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Soares, Joaquim
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Eslami, B., Di Rosa, M., Barros, H., Torres-Gonzalez, F., Stankunas, M., Ioannidi-Kapolou, E., . . . Melchiorre, M. G. (2019). Lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men in Europe. PLoS ONE, 14(8), Article ID e0220741.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men in Europe
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2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 8, article id e0220741Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Research suggests that survivors of interpersonal violence have an increasing experience of bodily symptoms. This study aims to scrutinise the association between lifetime abuse and somatic symptoms among older women and men, considering demographics/socio-economic, social support and health variables. Methods: A sample of 4,467 community-dwelling persons aged 60–84 years (57.3% women) living in seven European countries (Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) was recruited for this cross-sectional study. Lifetime abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial and injury) was assessed on the basis of the UK study of elder abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale-2, while somatic symptoms were assessed by the Giessen Complaint List short version. Results: Women reported somatic symptoms more frequently than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed that lifetime exposure to psychological abuse was associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms among both women and men, while experiencing lifetime sexual abuse was associated with somatic symptoms only among older women, after adjusting for other demographic and socio-economic variables. Country of residence, older age, and low socio-economic status were other independent factors contributing to a higher level of somatic symptoms. Conclusions: The positive association between the experience of abuse during lifetime and the reporting of higher levels of somatic symptoms, in particular among older women, seems to suggest that such complaints in later life might also be related to the experience of mistreatment and not only to ageing and related diseases. Violence prevention throughout lifetime could help to prevent somatic symptoms in later life. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
Keywords
ADULT child abuse victims, ABUSE of older people, OLDER women, MATERNAL age, OLDER men, Age groups, Anxiety, Biology and life sciences, Depression, Economics, Elderly, Emotions, Europe, European Union, Finance, Geographical locations, Italy, Lithuania, Medicine and health sciences, Mental health and psychiatry, Mood disorders, People and places, Population groupings, Portugal, Psychology, Research Article, Social sciences, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-30569 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0220741 (DOI)31393925 (PubMedID)
Projects
Elder Abuse: A multinational prevalence survey (ABUEL)
Note

Funding agency:

European Commission, Executive Agency for Health and Consumers (EAHC, currently CHAFEA, Consumers, Health, Agriculture and Food Executive Agency, Public Health Programme 2008–2010, Grant Agreement no. 2007123

Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Winersjö, R., Wijk, K., MacGrath, C., Ahmadi, N. & Soares, J. (2017). Fear of crime and its relationships to self-reported health and stress among men. Journal of Public Health Research, 6(3), 169-174, Article ID 1010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear of crime and its relationships to self-reported health and stress among men
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Public Health Research, ISSN 2279-9028, E-ISSN 2279-9036, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 169-174, article id 1010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fear of crime is a growing social and public health problem globally, including in developed countries such as Sweden. This study investigated the impact of fear of crime on self-reported health and stress among men living in Gävleborg County.Design and Methods: The study used data collected from 2993 men through a cross sectional survey in the 2014 Health in Equal Terms survey. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship between fear of crime and self-reported health and stress. Results: There was a statistically significant association between fear of crime and self-reported poor health and stress among men residing in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis, men who reported fear of crime had odds of 1.98 (CI 1.47- 2.66) and 2.23 (CI 1.45-3.41) respectively. Adjusting for demographic, social and economic variables in the multivariate analysis only reduced the odds ratio for self-reported poor health to 1.52 (CI 1.05-2.21) but not for self-reported stress with odds of 2.22 (1.27-3.86). Conclusions: Fear of crime among men was statistically significantly associated with self-reported poor health and stress in Gävleborg County. However, the statistically significant relationship remained even after accounting for demographic, social and economic factors, which warrants further research to better understand the role played by other variables.

