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  • 101.
    Skoog Waller, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can you hear my age?: Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed.

  • 102.
    Stansfeld, Stephen
    et al.
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Clark, Charlotte
    Centre for Psychiatry, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Barts, London School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom.
    Alfred, Tamuno
    Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance2010In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 12, no 49, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these questions. In conclusion, results from both studies suggest that night aircraft noise exposure does not appear to add any cognitive performance decrement to the cognitive decrement induced by daytime aircraft noise alone. We suggest that the school should be the main focus of attention for protection of children against the effects of aircraft noise on school performance

  • 103.
    Sundman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Att motivera och inspirera till utvecklingsarbete med hjälp av goda exempel2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur lyckas man skapa förutsättningar för kommunala verksamheter i stadsdelen Brynäs att nyttja varandras goda exempel när det gäller inflytande, delaktighet, jämställdhet och mångfald i arbetet med att vidareutveckla ”Den goda arbetsplatsen”? Denna studie har kartlagt goda exempel i verksamheterna genom intervjuer och sedan har dessa spridits i organisationen. Goda exempel finns inom verksamheterna, framförallt på hur man arbetar för att främja inflytande och delaktighet. Få insatser görs inom jämställdhets- och mångfaldsområdet, vilket till stor del beror på att man inte reflekterat över dessa frågor och heller inte upplever någon brist inom områdena. För att ta reda på effekten av spridningen användes en kvantitativ metod (enkät). Enkäten visade att knappt hälften av dem som svarade hade tagit del av de goda exemplen. Inga tecken visade dock på att verksamheterna börjat nyttja varandras kompetenser.

    En slutsats är att det är viktigt att ha probleminsikt för att motiveras till utveckling. Att påvisa de brister som finns, genom att höja kompetensen, föra en öppen dialog om förbättringsmöjligheter och förtydliga varför man bör utvecklas skulle öka motivationen till förändring. Att samtidigt lyfta fram och stötta goda exempel, och belöna dem som också lär av dem, skulle bidra till att skapa en kultur där det är naturligt att hålla fram det positiva och lära av varandra.

  • 104.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Conceptual and methodological issues in the restorative environment literature2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 105.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Effects of aircraft noise and speech on prose memory: What role for working memory capacity?2010In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that aircraft noise and meaningful background speech are particularly detrimental to school adolescents’ ability to remember what they read, but until now the effects from aircraft noise and speech have never been compared directly in an experiment. Furthermore, individual differences in susceptibility to these effects are not well understood. The present investigation addressed these two issues. Adolescents attending upper secondary school were recruited as participants and the data collection was made in their ordinary classrooms. The results from two experiments revealed that speech is more detrimental to prose memory than is aircraft noise, and individual differences in working memory capacity contributes more to individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of aircraft noise on prose memory than to the effects of speech. Some applied implications of those findings to noise abatement interventions are suggested.

  • 106.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Grand challenges in environmental psychology2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, article id 583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of the grand challenges in environmental psychology. Environmental psychology is the subdiscipline of psychological science that deals with psychological processes engaged in encounters between people and the built and natural environment. Global climate change is currently one of society's grand challenges. The current anthropogenic global warming is coupled with an exponential human population growth that is placing tremendous demands on agricultural and natural resources. Environmental psychology will have to confront a range of theoretical, methodological and conceptual challenges. These include applying knowledge from cognitive psychology-on memory, attention, perception and performance, -to classic questions in environmental psychology,such as how natural environments can facilitate restoration from attentional fatigue; how brain imaging method scan be employed to address how the human brain interacts with the built and natural environment; and how evolutionary perspectives can inform environmental design.

