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  • 1.
    Francisco Contero, Jose
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. University of Zaragoza.
    Gomes, João
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    The impact of shading in the performance of three different solar PV systems2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH ISES EUROSUN 2016 CONFERENCE, INTL SOLAR ENERGY SOC , 2017, p. 1168-1179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partial shading decreases the performance of PV modules due to the series connection between the solar cells. In the recent years, several new technologies have emerged within the photovoltaics field to mitigate the effect of shading in the performance of the PV modules. For an accurate assessment of the performance of these devices, it is required to evaluate them comparatively in different circumstances. Three systems with six series-connected PV modules (each containing 60 cells) have been installed at the University of Gavle. System One comprises a string inverter system with 6 PV modules; System Two features a DC-DC optimizer per panel and a string inverter; System Three incorporates three micro inverters for six modules. A major conclusion of this study was that under partial shading of one (or more) modules both System Two (DC-DC optimizers) and System Three (micro inverters) perform considerably better than System One (string inverter), as long as the Impp of the shadowed module is lower than the Impp of the unshaded string It is also important that the Vmpp in the shaded module is higher than the lowest allowed voltage of the DC-DC optimizer or module inverter. The economic implications of the usage of these devices were also analyzed.

  • 2.
    Gallardo-Saavedra, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Universidad de Valladolid (UVa), School of Forestry, Agronomic and Bioenergy Industry Engineering (EIFAB), Department of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering, Campus Duques de Soria, Soria, Spain.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Simulation, validation and analysis of shading effects on a PV system2018In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 170, p. 828-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simulation program for calculating the IV-curve for series connected PV-modules during partial shadowing has been developed and experimentally validated. The software used for modelling the modules is LTspice IV. The validation has been done by means of a comparative analysis using the experimental results obtained in a set of tests performed on the mono-crystalline modules of the Gävle University's laboratory in Sweden. Experimental measurements were carried out in two groups. The first group is a string of six modules with bypass diodes while the second one corresponds to a single PV module. The simulation results of both groups demonstrated a remarkable agreement with the experimental data, which means that the designed model can be used for simulating the influence of shading on the power of a string. The model has been used for analysing the performance of strings of PV modules with shadows and the benefits of installing DC-DC optimizers or module inverters, that minimise the impact of shading, have been investigated.

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