Keywords
Fear of crime, men, self-reported health and stress, Gävleborg County
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-25920 (URN)10.4081/jphr.2017.1010 (DOI)000440723600007 ()29441331 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85052228321 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2015). Employment status and suicidal ideation during economic recession. Health Science Journal, 9(1), Article ID 13.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment status and suicidal ideation during economic recession
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2015 (English)In: Health Science Journal, ISSN 1791-809X, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Suicide is a public health problem and an important indicator of severe mental ill-health. Thus, identifying risk factors for suicidal ideation is a public health priority. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation in Gävleborg County. Method: The study used data from the 2010 Health in Equal Terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in Gävleborg County in Sweden. A total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were carried out to assess the relationship between employment status and suicidal ideation Results: Individuals outside the labour market had odds of suicidal ideation of 4.21 (CI 3.14-5.64) compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other covariates, reduced the risk from 4.21(CI 3.14-5.64) in model I, to 1.73 (CI 1.16- 2.57) in model IV, but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with suicidal ideation. Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between being out of work and suicidal ideation. The association was explained partly by demographic, socio-economic and self-reported psychological variables. Results of the study suggest the need for primary prevention strategies among those out of the labour market, especially during times of economic hardship.

Keywords
Employment status; Health inequalities; Suicidal ideation
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18964 (URN)2-s2.0-84926348708 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-03 Created: 2015-02-10 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Ahmadi, N., Hiswåls, A.-S., Alfredsson, J., Soares, J. & Stankunas, M. (2014). Differences in health care-seeking behavior during economic recession. Paper presented at The European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow 2014. European Journal of Public Health, 24(Suppl. 2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in health care-seeking behavior during economic recession
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no Suppl. 2Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

In Europe, equitable access to high-quality healthcare constitutes a key challenge for health systems across the continent. However, the recent economic recession left many outside the labour market, causing many to fall in poverty and social exclusion. Unemployment is probably the main factor leading to social exclusion. Studies which analysed health seeking behaviour among unemployed people have reported a variety of results, from low to high utilization of health services. However, some researchers argue that during stressful economic and social circumstances can cause high utilization of the health care system due to increased psychological disorders masked by physical complaints. This study examined differences in health seeking behaviour in Gävleborg County, which at the pick of the economic recession had high levels of unemployment as compared to the national average.

Methods

The data for the study come from the 2010 Survey of Health in Equal terms carried out in Gävleborg County, Sweden. The sample included 4245 persons aged 16-65 years. Descriptive and binary logistic analysis was used to assess differences in health seeking behavior by employment status.

Results

There was a statistical significant relationship between employment status and health-seeking behavior. Compared to employed persons, people who were out of the labor market had odds ratio of 1.42 (1.12-1.62) for contact with health care services; of 1.30 (1.12-1.50) for contact with a doctor in a health care facility and 1.67 (1.42-1.97) for contact with a doctor in a hospital. Controlling for age, sex, marital status, education, income, smoking habits, physical activity, self-rated health, and long standing illness removed the statistical significance of the observed relationships. Thus, the odds for contact with health care services went from.

Conclusions

At the pic of the recent economic recession, people who were outside the labor market had more contact with health care services, with doctor in hospitals as well as primary health care services as compared to employed counterparts. The differences in health seeking behavior were explained by demographic, socioeconomic and health variables.

Key Words: Employment status, Health care, Gävleborg, economic recession.

Key messages

  • People who were out of labor market in Gävleborg County in 2010 had more contact with health care services, with a doctor in hospital and primary health care respectively.

  • Future studies are warranted that can assess trends in health-seeking behavior among people outside Gävleborgs labor market.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17926 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku161.085 (DOI)
Conference
The European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow 2014
Available from: 2014-09-11 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Macassa, G., Hiswåls, A.-S., Ahmadi, N., Alfredsson, J., Soares, J. F. J. & Stankunas, M. (2014). Employment status and health care utilization in a context of economic recession: Results of a population based survey in East Central Sweden. Science Journal of Public Health, 2(6), 610-616
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment status and health care utilization in a context of economic recession: Results of a population based survey in East Central Sweden
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2014 (English)In: Science Journal of Public Health, ISSN ISSN 2328-7942, EISSN 2328-7950, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 610-616Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: The most recent economic recession left many people outside the labour market world-wide, causing widespread poverty and social exclusion. Gävleborg County in East Central Sweden experienced massive layoffs caused by closure of various industries. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate differences in health-care use according to employment status at the pick of the recent economic recession. Methods: The study used data from a cross-sectional survey “Health in Equal Terms” carried out in Gävleborg County in 2010. The sample included 4245 persons aged 16-65 years. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to assess differences in health-care seeking behaviour by employment status. Results: Employment status was statistically significantly associated with health-care use in Gävleborg County. In the bivariate analysis people who were not employed had odds ratio of 1.62 (CI 1.18-1.72) for health care use as compared to their employed counterparts. Controlling for other variables in Model II to IV removed the statistical significance and reduced the odds to 0.44(CI 0.20-1.00). Conclusions: This study found that at the pick of the most recent economic recession, people who were out of work used more often health services as compared with their employed counterparts. The observed differences in health-care use were explained by demographic, socio-economic and health-related variables. Further studies are needed to analyze trends of healthcare utilization according to employment nationally, particularly at the county level.

