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  • 1.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    From industrial networks to strategic alliances or vice-versa2009Ingår i: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 361-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2. Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The service firms' establishments in developing countries2000Ingår i: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 57-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 3.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul Huda
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh, Bangladesh.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Improving the CSR image: a study on suppliers of Bangladesh garments industry2013Ingår i: Multidisciplinary Academic Research 2013, Prague: MAC Prague consulting , 2013, s. 1-8Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research study aims to evaluate the issues and factors for building a positive organizational CSR image that enables suppliers to create positive perception in relation to stakeholders. The study identified major challenges to improve CSR image for the suppliers. Based on the findings, it is suggested that suppliers need to improve in the following areas for changes of CSR image: (1) initiate education and measures to improve the employees’ understanding and importance of CSR; (2) develop a corporate culture to give priority in building positive CSR image; (3) develop link with educational institutions for educating middle managers on CSR and its effect on company image; (4) arrange short trainings for new workers to make them understand the concept of CSR and educate them on their own responsibilities as part of the organization; (5) establish platforms for sharing knowledge between suppliers to increase compliance.

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  • 4.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Supply Chain CSR Image Challenges - A study on Bangladesh Clothing Industry2016Ingår i: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 16-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a deep insight into the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image scenario of the international buying firms and Bangladesh suppliers as well as identifies the challenges for building a positive supply chain (SC) CSR image for the suppliers of Bangladesh clothing industry. The contribution of this paper is that it improves knowledge of SC CSR image from the supplier’s as well as the buyer’s perspective. This paper also provides suggestions regarding improvement of Suppliers’ CSR image that can influence the SC CSR image.

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  • 5.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Improving the CSR image – A study on suppliers of Bangladesh garments industry2016Ingår i: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2051-3771, E-ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 16-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a deep insight into the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) image scenario of the buying firms and Bangladesh suppliers as well as identifies the challenges for building a positive supply chain (SC) CSR image for the suppliers of Bangladesh clothing industry. The contribution of this paper is that it improves knowledge of SC CSR image from the supplier’s as well as the buyer’s perspective. This paper also makes suggestions regarding improvement of Suppliers’ CSR image that can influence the SC CSR image.

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  • 6.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Fjellström, Daniella
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?2022Ingår i: The paradox of globalization: exploitation or empowerment of women?, 2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the Paradox of Globalisation. We investigate if Globalisation leads to empowerment or to exploitations of women. Research show globalization contributes to higher incomes for less developed economies, democratizes institutions, cultivates cultural richness and develops employment for women. Additionally, there are negative effects of globalization if the cultural context of people is not considered and globalization is controversial. We view the paradox of globalization as twofold having consequences on women empowerment and exploitation. It is assumed gender equality can improve women conditions and opportunities, advances their careers and enhances participation in democratic decision-making, by giving freedom of speech to all about problems in factory work. Based on a study from Bangladesh garment industry we analyze the influence of globalization on women empowerment. We conducted a qualitative study and structured interviews with 39 women workers in six factories and use a grounded theory approach to analyse the data. Preliminary results of the study show contextual factors affect the working conditions of women in the factories negatively. Female workers are not satisfied with the salaries they get, they are not allowed to use the money they earn by themselves and they do not have the possibility to participate in decision-making and advance in careers. The paradox is female workers still can support their families and their children and got the possibility to buy more and healthier food. The study suggests if institutional factors are considered, globalization can make a positive contribution by empowering women and improving the quality of decision-making. 

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  • 7.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Innovative Marketing Strategy: Multinational Companies in Bangladesh2017Ingår i: ICBM 2017: International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2017, s. 659-659Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with Marketing of products. We analyzed how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh as an emerging market. We conducted case studies for data collection in British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak, and Reckitt Benckiser. Qualitative data have been collected as semi-structured interviews, direct observation and documents. It is argued that renowned global brands with global reputation are seen positively by the customers and the consumers. The study demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ preferences to develop emotional attachments and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new diversity of products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks giving the possibility of success for product providers and the acceptance of products by the local customers. The research contributes to international marketing literature by developing a model of products’ marketing based on trust, network and adaptation/standardization.

  • 8.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Innovative product marketing strategy: multinational companies in Bangladesh2019Ingår i: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 656-671Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper aims to deal with international marketing of products, analyzing how adaptation/standardization and network development are achieved when marketing products in Bangladesh.

    Design/methodology/approach: By applying a qualitative method, the study was conducted at four multinationals, British American Tobacco, Perfetti Van Melle, Tetrapak and Reckitt Benckiser, operating in Bangladesh. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, direct observation and official documents. The analysis was conducted through construction of themes that were identified from the data set.

    Findings: The study demonstrates that business relationships related to a local market should be adapted to customer preferences. The research suggests that a balanced combination of product quality and development of new, innovative products adapted to the needs of the market and the customers establishes trust and networks. Cultural and market context were found to influence multinational companies (MNCs)s to standardize the quality of the products and adapt marketing mix components to the needs of consumers.

    Research limitations/implications: The paper contributes to international marketing literature with a model of product marketing based on context, trust, networks and adaptation/standardization. The model introduces the cultural dimension of femininity/ masculinity and the innovation of products and market structure. The study is limited to one emerging market. Further studies should explore other emerging market economies and MNCs.

    Practical implications: The results suggest that to meet the challenges of emerging market economies and achieve success, managers should take people and market needs into consideration.

    Originality/value: This paper extends product marketing literature by presenting a context-based model for MNCs’ product marketing.

