
    University of Cordoba, Spain.
    Angling as a source of non-native freshwater fish: a European review2019In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 21, no 11, p. 3233-3248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of the growing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our objective is to review the role of those non-native species that have primarily been introduced for angling purposes in at least one European country. We are particularly interested in: (1) the relative role of sport fish species in the context of non-native species introductions; (2) assessing the relative importance of different fish taxa; (3) identifying similarity patterns in the composition of the angling fish species introduced throughout the continent, and (4) assessing the underlying factors that drive their diversity in Europe. According to our results, 23.6% of the freshwater fish introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for angling purposes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced angling species in larger countries and in those with a greater GDP per capita, along with a lower latitude. This review stresses that angling was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive fish species into Europe in the last century. Furthermore, some of the introduced angling species had severe environmental impacts on many European regions. However, introductions of non-native angling species are still occurring. Therefore, existing EU regulations need better enforcement as well as to increase public awareness regarding invasive fish. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current angling schemes in increasingly managed European freshwater ecosystems. However, non-native fish could make angling sustainable, although not for biodiversity generally.

  • 8.
    Carpio, Antonio J.
    et al.
    Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IAS, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.
    Guerrero-Casado, José
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Portoviejo, Manabí, Ecuador.
    Barasona, José A.
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Tortosa, Francisco S.
    Department of Zoology, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain; Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí (ESPAM), Calceta, Ecuador.
    Vicente, Joaquín
    SABIO IREC Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Hillström, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Delibes-Mateos, Miguel
    Instituto de Estudios Sociales Avanzados (IESA, CSIC), Córdoba, Spain; CIBIO, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, Campus Agrario de Vairão, Vairão, Portugal; Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Facultad de Biología, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.
    Hunting as a source of alien species: a European review2017In: Biological Invasions, ISSN 1387-3547, E-ISSN 1573-1464, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1197-1211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hunting activities are responsible for the translocation and restocking of millions of animals throughout Europe, including the introduction of alien species. In a context of the growing use of game translocations and of increasing concern about the impact of biological invasions, our goal is to review the role of alien species introduced primarily for hunting purposes on the European scale. In particular, we explore: (1) the relative importance of game species in the context of alien species introductions; (2) the temporal evolution of the number of species introduced for hunting purposes; (3) the contribution of different taxa; (4) the pattern of introduced game species composition across countries (in terms of similarity), and (5) the underlying human demographic factors driving the diversity of introduced game species per country. According to our results, 24.3% of the mammals and 30.2% of the birds introduced into Europe during the last century were released primarily for hunting purposes, in total, 93 species (63 birds and 36 mammals), the most important taxa being Artiodactyls, Anseriformes and Galliformes. The species composition differed among countries, with a higher diversity of introduced game species in larger countries and in those with a higher human population density and proportion of hunters. This review stresses that hunting was a significant pathway for the introduction of invasive species into Europe in the last century. Since some of the game species introduced have had severe environmental impacts on many European regions, and introductions of non-native game species are still occurring, it is essential to improve regulations and increase public awareness regarding invasive game animals. This will help to preserve biodiversity and improve the sustainability of current hunting schemes in increasingly managed European ecosystems.

  • 9. De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Zarrelli, A.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Changes in soil C and N pools across a chronosequence on volcanic parent material following afforestation with Pinus pinea and Pinus nigra Arn.2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    De Marco, Anna
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Esposito, Fabrizio
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zarrelli, Armando
    Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Virzo De Santo, Amalia
    Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, Napoli, Italy.
    Litter inhibitory effects on soil microbial biomass, activity, and catabolic diversity in two paired stands of Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Pinus nigra Arn2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Highlights: Plant cover drives the activity of the microbial decomposer community and affects carbon (C) sequestration in the soil. Despite the relationship between microbial activity and C sequestration in the soil, potential inhibition of soil microbial activity by plant cover has received little attention to date.

    Background and Objectives: Differences in soil microbial activity between two paired stands on soil at a very early stage of formation and a common story until afforestation, can be traced back to the plant cover. We hypothesized that in a black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) stand the high-quality leaf litter of the tree, and that of the blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) understory had an inhibitory effect on soil microbial community resulting in lower mineralization of soil organic matter compared to the paired black pine (Pinus nigra Arn.) stand.