Keywords
Health-Care Use, Employment Status, Economic Recession
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-18664 (URN)10.11648/j.sjph.20140206.28 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Walander, A., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2014). Employment Status and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health. Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, 11(4), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employment Status and Inequalities in Self-Reported Health
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2014 (English)In: Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Public Health, ISSN 2282-2305, E-ISSN 2282-0930, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of employment status on self-reported health in gävleborg county.

Methods: The study used data from the 2010 health in equal terms survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in gävleborg county in sweden. a total of 4,245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analyses. descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between employment status and self-reported health

Results: Individuals outside the labour market had odds of poor health of 2.64 (cl 2.28–3.05) compared to their employed counterparts. controlling for other covariates reduced the risk slightly to 2.10 (1.69-2.60), but remained statistically significant. In addition, other variables were associated with self-reported poor health.

Conclusions: This study found a statistically significant association between being outside the labour market and poor self-reported health. The relation was explained partially by socio-economic and demographic variables. More studies, in particular longitudinal, are needed to further investigate the observed relationships. Policy-makers within the gävleborg county need to pay attention to the health status of those out of work, especially during times of combined economic and labour market fluctuations.

Results of the study suggest the need to pay attention to the health status of those outside the labour market, especially during times of economic hardship.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17472 (URN)10.2427/10006 (DOI)2-s2.0-84919763977 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-07 Created: 2014-09-08 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Hiswåls, A.-S., Ghilagaber, G., Wijk, K., Öberg, P., Soares, J. & Macassa, G. (2014). Inequalities and Suicide Ideation during Recession Times. Paper presented at The 7th European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow November 19-22 2014. European Journal of Public Health, 24(Suppl. 2), 361
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inequalities and Suicide Ideation during Recession Times
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 24, no Suppl. 2, p. 361-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Suicide behaviour is a serious public health problem as it imposes economic and human costs to individuals, families and communities. Available evidence from some European countries indicates a significant rise in suicides related to economic recession. However, the debate continues regarding the role of unemployment in the reported suicide rates. In Sweden, very few studies have investigated the relationship between suicide behaviours and employment status in the context of the recent economic crisis although unemployment increased nationally and across different counties.

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between employment status and suicide ideation in Gävleborg, Sweden.

Methods

The study used data from a cross-sectional survey, Health in Equal terms, carried out in Gävleborg County in Sweden, 2010. A total of 4245 individuals, aged 16–65 years were included in the analysis. The relationship between employment status and suicide ideation was assessed using descriptive and logistic regression analyses.

Results

People who were not working had odds of suicide ideation of 4.21 (95% Cl 3.14–5.64) as compared to those employed. Controlling for other covariates reduced the risk to 1.73 (95% CI 1.16-2.57) but remained statistically significant. In addition variables like anxiety, self-reported stress and young age were also associated with suicide ideation. However among the covariates, people who reported anxiety had the highest odds of suicide ideation.

Conclusions

This study found a statistically significant association between being out of work and suicide ideation. The association was largely explained by self-reported stress, anxiety, socioeconomic and demographic variables.

Policy-makers within the County need to pay attention to the health status of those out of work, especially during times of combined economic and labour market fluctuations.

Key messages

  • Suicide ideation was more common among people out of labor force in Gävleborg County, Sweden.

  • Further studies are needed to investigate suicide ideation among unemployed persons during times of economic and labor market insecurity.