  • 9.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    International marketing strategy of emerging market firms: the case of Bangladesh2023Ingår i: Journal of Asia Business Studies, ISSN 1558-7894, E-ISSN 1559-2243, nr 4, s. 804-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study aims to increase understanding of factors influencing the international marketing (IM) strategy of products from emerging markets (EMs) to international markets.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This study conducted case studies by collecting qualitative data through semistructured interviews with respondents from four food product companies in Bangladesh.

    Findings

    This study finds that the firms employ local Bangladeshi people who are knowledgeable in the company culture. They strategically focus on countries where the Bangladeshi diaspora lives and initially target them, approaching natives later. They adapt and customize products to the importers’ requirements to make them visible and increase understanding between product providers and local customers. The findings show that EM firms encounter a mentality that poor countries produce poor quality products; this mindset makes the internationalization of their business difficult.

    Research limitations/implications

    This research contributes to international product marketing of EM firms by constructing a model of a modern people-oriented marketing strategy for food products. This study contributes to literature on culture by illustrating that the cultural dimensions of collectivism and uncertainty avoidance enhance the development of networks and trust and impact marketing strategy.

    Originality/value

    This study theorizes the importance of context and an innovation-driven modern people-oriented IM strategy that adapts to customers’ preferences for food products and emphasizes the contribution of diaspora. This research reveals that Bangladeshi firms face challenges both because customers link the country and the companies to low-quality products and because governmental regulations prevent them from establishing a local presence in other countries. This study analyzes challenges EM firms face in the process of IM and the factors affecting Bangladesh in particular.

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  • 10.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Constructing organizational culture in an international subsidiary: Elekta healthcare services in Greece2024Ingår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, artikel-id 102293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study analyzes the development of organizational culture in an international subsidiary in healthcare through the interaction of the parent company and local culture. Design/methodology/approach: We conducted a single case study on Elekta Greece, a subsidiary of the multinational company Elekta based in Sweden via interviews. Findings: The company creates a unique organizational culture, called the Philotask culture, that takes into consideration the cultural contexts of Sweden and Greece, the value of philotimo, situation in the market, and the type of company and services. Research implications/limitations: The model consists of a context-grounded framework focusing on healthcare. Research in other countries and industries can help to generalize this model. Practical implications: The findings indicate that to develop organizational culture, managers need to consider the local cultural context. Originality/value: This research contributes to organizational culture theory, reporting on the Philotask model that emerged.

  • 11.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Interest Free Co-operatives: A study of JAK Members Bank – Sweden2013Ingår i: Decentralisation and Development: Experiences and Experiments / [ed] P.P. Balan, Sunny George and T.P. Kunhikannan, Thrissur: Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA) , 2013, s. 64-85Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study analyses how the system of an interest-free cooperative bank is operating and its advantages. JAK is running an interest-free loan and savings system for individuals, small companies and associations. JAK´s philosophy and values are based on the principle that no one should earn money by passive owning of money lending them to others and thus JAK question the traditional financial system.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    We study in depth the case of JAK Members Bank. Qualitative data is collected in form of semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Seven people have been interviewed in 2010 and 2012.

     

    Findings

    Our research shows that JAK- Members Bank creates relations with the members by communicating their value base as a cooperative organisation. They get advantage to attract new members by stressing democratic management and members´ sovereignty, educating members, supporting ecological projects, involving young people, networking with people and organisations locally and globally and using relationships and mouth to mouth marketing.  By applying an interest-free saving-borrowing principle the bank succeeds getting people together in a financial alternative relationship. For the enlargement of the market and members participation it is a need for innovations to complete their financial services as a bank and sustain their business. Despite its success, new entrepreneurial activities face difficulties because of lack of access to financial resources which limits JAKs presence and business development.

     

    Research Limitation

    This research is based on a single case. In future research, similar in-depth studies in Sweden or other countries can show how interest-free banking functions, and the results can be compared with the current study.

     

    Implications

    The study contributes to the literature by presenting a model of successful operation of JAK a cooperative bank. We recommend managers to develop networks with members and other stakeholders to promote cooperative banking activities and social entrepreneurship in the local economy.  The structure of the global financial system and its contribution to development is an emerging and challenging issue, can local cooperative banks be considered as a viable local financial initiative?  

     

    Originality value of the paper

    In this research work we developed a theoretical model by combining cooperative identity and cooperative values in a successful operation of an alternative interest-free bank.

  • 12.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Trust in International Health Services Marketing: A Comparative Study2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 13.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    What are the advantages of JAK Members Bank?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This study analyses how the system of an interest-free cooperative bank is operating and its advantages. JAK is running an interest-free loan and savings system for individuals, small companies and associations. JAK´s philosophy and values are based on the principle that no one should earn money by passive owning of money lending them to others and thus JAK question the traditional financial system.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    We study in depth the case of JAK Members Bank. Qualitative data is collected in form of semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Seven people have been interviewed in 2010 and 2012.

     

    Findings

    Our research shows that JAK- Members Bank creates relations with the members by communicating their value base as a cooperative organisation. They get advantage to attract new members by stressing democratic management and members´ sovereignty, educating members, supporting ecological projects, involving young people, networking with people and organisations locally and globally and using relationships and mouth to mouth marketing.  By applying an interest-free saving-borrowing principle the bank succeeds getting people together in a financial alternative relationship. For the enlargement of the market and members participation it is a need for innovations to complete their financial services as a bank and sustain their business. Despite its success, new entrepreneurial activities face difficulties because of lack of access to financial resources which limits JAKs presence and business development.