  • 107.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    The Role of Working Memory Capacity in Auditory Distraction2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Concentration: the neural underpinnings of how cognitive load shields against distraction2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, article id 221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether cognitive load and other aspects of task difficulty increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information which decreases distractibility as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

  • 109.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden; Technical Audiology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing2015In: Abstract book: Third International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication 14–17 June 2015 Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Maria Hugo-Lindén, 2015, p. 62-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long lasting debate in selective attention research revolves around the issue of whether irrelevant information is filtered at an early/perceptual processing stage or at a late/cognitive processing stage. Another long lasting debate concerns whether selective attention depends on a single, multi-purpose processing resource or whether it depends on several, independent processing resources. As a reaction to both debates, we have proposed a unified view of attention (Sörqvist, Stenfelt, & Rönnberg, 2012) whereby central/cognitive load modulates peripheral/perceptual processing. Moreover, the unified view of attention embodies a domain-general processing resource – called working memory capacity – that determines people’s capability for attentional/cognitive engagement. Here, we will present data from a recent experiment designed to critically examine this model. Participants undertook a visual-verbal version of the n-back task in various taskdifficulty conditions. Cortical processing of a background sound was measured with an fMRI protocol and individual differences in working memory capacity were measured with a package of three complex-span tasks. Our hypothesis is that higher task difficulty (in the n-back task) will be associated with increased prefrontal cortical activity and decreased auditory-temporal activity. Moreover, the magnitude of this effect should be related to individual differences in working memory capacity.

  • 110.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension2010In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with high working memory capacity (WMC) are less distracted by task-irrelevant speech than others. The mechanism behind this relationship, however, is not well understood, and it has only been found in a few paradigms. We used a Number updating task to measure WMC and two suppression mechanisms (immediate and delayed), and tested how they were associated with individual differences in susceptibility to the effects of speech on reading comprehension. The results revealed a negative relationship between WMC and susceptibility to speech distraction. Of the two suppression mechanisms, only immediate suppression was associated with speech distraction, suggesting that susceptibility to distraction is determined by the ability to immediately suppress the irrelevant speech. Furthermore, the relationship between WMC and speech distraction was mediated by the immediate suppression mechanism. The implications of these results and possible explanations of similar results found in other paradigms are discussed.

  • 111.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Bullerintervention: vem tjänar mest på åtgärder?2010In: Audionytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 6-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 112.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Glorification of eco-labeled objects: An effect of intrinsic or social desirability?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmentally friendly consumables and products are often perceived as superior to their conventional counterparts. The reason for this, at least in part, is that people tend to glorify eco-labeled objects. For example, people prefer the taste of coffee called “eco-friendly” in comparison with another cup of coffee called “conventional”, even when the two cups of coffee are actually identical and merely named differently. What is the underlying mechanism of this eco-label effect? Do people report superior evaluations of eco-labeled products for intrinsic reasons or because they think this attitude is approved by others (a social desirability mechanism)? In two experiments, the participants’ concerns with social desirability were manipulated by telling them that their taste judgments of consumables were monitored by others. The eco-label effect was just as strong in the high social desirability concerns condition as in a control condition (Experiments 1 and 2). However, the eco-label effect was stronger in magnitude for participants who were told that consumers are morally responsible for the environmental consequences of their consumer behavior (Experiment 2). Taken together, the eco-label effect appears to be caused by intrinsic desirability processes, not by social desirability processes.

  • 113.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, U.K.
    Social desirability does not underpin the eco-label effect on product judgments2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 82-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What reason underpins why people say they prefer eco-labeled over conventional products during direct perceptual comparison? One possibility is that there is no difference in the perceptual experience of the products; the participants just say there is because they wish to gain other’s approval. In this paper, we tested this social desirability account of the eco-label effect by requesting participants to judge grapes that were in truth identical but labeled “eco-friendly” and “conventional” respectively. The eco-label effects were similar in magnitude for an impression management condition (participants were told that their responses were monitored) and a no-instructions control condition, but greater in a moral-instructions condition (the participants were told, amongst other things, that conventional agriculture is harmful). The experiment suggests that people do not say that they prefer eco-labeled products because they seek other’s approval. Social motives may underpin reasons to purchase “green” products at the grocery store, but social motives are not the direct cause of the eco-label effect on the perceptual experience of the products.

