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  • 1.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Abendländisches Gedankengut im Rahmen des islamischen Feminismus im Iran2000In: Inamo, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 38-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping och arbetsliv: arbetsliv som en coping-strategi2014In: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, p. 61-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping with Cancer in Sweden: A Search for Meaning2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is based on triangulation research consisting of a sociological qualitative and quantitative study among people struck by cancer and a study conducted among nurses working in cancer care.

    The aim of the book is to present the results of these studies, in particular those of the quantitative study.

    The qualitative study aimed at identifying the religious and spiritually oriented coping methods used by cancer patients in Sweden, which serves as an example of societies in which religion is not an integrated part of the social life of individuals. The empirical data for the study were based on interviews with cancer patients. Fifty-one interviews were conducted in various parts of Sweden with patients suffering from different types of cancer. Concerning the use of religious and spiritually oriented methods by the Swedish informants, we learn that gaining control over the situation is a very important coping strategy for them. The informants show a strong tendency toward relying primarily on themselves for solving problems related to their disease. Receiving help from other sources, among others God or a supreme power, seems to primarily be a way to gain more power to help oneself, as opposed to passively waiting for a miracle. For the informants, thinking about spiritual matters and spiritual connection seems to be more important than participating in religious rituals and activities. Turning to nature as a sacred and available resource is a coping method that all informants have used, regardless of their outlook on God, their religion and philosophy of life or their age and gender. The qualitative study shows clearly the impact of culture on coping.

    The qualitative study on nurses focuses on coping among Swedish oncology nurses. The research questions were close to the coping theory (Pargament, 1997) that was used for interpretation. 1. How can the stress experienced by oncology nurses be described? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2007) 2. Which functional and dysfunctional coping strategies do nurses use to cope with work-related stress? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2006) 3. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses’ orienting system and what function does religiosity have in their work? (Ekedahl & Wengström, 2010) 4. How does culture influence the coping process through different coping styles? (Ekedahl, 2011; Ekedahl & Wengström, 2012)

    Four levels of stress were identified: the individual level of the nurse, a group level that is related to the team, an organizational level, and a cultural level. Nurses working in cancer care have to cope with different types of stress. They move from simpler types to the worst type of stress: multifaceted stress with an existential dimension. The most intensive stress is on the individual level and the group level, where the existential dimension is activated.

    Concerning the coping strategies, the dominant one is boundary demarcation. Lack of this important strategy is dysfunctional. Religious coping is dominated by basic trust and prayer and can provide support. Using concepts from cultural psychology, individualistic and collectivistic coping are suggested as additional coping styles.

    The aim of the quantitative study was to examine the extent to which the results obtained in the qualitative study among cancer patients, explained above, are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in Sweden. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also makes use of the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in designing the quantitative study. In this quantitative study, 5000 questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden.

    The highest mean value (2.9) is for the factor ‘nature has been an important resource to you in allowing you to deal with your illnesses.’ Two out of three respondents (68%) affirmed that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after their illness. The second highest average (2.8) is for the factor ‘listening to “natural music” (birdsong and the wind).’ Two out of three respondents (66%) answered that this coping method helped them feel significantly better during their illness. The third highest average (2.7) is for the factor ‘walking or engaging in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense.’ Concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients, this survey confirms the results obtained from the previous qualitative studies.

    Moreover, the results of the quantitative study indicate that few informants used religious coping methods, as they were inclined to trust their own abilities to solve problems more than other sources of power, such as God or a religious authority. This result may be partly due to the predominance of secularism in Swedish society and the strong position individualism plays in Swedish culture, which fosters the idea that individuals are responsible for tackling their own problems.