    Materials and Methods: We estimated potential mineralization rates (MR), microbial (MB), and active fungal biomass (AFB) of newly-shed litter, forest floor, and mineral soil. We tested the effects of litters' water extracts on soil MR, MB, AFB and its catabolic response profile (CRP).

    Results: Newly-shed litter of black locust had higher MR than that of blackberry and black pine; MR, MB, and AFB were higher in forest floor and in mineral soil under black pine than under black locust. Water extracts of black locust and blackberry litter had a negative effect on the amount, activity of microorganisms, and CRP.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate the potential for black locust and blackberry litter to have a marked inhibitory effect on decomposer microorganisms that, in turn, reduce organic matter mineralization with possible consequences at the ecosystem level, by increasing C sequestration in mineral soil.

  • 11.
    Djukic, Ika
    et al.
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Birmensdorf, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Kappel Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Steenberg Larsen, Klaus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Forest and Water Management, Ghent University, Gontrode, Belgium.
    Early stage litter decomposition across biomes2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 628-629, p. 1369-1394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through litter decomposition enormous amounts of carbon is emitted to the atmosphere. Numerous large-scale decomposition experiments have been conducted focusing on this fundamental soil process in order to understand the controls on the terrestrial carbon transfer to the atmosphere. However, previous studies were mostly based on site-specific litter and methodologies, adding major uncertainty to syntheses, comparisons and meta-analyses across different experiments and sites. In the TeaComposition initiative, the potential litter decomposition is investigated by using standardized substrates (Rooibos and Green tea) for comparison of litter mass loss at 336 sites (ranging from −9 to +26 °C MAT and from 60 to 3113 mm MAP) across different ecosystems. In this study we tested the effect of climate (temperature and moisture), litter type and land-use on early stage decomposition (3 months) across nine biomes. We show that litter quality was the predominant controlling factor in early stage litter decomposition, which explained about 65% of the variability in litter decomposition at a global scale. The effect of climate, on the other hand, was not litter specific and explained <0.5% of the variation for Green tea and 5% for Rooibos tea, and was of significance only under unfavorable decomposition conditions (i.e. xeric versus mesic environments). When the data were aggregated at the biome scale, climate played a significant role on decomposition of both litter types (explaining 64% of the variation for Green tea and 72% for Rooibos tea). No significant effect of land-use on early stage litter decomposition was noted within the temperate biome. Our results indicate that multiple drivers are affecting early stage litter mass loss with litter quality being dominant. In order to be able to quantify the relative importance of the different drivers over time, long-term studies combined with experimental trials are needed.

  • 12.
    Dong, Lili
    et al.
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Sun, Tao
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Lili
    National Engineering Laboratory for Soil Nutrient Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Erguna Forest-Steppe Ecotone Research Station, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Effects of different forms of N deposition on leaf litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activities in a temperate grassland2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 134, p. 78-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of decomposition for biogeochemical cycles, it is still not clear how this process is affected by different forms of nitrogen (N). Equal amounts of N with different ratios of inorganic N: organic N (0 : 0, 10 : 0, 7 : 3, 5 : 5, 3 : 7, and 0 : 10) were added to the soil in a steppe. We studied the response of litter decomposition to different forms of N enrichment. The treatment with 30% organic N resulted in the fastest decomposition, which was higher than with inorganic N or organic N addition alone. Our results highlight the need for studies of N deposition on carbon cycles that consider different components in N deposition.

  • 13.
    Ehl, Stefan
    et al.
    Biogeography, Trier University, Trier, Germany; Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Holzhauer, Stephanie I. J.
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Müncheberg, Germany; Entomology, Department of Zoology, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences I, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Phenology, mobility and behaviour of the arcto-alpine species Boloria napaea in its arctic habitat2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 3912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and alpine environments present extreme, but different, challenges to survival. We therefore studied the ecological adaptation of the arctic-alpine fritillary Boloria napaea in northern Sweden and compared these results with the eastern Alps. Using mark-release-recapture, we analysed phenology, mobility, activity patterns, change in wing condition and nectar sources. The phenology showed no protandry, but a longer flight period of the females. Wing conditions revealed a linear decay being quicker in males than females. The mean flight distances were higher for males than females (143 vs 92 m). In general, males were more flight active, while females invested more time in feeding and resting. The shortness of the flight period in the Arctic is apparently a particular adaptation to these harsh conditions, not even allowing protandry, and constraining all individuals to hatch during a short period. These conditions also forced the individuals to concentrate on flight and alimentation. In general, Arctic and Alpine populations of B. napaea show few differences, but the species seems to be even better adapted to the northern environments. Thus, the short temporal separation of these populations seems not to have been sufficient for a divergent adaptation in the southern mountains.

