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  • 1.
    Honghao, Ren
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Literature Review on Development and Implementation of Cross-Laminated Timber2023In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Building Energy and Environment, Singapore: Springer, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving the targets of the Paris Agreement as an international treaty on climate change requires global climate actions by all sectors, including ensuring that buildings are more energy efficient. Today’s modern buildings employ a worldwide well-known and versatile usable building material which is a new type of green low-carbon engineered wood product, cross-laminated timber (CLT), for their structural frames. CLT as an innovative plate-shaped product provides a laminated structure and great physicomechanical characteristics. This article studies the development status and implementation of CLT in Europe, emphasizing its material properties and load-bearing characteristics. The newest findings related to CLT are reported. Also, the environmental benefits of using CLT in the construction industry are discussed. Moreover, the energy performance and performance of the utilized CLT elements are highlighted. According to our findings, the embodied energy and embodied carbon are significantly lower in CLT constructions compared with reinforced concrete and steel structures. Finally, the prospects of CLT are presented.

  • 2.
    Honghao, Ren
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Proposing new adhesive-free timber edge connections for cross-laminated timber panels: A step toward sustainable construction2024In: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 20, article id e02975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of timber as a building material is becoming increasingly popular thanks to its superior environmental performance compared with concrete and steel. However, timber structures rely on solid connections to improve their weak expansibility. Steel connections can be prone to corrosion over time, leading to the decreased structural integrity. Additionally, steel connections require more material and energy to manufacture and install compared with timber connections. This article focuses on the flexural performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels with adhesive-free edge connections under four-point bending tests. First, numerical models of experimentally tested CLT panels were constructed using the finite element (FE) software ABAQUS. Then, these FE models were validated with the comparisons of their results with those of the experimental tests. Afterward, four new adhesive-free edge connections using timber for the CLT panels were developed in this study, helping sustainable construction. Utilizing the designed edge connections of the current study, forty-one parametric studies were numerically conducted on the connected CLT panels to investigate their ultimate loads, strains, displacements, moment capacities, failure modes, and effective stiffness. The factors affecting the edge connections’ load-bearing capacity were also examined and discussed. The study provides helpful insights into the development of CLT as a sustainable construction material with improved adhesive-free edge connections.

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  • 3.
    Ren, Honghao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Bahrami, Alireza
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Flexural Behavior of Cross-Laminated Timber Panels with Environmentally Friendly Timber Edge Connections2024In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 1455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a sustainable construction material, timber is more promoted than steel, concrete, and aluminum nowadays. The building industry benefits from using timber based on several perspectives, including decarbonization, improved energy efficiency, and easier recycling and disposal processes. The cross-laminated timber (CLT) panel is one of the widely utilized engineered wood products in construction for floors, which is an ideal alternative option for replacing reinforced concrete. One single CLT panel has an outstanding flexural behavior. However, CLT cannot be extended independently without external connections, which are normally made of steel. This article proposes two innovative adhesive-free edge connections made of timber, the double surface (DS) and half-lapped (HL) connections. These connections were designed to connect two CLT panels along their weak direction. Parametric studies consisting of twenty models were conducted on the proposed edge connections to investigate the effects of different factors and the flexural behavior of CLT panels with these edge connections under a four-point bending test. Numerical simulations of all the models were done in the current study by using ABAQUS 2022. Furthermore, the employed material properties and other relevant inputs (VUSDFLD subroutines, time steps, meshes, etc.) of the numerical models were validated through existing experiments. The results demonstrated that the maximum and minimum load capacities among the studied models were 6.23 kN and 0.35 kN, respectively. The load–displacement responses, strain, stress, and defection distributions were collected and analyzed, as well as their failure modes. It was revealed that the CLT panels’ load capacity was distinctly improved due to the increment of the connectors’ number (55.05%) and horizontal length (80.81%), which also reinforced the stability. Based on the findings, it was indicated that adhesive-free timber connections could be used for CLT panels in buildings and replace traditional construction materials, having profound potential for improving buildings’ sustainability and energy efficiency.

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    fulltext
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