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  • 4.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Coping with cancer through music: Three studies among cancer patients in Sweden2016In: Music therapy in the management of medical conditions / [ed] Hashefi, Mandana, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, 1, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the result of three research studies on meaning-making coping conducted among cancer patients in Sweden is used to highlight the effect of music in coping with cancer. The first research was a qualitative research aiming to study coping with cancer, through religious and spiritual means, from a cultural perspective. The second project was a quantitative study, which aimed to determine to what extent the result of the first study could be generalized to the cancer patients in Sweden. The third study had as its target to investigate the cancer patients’ own understanding of the role of music in coping. The results of these studies indicate the impact of culture in using music as a coping method when facing the psychological burden cancer brings with itself. The outcomes of the third study showed, besides the impact of culture, the individual characteristics of the music as a coping method.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Culture, Religion and Spirituality in Coping: The Example of Cancer Patients in Sweden2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has shown significant associations (negative and positive) between religious and spiritual factors and mental health. Much of this research, however, has been conducted in the US, where religion is an integrated part of most people’s lives. Other studies on religious and spiritually oriented coping conducted outside the US have also focused on religious people. Yet many are non-believers, and many believers do not consider themselves religious, i.e. religion is not an important part of their life. There are also societies in which the dominant culture and ways of thinking dismiss the role of religion in people’s lives. Research on religious coping rarely takes these people into consideration. Thus, the following questions arise: How are religion and spirituality involved in coping when non-believers or non-religious people face difficult events? How do culture and ways of thinking affect people’s choice of religious and spiritual coping methods? Proceeding from a cultural approach to coping and health, this book attempts to address these questions by looking at the coping strategies of Swedish cancer patients.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Den postmoderna islamiska feminismen i Iran och religionens tillfälliga aspekter2008In: Svensk religionshistorisk årsskrift. 15(2006-2007), Uppsala: Swedish Science Press , 2008, Vol. 15, p. 151-180Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Islamic women in Iran challenge the clergy’s monoclinic interpretational power by reconstructing gender and Islamic discourses in a radical way. The result is the flourishing of a new Islamic feminism in Iran which has different attitude towards certain points regarding the Korans view of gender than the other Islamic feminisms.

    Islamic feminists in Iran emphasis the historical context of the Koran and by doing this reformulate Islamic concepts and law from a “feminine” perspective. They open the doors for interpretation of sacred texts and dialogue on women issues to other groups than Muslims. They wrestle with the clergy’s reactive gender conservatism and their Westophobia. Islamic feminist in Iran by embarking on connecting themselves with western feminism and viewing their struggle against discrimination of women in Iran as an integrated part of the global feminism struggle weave new textual connections between Muslim women and Western women.

  • 7.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Development Towards Wisdom and Maturity: Sufi Conception of Self2000In: Journal of Aging and Identity, ISSN 1087-3732, E-ISSN 1573-3491, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By applying results from in-depth interviews with older Iranian Sufis residing in Sweden, this article describes the benefits of the value system of Sufism prizing mystical union above self-realization. As persons conceive of themselves as all forming parts of other-than-self rather than as separate selves, the result is tolerance towards other people's opinions and the vanishing of hostile feelings and competition. Compassion and identification with the whole of creation allows Sufis to avoid the sense of loneliness and exclusion felt by so many immigrants.

     

  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Elderly Migrants and the Concept of Home: a Swedish Perspective2005In: Home and Identity in Late Life: International Perspectives / [ed] Graham D. Rowles & Habib Chaudhury, New York: Springer , 2005Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Leading scholars, offering international and multidisciplinary viewpoints, examine the meaning of home to elders and the ways in which this meaning may be sustained, threatened, or modified according to changes associated with growing old.

    Organized into four sections--The Essence of Home, Disruptions of Home, Creating and Recreating Home, and Community Perspectives on the Meaning of Home, this volume explores topics including:

    What makes a house a home?

    What role does the meaning of home play in the process of relocation to another place of residence?

    What is the relationship between a person's home life and cherished possessions such as symbolic jewelry or religious items in late life?

    How does the community/neighborhood environment influence the way that older people feel about the places in which they live?

    This volume will be of interest to practitioners, researchers, upper-level graduates/graduate-level students in gerontology, environmental psychology, social work, and nursing. It will be valuable to everyone in the helping professions who seek a deeper understanding of the ways in which "being at home" and attachment to place plays a key role in the life experience and well-being of their clients as they grow older.