  • 14.
    Falk, Anders B.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Central University Administration.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack2018In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

  • 15.
    Gautam, Mukesh Kumar
    et al.
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Biology Department, Medgar Evers College, City University of New York, New York, NY, USA.
    Lee, Kwang-Sik
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Song, Byeong-Yeol
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; Chemical Analysis Division, National Forensic Service, Wonju, Republic of Korea.
    Yeon, Jeh-Yeong
    Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea.
    Trends of major, minor and rare earth elements in decomposing litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 222, p. 214-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The decomposition dynamics of 34 different elements in four different litter types (foliar and woody litter) from Pinus densiflora (Korean red pine) and Castanea crenata (Korean chestnut) was investigated in a cool temperate ecosystem using the litterbag method. Two contrasting trends were observed in the dynamics of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon. Leaf litter of Korean chestnut, which was richer in elements, showed a general decrease in concentrations of elements with accumulated mass loss of litter and carbon on a dry mass basis during decomposition in the field. Other litter types, with initially lower concentrations of elements, exhibited an increase in concentration on a dry mass basis during field incubation. Highest relative increase in the concentration was noticed for the minor elements, and for the woody litters. Concentrations of major and minor elements increased by factors ranging from 1.07 for antimony (Sb) to 853.7 for vanadium (V). Rare earth elements (REE) concentrations increased by factors ranging from 1.04 for scandium (Sc) to 83.5 for thorium (Th). Our results suggest that litter type plays an important role for nutrient dynamics. Results from principal component analysis for major, minor, and rare earth elements showed grouping of elements and high correlation among them (P < 0.05), which suggests a common source. At both sites, element concentrations were high in the soil, especially for REE. This suggests that increase in element concentrations during field incubation probably was due to transfer of elements from soil to the overlying decomposing litter.

  • 16. Gautam, Mukesh
    et al.
    Lee, K-S.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Song, B.Y.
    Spatial distribution of elements in the soil, vegetation and litter in a cool temperate ecosystem, South Korea2019In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ge, Jielin
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China..
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Univ Helsinki, Dept Forest Sci, Helsinki, Finland..
    Xie, Zongqiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Bot, State Key Lab Vegetat & Environm Change, 20 Nanxincun, Beijing 100093, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Climatic seasonality is linked to the occurrence of the mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forests in China2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 9, article id e02862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species can coexist across the globe and constitute different broad-leaved forests along large-scale geographical and climatic gradients. A better understanding of climatic influence on the distribution of mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest is of fundamental importance when assessing this mixed forest's resilience and predicting potential dynamics of broad-leaved forests under future climate change. Here, we quantified the horizontal distribution of this mixed forest in mountains in relation to climate seasonality by compiling vegetation information from the earlier records and our own field sampling on major subtropical mountains of China. We found that the probability of occurrence of this forest in subtropical mountains was positively associated with the latitude but not the longitude. The occurrence probability of this forest was observed at high-temperature but not precipitation seasonality mountains. Temperature seasonality was five times more important than precipitation seasonality in explaining the total variation of occurrence of this mixed forest. For its distribution, our results shed light on that temperature seasonality was generally a more powerful predictor than precipitation seasonality for montane mixed forest distribution. Collectively, this study clearly underscores the important role of temperature seasonality, a previously not quantified climatic variable, in the occurrence of this mixed forest along geographical gradients and hence yields useful insight into our understanding of climate-vegetation relationships and climate change vulnerability assessment in a changing climate.