National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-17925 (URN)10.1093/eurpub/cku166.155 (DOI)
Conference
The 7th European Public Health Conference (EUPHA), Glasgow November 19-22 2014
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
diva2:688776
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Psychological distress in a sample of Swedish women: a longitudinal study
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-16037 (URN)
Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Sundin, Ö., Macassa, G., Khankeh, H. R. & Soares, J. J. (2013). Anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms in adults with congenital heart disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 74(1), 49-56
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms in adults with congenital heart disease
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective

Despite the improvement in life-expectancy of adults with congenital heart disease, they may experience unique medical and social challenges that could impact on their psychological functioning. The aims of this study were to address the experience of anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms among adults with congenital heart disease in comparison with that of non-heart diseased persons considering the role of various factors (e.g. socio-economic).

Methods

In cross-sectional case–control study, the participants consisted of 347 patients with congenital heart disease (18–64 years, 52.2% female) and 353 matched (by sex/age) non-heart diseased persons. The participants completed a questionnaire. The data were analyzed with bivariate and multivariate methods.

Results

In bivariate analyses, scores in anxiety and somatic symptoms were higher among patients than the healthy controls (both at p ≤ 0.001), whereas the groups did not differ in depressive symptoms. Following multiple-linear-regression-analyses, only the association between congenital heart disease and somatic symptoms was confirmed. Among the patients, perceived financial strain was significantly related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms; lower perceived social support to anxiety and depression; and low annual income to somatic symptoms. Additionally, somatic symptoms were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, and vice versa. And no medical variables were related to anxiety, depressive and somatic symptoms.

Conclusions

Congenital heart disease was only independently associated with somatic symptoms. Financial strain, social support and co-existence of emotional distress with somatic symptoms should be considered in developing appropriate interventions to improve the well-being of patients with congenital heart disease. However, longitudinal research is warranted to clarify causality.

Keywords
Congenital heart disease; Grown-up; Mental health; Psychosomatic; Social functioning
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-16041 (URN)10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.10.006 (DOI)000313390100010 ()2-s2.0-84871686549 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Eslami, B., Örjan, S., Macassa, G., Khankeh, H. R. & Soares, J. J. F. (2013). Gender differences in health conditions and socio-economic status of adults with congenital heart disease in a developing country. Cardiology in the Young, 23(2), 209-218
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender differences in health conditions and socio-economic status of adults with congenital heart disease in a developing country
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2013 (English)In: Cardiology in the Young, ISSN 1047-9511, E-ISSN 1467-1107, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Providing appropriate care for adults with congenital heart disease requires the evaluation of their current situation. There is limited research in Iran about these patients, particularly in relation to gender differences in the demographic/socio-economic and lifestyle factors, as well as disease parameters.

Materials and methods The sample consisted of 347 congenital heart disease patients in the age group of 18–64 years, including 181 women, assessed by an analytical cross-sectional study. The patients were recruited from the two major heart hospitals in Tehran. Data were collected using questionnaires.

Results The mean age of the patients was 33.24 years. Women were more often married and more often had offspring than men (p < 0.001). Educational level and annual income were similar between women and men. Unemployment was higher among women (p < 0.001), but financial strain was higher among men (p < 0.001). Smoking, alcohol, and water-pipe use was higher among men than among women (p < 0.001). Cardiac factors, for example number of cardiac defects, were similar among women and men, except that there were more hospitalisations owing to cardiac problems, for example arrhythmia, among men. Disease was diagnosed mostly at the hospital (57.4%). Most medical care was provided by cardiologists (65.1%). Only 50.1% of patients had knowledge about their type of cardiac defect.

Conclusion Gender differences exist in the socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics of adults with congenital heart disease, in some cases related to the disease severity. Our findings also point to the need for interventions to increase patients’ knowledge about, and use of, healthier lifestyle behaviours, irrespective of gender. Furthermore, providing appropriate jobs, vocational training, and career counselling may help patients to be more productive.

Keywords
Grown-up with congenital heart disease, lifestyle, socio-demographic status
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-16042 (URN)000318623000007 ()2-s2.0-84879804094 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-04-16 Created: 2014-01-17 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved

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