  • 9.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ensamkommande barn i ett internationellt och nationellt perspektiv2013In: Ensamkommande flyktingbarn: utifrån perspektivet socialt arbete / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & My Lilja, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2013, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Feministisk tolkning av Koranen.2008In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Gerotranscendence and Different Cultural Settings2001In: Ageing and Society, ISSN 0144-686X, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 395-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Within the framework of an international research project aimed at studying the impact of different cultural settings on gerotranscendent development, six groups of older people distinguished by religiosity and cultural origin were studied. A life history approach, followed by thematic semi-structured interviews, was applied. One of the objectives was to inquire about the possible impact of religion, conceived of as a cultural setting, on development towards gerotranscendence. The findings of this inquiry gave rise to two hypotheses as to the relationship between ge ro transcendence and religiosity. The first hypothesis is that the internalisation of mystical-type ideas in individuals' ways of thinking is probably a factor involved in the development of a gerotranscendent view of life. In other words, whether individuals practice their 'religion' in a spiritual, nonorganisational way, or in an organisational way, may play a role for development towards gerotranscendence. The second hypothesis is that certain characteristics, such as the secular and individualistic features of modern societies, may delay development towards gerotranscendence.

  • 12.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Gerotranscendence and Life Satisfaction: Studies of religious and secular Iranians and Turks2000In: Journal of Religious Gerontology, ISSN 1050-2289, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 17-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A possible relationship between gerotranscendence and life satisfaction was examined using the life narrative approach followed by thematic semi-structured interviews with religious and secular Iranians residing in Sweden and religious and secular Turks residing in Turkey. Both the Turkish and the Iranian studies provide support for the hypothesis that there is a relationship between gerotranscendence and life satisfaction. Both studies show that persons who displayed evidence of gerotranscendence also displayed evidence of life satisfaction. Additionally, neither of the studies revealed informants displaying gerotranscendence in the absence of discernable life satisfaction.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hard and Heavy Music: Can It Make a Difference in the Young Cancer Patients' Life?2009In: Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, E-ISSN 1504-1611, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study on the basis of which this article is written was to examine, from the patients’ perspective, the role music plays as a coping method when facing cancer. Here, using music as a coping method refers to using music (listening to and/or playing music individually or participating in a music therapy program) frequently in order to deal with the significant demands presented by cancer. A semi-structured interview with 17 cancer patients who have used music (listened to or played music) in order to cope with their illness was applied. Five of interviewees were men and twelve women. The youngest informant was 24 and the oldest 73 years old. In the paper presented in this conference I will discuss the result of my study concerning the effects of hard and heavy music in coping with cancer. The result of study shows that hard and heavy music as a coping method:

    - by calling in question the cultural demands of having control over their feelings, helps the young cancer patients to obtain their control,

    - by questioning what are conventionally defined as meaning of life, helps the young cancer patients to find a meaning,

    - by calling in question  the cultural requests of being calm and collected helps the young cancer patients to get their tranquility,  

    - by cheering unhealthy behaviors like using drug and having violent sex helps the young cancer patients to recover their mental health.

    All this due to the possibility the heavy and hard music provides for the young cancer patients to get self-confidence by putting away the false mask one wear and be who she/he really is.

  • 14.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Hemmets betydelse för äldre invandrare: En litteraturöversikt och riktlinjer för fortsatt forskning och teoribildning2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Identity Crisis and Integration: The divergent Attitudes of Iranian Immigrant Men and women towards Integration into Swedish society2001In: International Migration, ISSN 0020-7985, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 121-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this article is to show the divergent attitudes of Iranian immigrant men and women towards integration into Swedish society.

    As several studies have shown, Iranian women have a better chance of adjusting to Western societies than Iranian men. This article discusses the notion that one of the important reasons for this is the determining role of professional position in the life of Iranian immigrants in Sweden.

    As a result of the improvement in their work status and therefore an improvement in their social position, Iranian immigrant women now have greater possibilities than Iranian immigrant men to overcome the identity crisis which ordinarily makes ethnic groups and cultural minorities lose their sense of fitting into their new social reality.

    This results, in its turn, in the women having a positive attitude towards the new society and increases the extent of their desire for integration into the new society.

  • 16.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Immigrants and Globalization: identity crisis and the concept of the Individual2005In: The XXIX Conference on Sociotechnics - Sociological Practice. “Networks and Partnership for learning Regions in an area of Micro-globalization in Everyday Practices. The International Sociological Association (ISA) Research Committee Conference RC # 26 in Association with the Sociology Department of the University of the Aegean., 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Integration of Sufi Ideas into the Ways of Thinking of Iranians2023In: The International Journal of Humanities, ISSN 2538-2640, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I will discuss the integration of the Sufi ideas into the Iranian ways of thinking. I will put forward some factors, which explain the reason why Sufi ideas could impact the Iranian ways of thinking and become an integrated part of it. This issue is important since one of the reasons for several social problems from which the Iranian society suffers can be found in the Iranian group-oriented ways of thinking and the lack of an individual-oriented perspective concerning every citizen’s not only rights but duties as well. The mystical dimension of Iranian ways of thinking is regarded as one of the factors, which counteracted the growth of concern for the individual self in the ways of thinking of Iranians.