  • 18.
    Ivarsson, Lena Norback
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Andren, Thomas
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Moros, Matthias
    Leibniz Inst Baltic Sea Res Warnemunde, Rostock, Germany..
    Andersen, Thorbjorn Joest
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Geosci & Nat Resource Management, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Södertörn Univ.
    Andren, Elinor
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective2019In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment cores from three sites along the east-coast of Sweden, north-western Baltic Proper, have been studied with respect to lithologies, geochemistry, and diatom assemblages to trace and date early human impact with emphasis on nutrient discharge. The three sites Braviken, Himmerfjarden, and Adfjarden, have been impacted to various degree during the last millennia by multiple stressors like excessive nutrient discharge and hazardous substances, leading to coastal hypoxia, eutrophication, and pollution. These stressors are mainly caused by drivers in the drainage area as increased human population, changed land use, and point sources as industries and a sewage treatment plant. Even though their detailed history differs, the results show similar general patterns for all three sites. We find no evidence in our data from the coastal zone supporting the hypothesis that the extensive areal distribution of hypoxia in the open Baltic Sea during the Medieval Climate Anomaly was caused by human impact. Timing of the onset of man-made eutrophication, as identified from delta N-15 and changes in diatom composition, differs between the three sites, reflecting the site specific geography and local environmental histories of these areas. The onset of eutrophication dates to similar to 1800 CE in Braviken and Himmerfjarden areas, and to similar to 1900 CE in the less urban area of Adfjarden. We conclude that the recorded environmental changes during the last centuries are unique in a thousand year perspective.

  • 19.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Comparison of the nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis Blume growing in two sites contrasting in soil phosphorus content2018In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 75, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption inQuercus variabilisBlume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content. Context: Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas. Aims: We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content. Methods: The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China. Results: P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P. Conclusion: These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 20.
    Kellner, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Attorps, Iris
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    The school–university intersection as a professional learning arena: evaluation of a two-year action research project2019In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Maes, Dirk
    et al.
    Verovnik, Rudi
    Wiemers, Martin
    Brosens, Dimitri
    Beshkov, Stoyan
    Bonelli, Simona
    Buszko, Jaroslaw
    Cantú-Salazar, Lisette
    Cassar, Louis-Francis
    Collins, Sue
    Dincă, Vlad
    Djuric, Milan
    Dušej, Goran
    Elven, Hallvard
    Franeta, Filip
    Garcia-Pereira, Patricia
    Geryak, Yurii
    Goffart, Philippe
    Gór, Ádám
    Hiermann, Ulrich
    Höttinger, Helmut
    Huemer, Peter
    Jakšić, Predrag
    John, Eddie
    Kalivoda, Henrik
    Kati, Vassiliki
    Kirkland, Paul
    Komac, Benjamin
    Kőrösi, Ádám
    Kulak, Anatolij
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    L’Hoste, Lionel
    Lelo, Suvad
    Mestdagh, Xavier
    Micevski, Nikola
    Mihoci, Iva
    Mihut, Sergiu
    Monasterio-León, Yeray
    Morgun, Dmitry V.
    Munguira, Miguel L.
    Murray, Tomás
    Nielsen, Per Stadel
    Ólafsson, Erling
    Õunap, Erki
    Pamperis, Lazaros N.
    Pavlíčko, Alois
    Pettersson, Lars B.
    Popov, Serhiy
    Popović, Miloš
    Pöyry, Juha
    Prentice, Mike
    Reyserhove, Lien
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Šašić, Martina
    Savenkov, Nikolay
    Settele, Josef
    Sielezniew, Marcin
    Sinev, Sergey
    Stefanescu, Constanti
    Švitra, Giedrius
    Tammaru, Toomas
    Tiitsaar, Anu
    Tzirkalli, Elli
    Tzortzakaki, Olga
    van Swaay, Chris A. M.
    Viborg, Arne Lykke
    Wynhoff, Irma
    Zografou, Konstantina
    Warren, Martin S.
    Integrating national Red Lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies2019In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 301-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red Lists are very valuable tools in nature conservation at global, continental and (sub-) national scales. In an attempt to prioritise conservation actions for European butterflies, we compiled a database with species lists and Red Lists of all European countries, including the Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). In total, we compiled national species lists for 42 countries and national Red Lists for 34 of these. The most species-rich countries in Europe are Italy, Russia and France with more than 250 species each. Endemic species are mainly found on the Macaronesian archipelagos and on the Mediterranean islands. By attributing numerical values proportionate to the threat statuses in the different national Red List categories, we calculated a mean Red List value for every country (cRLV) and a weighted Red List value for every species (wsRLV) using the square root of the country’s area as a weighting factor. Countries with the highest cRLV were industrialised (NW) European countries such as the Netherlands, Belgium, the Czech Republic and Denmark, whereas large Mediterranean countries such as Spain and Italy had the lowest cRLV. Species for which a Red List assessment was available in at least two European countries and with a relatively high wsRLV (≥ 50) are Colias myrmidone, Pseudochazara orestes, Tomares nogelii, Colias chrysotheme and Coenonympha oedippus. We compared these wsRLVs with the species statuses on the European Red List to identify possible mismatches. We discuss how this complementary method can help to prioritise butterfly conservation on the continental and/or the (sub-)national scale.