     

    Research Limitation

    This research is based on a single case. In future research, similar in-depth studies in Sweden or other countries can show how interest-free banking functions, and the results can be compared with the current study.

     

    Implications

    The study contributes to the literature by presenting a model of successful operation of JAK a cooperative bank. We recommend managers to develop networks with members and other stakeholders to promote cooperative banking activities and social entrepreneurship in the local economy.  The structure of the global financial system and its contribution to development is an emerging and challenging issue, can local cooperative banks be considered as a viable local financial initiative?  

     

    Originality value of the paper

    In this research work we developed a theoretical model by combining cooperative identity and cooperative values in a successful operation of an alternative interest-free bank.

     

     

     

  • 14.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Does national culture influence organizational culture across contexts?: Elekta in Greece2018Ingår i: IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with the influence of National Culture on Organizational Culture in Healthcare Services. We analyse how the national culture of a firm´s home and host country and the cultural context affect the organizational culture in international marketing of healthcare services. We conducted a case study on Elekta a Swedish invention for radio surgery with a subsidiary, Elekta-Greece EPE, in its real life context. We collected qualitative data in form of semi-structured interviews by interviewing fourteen people during the years 2015-2016 in the host country of the subsidiary. We also used direct observation of the working environment and company documents as data sources. The study shows that the organisational culture of the Business Unit in Greece is flat and managers apply open doors culture trusting employees. Inequality between employees does not exist and the managers empower employees by involving them in the decision making process. Employees work as a team and share responsibilities and experience helping each other. They feel happy to work and perceive the challenges the company meets as their own challenges identifying themselves with the company. The study indicates that the context of the collectivistic and uncertainty avoiding culture of Greece influences managers to empower and motivate employees to work as a team developing good personal relationships in the company trusting each other. The results suggest that a balanced combination of national cultures makes the structure of the organisation flat, employees work as a team applying the Greek Philotimo helping and supporting each other to avoid ambiguity, reduce stress and unite in uncertain situations. We argue that a combination of the small power distance and femininity of the Swedish national culture combined with the cultural context of collectivism and strong uncertainty avoidance in Greece influence the organisational culture of the Business Unit. The local dynamic cultural context and the behaviour of the market, the customers, patients, service providers and the employees transform the organisational culture of Elekta-EPE Greece to a mixture of Swedish culture and Greek culture applying new organisational practices and models adapting to the values of the local context. The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of healthcare services based on national cultural dimensions, organizational culture and contextualization. Managers who aim to establish businesses across borders need to balance the national culture of the head quarter and the one applied in units abroad with the unique context environment they operate to develop new organizational culture and be effective. A further study can include more companies and sectors to focus on the effect of national cultural context on organizational culture across countries.

  • 15.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Health care services marketing in a cross-cultural context: Elekta in Brazil2011Ingår i: The Impact of Globalization on Networks and Relationship dynamics, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose of the paper

    This research deals with the Internationalization of health services focusing on two services characteristics intangibility and heterogeneity. The study analyzes how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing a Swedish health care service in Brazil, a culturally distant country to Sweden.

    Literature addressed

    The theoretical framework of the study is based on theories on International Marketing Services, trust, networks and cultural differences. Adaptation/standardization is important when operating in a foreign market for acceptance of services, creating confidence in the foreign market and establishing contacts with the local environment. Networks are needed to get information and gain access to resources the firms need to run their activities. By creating trust long term business relationships can be developed. Using trust and networks can service providers communicate with customers and understand and satisfy their needs.

    Research Method

    We apply a case study for data collection. A case on a Swedish invention for radio surgery, Gamma Knife in Brazil has been conducted in its real life context. Qualitative data have been collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation of the working environment and activities in Sweden has also been used as data source. We concentrate on the process of the marketing of the service.

    Research Findings

    The study shows that cultural adaptation makes service characteristics tangible by increasing the understanding between service providers and local customers. It suggests that foreign company’s service offerings, values and beliefs connected to the quality of the service are to be standardised. This standardisation communicates the offering both of a treatment and also of a learning process and helps the service to be visible and tangible. It further demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ tastes, habits and preferences to develop trust and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of adaptation and standardisation makes services homogenous and tangible increasing the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of services by the local customers.

    Main contribution

    The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of health services marketing based on adaptation/standardization, trust and network, to overcome issues of intangibility and heterogeneity of services. Managers should recognize that marketing people-processing services requires development of local networks to gain trust, and legitimacy in the local market.

     

    Keywords: Cultural Adaptation, Network, Intangibility, Heterogeneity, Trust, Gamma Knife, Health Service, Brazil.

     

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  • 16.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Health Services Marketing in a Cross-Cultural Context: Elekta in India2015Ingår i: Proceedings of International Conference on Social Media, SEO & Marketing Strategies / [ed] AddMark, 2015, Vol. 4, s. 29-, artikel-id 3Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to investigate how culture impacts on international marketing strategy of a Swedish health service in India, a culturally distant country to Sweden. It is examined how confidence in the market is achieved to establish and maintain trust and relationships, and the level of standardization and adaptation for the acceptance of the service in the foreign market is suggested. A case study was conducted in its real life context. An inductive qualitative research method has been applied and data has been collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, direct observation and company documents. We found that the cultural dimensions of power distance and individualism/collectivism have an impact on trust development, relationships and standardization and adaptation. The study shows that innovative image of the service offering and after service maintenance act as means for competition on the private and public market. Standardization of prices and service processes comprising maintenance of service quality, support contracts and service contracts develop commitment and trust. Personal relationships with the government, doctors and involvement with customers are regarded important and should be adapted to and follow local traditions. It is further demonstrated that moral and emotional issues, respect to the human face, hierarchy and social responsibility for regional development are required to develop relationships, trust and networks. It is argued that word of mouth, tactics and diplomacy sustain the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of the health service by local customers. The research contributes to the International services marketing literature by developing a model and extending understanding of internationalization of health services marketing from a culture context. For future studies, it suggests a comparison between more culturally distant countries to observe how culture influences development of marketing strategy in international business. The research shows how managers can establish relationships and networks to gain trust and legitimacy in the local market.