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  • 18.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Investigating the Religious and Spiritually-oriented Coping Strategies in the Swedish Context: A review of literature and directions for future research2001In: Illness, Crisis & Loss, ISSN 1054-1373, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 336-356Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Islam och feminism: hur västerländska idéer behandlas inom islamisk feminism i Iran2000In: Sofia, ISSN 0281-8787, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Islamic Feminism in Iran: Feminism in a New Islamic Context2006In: Journal of feminist studies in religion, ISSN 8755-4178, E-ISSN 1553-3913, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Challenging the clergy’s monoclinic interpretational power, Islamic feminists in Iran, by emphasizing the historical context of the holy texts and reformulating Islamic concepts and law from a “feminist” perspective, are developing a new direction in rethinking gender in Islam. By opening the doors of interpretation of sacred texts and debates on women issues to other groups than Muslims, they have braked with reactive gender conservatism and West phobia prevailing among fundamentalists, and have embarked on connecting themselves with Western feminism and weaving new textual connections between Muslim women and Western feminism.

  • 21.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Kultur och hälsa2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälsa är en viktig fråga för varje individ och varje samhälle. I ett land med invandrare som har socialiserats i olika samhällen med skilda uppfattningar om hälsa och ohälsa, uppstår behov av att fördjupa såväl allmänhetens som hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalens kunskap om betydelsen av kultur, religion och etnicitet i medicin- och hälsofrågor.

    I denna bok belyser författaren, Fereshteh Ahmadi, hur viktig kunskap är om olika kulturers och religioners syn på hälsa och hälsa i bemötandet av patienter.

    Boken vänder sig i första hand till studenter på grundutbildningsnivå samt personal inom hälso- sjukvården men den kan även användas av andra som är intresserade av att skaffa sig kunskaper om kulturens och religionens betydelse för förståelse av ohälsa.

  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Kulturens indvirkning på åndlig coping med kraef2008In: Kan bjerge flytte troen?, Copenhagen: Gyldendal , 2008, p. 211-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Kultuuriperspektiiviline uurimus Rootsi vähipatsientide religioossetest ja vaimsetest toimetulekumeetoditest (A study of the religious and spiritual coping methods among Swedish cancer patients from a cultural perspective)2010In: Inimene, tervis ja haigused - Terviseteemaline artiklikogumik "Medica" (Human, Health and Illnesses. Health-concerned article collection "Medica") / [ed] Piret Paal & Mare Kõiva, Tallinn: Teaduskirjastus (Science Publishers) , 2010, 1, p. 185-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Music as a method of coping with cancer: a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden2013In: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 152-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being.

    Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness.

    Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients.

    Conclusions: A patient’s situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of that music can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method.

  • 25.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Reflections on Spiritual Maturity and Gerotranscendence: Dialogues with Two Sufis2000In: Journal of Religious Gerontology, ISSN 1050-2289, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 43-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late life development - from the perspectives of spiritual development and gerotranscendence - has been studied using the Life History Approach followed-up by thematic semi-structured interviews with Iranian Sufis residing in Sweden. On the basis of this study and proceeding from the theory of Gerotranscendence, I have, in this paper, illustrated the distinct role of aging in the development towards wisdom and maturity when mystical ideas are already integrated into individuals’ ways of thinking. This is achieved by contrasting, in terms of certain gerotranscendent dimensions, an aged Sufi’s view of her/his Self and the surrounding world with that of a middle-aged Sufi.

  • 26.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Song lyrics and the alteration of self-image2011In: Nordisk tidskrift for musikkterapi - Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, ISSN 0803-9828, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 225-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to examine, from a patient perspective, the role music plays as a coping method when facing cancer, I conducted a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. The patients were between 24–73 years of age and had used music (listened to or played music) to cope with their illness. In this article, four case studies serve to highlight one of the major findings: that the lyrics of religious, cheerful, and hard and heavy music can help cancer patients obtain a balance in their inner feelings by identifying themselves with the person to whom the song lyrics are addressed. This result may be of interest to therapists using music therapy interventions, especially with patients suffering from serious illness.