  • 22.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

  • 23.
    Ni, Xiangyin
    et al.
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Yang, Wanqin
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Li, Han
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Liao, Shu
    Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Tan, Bo
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Yue, Kai
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Xu, Zhenfeng
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Zhang, Li
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Wu, Fuzhong
    Long-term Research Station of Alpine Forest Ecosystems, Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry Engineering, Institute of Ecology and Forestry, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
    Formation of forest gaps accelerates C, N and P release from foliar litter during 4 years of decomposition in an alpine forest2018In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative to areas under canopy, the soils in forest gaps receive more irradiance and rainfall (snowfall); this change in microclimate induced by forest gaps may influence the release of carbon (C) and nutrients during litter decomposition. However, great uncertainty remains about the effects of forest gaps on litter decomposition. In this study, we incubated foliar litters from six tree and shrub species in forest gaps and canopy plots and measured the release of C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in different snow cover periods in an alpine forest from 2012 to 2016. We found that N was retained by 24–46% but that P was immediately released during an early stage of decomposition. However, forest gaps decreased litter N retention, resulting in more N and P being released from decomposing litters for certain species (i.e., larch, birch and willow litters). Moreover, the release of C and nutrients during litter decomposition stimulated by forest gaps was primarily driven by warmer soil temperature in this high-altitude forest. We conclude that gap formation during forest regeneration may accelerate C turnover and nutrient cycling and that this stimulation might be regulated by the litter species in this seasonally snow-covered forest. © 2018, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 24.
    Pinedo, Cristina
    et al.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Collado, Isidro G.
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Goss, Rebecca J. M.
    School of Chemistry, Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
    Castoria, Raffaello
    Dipartimento Agricoltura, Ambiente, Alimenti, Università degli Studi del Molise, Campobasso, Italy.
    Hrelia, Patrizia
    Dipartimento di Farmacia e Biotecnologie, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Maffei, Francesca
    Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualità della Vita, Alma Mater Studiorum-Università di Bologna, Campus Rimini, Rimini, Italy.
    Durán-Patrón, Rosa
    Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cádiz, Campus Universitario Río San Pedro, Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain.
    Isotopic Labeling Studies Reveal the Patulin Detoxification Pathway by the Biocontrol Yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae LS112018In: Journal of Natural Products, ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 81, no 12, p. 2692-2699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patulin (1) is a mycotoxin contaminant in fruit and vegetable products worldwide. Biocontrol agents, such as the yeast Rhodotorula kratochvilovae strain LS11, can reduce patulin (1) contamination in food. R. kratochvilovae LS11 converts patulin (1) into desoxypatulinic acid (DPA) (5), which is less cytotoxic than the mycotoxin (1) to in vitro human lymphocytes. In the present study, we report our investigations into the pathway of degradation of patulin (1) to DPA (5) by R. kratochvilovae. Isotopic labeling experiments revealed that 5 derives from patulin (1) through the hydrolysis of the γ-lactone ring and subsequent enzymatic modifications. The ability of patulin (1) and DPA (5) to cause genetic damage was also investigated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay on in vitro human lymphocytes. Patulin (1) was demonstrated to cause much higher chromosomal damage than DPA (5).

  • 25.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0172085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 26.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Shaw, Mark
    National Museums of Scotland,.
    The Swedish species of Cidaphus (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Mesochorinae), a new genus and three new species for Sweden2017In: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 138, no 3-4, p. 203-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ichneumonid genus Cidaphus Förster, 1869, and its three known European species Cidapus areolatus (Boie, 1850), C. alarius (Gravenhorst, 1829) and C. atricillus (Haliday, 1839) are reported as new to Sweden based primarily on specimens collected in light traps during projects monitoring nocturnal moths. The available material indicates that C. areolatus is a rather abundant and widespread species throughout most of the southern and central parts of Sweden. The trapping data indicates that it flies in one prolonged generation from July until October. Cidaphus atricillus and C. alarius are both rather rare and their distribution is much less clear, but both species appear to fly earlier in the season than C. areolatus.

