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  • Public defence: 2024-05-31 09:00 Stora Jadwigasalen,13:111, Gävle
    Högstedt, Denice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Internationally Educated Nurses’ Inclusion in Swedish Working Life: The Recertification Process and the First Year Working as a Nurse in Sweden2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim was to examine facilitators and challenges towards and for an inclusive working life in Sweden for nurses educated in countries outside the EU/EEA and Switzerland, to examine and compare two paths to a Swedish nursing license – bridging program and validation – and to examine nurses’ perceived competence and well-being at work during the first year as nurses in Sweden. Methods: Data were collected through interviews and a longitudinal survey. This took place at three time points: the end of the licensure process, after three months, and after one year. Results: Both paths had been challenging and facilitating, albeit in different ways. The bridging program had been intensive, but also rewarding. The nurses had developed new knowledge, gained new relationships, improved their language and academic skills, and gained confidence to practice as a nurse in Sweden. The other path, through validation, had been a struggle due to uncertainty, loneliness, and considerable waiting. However, it was also facilitating because it enabled the nurses to work during the process. Support was important during recertification but was sometimes insufficient. At the end of recertification, no differences in self-rated competence, general self-efficacy, or thriving were found between those who had chosen the bridging program and those who had chosen validation. One year later, the choice of path to a nursing license was not related to the nurses’ perceived competence or well-being at work, however, current working conditions were. In addition, in interviews, previous education and working experiences were reported as facilitating factors during their first year as nurses in Sweden. Conclusions: Both paths to a Swedish nursing license were challenging but also facilitating and seemed to meet different needs. The choice of path did not determine how the nurses perceived their competence and well-being once practicing as a nurse in Sweden. Instead, previous education and working experiences and supportive working conditions were important factors.

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  • Public defence: 2024-06-03 09:15 12:108, Gävle
    Petrović, Bojana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology. Department of Energy Technology and Construction Engineering, Dalarna University, Sweden; NORSUS (Norwegian Institute for Sustainability Research), Kråkerøy, Norway .
    Whole Life Carbon Assessment and Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Single-family Building2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is responsible for 34% of final energy consumption and contributes to 37% of global CO2 emissions. In alignment with sustainability goals, the European Union has set a target to reduce CO2 emissions in the building sector by up to 90% by 2050. Consequently, there is a great need to examine the climate impact of buildings and adopt a comprehensive perspective using a whole life carbon assessment. The aim of the thesis was to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and costs throughout all life cycle stages, applying a whole life carbon assessment and life cycle cost analysis for a single-family building situated in a Nordic climate. Additionally, both positive (released) and negative GHG emissions were explored and documented, encompassing operational and embodied impacts. In the thesis, the life cycle assessment and the life cycle cost methods have been applied by following the “cradle-to-grave” life cycle perspective. The study includes an analysis of the reference building design and comparisons with improved building design. 

    The thesis findings highlight a substantial decrease in released GHG emissions with 23% reduction for the analyzed improved building design showing 5.2 kg CO2e/m2/y50 compared to the reference building design showing 6.7 kg CO2e/m2/y50. Moreover, incorporating biogenic carbon and the D module into the cradle-to-grave approach shows the lowest total GHG emissions, manifesting as negative values, -0.7 kg CO2e/m2/y50 for the improved building design. Embodied impact accounts for 79% and 72% of the total impact, while operational impact accounts for 21% and 28% for the reference and improved building designs. When analyzing all building materials, it is shown that an increased share of wooden building materials in the improved building design results in decreased released (positive) GHG emissions and increased negative GHG emissions. The results underscore the significance of using wood-based building materials due to their manufacturing process having lower GHG emissions compared to non-wood solutions. Considering the reference building design, when analyzing the building energy systems, it should be noted that the embodied GHG emissions from the production phase of solar PV panels are considerably higher when compared to emissions from the ventilation system and heat pump. To decrease the embodied GHG emissions during the production phase of solar PV panels, the manufacturing process should be done in countries with a larger share of renewable energy sources in the electricity grid. Moreover, recognizing building materials with low GHG emissions that are economically profitable during the early phases of building design and construction is essential for reducing long-term environmental and economic consequences. Additionally, considering the utilization of reusable building products over new ones could be seen as a winning strategy for mitigating the climate impact in the building sector and decreasing the use of natural resources and waste. 

    Considering the economic impact, it can be noted that the construction costs are greater than operational costs and end-of-life costs comparing all life cycle stages. Approximately 50% of the construction costs are labor costs, followed by investment costs for building materials, installations, and pre-construction costs. Analyzing the building products’ costs, it is important to note that selecting cross-laminated timber (CLT) for a foundation could lead to higher investment costs compared to concrete slabs. 