  • 27.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Sufism and Gerotranscendence: The impact of way of Thinking, Culture and Aging on Spiritual Maturity1998In: Journal of Aging and Identity, ISSN 1087-3732, E-ISSN 1573-3491, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 189-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay examines the similarities and dissimilarities between a gerotranscendental person's and a Sufi's view of ontological questions, of self and of social and individual relationships. Using the Life History Approach followed up by thematic semi-structured interviews, I studied thirteen Iranian Sufis residing in Sweden, dividing the interviewees into two groups according to the stage of their life in which they became familiar with the Sufi ideas: those who became familiar with Sufi ideas early in their life (30 years) are called early Sufis, and those whose familiarity with Sufi ideas came about in their later life (>30) are called later Sufis. The study posits that the existence of a cosmic view of self and the surrounding world can be observed among early Sufis due to their intemalization of the Sufi ideas in early life. Regarding later Sufis, we can hypothesize that the existence of such a cosmic view is not only due to the intemalization of Sufi ideas, but also to aging.

  • 28.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    The Late Modern Age and Adoption to Social and Value Changes in Later life2002In: Reflections on Diversity and Change in Modern Society: a Festschrift for Annick Sjögren / [ed] Nadia Banno Gomes, Botkyrka: Multicultural Centre , 2002Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    The Meaning of Home among Elderly Immigrants: Directions for Future Research and Theoretical Development2000In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 353-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the notion that, in research on elderly immigrant housing, it is not enough to delineate the residential geography of different elderly immigrant groups or to study the economic and social reasons for their segregated habitations and exclusiveness. It is also necessary to understand, in the spatial context, the degree of integration and the differences between groups. In explaining these differences, consideration should be given to each elderly immigrant group's own value system, norms and preferences. It is argued that one necessary task in this endeavour is to gain knowledge about different elderly immigrant groups' understandings of what a home symbolises - what home means to them in the context of their particular ways of thinking and culture. From this point of view, the paper concludes that, when investigating the meaning of 'home' among elderly immigrants, an integrative theoretical approach based on an experiential perspective and a phenomenological and developmental perspective are deemed appropriate to be adopted.

  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Sociology/Social work.
    Ahmadi, Babak
    Ethnic identity and the meaning of context: a study of second generation Iranians in Sweden2012In: The Iranian community in Sweden: multidisciplinary perspectives / [ed] Hassan Hosseini-Kaladjahi, Tumba: Mångkulturellt centrum , 2012, 1, p. 193-220Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Babak
    Zandi, Saeid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Am I Swede or Iranian? The question of national and ethnic identities among children of Iranian immigrants in Sweden2022In: SN Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2662-9283, Vol. 2, no 5, article id 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of the host society’s social characteristics on second-generation immigrants’ understanding of their national and ethnic identities. Specifically, we studied how second-generation Iranians in Sweden identify themselves with Iranian society, with the Iranian ethnic group in Sweden, and/or with Swedish society, and then we compared second-generation Iranians in Sweden with those in the USA concerning the issue in question. To gather the data in Sweden, we used semi-structured e-mail interviews with 15 young people of Iranian background. We used secondary data to compare our results with those obtained in the USA. When comparing the results of this study with those obtained in the USA, we did not find the identity tensions and crisis reported by research on second-generation Iranians in the USA in members of the same generation in Sweden. Some policy recommendations were suggested.

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  • 32.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Iranian Islam and the Concept of the Individual: On the Non-Development of the Concept of the Individual in the Ways of Thinking of Iranians1995Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Iranian Islam: the concept of the individual1998Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Meaning-Making Methods for Coping with Serious Illness2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book provides an alternative, complementary approach to the existing conventional approaches to religious and spiritually oriented coping. By focusing on the role of culture, the authors take into account the methods employed by a vast number of people who do not directly identify themselves as religious. The empirical data used in this book derive from studies conducted in several countries; Sweden, China, South Korea, Turkey and Malaysia, across which religion plays a different role in the social and cultural life of individuals. This approach and these empirical data are unique and allow comparisons to be made between different cultural settings.