  • 17.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Health services marketing in India: the relevance of the cultural context2016Ingår i: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, s. 22-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research analyzes how culture impacts on the international marketing strategy of a Swedish health service provider in India. It examines how confidence in the market is achieved to establish and maintain trust and relationships, which influence the level of standardization and adaption in the market. A case study was conducted and an inductive qualitative research method applied. Data have been collected in the form of semi-structured interviews, direct observation and company documents. We found that the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism and masculinity and femininity imact on trust development, relationships and standardization and adaptation. The study highlights the importance of the cultural context in marketing health services. It reveals that respect for the human face and social responsibility in regional development are required to cultivate relationships and to develop trust and networks. The research contributes to international services marketing literature by developing a model of health services marketing from a cultural context. For future study it is suggested a comparison be made between more culturally distant countries to observe how culture influences the development of marketing strategy in international business.

  • 18.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Impact of culture on marketing of health services: Elekta in Brazil2015Ingår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 530-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how culture influences the international marketing of health services. This is done by analyzing how culture affects trust, networks and standardization/adaptation and how trust develops and operates in relation to culture, networks and standardization and adaptation. Using qualitative data gathered through semi-structured interviews and researcher observations, we find that the cultural dimensions of power distance, individualism/collectivism and uncertainty avoidance have an impact on trust, network development and standardization/adaptation. This finding helps in deciding what parts of the service to standardize and what to adapt for successful services marketing. We conceptualize three interrelated levels of trust comprising country-, company- and individual trust. This multilevel trust offers an important understanding of how to manage cultural complexity in the international marketing of services. The theoretical model developed based on cultural dimensions can be useful when marketing services in other countries. 

  • 19.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Multilevel trust in international marketing of healthcare services: A five-country comparative study2021Ingår i: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 30, nr 6, artikel-id 101895Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research aims to increase understanding on how multilevel trust is developed as well as how trust levels are interconnected and influence international marketing strategy for healthcare services. Design/Methodology/Approach: A comparative case study approach was applied with Elekta, a Swedish firm, operating in Brazil, the Philippines, China, Russia, and Hong Kong. Findings: The research culminated in a multilevel trust (MLT) model comprised of three levels relating to individuals, company performance, and context. Research implications/limitations: This study offers a context-based multilevel trust model from a process perspective focusing on healthcare. This model can be tested in other service sectors. Practical implications: Managers should consider multilevel trust to boost relationships and achieve local acceptance. Originality/Value: This research contributes to trust theory by constructing a context-based multilevel trust model for international healthcare marketing. 

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  • 20.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Why Microfinance in Rich Developed Countries?2019Ingår i: ICBM 2019 2nd International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2019, s. 795-, artikel-id ICBM-19-0316Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research deals with the influence of microfinance/microcredits on business development analyzing how micro finances affect establishment of small enterprises in Sweden. For the analysis, the following research questions were addressed: How do small enterprises get access to microfinances and what kind of businesses are established through microfinances? Microcredit means giving entrepreneurs access to financial resources to borrow a small amount of money to invest in income generating business activities context related. A model of microcredit was developed to lend money to the poor for business entrepreneurship. Access to microfinance can facilitate poverty reduction and incorporate economic and social development. Relationship based lending is affected by cultural and social context. Multiple case studies were applied for data collection from two small enterprises in Gothenburg, Sweden and a microfinance institution in Sweden. Qualitative data was collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation and documents were also used as data source. The study shows that microfinance contributes to development of sustainable enterprises and generates employment for people. The research shows that microfinance leads to sharing risks and financing projects in social enterprises, cooperative business and associations. It provides people with social networks, enhances their independence, empowers them and improves the quality of their life by generating incomes. It is important for the microfinance institutions to get recognition as important actors in the financial sector to succeed. The research contributes to the literature and theories of microfinances by developing a model about microfinances in developed countries. The limitation of the study is that we had studied only two small enterprises in a developed country. We suggest comparative studies on the influence of microfinance on business development and women empowerment between emerging economies and developed countries or between developed countries.

    REFERENCES [1] C. Fouillet, M. Hudon, B. Harris-White and J. Copestake, “Micorfinance studies: Introduction and overview,” Oxford Development Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, 2013, pp. 1-16. [2] K. Burzynska and O. Berggren,“ The impact of social beliefs on microfinance performance,” Journal of International Development, Vol. 27, No. 7, 2014, pp.1074-1097. [3] M. Yunus, “Building social business: The new kind of capitalism that serves humanity’s most pressing needs,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 2010. [4] M. Yunus, “banker to the poor: The autography of Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank,” The University press Limited: Bangladesh, 1998.