    In conclusion, the result of the thesis encompasses a whole life carbon assessment in buildings. It underscores the importance of revealing all carbon flows associated with single-family buildings. Finally, the thesis outlines the advantages of utilizing wood-based materials and reusable building products for building owners, contractors, designers, architects, consultants, and other decision-makers. It emphasizes the importance of considering both the environmental and economic aspects of buildings to attain a comprehensive understanding.

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  • Public defence: 2024-06-14 09:00 12:108, Gävle
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental and numerical study of corner impinging jet ventilation for an office environment2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective ventilation system is an important component of a building’s service infrastructure. It serves the dual purpose of creating a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for occupants, thereby enhancing their well-being and productivity. However, the ventilation system is also a part of the building that uses a high amount of energy.

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate a novel implementation of the impinging jet ventilation system by placing the supply inlet at the corners of the space or room, rather than in the traditional mid-wall section. The focus of this study is to test and evaluate corner impinging jet ventilation in a medium-sized office environment within a building that requires moderate amount of heating and cooling.

    In the first part of this study (summer condition), the system is evaluated in an experimental environment, where it is compared against other systems such as displacement ventilation and mixing ventilation. The evaluated parameters indicates that corner impinging ventilation system performs better than mixing ventilation but show similar results to displacement ventilation in terms of airchange effectiveness. This experimental setup was also tested in winter condition and the results showed that the system was most effective during summertime compared to wintertime. In wintertime the results for the air change effectiveness were similar to those of a mixing system.

    In the second part, numerical simulations were utilized to delve deeper into the behaviour of the corner impinging jet ventilation system close to the floor surface. A numerical model was created and validated against experimental measurements. In this part, the spreading of the air jet across the room floor was examined, and its relation to various parameters such as inlet velocity, inlet shape and discharge height. Results indicated that diffuser geometries have almost no impact on velocity profile along the floor's centreline, jet spreading rate and maximum velocity decay. The results also showed a high degree of flexibility for the room size, between 25-100 m2 for which the results were applicable. The results also concluded that there was a noticeable confinement effect present and that the jet was able to travel far into the room.

    In the third part numerical simulations was used for validating and to create a model for an office room containing two office workstations. The office room was evaluated in terms of local thermal comfort, close to the sitting area. In addition, the indoor air quality was also examined. The results showed that corner impinging ventilation system performed better than conventional mixing ventilation system, especially when evaluating the indoor air quality in terms of mean age of air. This evaluation also took into account both outdoor summer and winter conditions, as well as different inlet surface areas. Different locations for the workstations were also evaluated with good results, except for placing the work-stations close to the inlets. Due to the system’s effectiveness of providing fresh air to the occupants, further analysis was made to try and reduce the air flowrate but keep the same indoor air quality level as an equivalent fully mixing ventilation system. By using this method, the study was able to demonstrate reduction in the energy use by reducing the air flowrate of the supply inlet. The study showed a possible reduction of the energy use by 7-9 % for outdoor temperatures ranging between -15 °C to 25 °C.

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  • Public defence: 2024-06-14 13:00 Stora Jadwiga
    Mörtsell, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Umeå universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Maintaining teaching: exploring te(a)ch-abilities with actor-network theory2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis investigates everyday teaching with digital technology during the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. The pandemic was one of the world’s largest disruptions to everyday education with both health and education at stake. With the pandemic control measures affecting upper secondary education in Sweden, gathering in the classroom cannot be taken for granted and digital technologies accelerated and intensified everyday practices. The aim is to explore the relation of teaching and digital technology. How can we understand the ways in which digital technology and teaching become jointly experimented with to cope with pandemic uncertainty?

    With an Actor-Network theory (ANT) approach, the thesis puts emphasis on how everyday teaching holds together at the pandemic intersection of routine and breakdown. The everyday teaching practices during the pandemic is an empirical focal point for inquiry into how they become enacted and, secondly, what the implications are for knowledge production when examining this novel educational practice with ANT’s relational materialism. To answer these questions, ethnographic methods are used with an upper secondary school in Sweden from May 2020 to June 2021. The fieldwork consists of empirical engagements in school visits, interviews, and online observations. In line with recent ANT scholarship, the methodological approach is articulated as a care-ful methodology. It implies tracing vulnerable and stable relations that enact sociomaterial practice and acknowledging cuts and becoming.

    The results show how a manifold of more-than-digital practices enact everyday teaching. The included studies in the thesis examine attendability and mundane rituals, lesson enactments of scheduling practices, and digital platforms that co-produce specific practices while obscuring others. Teaching in the pandemic challenges taken-for-granted notions of a rapid transition to distance and online teaching. By surfacing neglected aspects of everyday teaching with digital technology the thesis discusses how ‘digitalisation of teaching’ erases the local work of everyday teaching as an equipped practice. In conclusion, the proposal is made that maintaining teaching takes into account the materiality, abilities, care, and vulnerabilities that enact everyday teaching.

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