    By introducing the concept of meaning-making coping, the authors explore the influence of culture on choice of coping methods, be they purely religious, spiritual or existential. The term "existential meaning-making coping" is used to describe coping methods that are related to existential questions; these methods include religious, spiritual and existential coping methods.

    Meaning-making Methods for Coping with Serious Illness contributes to new approaches and theoretical models of coping. As such it is an invaluable resource for health care, medical, public health and sociology students and researchers. It will also be of interest to educators and policy-makers working in the area of health.

  • 35.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Nature as the most important coping strategy among cancer patients: a Swedish survey2015In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 1177-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in the design of the new quantitative study. In this study, questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2,355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden. The highest mean value (2.9) is the factor ‘nature has been an important resource to you so that you could deal with your illnesses’. Two out of three respondents (68 %) affirm that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after illness. The second highest average (2.8) is the factor ‘listening to ‘natural music’ (birdsong and the wind)’. Two out of three respondents (66 %) answered that this coping method significantly helped them feel better during illness. The third highest average (2.7) is the factor ‘to walk or engage in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense’. This survey concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients confirms the result obtained from the previous qualitative studies. 

  • 36.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Swedish Agency for Work Environment Knowledge.
    Sanctification in Coping From a Cultural Perspective2022In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 465-488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanctification is an important phenomenon and should be of keen interest to those studying religious and spiritually oriented coping. Oddly enough, this phenomenon has not received a great deal of attention. One reason may be that sanctification does not directly apply to institutional religious involvement. Moreover, the sacred cannot easily be discerned in people’s coping experience. On important issue is also the lack of attention to the role of culture in coping. One of the researchers who has paid considerable attention to the concept of sanctification and has developed it from different perspectives is Kenneth Pargament. The aim of this article is give rise to a vital discussion on the role of sanctification in coping from a cultural perspective. In doing this, we will first introduce Pargament’s approach to religion and spirituality and then his view on sanctification and then we will put forward our own critique of some discussions on this subject, concluding with our own view. 

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  • 37.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    The relationship between culture and health2018In: MEANING-MAKING METHODS FOR COPING WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, p. 101-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    The study in East Asia2018In: MEANING-MAKING METHODS FOR COPING WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, p. 60-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    The study in Muslim countries2018In: MEANING-MAKING METHODS FOR COPING WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, p. 77-100Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Theoretical framework2018In: MEANING-MAKING METHODS FOR COPING WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, p. 8-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Western Protestant culture Swedish culture and coping2018In: MEANING-MAKING METHODS FOR COPING WITH SERIOUS ILLNESS, ROUTLEDGE , 2018, p. 28-59Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Cetrez, Önver A
    Uppsala universitet.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Khodayarifard, Mohammad
    University of Tehran, Iran.
    Zandi, Saeid
    Allameh Tabataba'i University, Iran.
    How has the university community been coping during the COVID-19 pandemic? An Iranian survey2022In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, article id 645670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study, one of the first to look at COVID-19 and coping in Iran, aimed at mapping, describing and understanding the coping methods academics employ as protective resources to deal with the psychological challenges and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. We specifically aimed at identifying the meaning-making coping methods used and understanding the influence of culture. The guiding research questions has been: Are there differences in meaning-making coping methods by gender, age group, work/student status, and place of residence? Design: The study, which used convenience sampling, was a quantitative inquiry. It employed a modified version of the RCOPE scale among faculty/staff members and students in Iran (n=196, 75% women). Results: The most frequently used coping method among all subgroups of the study sample was thinking that life is part of a greater whole, followed by praying to Allah/God. The least used coping methods were the negative religious ones. Gender differences were found for being alone and contemplating, stronger for men. Thinking that life is part of a greater whole was found mainly among on-campus students. Praying to Allah/God was most common among the youngest staff and students, as well as among women. Two segments of respondents were discovered – the Theists and Non-theists – where the former used more religious coping methods, were more likely to be women, older staff and students, on-campus students, married, have children, and lived in capital. Conclusions: Our conclusion is that the RCOPE methods, which include religious and spiritual meaning-making methods, are of great importance to the studied Iranian informants. However, they use some secular existential meaning-making coping strategies too. This is explained by the role of religion in the larger orientation system and frame of reference in parallel with a secular worldview. Further, a sharp distinction between religious and secular worldviews was not found, which is explained by the fact that secular norms are hardly internalized in ways of thinking in Iran.