  • 21.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Does Culture Matter?: Marketing Strategy in Health Services2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 22.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    International services marketing: What can be learnt from a medical case?2006Ingår i: ILTG conference in Graz, Austria, 6-7 April 2006.: 2nd International Conference on Intercultural Communication Competence, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The international market of services is growing at a faster rate. Despite the importance of the service sector in both domestic and world markets, the amount of empirical research addressing the internationalization of services remains relatively low. Nature and characteristic of services have made service marketing and study related to it difficult. If the service is set for international market, question around intangibility, quality, and the demand for simultaneous production and consumption is likely to aggravate the situation. As people across the borders are different from a cultural viewpoint, the same service element can be perceived differently making the service internationalization process further difficult. This paper deals with a case of Swedish medical service marketing process in Egypt and offers a profound insight on the complex issue of international services marketing by addressing the following research questions:

    The data collection was a rigorous process and mainly took place in the form of direct interviews. Eight people including the managing director and the major owner of the Swedish-Egyptian firm were interviewed. Further three local consultants were interviewed and two seminars were held in Egypt to have an idea on general business practice in the host country. The conceptual framework is based on three variables, i.e. cultural adaptation, trust and network. Selling service internationally requires that the service provider is aware of the local taste, preference and habit. To be successful in internationalization, it is usually necessary that some cultural adaptation takes place, probably from both sides. The intangible characteristic of the services requires that trust is built and maintained throughout if the internationalization process has to be successful. Network represents a critical point of investigation in understanding internationalization. Network development is very important where the uncertainty is high due to physical and cultural distance, communication gap and service characteristics themselves which make the offerings heterogeneous, perishable and difficult to readily display. This study shows that cultural adaptation has taken place in respect to timing, building trust in the local environment, handling bureaucratic issues, local traditions and offering services to the clients. Problem of intangibility, heterogeneity and quality has been solved by providing consistent services and establishing links with the medical colleges and other institutions. This research work offers several opportunities for learning. First, it is important to recognize cultural differences and local traditions to design the service concept. Second, there is a need to develop sufficient local contacts and trust to make the service offerings tangible. Finally, the adaptation needs to take place from both sides, otherwise promising factors and strength may be kept outside the final business concept offered to the clients.

  • 23.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    North Carolina State University.
    Penttinen, Markku
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots1994Ingår i: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 115-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 24.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Penttinen, Markku Juhani
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Accounting as a management tool for non-industrial private forestry1999Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 173-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Partial or total integration in a cross-border merger?: Building a Nordic bank culture2018Ingår i: Thunderbird International Business Review, ISSN 1096-4762, E-ISSN 1520-6874, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 477-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of failure for international mergers and acquisitions (M&As) is exceptionally high, since the integration of merging firms does not function well. Using a process perspective, this study aims to analyze the integration process in a cross-border merger and the development of a common organizational culture. A framework based on premerger cultural and organizational fit, synergy, and resulting organizational culture is developed to study the growth of Nordea, a merger of four Nordic banks. Data include in-depth interviews and secondary sources. This case study shows how cultural and managerial differences are dealt with and synergies realized. Building a broad organizational culture involving human resource management, decision making, technology, competitiveness, and customer relationships is necessary for merger integration, but it is costly and difficult. We suggest that success in mergers lies in managers creating a new cultural identity with unique values and perspectives.

  • 26.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Interest-free banking in Sweden: How much is it Islamic?2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Emerging Research Paradigms in Business and Social Sciences (ERPBSS 2013), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper illustrates how a European bank operates interest-free and how it resembles and differs from Islamic banking.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – By applying a case study method, this study goes into the depth of a European bank which entirely practices interest-free banking for its saving and lending operations. Major actors of the bank have been interviewed face-to-face and on telephone. Complementary information has been received by e-mail and through printed material.

    Findings – The study shows that there are some similarities between JAK and Islamic banks but differences are many. One difference lies in the service offerings as JAK only deal with savings and lending and does not get involved in profit-loss sharing which is central to Islamic banking. Islamic bank can learn from JAK how to educate their customers so that business gets clear to them.

    Practical implications – By comparing with Islamic banking, the European bank management can have the idea how far they do Islamic banking and what is unique with their bank. Even both the banks have common view on interest, they differ much in offering products and carrying out operation. The European bank management has to deal with new challenges how much they can grow of being a non-profit organization in the long run.

    Originality/value – This study offers a rare insight of a European bank which exclusively operates interest free and is driven like Islamic banks with ideological values.

    Paper type – Case study

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  • 27.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Market orientation in a non-profit organisation2016Ingår i: World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1746-0573, E-ISSN 1746-0581, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 414-432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how a non-profit, interest-free bank applies market orientation to provide superior value to customers. A theoretical framework integrating market orientation, trust, organisational networking and superior customer value has been developed. A qualitative method was used for data collection and analysis. E-mails, printed booklets, bank newsletters, member surveys and other studies on the bank provided additional information. This research offers an understanding of how networking and trust are developed to ensure effective market orientation for value creation. As a theoretical contribution, three value categories, i.e. product-led, customer-led and market-led, were identified in the non-profit organisational context.

  • 28.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Market orientation in non-profit organization2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Emerging Research Paradigms in Business and Social Sciences (ERPBSS 2013), 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper illustrates how a European bank operates interest-free and how it resembles and differs from Islamic banking.

    Design/Methodology/Approach – By applying a case study method, this study goes into the depth of a European bank which entirely practices interest-free banking for its saving and lending operations. Major actors of the bank have been interviewed face-to-face and on telephone. Complementary information has been received by e-mail and through printed material.

    Findings – The study shows that there are some similarities between JAK and Islamic banks but differences are many. One difference lies in the service offerings as JAK only deal with savings and lending and does not get involved in profit-loss sharing which is central to Islamic banking. Islamic bank can learn from JAK how to educate their customers so that business gets clear to them.