  • 114.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hulme, Rebecca
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Haga, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Seager, Paul B.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Effects of labeling a product eco-friendly and genetically modified: A cross-cultural comparison for estimates of taste, willingness to pay and health consequences2016In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 50, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the demand for eco-friendly food—produced without pesticides and environmentally harmful chemicals—increases, the need to develop genetically modified (GM) organisms that are more resistant to parasites and other environmental crop threats may increase. Because of this, products labeled both “eco-friendly” and “genetically modified” could become commonly available on the market. In this paper, we explore—in a Swedish and a UK sample—the consequences of combining eco-labeling and GM-labeling to judgments of taste, health consequences and willingness to pay for raisins. Participants tasted and evaluated four categories of raisins (eco-labeled and GM-labeled; eco-labeled; GM-labeled; and neither eco-labeled nor GM-labeled). The results suggest that there is a cost associated with adding a GM-label to an eco-labeled product: The GM-label removes the psychological benefits of the eco-label. This negative effect of the GM-label was larger among Swedish participants in comparison with UK participants, because the magnitude of the positive effect of the eco-label was larger in the Swedish sample and, hence, the negative effects of the GM-label became more pronounced. The pattern was somewhat different depending on judgmental dimension. The cost associated with adding a GM-label was larger in estimates of taste and health than in estimates of willingness to pay, at least for the Swedish sample. The roles of individual differences in attitudes, environmental concern and socially desirable responding in relation to the label effects are discussed.

  • 115.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Disruption of writing processes by the semanticity of background speech2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 53, no 2, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have noted that writing processes are impaired by task-irrelevant background sound. However, what makes sound distracting to writing processes has remained unaddressed. The experiment reported here investigated whether the semanticity of irrelevant speech contributes to disruption of writing processes beyond the acoustic properties of the sound. The participants wrote stories against a background of normal speech, spectrally-rotated speech (i.e., a meaningless sound with marked acoustic resemblance to speech) or silence. Normal speech impaired quantitative (e.g., number of characters produced) and qualitative/semantic (e.g., uncorrected typing errors, proposition generation) aspects of the written material, in comparison with the other two sound conditions, and it increased the duration of pauses between words. No difference was found between the silent and the rotated-speech condition. These results suggest that writing is susceptible to disruption from the semanticity of speech but not especially susceptible to disruption from the acoustic properties of speech.

  • 116.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Halin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Working memory capacity modulates habituation rate: Evidence from a cross-modal auditory distraction paradigm2012In: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, ISSN 1069-9384, E-ISSN 1531-5320, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 245-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Habituation of the orienting response is a pivotal part of selective attention, and previous research has related working memory capacity (WMC) to attention control. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether individual differences in WMC contribute to habituation rate. The participants categorized visual targets across six blocks of trials. Each target was preceded either by a standard sound or, on rare trials, by a deviant. The magnitude of the deviation effect (i.e., prolonged response time when the deviant was presented) was relatively large in the beginning but attenuated toward the end. There was no relationship between WMC and the deviation effect at the beginning, but there was at the end, and greater WMC was associated with greater habituation. These results indicate that high memory ability increases habituation rate, and they support theories proposing a role for cognitive control in habituation and in some forms of auditory distraction.

  • 117.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse masked by speech: What is the role for working memory capacity?2012In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 210-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate whether working memory capacity (WMC) modulates the effects of to-be-ignored speech on the memory of materials conveyed by to-be-attended speech.

    Method: Two tasks (reading span, Daneman & Carpenter, 1980; Rönnberg et al., 2008; and size-comparison span, Sörqvist, Ljungberg, & Ljung, 2010) were used to measure individual differences in WMC. Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse was measured by requesting participants to listen to stories masked either by normal speech or by a rotated version of that speech and to subsequently answer questions on the content of the stories.

    Results: Normal speech impaired performance on the episodic long-term memory test, and both WMC tasks were negatively related to this effect, indicating that individuals with high WMC are less susceptible to disruption. Moreover, further analyses revealed that size-comparison span (a task that requires resolution of semantic confusion by inhibition processes) is a stronger predictor of the effect than is reading span.