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  • 43.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Uppsala University.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University.
    Zandi, Saeid
    Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran.
    Meaning-making coping with COVID-19 in academic settings: the case of Sweden2022In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 770-794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we map and describe the coping methods used by members of the university community in Sweden to deal with the first wave of the coronavirus pandemic. This study, which used simple random sampling, was quantitative. It employed a modified version of the RCOPE instrument as well as items from earlier studies of meaning-making coping in Sweden. Among participants (n = 277, 64% women), the most frequently used coping method was nature as a resource in dealing with stress and sadness, followed by listening to the sounds of surrounding nature and thinking of life as part of a greater whole; these coping methods were the most common in all subgroups studied. We used a cultural perspective to better understand the application of certain meaning-making coping methods.

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  • 44.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Cetrez, Önver Andreas
    Department of Psychology of Religion, Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zandi, Saeid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Living through a Global Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study on the Psychological Resilience of the University Population in Iran2023In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 4844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This study aimed to describe and understand the individual and social dimensions of resiliency among Iranian academics as professionals during the early wave of the ongoing pandemic. Furthermore, we aimed to emphasize the cultural context in our analysis. Method: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. We used convenient sampling, administered through an online survey, among academics at Iranian universities (n = 196, 75% women). We employed the CD-RISC 2 instrument, items on life meaning, and a modified version of Pargament’s RCOPE instrument (Meaning, Control, Comfort/Spirituality, Intimacy/Spirituality, and Life Transformation). Results: The results revealed a strong level of resilience among men (M = 5.78) and women (M = 5.52). Self-rated health was rated as excellent, very good, or good among a majority (92%) of the participants, more so among men. Family was one of the factors that most strongly gave life meaning, followed by friends, work/school, and religion/spirituality. There was a strong correlation between self-rated health and life as part of a greater whole, being alone, and listening to the sounds of the surrounding nature. Conclusions: Both personal and social levels of resilience and meaning-making are seen in the results, with an ability to balance between obstacles and resources. Cultural practices are interdependent, which also include the individual and social dimensions of resiliency and meaning-making.

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    Living through a Global Pandemic
  • 45.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Cetrez, Önver
    Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ortak, Asil
    American Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work, Criminology and Public Health Sciences, Social Work.
    A survey study among cancer patients in Turkey: meaning-making coping2020In: Illness, crisis and loss, ISSN 1054-1373, E-ISSN 1552-6968, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 234-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the role of culture on the use of the meaning-making coping among people who have been struck by cancer, qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted in several countries like Sweden, China, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, and Turkey. This article reports on a quantitative study carried out in Turkey. The aim of the study has been to answer the following question: “Which meaning-making coping method (even nonreligious or spiritual coping methods) is used by informants?” The sample consists of 95 persons, 18+ who had been struck by cancer. The questionnaire was distributed to former/current cancer patients via a web address as an electronic survey through the media page of Cancer Survivors Association. The results of the study show that the most important coping methods used by cancer patients in Turkey are the religious coping (RCOPE) methods, particularly spiritual connection, active religious surrender, passive religious deferral, and pleading for direct intercession. Several RCOPE methods such as spiritual discontent, seeking support from clergy or members, punishing God reappraisal, and demonic reappraisal or self-directing religious coping are not used by the Turkish informants. Nor are non-RCOPE methods highly prevalent among informants.

  • 46.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Darvishpour, Mehrdad
    Department of social work, Academy of Health and Welfare, Mälardalen University, Mälardalen, Swe.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Palm, Irving
    Department of sociology, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Swed.
    Diversity barometer: attitude changes in Sweden2020In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 21-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss the results of the 2016 Diversity Barometer (Mångfaldsbarometern) and compare these results with those obtained from ten years of the longitudinal Diversity Barometers for 2005?2014. An additional aim is to demonstrate whether and how Swedish people?s experiences of and attitudes toward people with a foreign background and ethnic diversity have changed.A random sample of the Swedish population took part in the annual study, which was carried out in the form of a nationwide postal survey. The results show that negative attitudes toward ethnic and cultural diversity in general, and migrant population in particular, have increased to some extent and with respect to certain issues. Views on diversity in relation to culture and religion ? especially Islam ? were more negative than views on diversity in relation to work. Those who have larger experience of contact with foreigners show a more positive attitude toward diversity compared with those with limited experience and contact. Individuals who have higher education, those who identify themselves as female, younger persons and those living in large cities are more positive than other groups. In our analysis of the empirical data, we proceeded from a social work perspective and applied contact theory and group conflict theories relating attitudes to group position.