    Practical implications – By comparing with Islamic banking, the European bank management can have the idea how far they do Islamic banking and what is unique with their bank. Even both the banks have common view on interest, they differ much in offering products and carrying out operation. The European bank management has to deal with new challenges how much they can grow of being a non-profit organization in the long run.

    Originality/value – This study offers a rare insight of a European bank which exclusively operates interest free and is driven like Islamic banks with ideological values.

    Paper type – Case study

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  • 29.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Institutional factors and strategic alliances in eastern and central Europe2008Ingår i: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 289-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 30.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde.
    Marketing strategy in emerging market alliance: a longitudinal study2014Ingår i: Journal for International Business and Entrepreneurship Development, ISSN 1549-9324, E-ISSN 1747-6763, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 309-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying a longitudinal perspective, this study examines how an alliance formulates and implements its marketing strategy based on motives, resources, learning, network and performance, in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). An in-depth study on a Hungarian alliance between a Swedish medical engineering company and a local partner has been conducted. The data is collected in two periods: 1999 and 2009, and for the convenience of the analysis, the result has been presented in two phases. By comparing the phases, it is shown how the environment in which the alliance operates changes and how the alliance responses by improving its marketing strategy. Major variation of the strategy includes focus on small and dental clinics, development of intensive contacts with big hospitals to gain huge contracts after the reformation of the healthcare sector and finding a balance between lowering price and maintaining high quality of the products and services.

  • 31.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Product and skills development in small- and medium-sized high-tech firms through international strategic alliances2004Ingår i: Singapore management review: Asia-Pacific journal of management theory and practice, ISSN 0129-5977, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 1-24Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Major studies on strategic alliances have until now concentrated on large firms, thus opportunities and problems related to the formation and operation of alliances by small- and medium-sized firms remain unexplored. This study concentrates on product and skills development in high-tech small- and medium-sized firms (SMHT) through international strategic alliances. Due to the explorative nature of the study, a qualitative method has been used for data collection and analysis. A theoretical framework consisting of motives, resources, learning, network, and performance has been applied to analyse case studies. Learning, complementarity of resources, and development of long-term relationships are found to be closely related with performance. Another finding is that environmental issues often have significant impact on the development of alliances.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 32.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in Eastern and Central Europe2003 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 33.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in the Baltic states: a case of Swedish firms2006Ingår i: Competitiveness Review, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 16, nr 3/4, s. 173-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the Baltic states has increased due to increase of capital inflow from the West. A large part of the foreign involvement takes the form of alliance with local partners in the region. But how these alliances operate and fulfill the objectives of the partners in the Baltic states remain almost unexplored. By the help of depth interviews, four alliances, two in Estonia and the other two in Lithuania, have therefore been studied in this research work. The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of motives, resources, learning, network, performance and general environment. Cost reduction, market seeking, and development and maintenance of services have been the main motives of foreign firms in entering into the alliances. No clear cut motive is observed from the local partners’ side. Learning has been found important for both the partners and concerns cultural differences, local knowhow and adaptation to the Western way in doing business. A broader view of performance is presented by including network development in the article. Profitability, market share, and sales have been seen as short term while network development and relationships as longterm performance criteria in the alliances. The role of general environment on alliances and its impact on network development have also been observed. This study further suggests that alliances offering service dominated products concentrate on the local markets, while alliances offering products with less service elements have export as the target.

  • 34.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King AbdulAziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Cross-cultural Strategic Alliances: Lessons from Swedish Firms in Eastern and Central Europe2014Ingår i: Shifts in global competitiveness, markets and consumers: is management prepared for a new business paradigm?, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore factors affecting the formation and operation of strategic alliances, and the impact of these factors on performance. The underlying premise being that different cultures affect strategic alliances differently. The study is based on the analysis of 20 alliances between firms in Eastern and Central Europe and their Swedish partners. Significant differences were found across countries. The paper concludes with implications for managers responsible for managing international alliances in terms of effectiveness of their role, as well as their cultural awareness and ability to deal with cultural differences.  

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  • 35.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehnasul Huda
    American International University Bangladesh.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    CSR & Networking in Supply Chain2013Ingår i: Multidisciplinary Academic Research 2013, Prague: MAC Prague consulting , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By comparing two unequal European buyers, this study explores network relationships in Supply chain (SC) from a corporate social responsibility (CSR) perspective in the Bangladesh apparel industry. A qualitative method has been applied for data collection though interviews and gathering secondary material in the form of newspaper articles and buyers’ websites. A combination of network perspective and compliance and capacity building constitutes the theoretical foundation of the study. The result shows that the larger buyer stresses on control and strictly following the code of conducts while the smaller buyer relies on collaboration and dialog in implementing CSR.

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  • 36.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Market Orientation in Service Firms - An International Comparative Study2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing (IC-SIM 2014), Amsterdam, 2015, Vol. 175, s. 16-23Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how market orientation is applied in service firms to resolve complexity with intangibility and heterogeneity while offering services to the customers. To conduct this study, two interest-free banks from Sweden and Bangladesh have been compared. It is argued in the paper that these niche banks will emphasize on tangibility and heterogeneity to have competitive advantage over the traditional banks. As interest-free banking is intricate and the research purpose is theory development, a case method has been used to conduct this study. A theoretical framework is developed based on trust and network which influence market orientation, tangibility and heterogeneity resulting to value creation. In the Swedish bank, value creation is found to relate with supporting ecological thinking, visible banking, customers’ friendly terms & conditions and offering normal banking facilities. Partnership, risk sharing, problem solving approach, trust and interest-free borrowing are considered value creating components in the Bangladeshi bank. Future research can include all service characteristics and also compare between pure Islamic banks focusing marketing orientation.

