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  • 1.
    Haider, Usman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nyoman, Indrawibawa I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Kim, Chanki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Coronado, J. L.
    University of Polytechnic, Cartagena, Spain.
    Modular EXO-LEGS for mobility of elderly persons2017In: Advances in Cooperative Robotics: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference in CLAWAR 2016, Singapore: World Scientific, 2017, p. 851-859Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents details of the AAL Call 4 EXO-LEGS project aimed at developing and testing lower body assistive exoskeletons to help elderly persons perform daily living activities independently such as stable standing, sit-to-stand transfers and straight walking. The key components needed have been realized using mobility requirements and design preferences provided by an end user group comprising 118 members via 5 surveys. Modular human-centric concepts are followed for mechanical design, sensing and actuation, system integration, etc., to realize a BASIC exoskeleton prototype able to provide up to 30% power to assist the human perform the intended motions. Two ethical approvals have been obtained to involve end users in the research, development and test phases of the project. To date, 5 test subjects have tested the exoskeleton prototype in walking and the sit-to-stand test; summary results are presented in this paper.

  • 2.
    Indrawibawa, I. Nyoman
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, South Westphalia University of Applied Sciences, Soest, Germany.
    Virk, Gurvinder S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Exoskeleton for assisting human walking2013In: Nature-Inspired Mobile Robotics: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2013, World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2013, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the ageing society's problems evolve, mobility aid requirements are beginning to gain impetus and detailed studies on humans performing their normal activities for daily living are becoming urgent. The paper presents the design of a lower-body exoskeleton, which can be easily put on and worn, and used for recording human motions. In this way, the mobility requirements for performing daily living tasks are determined. The research involves the design of a 4 degree of freedom (DOF) lower-body prototype system used in acquiring basic motion data from volunteers as they perform basic walking tasks using embedded sensors for recording the hip and knee angles and transmitting them wirelessly. Walking tests with 20 volunteers are carried out after ethical considerations have been addressed; these cover human safety, full informed consent and privacy ensured by presenting the results in an anonymous manner. 

  • 3.
    Singh Rupal, Baltej
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Rafique, Sajid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Singla, Ashish
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, India.
    Singla, Ekta
    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar, India.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Singh Virk, Gurvinder
    Innovative Technology & Science Limited (InnoTecUK), Cambridge, UK.
    Lower-limb exoskeletons: Research trends and regulatory guidelines in medical and non-medical applications2017In: International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, ISSN 1729-8806, E-ISSN 1729-8814, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1-27Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the recent progress in personal care robots, interest in wearable exoskeletons has been increasing due to the demand for assistive technologies generally and specifically to meet the concerns in the increasing ageing society. Despite this global trend, research focus has been on load augmentation for soldiers/workers, assisting trauma patients, paraplegics, spinal cord injured persons and for rehabilitation purposes. Barring the military-focused activities, most of the work to date has focused on medical applications. However, there is a need to shift attention towards the growing needs of elderly people, that is, by realizing assistive exoskeletons that can help them to stay independent and maintain a good quality of life. Therefore, the present article covers the rapidly evolving area of wearable exoskeletons in a holistic manner, for both medical and non-medical applications, so that relevant current developments and future issues can be addressed; this includes how the physical assistance/rehabilitation/compensation can be provided to supplement capabilities in a natural manner. Regulatory guidelines, important for realizing new markets for these emerging technologies, are also explored in this work. For these, emerging international safety requirements are presented for non-medical and medical exoskeleton applications, so that the central requirement of close human–robot interactions can be adequately addressed for the intended tasks to be carried out. An example case study on developing and commercializing wearable exoskeletons to help support living activities of healthy elderly persons is presented to highlight the main issues in non-medical mobility exoskeletons. This also paves the way for the potential future trends to use exoskeletons as physical assistant robots, as covered by the recently published safety standard ISO 13482, to help elderly people perform their activities of daily living.

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  • 4.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Haider, Usman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Indrawibawa, I. Nyoman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Thekkeparanipumadom, Rakesh Krishnan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Exo-legs for elderly persons2014In: Mobile service robotics / [ed] Krzysztof Kozłowski, Mohammad O. Tokhi, Gurvinder S. Virk, Singapore: World Scientific, 2014, p. 85-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a research update on the AAL Call 4 EXO-LEGS project aimed at developing lower-body mobility exoskeletons to assist elderly persons to stay independent in their normal daily living activities for as long as possible. The important movement functionalities and key design issues to be included in the process are identified via specifically developed questionnaires and responses from a pan-European end user group set up as part of the project. The user requirements are used together with the recently published ISO safety requirements for personal care robots to perform targeted technical research in the areas of human gait analysis, modelling and simulation, mechanical engineering, embedded system design, and ergonomic user interfacing.

  • 5.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Haider, Usman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Nyoman, Indrawibawa I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Masud, Nauman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Mamaev, I.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hopfgarten, P.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Hein, B.
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Design of EXO-LEGS exoskeletons2016In: Assistive Robotics: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Climbing and Walking Robots and the Support Technologies for Mobile Machines, CLAWAR 2015, 2016, p. 59-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the design details for realising the EXO-LEGS assistive exoskeletons for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) applications based on modelling and simulation studies performed for key mobility functionalities in activities for daily living such as stable standing in open space and straight walking. The results provide the basis for selecting sensors and actuators to develop the needed assistive exoskeletons to help the elderly to stay active and independent for as long as possible.

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