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  • 47.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Darvishpour, Mehrdad
    Munobwa, Jimmy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Palm, Irving
    Attityder till etnisk mångfald i Sverige: Mångfaldsbarometern (2005–2020)2021In: Migration och etnicitet / [ed] Mehrdad Darvishpour & Charles Westin, Studentlitteratur , 2021, 3, p. 451-476Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Darvishpour, Mehrdad
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Palm, Irving
    Uppsala universitet.
    Changes Regarding Attitudes Towards Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Sweden: The Diversity Barometer (2005-2018)2020In: International Journal of Social Science Studies, ISSN 2324-8033, E-ISSN 2324-8041, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to discuss changes in attitudes towards immigrants in Sweden from 2015 onwards, based on the results of the longitudinal Diversity Barometer studies from 2005-2014, 2016 and 2018. The Diversity Barometer studies are based on a national, representative, and randomly selected sample from the Swedish population, with a new sample selected each time. We have analyzed the changes from a sociological perspective, using theories such as contact theory and group conflict theory. The results show an increase in negative attitudes towards ethic and cultural diversity generally, and towards immigrants specifically. Diversity in culture and religion – especially towards Islam – is more negatively perceived as compared to diversity in the work domain. Societal groups with extensive experience from contact with foreigners, those who identify themselves as women, those who are more educated, younger people and city dwellers, have all a more positive attitude towards diversity than others.

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  • 49.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Erbil, Pelin
    Clinic of Humanite Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Cetrez, Önver A.
    Faculty of Theology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Religion, Culture and Meaning-Making Coping: A Study Among Cancer Patients in Turkey2019In: Journal of religion and health, ISSN 0022-4197, E-ISSN 1573-6571, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 1115-1124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present project has been to carry out international studies on meaning-making coping among people who have been affected by cancer in a number of societies and, thereby, to try to understand the influence of culture on use of these coping methods. Five countries—Sweden, South Korea, China, Japan, and Turkey—are included in the project. Qualitative semistructured interviews have been conducted with persons with a cancer diagnosis. The research group in each country has used, as a foundation, the interview questions developed for the Swedish study. These questions were, however, modified to better suite the sociocultural context of each participating country. The results presented here concern only Turkey and are restricted to religious coping methods. The study consists of 25 cancer patients (18 females and 7 males) between 20 and 71 years of age. The results of the study in Turkey indicated that the RCOPE (Religious Coping) methods are highly relevant for the interviewees. A sociological analysis of the study made from a cultural perspective showed clearly the importance of the idea of being tolerant (Sabr) for patients when coping with the psychological problems brought about by cancer. The study made it clear that culture plays an essential role in the choice of coping methods.

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  • 50.
    Ahmadi, Fereshteh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology, Social Work.
    Khodayarifard, Mohammad
    University of Tehran.
    Rabbani, Mohammad
    University of Tehran.
    Zandi, Saeid
    Allameh Tabataba’i University, Iran.
    Sabzevari, Mona
    Shahid Beheshti University, Iran.
    Existential Meaning-Making Coping in Iran: A Qualitative Study among Patients with Cancer2022In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is written on the basis of a study on meaning-making coping in Iran. The study is a part of an international project in 10 countries with different religious and cultural backgrounds. This article aims to discuss the secular existential meaning-making coping methods employed by Iranian cancer patients. Interviews were conducted with 27 participants with various kinds of cancer. Nine secular existential meaning-making coping strategies emerged from the analyses of the qualitative interviews. These coping methods are as follows: Ignoring the illness, Distraction, Altruism, Encounter with others, Nature, Discourse of the self, Visualization, Positive solitude, and Positive thinking and transformational orientation. It seems that, using these strategies, our sample of Iranian cancer patients/survivors have been denying/ignoring their illness, and/or empowering themselves. We discuss the results, considering the potential influence of cultural elements, including Iranian Islam, Persian mysticism, and Persian literature, on the selection of the coping strategies. The study contributes to our understanding of coping via elucidating how seriously ill individuals in Iran try to manage the challenges caused by a health crisis. 

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