  • 37.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Balancing Control and Trust to Manage CSR Compliance in Supply Chains2017Ingår i: International Journal of Supply Chain Management, ISSN 2051-3771, E-ISSN 2050-7399, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how buyers and suppliers balance control and trust to manage compliance with corporate social responsibility (CSR) requirements in supply chains (SCs). Two in-depth, qualitative case studies of the Bangladesh apparel industry on two multinational companies of the same European country were conducted. This study indicates that a buyer’s need for control and trust is important in contact with other actors for managing CSR compliance. Formal control is found to generate competence trust, whereas intentional trust is achieved through informal control. Intentional trust is helpful for competence and capacity development, but for it to continue the supplier needs to fulfill the buyer’s expectations. Competence of the supplier is viewed as a prerequisite for developing competence trust. This study analyzes control and trust to fill an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other to manage CSR compliance in apparel industry. Firms must focus on a balanced relationship between trust and control to manage CSR compliance. Willingness to collaborate can only work when supplier competence and managerial resources are ensured. This study notes that managers need both formal and informal control to create competence and intentional trust in the supply chains. Capacity building is viewed as a complement, not an alternative to CSR compliance. With its closer attention to control and trust, this study fills an important gap in SC theory on relationships by stressing how these constructs interact and complement each other for managing CSR compliance in supply chains.

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  • 38.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Desalegn, AbrahaUniversity of Skövde.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume I2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 39.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Desalegn, AbrahaUniversity of Skövde.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume II2021Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Success is not enough: The spectacular rise and fall of a strategic alliance between two multinationals2005Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 34, nr 8, s. 783-796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Health care services marketing of Swedish innovation: A comparative study2016Ingår i: Thriving in a new world economy / [ed] Kirk Plangger, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, s. 318-324Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with a comparative study between Brazil, China and Philippines on services marketing. By focusing on culture, standardization/adaptation, trust and network, attempt is made to illustrate how impact of service characteristics can be handled to smooth marketing of health care services internationally. Data has been collected through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 21 respondents from Brazil, China, Philippines and Sweden. The result shows that culture has much effect on the operations of Elekta Philippines and China while Brazilian establishment is run by following general marketing practices. Standardization has been common regarding treatment and service quality but some adaptation has taken place in Philippines to treat new diseases not included in the Gamma knife tradition. Trust is found necessary in all the cases but has been built in different ways. In China, guanxi has been used to develop informal relationships with the customers to ensure trust. Trust in Philippines is developed by recruiting relatives and friends and relying on experience in work with old Gamma knife facility. In Brazil, long-term relationships with the customers have been stressed and are built on understanding, business facts, competence and customers' access to Elekta reference centers.

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  • 42.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Is context important in healthcare marketing?: A comparison between developed and emerging markets2018Ingår i: IMP ASIA - The eight meeting of the IMP Group in Asia / [ed] Peter J. Batt, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context has been discussed in international business relating to marketing. We argue that understanding context is important in healthcare marketing as it deals with a complex issue of human health and comfort. This paper explores how service providers confront with contextual complexity and deal with marketing of healthcare services in developed and emerging markets. Four case studies have been conducted on a Swedish multinational firm operating in two developed and two emerging markets. By applying a qualitative method, data was collected through interviews, observations and secondary materials like annual reports and firm documents. A theoretical framework based on context, trust and network has been used to conduct the study. Operations in both developed and emerging markets emphasized individual and organizational trust but country level trust was only recognized in the emerging markets. In the developed market, the local customers emphasized on the written agreements. In contrast, emerging market customers put emphasis on informal relationship and considered agreements more as guidelines. Network development was highlighted in both developed and emerging markets to get competence and access to right partners.

  • 43.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Is health services marketing needed in emerging markets?2016Ingår i: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, s. 28-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how multinational firms deal with challenges in marketing of health services in emerging markets (EMs). To conduct this study, a qualitative method has been used to focus on the marketing process. A single European health services firm operating in seven EMs and in four continents is studied to highlight the role of context. A theoretical framework is developed for service marketing in EMs based on three levels. The macro level deals with infrastructural factors, while the micro level reflects on the marketing process. The meso level, reflecting the local culture, is interconnected with the other two levels.

  • 44.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Services marketing in a cross-cultural environment: the case of Egypt2009Ingår i: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 261-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing services in a culturally distant country through handling the problems of intangibility and heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data are collected in the form of unstructured interviews and direct observation to conduct a single case study on Gamma Knife. Findings - Adaptation/standardization plays the central role in internationalization of services marketing. For service development and quality maintenance, values and ideas of the foreign company dominate the adaptation (i.e. standardization), while market-related adaptation is carried out in response to local culture and practices. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on a single case. Future research can involve similar in-depth study examining how internationalization of services works in culturally distant countries, the results of which can be compared with the current study. Practical implications - In international services marketing, in addition to meeting formal and official requirements, managers must concentrate on building trust and informal contacts. Originality/value - The research uses an empirical illustration to provide a model on internationalization of services marketing based on adaptation/ standardization, trust and network, to overcome intangibility- and heterogeneity-related difficulties. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 45.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    Strategic alliances and resource-based view: An entrepreneurship orientation perspective2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose of the paper

    This research deals with the Internationalization of health services focusing on two services characteristics intangibility and heterogeneity. The study analyzes how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing a Swedish health care service in Brazil, a culturally distant country to Sweden.