    Conclusions: Cognitive control processes support listening in adverse conditions. In particular, inhibition processes acting to resolve semantic confusion seem to underlie the relationship between WMC and susceptibility to distraction from masking speech.

  • 118.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Memory of spoken discourse masked by speech2011In: Proceedings of the Institute of Acoustics, 2011, Vol. 33, p. 528-531Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Memory of spoken discourse masked by speech2011In:  , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 120.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Sætrevik, Bjørn
    Department of Biological and Medical Psychology, University of Bergen, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
    The Neural Basis of Updating: Distinguishing Substitution Processes from Other Concurrent Processes2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 357-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most previous studies of updating processes have not been able to contrast processes of substituting items in memory with other concurrent processes. In the present investigation, we used a new task called “number updating” and an fMRI protocol to contrast the activation of trials that require item substitution (adding a new item to the working memory representation and suppressing an old item) with trials that involve no substitution (discarding the new item). Trials that require item substitution activated the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the posterior medial frontal cortex and the parietal lobes, areas typically seen activated for working memory tasks in general. Trials that do not require substitution activated the anterior medial frontal cortex. Studies examining executive functions have associated this area with cognitive conflict, and may represent suppression of the substitution processes.

  • 121.
    Vachon, François
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Marois, Alexandre
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Lévesque-Dion, Michaël
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Legendre, Maxime
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, CA.
    Saint-Aubin, Jean
    École de psychologie, Université de Moncton, Moncton, CA.
    Can ‘Hebb’ Be Distracted? Testing the Susceptibility of Sequence Learning to Auditory Distraction2018In: Journal of Cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequence learning plays a key role in many daily activities such as language and skills acquisition. The present study sought to assess the nature of the Hebb repetition effect - the enhanced serial recall for a repeated sequence of items compared to random sequences - by examining the vulnerability of this classical sequence-learning phenomenon to auditory distraction. Sound can cause unwanted distraction by either interfering specifically with the processes involved in the focal task (interference-by-process), or by diverting attention away from a focal task (attentional capture). Participants were asked to perform visual serial recall, in which one to-be-remembered sequence was repeated every four trials, while ignoring irrelevant sound. Whereas both changing-state (Experiment 1) and deviant sounds (Experiment 2) disrupted recall performance compared to steady-state sounds, performance for the repeated sequence increased across repetitions at the same rate regardless of the sound condition. Such findings suggest that Hebbian sequence learning is impervious to environmental interference, which provides further evidence that the Hebb repetition effect is an analogue of word-form learning.

  • 122.
    Vigander, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Studenters upplevelser före och under examination2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to highlight students' copingprocesses, i.e., appraisal and coping strategies, for written exam and take-home exam. Interviews were conducted with eight female students within the same program at a university in Sweden. Data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The results showed that examinations regardless of form create stress, even if the students do not experience a take-home exam as equally threatening or challenging as a written exam. The time that students have available during the different exams and the primary appraisal of the examination proved to be very important for the coping strategies used both before and during the exam. One of the major differences proved to be how students study for the different exams.

  • 123.
    Wallmark, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Social kompetens - Bedömning och betydelse vid rekryteringsprocesser2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 124.
    Willing, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Kolic, Emir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Arbetstillfredsställelse bland personliga assistenter med anhörigrelation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the job satisfaction of personal assistants with a family connection to the customer. The study was conducted at the company OP Assistans with the help of a questionnaire survey. A total of 33 valid responses gave a response rate of 37.5%. The results showed significant differences between women and men in the dimensions of

    Safety, Feelings About the company and Communication, and a strong tendency to difference in dimension Supervision, where women showed a higher job satisfaction than men in all four dimensions. The results showed also a significant difference in the dimension My Job based on length of employment, where employees who have been employed between 6 to 15 years, showed a higher job satisfaction in the dimension My job than respondents who were employed between 1 to 6 years.

    Keywords: Job Satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor, leadership

123 101 - 124 of 124
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