  • 27.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Molander, Mikael A.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Hotade insekter medlockande dofter2019In: Yrfän, ISSN 2002-1151, no 2, p. 15-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Rönnander, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Chemistry.
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Erik
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Biotransformation of vanillin into vanillyl alcohol by a novel strain of Cystobasidium laryngis isolated from decaying wood2018In: AMB Express, ISSN 2191-0855, E-ISSN 2191-0855, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanillin is an aromatic aldehyde found as a component of lignocellulosic material, and in the cured pods of orchidaceae plants. Like other phenolic substances, vanillin has antimicrobial activity and can be extracted from lignin either by a thermo-chemical process or through microbial degradation. Vanillin, can serve as a model monomer in biodegradation studies of lignin. In the present study, a yeast isolated from decaying wood on the Faroe Islands, was identified as Cystobasidium laryngis strain FMYD002, based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. It demonstrated the ability to convert vanillin to vanillyl alcohol, as detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole-time-of-flight. Structural analysis of vanillyl alcohol was carried out by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy, and further verified by synthesis. The reduction of vanillin to vanillyl alcohol has been documented for only a few species of fungi. However, to our knowledge, this biotransformation has not yet been reported for basidiomycetous yeast species, nor for any representative of the subphylum Pucciniomycotina. The biotransformation capability of the present strain might prove useful in the industrial utilisation of lignocellulosic residues.

  • 29.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Ciu, Yalan
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhang, Quanquan
    School of International Education, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.
    Dong, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    We, Zhijie
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Zhang, Li-Li
    Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    A test of manganese effects on decomposition in forest and cropland sites2019In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 129, p. 178-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Litter of plant origin is the main source of soil organic matter, and its physical and chemical quality and decomposition rates are key variables in the prediction and modelling of how litter-derived carbon (C) is cycling through the ecosystem. However, the biological control factors for decomposition are not well understood and often poorly represented in global C models. These are typically run using simple parameters, such as nitrogen (N) and lignin concentrations, characterizing the quality of the organic matter input to soils and its accessibility to decomposer organisms. Manganese (Mn) is a key component for the formation of manganese peroxidase (MnP), an important enzyme for lignin degradation. However, the functional role of Mn on plant litter decomposition has been rarely experimentally examined. Here, using a forest and a cropland site we studied, over 41 months, the effects of Mn fertilization on MnP activity and decomposition of eight substrates ranging in initial lignin concentrations from 9.8 to 44.6%. Asymptotic decomposition models fitted the mass loss data best and allowed us to separately compare the influence of Mn fertilization on different litter stages and pools. Across substrates, Mn fertilization stimulated decomposition rates of the late stage where lignin dominates decomposition, resulting in smaller fraction of slowly decomposing litter. The increased MnP activity caused by Mn fertilization provided the mechanism explaining the stimulated decomposition in the Mn-addition treatments.

  • 30.
    Sun, Tao
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Hobbie, Sarah
    Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology. Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Zhank, Hongguang
    Laoshan Forest Station, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.
    Wang, Qingkui
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Wang, Zhengwen
    Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Management, Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.
    Hättenschwiler, Stephan
    Centre d’Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Montpellier, France.
    Contrasting dynamics and trait controls in first-order root compared with leaf litter decomposition2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 41, p. 10392-10397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition is a key component of the global carbon (C) cycle, yet current ecosystem C models do not adequately represent the contributions of plant roots and their mycorrhizae to this process. The understanding of decomposition dynamics and their control by traits is particularly limited for the most distal first-order roots. Here we followed decomposition of first-order roots and leaf litter from 35 woody plant species differing in mycorrhizal type over 6 years in a Chinese temperate forest. First-order roots decomposed more slowly (k = 0.11 ± 0.01 years−1) than did leaf litter (0.35 ± 0.02 years−1), losing only 35% of initial mass on average after 6 years of exposure in the field. In contrast to leaf litter, nonlignin root C chemistry (nonstructural carbohydrates, polyphenols) accounted for 82% of the large interspecific variation in first-order root decomposition. Leaf litter from ectomycorrhizal (EM) species decomposed more slowly than that from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) species, whereas first-order roots of EM species switched, after 2 years, from having slower to faster decomposition compared with those from AM species. The fundamentally different dynamics and control mechanisms of first-order root decomposition compared with those of leaf litter challenge current ecosystem C models, the recently suggested dichotomy between EM and AM plants, and the idea that common traits can predict decomposition across roots and leaves. Aspects of C chemistry unrelated to lignin or nitrogen, and not presently considered in decomposition models, controlled first-order root decomposition; thus, current paradigms of ecosystem C dynamics and model parameterization require revision.

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