    Literature addressed

    The theoretical framework of the study is based on theories on International Marketing Services, trust, networks and cultural differences. Adaptation/standardization is important when operating in a foreign market for acceptance of services, creating confidence in the foreign market and establishing contacts with the local environment. Networks are needed to get information and gain access to resources the firms need to run their activities. By creating trust long term business relationships can be developed. Using trust and networks can service providers communicate with customers and understand and satisfy their needs.

    Research Method

    We apply a case study for data collection. A case on a Swedish invention for radio surgery, Gamma Knife in Brazil has been conducted in its real life context. Qualitative data have been collected in form of semi-structured interviews. Direct observation of the working environment and activities in Sweden has also been used as data source. We concentrate on the process of the marketing of the service.

    Research Findings

    The study shows that cultural adaptation makes service characteristics tangible by increasing the understanding between service providers and local customers. It suggests that foreign company’s service offerings, values and beliefs connected to the quality of the service are to be standardised. This standardisation communicates the offering both of a treatment and also of a learning process and helps the service to be visible and tangible. It further demonstrates that relationships related to the local market are to be adapted to customers´ tastes, habits and preferences to develop trust and networks. The study suggest that a balanced combination of adaptation and standardisation makes services homogenous and tangible increasing the possibility of success for service providers and the acceptance of services by the local customers.

    Main contribution

    The research contributes to the International services marketing literature developing a model of internationalization of health services marketing based on adaptation/standardization, trust and network, to overcome issues of intangibility and heterogeneity of services. Managers should recognize that marketing people-processing services requires development of local networks to gain trust, and legitimacy in the local market.

  • 46.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Towards a typology of strategic alliances for small firms2009Ingår i: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 78-97Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been conducted on strategic alliances, but mainly from large and medium-sized companies’ perspectives. This work concentrates on small firms and suggests a typology of small firm alliances to reveal their opportunities and constraints relating to alliance formation and development. By combining network and Entrepreneurship orientation (EO), an alliance typology consisting of four categories: (1) stable-proactive, (2) stable-innovative, (3) dynamic-proactive and (4) dynamic-innovative is developed. The proposed typology is exemplified by the help of in-depth case illustration which performs a two-fold function: it examines the applicability of the typology and it offers guidance to the entrepreneurs as how to combine effectively network and EO and also position the firm in the appropriate typology in managing business. All the alliance type can be appropriate for small firms, but the nature of business will decide which type will be employed. One limitation of this study is the focus on service firms. Two studies can be suggested in this regard: a focus exclusively on the manufacturing firms to compare with the result of the current study and to combine both service and manufacturing firms to illustrate the theoretical contribution.

  • 47.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ghauri, Pervez N
    Managing international joint venture relationships: A longitudinal perspective2000Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 205-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Lilja, Anna
    Paag, Jonna
    Stockholm International School, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is Social Media Necessary for Recruitment of International Students?2019Ingår i: ICBM 2019 2nd International Conference on Business and Management, Dhaka: BRAC University , 2019, s. 94-100, artikel-id ICBM-19-0259Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at examining how universities use social media in their marketing strategy to recruit international students. A theoretical framework has been developed based on international recruitment, social media platforms and social media content. By applying a qualitative method, 13 interviews were conducted from international departments in 10 Swedish universities. The respondents included communication managers, international coordinators and social media administrators. The empirical evidence was analyzed with few themes following the theoretical structure. The common social media platforms used in international recruitment of students are found to be Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. Pictures and videos are important formats, which are used to ensure student engagement and create interest for the educational institutions. When creating content, it is significant that it emphasizes the value of the education, arouses student emotions and displays a clear picture living around the university. This study will be helpful for educational institutions that already use or plan to use social media for international recruitment.

  • 49.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lövblad, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för ekonomi, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The repatriation process: a realistic approach2007Ingår i: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 264-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to present how a realistic view of the situation for the repatriate can help companies increase the retention rate among this important group of employees. A complete understanding of the repatriation process is crucial to offering repatriating employees proper backing and moral support needed during the process. Design/methodology/approach - A thorough review of the literature on repatriation is carried out to present a repatriation process model and a number of research propositions. Findings - This paper suggests that by focusing on motives and individuals' experience of the repatriation process, researchers and practitioners will be better able to understand the measures and support needed in the repatriation process to increase the retention of an organization's repatriated employees. Research limitations/implications - Suggestions for future research include a test of propositions by a survey, a longitudinal study of repatriates and closer look at the variables of motives and repatriation experience. Originality/value - This paper combines existing knowledge with new insights for understanding the repatriation process.

  • 50.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Cross-border merger among Nordic banks - a longitudinal study2017Ingår i: Global and national business theories and practice: Bridging the past with the future / [ed] Vrontis, D., Weber, Y., Tsoukatos, E., EUROMED PRESS , 2017, s. 2134-2136Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have found that even international mergers are popular, they usually fail for its complexity. Recently few studies have tried with process perspective to penetrate into merger integration without much success. We argue that focus on pre-and post-merger stages is good but not enough to provide a total picture of the process. By using a longitudinal approach this study analyzes the establishment, development and consolidation of a cross-border merger between banks from four countries. Based on theories on strategic motives and culture, a theoretical framework has been developed showing how merger process can lead to better competitiveness and performance. Data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with officials from the merging firms, and secondary materials during 1997-2015. The merger is described in four stages. The first stage deals with the initiation and establishment of the merger. Critical period and cultural clashes are covered in the next stage. The third stage concentrates on the development of synergy. The final stage reflects on how the process has consolidated and what result it has so far achieved.

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